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Export and Import Procedures and Documentation Project

India is the fruit and vegetable basket of the world. India being a home of wide variety of fruits and vegetables holds a unique position in production figures among other countries. Over 90% of India s e ports in fresh products goes to west Asia and East European markets. However, it needs to augment its food and processing industry at a mega scale, according to an agriculture consultant. India s e ports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable has increased Rs. 3659.11 Crores in 2008-09 , which is including the products like Fresh Onion, Walnut, Fresh Mangos, Fresh Grapes and other fresh Fruits & Vegetables. Abundant investment opportunities are there in e panding the e port market. An increasing acceptance of new products with market development efforts has been witnessed lately given the fact that there is a good international demand for certain fruits and vegetable products. India ranks fi fth in the world in cropped area under cultivation and production of potatoes. India produces 40% of world s mangoes, 26 %bananas, 18 % cashew nuts, 28 % green peas and 12% onion . Exports of mangoes, grapes, mushrooms have started going to the United Kingdom, Middle East, Singapore and Hong Kong, and among vegetable, onion occupies first position Potatoes and green vegetables like okra, bitter gourd, green chillies have good export potential. About Mango Its considered the King in all the fruits in India. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the most important fruit of India. It is grown over an area of 1.23 million hectares in the country producing 10.99 million tonnes. It accounts for 22.1 per cent of total area (5.57 million ha) and 22.9 per cent of total pro duction of fruits (47.94 million tonnes) in the country. Though Uttar Pradesh has the largest area of 0.27 million hectares under mango, Andhra Pradesh has the highest productivity of 12 tonnes per hectare. While Andhra Pradesh produces 3.07 million tonnes of mango, U.P., Bihar and Karnataka produce 2.39, 1.79 and 0.92 million tonnes, respectively. India ranks first among world's mango producing countries accounting for 52.63 per cent of the total world's mango production of 19 million tonnes. There are more than thousand mango varieties in India. However, only about 30 varieties are grown on commercial scale in different states. Important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India include Alphonso, Kesar, Rajapuri, Vanraj, Neelum, Pairi, Rumani , Mulgoa, Dashehari, Langra, Bombay Green, Banganpalli, Bangalora,Cherukurasam, Himayuddin, Suvarnarekha, etc.

Growing Mangoes The mango is an evergreen tree, and its size depends on the conditions in which it's grown. Some can reach a height of 27 metres. The tree produces pink flowers, which blossom early in spring. Mangoes are tropical, but they do well in subtropical areas, as long as there's not too much rain. Selecting & Planting Ask for Best verity and Hybrid Grafted plant which can yield better and in short period. Mango should be planted in a grid pattern. There should be a minimum of 30 feet( 9 meter ) from adjacent plant. It should watered regularly and periodical maintanance like pruning is a must at the initial stage. Plant starts yielding from its fourth year and the yield increases as its age increases. Pruning is a must for better yield. Picking The mango fruit is produced in clusters on long stems. It's harvested by using a long pole with a pair of shears at the end. As the fruit is clipped o ff, it falls into a picking bag attached to the pole. Mangoes can be picked daily off any individual tree, because not all the fruit ripens at once. Mangoes are generally picked when they are mature but hard, since this allows them to withstand the handling they have to go through before they reach the market.

Profile of Mango Export Indian mangoes come in various shapes, sizes and colours with a wide variety of flavour, aroma and taste. The Indian mango is the special product that substantiates the high standards of quality and bountiful of nutrients packed in it. A single mango can provide up to 40 percent of the daily dietary fibre needs a potent protector against heart disease, cancer and cholesterol build up .In addition, this luscious fruit is a warehouse of potassium, betacarotene and antioxidants. In India, mangoes are mainly grown in tropical and subtropical regions from sea level to an altitude of 1,500m. Mangoes grow best in temperatures around 27 C. For maintaining highest quality standard s, State-of-the-art packhouses have

been set up in major production zones. Keeping in view the different country requirements, internationally recognized treatment facilities like Hot water treatment, Vapour heat treatment and Irradiation facilities have a lso been set up at various locations across the production belt. Unique product identification system, compliant to the traceability networking and Residue Monitoring Plan has been developed for the consumer safety and readiness to product recall in case of any emergency. Varieties: India is the home of about 1,000 varieties. However, only a few varieties are commercially cultivated throughout India. Most of the Indian mango varieties have specific eco - geographical requirements for optimum growth and yield. The Northern/Eastern Indian varieties are usually late bearing compared to Southern and Western Indian varieties. Some of the local varieties of mango bear fruits throughout the year in extreme southern parts of India. The important commercial varieties are as : Andhra Pradesh Bihar Banganapalli, Suvarnarekha, Neelum and Totapuri Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Gulabkhas, Kishen Bhog, Himsagar, Zardalu and Langra Kesar, Alphonso, Rajapuri, Jamadar, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari and Langra Chausa, Dashehari, Langra and Fazli Chausa, Dashehari and Langra

Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka

Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli, Pairi, Neelum and Mulgoa Madhya Alphonso, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli, Pradesh Langra and Neelum Maharashtra Alphonso, Kesar and Pairi Punjab Chausa, Dashehari and Malda Rajasthan Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra Tamil Nadu Alphonso, Totapuri, Banganapalli and Neelum Uttar Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra Pradesh West Bengal Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green

Areas of Cultivation : The major mango-growing states are Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh ranks first in mango production with a share of 20% and highest productivity India Facts and Figures : Mango is most important fruit accounting for 37.60% of area (1.3 million hectares) and for 22.21% of total fruit production (14.0 million metric tonnes) in the country. India s share in the world production of mango is 54.2%. India s export of Mango has been increased from Rs. 127.42 Crores in 2007 -08 to Rs. 170.71 Crores in 2008-09 . Major Export Destinations (2008-09) : UAE, UK, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia.

About Mango Export The international trade in mango is increasing rapidly and in 1987 was estimated at US$ 56 million. India continues to be the leading producer in the world accounting for 63 per cent of world production. However, India occupies only third position in total mango exports. Exports from India accounts for 0.11 per cent of the total domestic production as against about 4 per cent in case of other exporting countries like Mexico, Philippines and Venezuela. Indian exports are confined mostly to Gulf countries, USSR, and UK. Exports of Mango crop from Andhra Pradesh are set to go up at least 30 to 35% over the last year. The state is the second largest producer of mangoes in the country, the largest being Uttar Pradesh, producing nearly 32 lakh tonnes each year. Nearly 2,200 metric tonnes of mangoes are likely to be exported this year, as against 1,600 metric tones exported last year said official of APEDA. The value of exports will be in the range of Rs 7 to Rs 8 crore. Though the yield this season has been less than 30% of the normal yield, owing to the crop being biennial in nature, the quality of produce is good and therefore is finding ready markets abroad. Though there is a vast potential for export to western countries, constraints like suitability of a few varieties for exports, pests and disease problems, high freight charges, limited cargo space and high packing cost have restricted the

expansion of the exports from India. Removal of some of the constraints will increase the potential for exports to USA and Japan. Research efforts are also needed for prolonging the shelf life of fruit so that it could be made available for longer period in the international market. We are focusing on building a community of Mango Farmers, Processors, Traders, Dealers, Freight Forwarders, Sellers and Buyers, Services Providers. Our emphasis is to provide support for exporting mangos from India to any part of the world. Initial preference is Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries which include United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Kingdom of Bahrain, Qatar and Sultanate of Oman. WORLD OF MANGOES Mango is one the oldest cultivated trees. It is thought to ha ve been grown over 4 000 years ago, originating in the India -Burma region where it is very widespread. It is the sixth largest fruit crop in the world (except for melon) after orange, banana, grapes, apple and plantain. The FAO estimates production to total nearly 22 million tons (1997). It has increased by 50% in 20 years. Three-quarters of production is in Asia, particularly in India (10 million tons), Pakistan (0.9 million tons), Indonesia and Thailand (0.6 million tons). Outside Asia mango growing has developed substantially in Mexico (1.4 million tons), Nigeria (0.5 million tons) and Brazil (0.4 million tons). The map of world production corresponds only partially to that of international trade. India, indisputably the greatest producer country, is only the third exporter in the world. The first two are Mexico, which is way ahead with 132 000 tons forming 39 % of world trade and the Philippines (44 000 tons and 13 % of world trade). One of the features of the mango trade is the number of origins. The FAO has counted over 70!

MANGO PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS TONS TOTAL CENTR. & N. AMERICA Mexico Haiti ASIA Philippines India Pakistan EUROPE Netherlands AFRICA South Africa Ivory Coast SOUTH AMERICA 1 891 770 32 000 14 000 871 989 PRODUCTION (1996) 19 214 672 1 993 261 1 420 306 210 000 14 420 840 480 000 10 000 000 907 778 EXPORTS (1995) 342 012 149 432 131 721 7 000 112 051 43 937 23 275 16 628 24 010 14 901 23 740 9 237 7 107 22 727

Brazil Peru OCEANIA

435 000 114 673 36 812

12 828 5 792 10 052

AGRICULTURE Mango Exports Turn Sour The high cost of Indian mangoes in the US is affecting their exports M. RAJENDRAN 27 March 2009 Exports of mango, the king of fruits, from India to the US were touted as a major coup by the United Progressive Alliance government. Special shows were held in the US to celebrate the end of the 18-year ban on export of mangoes from SWEET BUT COSTLY: A 3.5 kg packet of India that showcased Alphonso and Indian mangoes costs about $22 in the US other exotic varieties. That was 2007. Two years have gone by and the Alphonso mango could generate only Rs 2 crore revenue from exports, despite the huge demand for the exotic fruit, reflected in the mails sent to exporters. We have done well in times of recession in the US, since our mango offers best value for money over others, and there is a huge demand, says a senior director in the horticulture division of the ministry of agriculture. But mango exporters do not share the bullishness of the government . Instead, they fear losing the demand from the US due to high cost of Indian mangoes. A 3.5 kg packet of mango from India is sold for $22 (about Rs 1,110) in the US,

while the same quantity, less sweet mangoes from Mexico and Costa Rica costs less than $10 (about Rs 505). Mango exporters say the cost of transport and irradiation is going up, resulting in escalation of the price of mango in the US. We can bring the cost down to about $15, if we ship through sea to the US in 21 -25 days. The necessary trials are being worked out, says Asit Tripathy, chairman of Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA). It is not easy to export to the US. The demand is increasing from customers but irradiation costs make Indian mangoes costly, says Murtaza Bharmal, director of MSY Traders, a Pune-based mango exporter. The first shipment of mangoes was sent from India to the US on 27 April 2007 after irradiation treatment in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Trombay facility. So far around 180 tonnes of mangoes have been exported to the US, according to APEDA. Irradiation is a process that involves exposing the mangoes to high energy electron beams generated by high voltage electricity (not radioactive material) to control mic robial, pathogens, parasites and pests in food, preserving food or inhibiting physiological processes such as sprouting or ripening. The cost of irradiation is Rs 4 per kg, while setting up an irradiation facility is about Rs 12 crore. But this facility has been rejected by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hence, a new facility is being built in association with the Maharashtra government. Another major issue in export of mangoes to the US has been the cost of certification. According to the requirements, the entire cost of travel and stay of the USDA inspector in India at the irradiation facility as well as the officials of USDA located at different places and involved in the process is borne by Indian exporters. As the demand for Indian mangoes increase, the centres for irradiation will also go up and so will the number of USDA inspectors required to be

positioned in India. The cost of mango is bound to escalate. That would directly impact the commercial viability of mango exports to t he US. This is turning out to be a major non-tariff barrier issue, says a senior official in the commerce ministry. Recognition of India s conformity assessment procedure can be a good solution. India does not recover inspection costs from the US for meeting similar requirements, says a commerce ministry official. The story of India s mango exports to the US is getting sour, while officials project it as a sweet victory. India's efforts of developing a market in the US for its mangoes have taken a short-term hit due to the economic slowdown. The US quarantine inspectors will be in Maharashtra from April 7 but mango exporters have not yet begun preparations like meeting growers, placing orders and booking the irradiation facility. The irradiation facility of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Lasalgaon is the only such facility for mango exports in the country. In 2008, nearly 350 tonnes of mangoes were exported to the US from this facility. Currently, non-resident Indians (NRIs) are the major consumers of Indian mangoes in the US. But efforts are on to cultivate a taste for the king of Indian fruits among local Americans. "Some traders exporting to the US even incurred losses last year. But they are confident of the potential of the US ma rket," said an officer of the Maharashtra marketing department . So marketing efforts will continue despite fall in exports. "Most of the US demand is for the Alphonso mango. But this is a delicate fruit and has problems of spongy tissue. This year, orders are fewer due to the general economic slowdown," said director of the Andheri -based Om Mangoes, Parag Gandhi, an exporter. Last year, he air freighted 32 containers of the fruit to the US each carrying 418

boxes of a dozen mangoes were in the consumer's hands, it was priced at $2530 per fruit. Sending mangoes by air is the only option currently available to exporters. "Air freight comprises 45% of the total cost of the mango," said Mr Gandhi. "Apeda is trying to send its first container-load of mangoes by ship this year which will reduce the transportation cost by 50%," said Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board (MSAMB) project officer, Santosh Patil. Maharashtra's mango yield is expected to be 35 -40% lower this year, due to changes in climatic conditions since there was hardly any winter this year. Due to the high temperatures prevailing in the winter season, there was considerable flower and fruit drop.

THERE is a huge export potential in mangoes and other fresh produce but the possibilities will hinge on agronomy practices in the orchards, according to a study done by Rabo India Finance Pvt Ltd. ``The fact that there is a lack of market development of mangoes by any player in the world, opens a large untapped opportunity for India to make an organised entry in the mango market,'' the study said. Although India is the second largest producer of fruits at 46 million tonnes, the domestic fruit industry is fraught with the massive problem of wastage caused by the woefully inadequate post harves t facilities and other supportive infrastructure including cold chain. Besides, a large number of intermediaries in the system results in further wastages. Between the farmer and the retailer are local retailer, transporter, wholesale market and distributor. In this scenario, reduction in wastage becomes critical, says the study. Even as the fruit and vegetable production as well as the fruit -processing sector in the country have been growing, the continuing wastage of fresh produce is indicative of the ills facing the industry.

In India, the per capita availability of fruits is very low, partly because of the wastages in the system. Other factors such as productivity and processing efficiencies also contribute to low per capita availability. Currently, productivity of most horticultural crops is quite low. ``The low productivity is due to poor quality planting material, preponderance of old, senile, unproductive trees and poor management practices,'' the study says. At two per cent, the country's processing level compares extremely poorly to other countries including Israel at 50 per cent, the US at 70 per cent and Malaysia at 83 per cent. According to the study, production should shift to demand driven rather than supply driven. ``Most of the time farmers do not base their decisions on forecast market demand. This could leave them saddled with produce which they would then be pushing to the consumers.'' The country's competitiveness is in mangoes, therefore its focus should be on this crop. ``The export potential of mango can be gauged from the fact that India produces 46 per cent of world's mango produce,'' the study says. Mango accounts for 42 per cent of the land under fruit crop in India with a harvest of 12 million tonnes of mangoes. The Alphonso accounts for 35-40 per cent of the Rs 75-crore mango export market. Other producers of the mango include China, Mexico, Thailand and Indonesia. Although, India is the world's largest producer of mangoes, its yield is at the lowest. Low yield is one among many problems identified by the study, others being post harvest damage, size of orchards not amenable and absence of brands. India's mango export is about 16 per cent of the total global trade. Fifty per cent of export head to the West Asian region. ``One of the principal reasons for Indian mangoes not having a large share of the export segment is the absence of any marketing,'' the study says. Among the factors that would facilitate exports of fresh produce are, the study highlights, education about correct agronomic practices to farmers, yield improvement and post-harvest management.

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In the lucrative lobal fruit mar et, nations and re ions pride themselves on products that they can claim to be uniquely theirs. Thus, New Zealand boasts about the iwi fruit; Israel its Jaffa oran es; Hawaii, its pineapples; Malaysia, its jac fruit and durian; Indonesia, the rambutan; China, its lychees; the U.S. state of Geor ia, its peaches; and Kenya, its passion fruit. India touts the haffus. Haffus is one of seven names for the Alphonso man o, which appears seasonally each year only in April and May. Indians proudly call it the ' in of fruits.' Its taste is sweet and sour, its s in is delicate to the touch, and its flesh is plump and juicy. Some 1,000 varieties of man oes are rown in India, the world's lar est producer of the fruit. Indian man oes account for 13 million metric tonnes, or 60 percent of the world output each year from the 87 countries where man oes are cultivated. The haffus man o may well be the in of fruits in the Indian view--fetchin up to US$25 a dozen domestically--but it's a wea lin in the international mar et.

India's export figures are relatively low, contributing less than 15 per cent of the global mango exports, or about 40,000 metric tonnes each year. (Puny as this figure is, mango exports account for 35 percent of India's total fruit exports each year.) The U.S., Mexico, Israel, the Philippines and --especially humiliating for India--neighboring Pakistan all export more mangoes in a global mango market that's worth more than US$5 billion, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, a Rome-based agency of the United Nations system. Now, in this peak season as millions of I ndians scramble for mangoes before stocks are exhausted nationally by the end of the month, the country's export officials are energetically promoting the mango internationally through festivals, ad campaigns and visits to retail chains, especially in Euro pe and the U.S. India traditionally sells most of its mangoes in the Gulf, which gets 40 percent of India's exports Britain, and parts of Southeast Asia, including Singapore. Mango accounts for 42 percent of the land under fruit crop in India with a harvest of 12 million tonnes of mangoes. The haffus accounts for almost 40 per cent of India's mango exports, and Indian officials see that figure rising this year. As a result of a visit by Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee to Beijing not long ago, China is importing more than 1,000 tonnes of mangoes from India this year; its earlier concerns about the pesticides used on Indian mangoes have apparently been allayed. India's Agricultural and Processed Foods Exports Development Authority says that the Indian mango is entering international markets with special vigour this year. It credits scientists at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) for using cross breeding techniques to give the Indian fruit a 'foreign look.' Officials told the Press Trust of India (PTI) that 'Pusa Arunima', a hybrid variety derived from the cross between the Indian 'Amrapali' and 'Sensation', the famous cultivar of Florida, is being exported to European countries and the United States. 'The red peel colour of the mango, which primarily is the characteristic of

Sensation, could help our mangoes capture the international market --the other Indian varieties failed to do because of their dull look,' Dr. Room Singh, Head of the Department of Horticulture at IARI, told PTI. He said that almost all mango varieties cultivated in the country have a green peel colour which does not attract foreign buyers. 'Acidity level in the fruit has gone up, which in combination with sugar, releases a very sweet smell,' Dr. Singh said, adding that the hybrid's shelf life at room temperature has been extended from four days to 12 days. And finally, he said, the hybrid's yield was three times that of any other mango breed because it could be planted closer. Pusa Arunima's success in the export market has cheered Indian growers because it isn't often that a new breed makes its appearance in the mango industry. With the exception of Southeast Asia, Australia and some African countries--which have their own varieties --most countries still produce and export cultivars developed in Florida, such as 'Haden', 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent' and 'Keitt', according to Dr. Singh. This year, India sees an opportunity to overtake Pakistan's mango exports, Because of special cultivation techniques, Pakistan can export mangoes as late as June. To counter that, India is selling more breeds such as Dussehri and Chausa, which are grown in North India and can be harvested later than the haffus. A recent 'Sea Transportation Protocol for Gulf and West Asia' enables Indian mangoes to be kept for 15 to 18 days after harvesting, thereby facilitating cheaper transport by sea to this region, according to Indian officials. This makes India's mangoes more price competitive in markets such as the Gulf. Plans are also underway to establish similar sea transportation protocols for Europe and South-East Asia, which are also tipped to become big markets in a couple of years, according to Mr A. S. Rawat of the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development. Boosting Indian mango exports is the fact that the government is encouraging

growers to better control the traditional wastage during post -harvesting, and to build better cold storage facilities. The recent creation of eight agro -export zones in seven mango-growing states--such as Maharashtra--has given a fillip to foreign sales because these zones helped streamline the chaotic distribution system. And how are India's rivals reacting to its renewed marketing of mangoes? Pakistan, the third largest producer of mangoe s in the world, has developed a hybrid called Sundari. The name translates as 'the beautiful one'; the breed is being billed as better than anything that India sells in the global bazaar. India s mango export to the US and Europe are looking up for the se cond year in succession because of strong demand and easy availability following start of the sea route. Not only volumes are encouraging, Indian mangoes this year are also fetching higher price. Last year, Indian mangoes were sold at around $20 per 3.5 k g, but this year already the price has touched $28 for the same quantity. Till now more than 70 tonne of the juicy Kesar and Alphonso varieties have been exported this year at good prices. In 2009, India exported almost 250 tonne of mangoes, whereas the c ountry has the potential to export almost 500 tonne of mangoes annually. Last year for the first time, mango consignment was sent through sea route which made it competitive in the US market. Due to logistical reason, sending mangoes through the air rou te was found uneconomical, an official from the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (Apeda), the nodal agency for canalising all processed food and fruits exports said. Air freight is not financially viable because of which Indian mangoes became costlier in the US as against its competitors from South American and other countries, a mango exporter said.

Besides lower freights rates, export through sea is also economical as larger consignments of 15-20 tonne per container could be moved as against 1-1.5 tonne by air. Export of mango to the US was halted because of the fear of presence of weevils and fruit fly in the consignments. The United States Food & Drug Administration wanted India to have irradiation facility to get rid of weevils and fruit fly problem in Indian mangoes instead of the commonly used vapor heat treatment. India had been pushing for resumption of mango exports to the United States ever since they were banned in 1989 . The issue was taken up strongly and resolved during the visit of then US president George Bush to India in 2006. India, last year set up the irradiation facility at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Lasalgaon, Nashik. Lasalgaon facility can handle 500 tonne of mangoes annually. For boosting mango exports, Apeda has already requested the horticulture departments of mango producing states to set up irradiation centres and seek financial assistance under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana. Apeda is looking at increasing India s pre sence in the US mango market, which is New Delhi: currently dominated by countries such as Peru, Brazil and Venezuela. US is a high-value market for Indian mango exports. Meanwhile, overall mango exports from India, the world s largest producer of the fruit, is expected to increase by 8.5% to over 90,000 tonne in the 2009 -10 season on increased demand from the middle east. The total share of mango exports is meager in comparison to the total production of 12.5 million tonne. Last year, the country exported 83,000 tonne of mangoes, including to the

Middle East, the US and the UK. However, Apeda official said that a lar e quantity of man o is exported to Ban ladesh and other Gulf countries, but they usually do not fetch hi h price. St tus of n o produ tion

India Man o Production increased from 8.7 million tons to 13.8 million tons durin 1991-2007. Major man o producin states are AP, Maharashtra, M UP, Karnata a, Gujarat,and West Ben al, Tamil Nadu. The states to ether accounted for 74.2 % of area and 79.6 % of man oes production in the country in 2007.

ono i Import n

The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide ran e of adaptability,hi h nutritivevalue,richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C.The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good man o varieties contain 20% of total solublesu ars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein content is about1 %.Raw fruits of local varieties of man o trees are used for preparin various traditional productsli e raw slices in brine, amchur, pic le, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, theraw fruit of local varieties of man o are used for preparin pic le and raw slices in brine oncommercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone. The wood is used as timber, and dried twi s are used for reli ious purposes. quality The man o ernelalso contains about 8-10% ood fat which can be used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. Man o also has medicinal uses.The ripe fruit has fattenin , diuretic and laxative properties. Ithelps to increase di estive capacity. Int rn tion l r ts for Indi n


Asian producers find it easier to expand sales to the European Union. Europes acceptance of different varieties is greater, because of a large demand from Asian immigrant groups.Phytosanitary restrictions are less stringent. Transportation costs are not as big a factor inexporting mangoes to the European Union as in exporting to the United States market: for example, India and Pakistan are able to compete with non-Asian suppliers to the EuropeanUnion, whereas proximity gives Mexico and Haiti a clear advantage in supplying to the UnitedStates market. Fifty-four percent of European Union imports enter during the periods May to July andNovember to December, with peak imports in June. French imports reach peak in April andMay, whereas United Kingdom imports are concentrated during the May to July. Germanimports are spread more evenly throughout the year. Of the top suppliers, Brazil provided chieflyduring the period November to December, the United States during June to October, SouthAfrica during January to April and Venezuela during April to July. Pakistan supplies the majorityof its exports to the European Union during June and July;Indian exports take place mainlyduring the month of May. Although a lions share of Indian mango goes to the Gulf countries, efforts are being made to exploit European, American and Asian markets. About 13,000 MT of Alphonso varieties are exported to Middle East, UK and Netherlands every year. The different products of mango which are exported include mango chutney, pickles, jam, squash, pulp, juice, nectar and slices. These are being exported to U.K., U.S.A., Kuwait andRussia. Besides these, the fresh mangoes are being exported to Bangladesh, Bahrain, France,Kuwait, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore and U.K. The varieties in demand at the international market include Kent,Tomy Atkin, Alphonso andKesar. Varieties such as Alphonso, Dashehari, Kesar, Banganapalli and several other varietiesthat are currently in demand in the international markets are produced and exported from India.

Export r nds In Indi n n o India's man o exports were estimated at 45 thousand tonnes worth Rs 100 crore (Rs 1 billion)in 2002-03. Fresh man oes are exported to Ban ladesh, U.A.E., Saudi Arabia and U.K. and man o pulp to U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Netherlands, U.S.A and U.K. Processed man o products viz. pic le and chutney are exported to U.K., U.A.E., Saudi Arabia, Germany, Netherlands, U.S.A and U.K. Thetrendinexportofman oesdurin the period1999-2000to2002-03is iveninGr aph3 anddestinationwiseexports durin 2001-02areshownin Table-2 Country-wise export of man oes from India durin 2001-02. Country Ban ladesh U.A.E Saudi Arabia U.K Kuwait Oman U.S.A. Bahrain Others Sources:APEDA
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ % $ $ $ $

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Quantity(000Tonnes) 21.03 12.81 2.94 1.37 0.98 0.88 0.73 0.60 3.09

Value (Rs. In crores) 24.10 28.19 6.62 4.54 3.10 1.88 1.63 2.01 8.92