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WHAT IS ETHICS The term ethics is derived from the Greek word ethikos which itself is derived from

the Greek word ethos, meaning custom or character. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good(What is Ethics?, 2010). The ethics principle cannot be changed based on the current situation but the principle is consistent since the existence of human in the world, until now. The principles are in developing, defending, and recommending concepts either right or wrong. Ethics also can be defined through several ways. However, all the ways are driven to a point, which is dealing with right or wrong. Yet, it is faced difficulty to determine either something is right or wrong. So, the standards have been developed over time and come from a variety of sources including: (A) (B) (C) The influence of religious writing and interpretations. The influence of philosophical thought. The influence of community (societal) values. Ethics can be divided by two, norm tic and met ethic. Norm is about in about the disciplines and guide in doing either good deed or bad deed. Meanwhile met ethic itself can be divided by two; Analytic which is an analysis activity towards all the law of good and bad deed; and Critical is the way that the analysis will be critiqued. Via French and Granrose(1995), ethics is "A set of normative guidelines directed towards resolving conflicts of interest, so as to enhance societal well-being". Then, Bulchoz(1989) defined that ethics is a systematical attempt, through the use of a reason to make sense of our individual and social moral experience in such a way as to determined the rules that ought to govern human conduct and the values worth pursuing in life. Business ethics can be defined as a standard moral principle doing that can be accepted by the business community and world of business. For example, honesty can

be one of the moral principles because basically in business, dealers should be honest to customers and customer also should be honest to the dealers.

WHAT IS SECULAR? Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saecularis meaning of a generation, belonging to an age. (Khan, 2011). Secularist organizations are

distinguished from merely secularones by their political advocacy of such positions. Martin Luther used to speak of secular work as a vocation from God for most Christians. (Secularity, 2011). It is not a religion, but just an understanding to those who are not believed to any religion. This secularism has been practiced a long time ago. However, the word of secularism itself has been started to be used by a writer in United Kingdom, George Halyoake in 1846. Secularism is started when some of the workers who are working in church in Europe do not satisfied with churchs administration. In era of 16, most of the Europeans are Christian. Then, Europe has been divided by two Christians country which are West Christian Countries and East Christian Countries. In the East Christian Countries, they are involving in oppressively rules. As example is Orthodox Church in Balkan Russia. However in the west side, they are obeying to their religion, Catholic well. Nevertheless, the church is carrying on the tradition way of worldly rules without regard to their religious convictions even it is from their own church. On that time, the unsatisfied towards the church is begun.

WHAT IS ISLAM As a research by Rolando M. Gripaldo who is from Philippine National Philosophical Research Society, religion can be divided by two, Monotheism and Polytheism. Monotheism is a religion that only trusts a God meanwhile Polytheism is a religion that trust to more than one God. Islam can be classified as Monotheism. However, in Islam, only Islam is the real religion from God (Allah). No more religion can be trusted, except Islam. Linguistically, Islam is from the Arabic word salima which is meaning peace, safe and harmony. Islam also can be defined by law or rules of human life. Then, it is also can be defined from a scene that happened between the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W and Jibril. Jibril has asked what is Islam to the Prophet. Then, Prophet said that Islam is Saying shahadat which is believe to Allah and His massager, Muhammad S.A.W; perform the solat; paying zakah; fasting during the Ramadhan; and perform the hajj. Then, the main principle in Islam is iman. Iman is about the believed to: 1. Belief in God: Muslims believe in one, unique, incomparable God, Who has neither son nor partner, and that none has the right to be worshipped but Him alone. He is the true God, and every other deity is false. He has the most magnificent names and sublime perfect attributes. No one shares His divinity, nor His attributes. In the Quran, God describes Himself: Say, He is God, the One. God, to Whom the creatures turn for their needs. He begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none like Him. (Quran, 112:1-4)

God is not Jesus, and Jesus is not God. Even Jesus himself rejected this. Allah has said in the Quran: Indeed, they have disbelieved who have said, God is the Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary. The Messiah said, Children of Israel,

worship God, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever associates partners in worship with God, then God has forbidden Paradise for him, and his home is the Fire (Hell). For the wrongdoers,3 there will be no helpers. (Quran, 5:72)

2. Belief in the Angels: In Islam, angel is called as malaikat. Muslims believe in the existence of the angels and that they are honored creatures. The angels also serve themselves to Alah, obey Him, and act only by His command. One of the angel is Jibril, who is Muhammad SAW got the Quran from Allah via the angel.

3. Belief in Gods Revealed Books: Muslims believe that God revealed books to His messengers as proof for mankind and as guidance for them. Among these books is the Quran, which God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad SAW. God has guaranteed the Qurans protection from any corruption or distortion. God has said: < Indeed, We have sent down the Quran, and surely We will guard it (from corruption). >(Quran, 15:9)

4. Belief in the Prophets and Messengers of God: Muslims believe that the messenger of Allah is Prophet. There is a a lot of prophet, but Muslim must have to know 25 among them, which are starting Adam, Idris, Noah, Hud, Soleh, Ibraham, Lut, Ismail, Ishak, Yaakub, Yusuf, Ayub, Shuib, Musa, Harun, Zulkifli, Daud, Sulaiman, Ilyas, Ilyasaa, Yunus, Zakaria, Yahya, Isa and Muhammad SAW. Muhammad SAW is the final Prophet, no one after him. Muslims believe that Muhammad SAW is the last prophet sent by God, as God has said: Muhammad is not the father of any one of your men, but he is the Messenger of God and the last of the prophets... (Quran, 33:40)

Muslims believe that all the prophets and messengers were created human beings who had none of the divine qualities of God.

5. Belief in the Day of Judgment: Muslims believe in the Day of Judgment (the Day of Resurrection) when all people will be resurrected for Gods judgment according to their beliefs and deeds.

6. Belief in Al-Qadar: Muslims believe in Al-Qadar, which is Divine Predestination, but this belief in Divine Predestination does not mean that human beings do not have freewill. Rather, Muslims believe that God has given human beings freewill. This means that they can choose right or wrong and that they are responsible for their choices. The belief in Divine Predestination includes belief in four things:

1. God knows everything. He knows what has happened and what will happen. 2. God has recorded all that has happened and all that will happen. 3. Whatever God wills to happen happens, and whatever He wills not to happen does not happen. 4. God is the Creator of everything.

SECULAR ETHICS In secularism, ethics is driven by 3 which are teleological, utilitarian and deontology. Teleological is the base theory in secular ethics. It has been introduced by the early scholar, Aristotle (century of 4) and Thomas Aquinas (century of 13). Aristotle believed that the something or objects had already determined naturally by their functions. When we knew the real functions of something, then we will know about the good or bad the something. So, he said that the ethical deed is when something can full fill their function. Then, utilitarianism is based on the utilitarian principle that has been written by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill in century 19th. Utilitarianism is about the effect after a decision has been made. The ethical is determined after the things that have been done are really useful and give the good impact. Deontology has been explained by Immanuant Kant. He said that deontology referred to the obligation. It is similarly like teleological. Deontology is something that we do it first, and then think the effects later. For example, is cheating. If we ask even anyone, everybody will say that the cheating is bad deed. So, cheat is an unethical. Deontology can be differentiated with utilitarianism by a scenario: A dog is barking well. It has disturbed the people around there. Then if a person practiced utilitarian, he will kill the dog because it will give the good effect which is the dog will not disturbing people anymore. However, if a person practiced deontology, he will not kill the dog because the kill acting itself cannot be accepted by community or human. The ethics principles that has been used by Halyoake are improve the living via material, not via ask to GOD; the science is a guide for human life; and anything that is good is good to do. Whether there is good or not, the good that exist in life is good, and it is good to find such goodness.

Islam is a comprehensive way of life, and morality is one of the cornerstones Islam. Morality is one of the fundamental sources of a nations strength, just as immorality is one of the main causes of a nations decline. Islam has established some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which are to be observed in all circumstances. To uphold these rights, Islam has provided not only legal safeguards, but also a very effective moral system. Thus, whatever leads to the welfare of the individual or the society and does not oppose any maxims of the religion is morally good in Islam, and whatever is harmful is morally bad. Given its importance in a healthy society, Islam supports morality and matters that lead to it, and stands in the way of corruption and matters that lead to it. The guiding principle for the behavior of a Muslim is Virtuous Deeds. This term covers all deeds, not only acts of worship. The Guardian and Judge of all deeds is God Himself. The most fundamental characteristics of a Muslim are piety and humility. A Muslim must be humble with God and with other people: And turn not your face away from people (with pride), nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, God likes not each arrogant boaster. And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the voice (braying) of the ass. (Quran 31:18-19) Muslims must be in controls of their passions and desires. A Muslim should not be vain or attached to the ephemeral pleasures of this world. While most people allow the material world to fill their hearts, Muslims should keep God in their hearts and the material world in their hand. Instead of being attached to the car and the job and the diploma and the bank account, all these things become tools to make us better people. The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, but only he (will prosper) that brings to God a sound heart. (Quran: 26:88-89)


God sums up righteousness in verse 177 of Surat Al Baqarah: It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness (the quality of ) the one who believes in God and the Last Day and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; who spends of his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, to the needy, to the wayfarer, to those who ask and for the freeing of slaves; and who is steadfast in prayers, and gives Zakah (Alms); and those who fulfill their covenants which they made; and who are patient and perseverant in poverty and ailment and throughout all periods of fighting. Such are the people of truth, the pious. This verse teaches us that righteousness and piety is based before all else on a true and sincere faith. The key to virtue and good conduct is a strong relation with God, who sees all, at all times and everywhere. He knows the secrets of the hearts and the intentions behind all actions. Therefore, a Muslim must be moral in all circumstances; God is aware of each one when no one else is. If we deceive everyone, we cannot deceive Him. We can flee from anyone, but not from Him. The love and continuous awareness of God and the Day of Judgment enables man to be moral in conduct and sincere in intentions, with devotion and dedication: Indeed, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most pious. (Quran 49:13) Then come deeds of charity to others, especially giving things we love. This, like acts of worship, prayers and Zakah (mandatory alms), is an integral part of worship. A righteous person must be reliable and trustworthy. Finally, their faith must be firm and should not wane when faced with adversity. Morality must be strong to vanquish corruption: And God loves those who are firm and steadfast.

Patience is often hardest and most beautiful when its against ones own desires or anger: And march forth toward forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for the pious. Those who spend (in the way of God) in prosperity and in adversity, who repress anger, and who pardon people; verily, God loves the doers of the good deeds. (Quran 3:133) These three acts are among the hardest things for most people, but they are also the key to forgiveness and to paradise. Are they not the best, those who are able to exercise charity when they are in need themselves, control when they are angry and forgiveness when they are wronged? This is the standard by which actions are judged as good or bad. By making pleasing God the objective of every Muslim, Islam has set the highest possible standard of morality. Morality in Islam addresses every aspect of a Muslims life, from greetings to international relations. It is universal in its scope and in its applicability. Morality reigns in selfish desires, vanity and bad habits. Muslims must not only be virtuous, but they must also enjoin virtue. They must not only refrain from evil and vice, but they must also forbid them. In other words, they must not only be morally healthy, but they must also contribute to the moral health of society as a whole. You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in God; and if the followers of the Book had believed it would have been better for them; of them (some) are believers and most of them are transgressors. (Quran: 3:110)

The Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, summarized the conduct of a Muslim when he said: My Sustainer has given me nine commands: to remain conscious of God, whether in private or in public; to speak justly, whether angry or pleased; to show moderation both when poor and when rich, to reunite friendship with those who have broken off with me; to give to him who refuses me; that my silence should be occupied with thought; that my looking should be an admonition; and that I should command what is right.

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