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LEARN QURANIC ARABIC – CLASS NOTES

Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

“Learn Qur’anic Arabic” was taught by Imam Dr. Yusuf Ziya Kavakci multiple times at Islamic Association of North Texas (IANT). Through only around 30-40 hours teaching, Imam Yusuf’s class helps the students wonderfully to understand the overall picture of Qur’anic Arabic grammar, and most of commonly used grammar phenomena appear in the Qur’an. The teaching is also organized in a systematical way which helps students to memorize what they learn. Imam Yusuf’s teaching leads students to start tasting and enjoying the beauty and accuracy of Qur’anic Arabic and, more important, the beauty and profound meaning of the Holly Qur’an. May Allah (SWT) reward him, his family, and his teachers the best for his many years efforts and patience to spread Islamic knowledge. Ameen. You can find related class videos and notes at: http://iant.com/lqindex.php

Copyright © 2011 All rights reserved

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Contents

LEARN QURANIC ARABIC – CLASS NOTES

Chapter 1 Morphology (

)

1.1

1.2 Patterns (

1.3 Verb Conjugation on Tense

1.4 Verb Conjugation on Past Tense Active Form

1.5 Verb Conjugation on Past Tense Passive Form

1.6 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Active Form

1.7 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Passive Form

Pronouns (

)

) of Arabic Verbs

1.8 Derived Nouns (

1.9 Signs of Feminine Words

1.10 Dual Forms of Nouns (

1.11 Plural Forms of Nouns (

1.12 Dual Forms (

1.13 Negation, Prohibition, Imperative, and Others

1.14 Conjugation of Present / Present Continuous Negation (

1.15 Conjugation of Future Negation (

1.16 Conjugation of Past Tense Negation (

) )

) of Three-Letter Verbs

) and Plural Forms (

) of some Derived Nouns of

)

)

)

1.17 Conjugation of Past Tense Negation Emphasis Form

(

1.18 Conjugation of Imperative (

1.19 Conjugation of Prohibition (

1.20 Six groups (

1.21 Four-Letter (3+1) Verbs (

1.22 Five Letter Verbs (3+2) (

1.23 Six Letter Verbs (3+3) (

1.24 Four-Letter Root Verbs (

1.25 Three Sick Letters and Seven Categories (

1.26 Sickness Curing of Verbs (

)

)

)

) of Three-Letter Verbs

)

)

)

)

) and Their Derivative Groups (

) of the Verbs

)

Chapter 2 Syntax (

)

2.1

2.2 Indefinite Form ( ) and Definite Form (

2.3 Different Meaning of

2.4 Declinable Words (

2.5 Some Terms Related to Syntax ( )

Word (

) and Sentence ( )

(

)

) of a Noun

)

) and Indeclinable Words (

2.6

Categories of

(Words in Genitive Case)

2.7

Categories of

(Words in Nominal Case)

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1

5

5

6

7

8

11

13

16

18

19

20

20

21

22

23

24

26

27

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29

30

32

34

35

37

38

40

41

45

45

46

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47

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

2.8 Categories of

(Words in Accusative Case)

ْ

مٌ زجَ

2.9 Maker of Verbs in Present or Present Continuous Tense (

2.10

2.11 Auxiliary Verbs (

)

2.12 “Almost Happened, But Actually did not” (

2.13 Categories of Declinable Words (

2.14 Putting Harakah on

2.15 Declinable Nouns (

)

)

(

)

) and Indeclinable Nouns (

2.16 Conjunction Letters (

2.17

2.18

2.19

2.20 Sun Letters (

Phrase

Phrase

Followers

)

) and Moon Letters (

)

)

Appendix A: Terminologies and Approximate Translations Appendix B: Abbriviations Appendix C: Examples of Full Conjugation

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

4

 

52

)

56

58

59

60

60

62

62

63

64

65

65

66

68

71

71

72

80

88

96

104

112

120

128

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Chapter 1 Morphology (

)

1.1 Pronouns (

)

In Arabic, pronouns have two forms:

1. Separate form, which is used as a stand alone word. For example:

He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).

I am a student.

2. Attached form, which is attached to another word as a suffix. For example:

on them, upon them

your (plural) Lord

Below table lists pronouns in both Separate form and Attached form

Table 1: Pronouns (Attached form / Separate Form)

Plural (

)

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

/

/

/

3rd.p.M. (

)

them / they (three or more masculine)

them / they (two masculine)

him / he

/

them / they (three or more feminine)

/

them / they (two feminine)

/

her / she

3rd.p.M. (

)

/

you / you (three or more masculine)

/

you / you (two masculine)

/

you / you

2nd.p.M. (

)

/

you / you (three or more feminine)

/

you / you (two feminine)

/

her / she

2nd.p.F. (

)

/

us / we (two or more masculine / feminine)

/

me / I

1st.p. (

)

 

To make the memorizing easier for above paradigm, as well as the paradigms in the following lessons, Imam Yusuf introduced “Arabic Grammar Hand”:

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes 1.2 Patterns ( ) of Arabic Verbs The conjugation of

1.2 Patterns ( ) of Arabic Verbs

The conjugation of Arabic verbs is following patterns ( ). Verb

is commonly being taken as a

model to express these different groups of patterns in various context, although as a verb,

own meaning (do, make, etc), and follows only one group ( ) of patterns.

has its

) in

name for reference purpose:

Each letter (

Is called

Is called

Is called

is called a radical. Each of these three radicals in

is also given a

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

The vowels in Arabic are expressed by Harakat (

(

)

.

), or vowel marks, which refers to:

) or derived from

three-letter root verbs, the other 1% are four-letter root verbs or more letters root verbs and their

Maybe more than 99% of Arabic verbs are rooted from three-letter root verbs (

derivatives. In his Morphology (

) classes, Imam Yusuf first focused on three-letter verbs and

their derivatives, then discussed four letter root verbs and their derivatives.

1.3 Verb Conjugation on Tense

Below table shows Arabic verb conjugation on tense: past tense, present / present continuous tense,

and imperative (order) mood.

is used as a model to express the patterns.

Table 2 Verb Conjugation on Tense

(

Imperative

)

Present/Present Continuous

Tense (

)

Past Tense (

)

 
 

Active (

)

 

Passive (

)

The meaning patterns are:

: he did

: he was done upon

: he does

/ he is doing

: he is done upon

/ he is being done upon

: (You) Do it!

Many Arabic verbs follow above patterns to form their tenses and imperatives. E.g.:

(

Imperative

)

Present / Present

Continuous (

)

Past (

)

 
 

Active (

)

 

Passive (

)

The meanings are:

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

: he worshipped

: he was worshipped

: he worships / he is worshipping

: he is worshipped / he is being worshipped

: (You) Worship!

1.4 Verb Conjugation on Past Tense Active Form

How to express in Arabic verbs different persons, 1st person, 2nd person, and 3rd person? How to express the numbers, such as singular, plural? In fact in Arabic, dual (two persons) is also differentiated. How to express the gender, masculine and feminine? Arabic verbs conjugate on persons, numbers, as well as on gender. These types of conjugation are generally through inflection, which is end-changing, such as putting suffix. These conjugations are following patterns. The following paradigm expresses verb conjugation on person, number, and gender for past tense active form.

Table 3 Verb Conjugation on Past Tense Active Form

Plural (

)

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

3rd.p.M. (

)

3rd.p.F. (

)

2nd.p.M. (

)

2nd.p.F. (

)

 

1st.p. (

)

The meaning patterns are:

: he (masculine, one person) did

: they (masculine, two persons) did

: they (masculine, three or more persons) did

: she (feminine, one person) did

: they (feminine, two persons) did

: they (feminine, three or more persons) did

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

: you (masculine, one person) did

: you (both gender, two persons) did

: you (masculine, three or more persons) did

: you (feminine, one person) did

: you (both gender, two persons) did

: you (feminine, three or more persons) did

: I (both gender, one person) did

: we(both gender, two or more persons) did

For example, below is the paradigm for :

Plural (

)

 

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

 

 

Absent M. (

)

 

3rd.p.F. (

)

 

 

2nd.p.M. (

)

 

2nd.p.F. (

)

1st.p. (

)

The meanings are:

: he (masculine, one person) worshipped

: they (masculine, two persons) worshipped

: they (masculine, three or more persons) worshipped

: she (feminine, one person) worshipped

: they (feminine, two persons) worshipped

: they (feminine, three or more persons) worshipped

: you (masculine, one person) worshipped

: you (both gender, two persons) worshipped

: you (masculine, three or more persons) worshipped

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

: you (feminine, one person) worshipped

: you (both gender, two persons) worshipped

: you (feminine, three or more persons) worshipped

: I (both gender, one person) worshipped

: we(both gender, two or more persons) worshipped

The “Arabic Grammar Hand” for this paradigm is as follows:

: we(both gender, two or more persons) worshipped The “Arabic Grammar Hand” for this paradigm is

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

1.5 Verb Conjugation on Past Tense Passive Form

Similarly, the following paradigm expresses verb conjugation on person, number, and gender for past tense passive form.

Table 4 Verb Conjugation on Past Tense Passive Form

Plural (

)

 

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

   

3rd.p.M. (

)

   

3rd.p.F. (

)

   

2nd.p.M. (

)

   

2nd.p.F. (

)

 

1st.p. (

)

The meaning patterns are:

: he (masculine, one person) was done upon

: they (masculine, two persons) were done upon

: they (masculine, three or more persons) were done upon

: she (feminine, one person) was done upon

: they (feminine, two persons) were done upon

: they (feminine, three or more persons) were done upon

: you (masculine, one person) were done upon

: you (both gender, two persons) were done upon

: you (masculine, three or more persons) were done upon

: you (feminine, one person) were done upon

: you (both gender, two persons) were done upon

: you (feminine, three or more persons) were done upon

: I (both gender, one person) was done upon

: we(both gender, two or more persons) were done upon

For example, below is the paradigm for رصن in past tense passive form:

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Plural (

)

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

 

3rd.p.M. (

)

 

 

3rd.p.F. (

)

 

 

2nd.p.M. (

)

 

2nd.p.F. (

)

 
 

1st.p. (

)

 

The meanings are:

: he (masculine, one person) was helped

: they (masculine, two persons) were helped

: they (masculine, three or more persons) were helped

: she (feminine, one person) was helped

: they (feminine, two persons) were helped

: they (feminine, three or more persons) were helped

: you (masculine, one person) were helped

: you (both gender, two persons) were helped

: you (masculine, three or more persons) were helped

: you (feminine, one person) were helped

: you (both gender, two persons) were helped

: you (feminine, three or more persons) were helped

: I (both gender, one person) was helped

: we(both gender, two or more persons) were helped

The “Arabic Grammar Hand” for this paradigm is as follows:

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes 1.6 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Active

1.6 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Active Form

Present / Present Continuous Tense (

root with specific letters with vowels according to person, number, and gender. Prefix letter can be one

) of Arabic verbs is formed by prefixing and suffixing the

of the four letters: . Sometimes they are called particles of present tense ( Below paradigm expresses the conjugation for active form:

).

Table 5 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Active Form

Plural (

)

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

3rd.p.M. (

)

3rd.p.F. (

)

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

2nd.p.M. (

)

2nd.p.F. (

)

 

1st.p. (

)

The meaning patterns are:

: he (masculine, one person) does / is doing

: they (masculine, two persons) do / are doing

: they (masculine, three or more persons) do / are doing

: she (feminine, one person) does / is doing

: they (feminine, two persons) do / are doing

: they (feminine, three or more persons) do / are doing

: you (masculine, one person) do / are doing

: you (both gender, two persons) do / are doing

: you (masculine, three or more persons) do / are doing

: you (feminine, one person) do / are doing

: you (both gender, two persons) do / are doing

: you (feminine, three or more persons) do / are doing

: I (both gender, one person) do / am doing

: we(both gender, two or more persons) do / are doing

For example, below is the paradigm for in present/present continuous tense active form:

: he (masculine, one person) thanks / is thanking

: they (masculine, two persons) thank / are thanking

: they (masculine, three or more persons) thank / are thanking

: she (feminine, one person) thanks / is thanking

: they (feminine, two persons) thank / are thanking

: they (feminine, three or more persons) thank / are thanking

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

: you (masculine, one person) thank / are thanking

: you (both gender, two persons) thank / are thanking

: you (masculine, three or more persons) thank / are thanking

: you (feminine, one person) thank / are thanking

: you (both gender, two persons) thank / are thanking

: you (feminine, three or more persons) thank / are thanking

: I (both gender, one person) thank / am thanking

: we(both gender, two or more persons) thank / are thanking

The “Arabic Grammar Hand” for this paradigm is as follows:

gender, two or more persons) thank / are thanking The “Arabic Grammar Hand” for this paradigm

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

1.7 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Passive Form

The Passive Form of Present / Present Continuous Tense of Arabic verbs is formed similarly as active form except that vowels changes. The following paradigm expresses the conjugation for passive form:

Table 6 Verb Conjugation on Present / Present Continuous Tense Passive Form

Plural (

)

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

 

3rd.p.M. (

)

3rd.p.F. (

)

2nd.p.M. (

)

2nd.p.F. (

)

 

1st.p. (

)

 

The meaning patterns are:

: he (masculine, one person) is done upon / is being done upon

: they (masculine, two persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: they (masculine, three or more persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: she (feminine, one person) is done upon / is being done upo

: they (feminine, two persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: they (feminine, three or more persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: you (masculine, one person) are done upon / are being done upon

: you (both gender, two persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: you (masculine, three or more persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: you (feminine, one person) are done upon / are being done upon

: you (both gender, two persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: you (feminine, three or more persons) are done upon / are being done upon

: I (both gender, one person) am done upon / am being don e upon

: we(both gender, two or more persons) are done upon / are being done upon

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

For example, below is the paradigm for in present/present continuous tense passive form:

: he (masculine, one person) is thanked / is being thanked

: they (masculine, two persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: they (masculine, three or more persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: she (feminine, one person) is thanked / is being thanked

: they (feminine, two persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: they (feminine, three or more persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: you (masculine, one person) are thanked / are being thanked

: you (both gender, two persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: you (masculine, three or more persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: you (feminine, one person) are thanked / are being thanked

: you (both gender, two persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: you (feminine, three or more persons) are thanked / are being thanked

: I (both gender, one person) am thanked / am being thanked

: we(both gender, two or more persons) are thanked / are being thanked

The “Arabic Grammar Hand” for this paradigm is as follows:

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes 1.8 Derived Nouns ( ) of Three-Letter Verbs Arabic nouns

1.8 Derived Nouns (

) of Three-Letter Verbs

Arabic nouns can be subdivided into two types:

1.

the derived, means they are derived from some root words, usually verbs.

2.

the non-derived, means they are type of isolated, not derived from root verbs.

Derived nouns are formed following certain patterns. These patterns can be many based upon a root verb, and very commonly, a specific pattern is associated with a specific meaning (pattern). In this

class, Imam Yusuf discussed some popular derived nouns of three-letter verb model:

The

grammar terms / names of these derived nouns are also provided, which are common even for four-letter or more letter verbs.

.

Table 7 Derived Nouns (

) of verb

Meaning of Example

Example

Meaning

Derived

Noun

Grammar Name

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

Helper

Doer

 

The helped

The one who is done upon

 

The place of helping;

The place of the action; The time of the action; Doing (The gerund);

 

The time of helping;

Helping

The tool to help

The tool of the action

 

Better helper / The best helper

Better doer / The Best doer

One time helping

One time doing

Kind of helping / Type of helping

Kind of doing / Type of doing

Little helping

Little doing

 

Helping related

What related to doing

Too much helping

Too much doing

Helper /

Doer / The one who is done upon (depends on context)

The helped

   

Helper /

Doer / The one who is done upon (depends on context)

The helped

   

 

1.9 Signs of Feminine Words

In Arabic, feminine words are usually indicated by some special signs. Below are these signs to indicate feminine words:

Table 8 Signs of Feminine Words

Examples

Signs

Grammar Name

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

1.10 Dual Forms of Nouns (

)

Not like English, Arabic differentiates one person, two persons, and more persons. So in addition to singular, plural, Arabic words have their dual forms also, while the plural is dedicated to three or more

persons. Commonly, this dual form of noun ( ) is formed by adding either suffix of

or

.

is for nominative case, and for accusative case and genitive case.

Table 9 Dual Forms of Nouns (

)

Meaning

 

Dual (

)

Suffix

Singular (

)

Two truthful males, two truthful females

Two truthful males, two truthful females

1.11 Plural Forms of Nouns (

)

There are three types of plural forms of nouns in Arabic:

1. Sound Masculine Form (

): formed by adding suffix of

or

,

nominative case, and

for accusative case and genitive case.

2. Sound Feminine Form (

): formed by adding suffix of

nominative case, and

for accusative case and genitive case.

3. Non Regular Form (

): no rule for this form

,

Table 10 Plural Forms of Nouns

is for

is for

Plural (

)

 

Suffix

Singular (

)

Type

 

Sound Masculine Form

 

Sound Feminine Form

   

Non Regular Form

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

1.12 Dual Forms ( ) and Plural Forms (

Derived Nouns of

)

of

some

Below table lists the patterns of dual forms and plural forms of some derived nouns of

Table 11 Dual Forms ( ) and Plural Forms (

) of some Derived Nouns

.

 

Non Regular Plural

(

)

 

Plural (

)

Dual (

)

Singular (

)

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

     

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

     

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

     

   

   

   

     

   

   

   

     

   

   

   

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Learn Qur’anic Arabic – Class Notes

1.13 Negation, Prohibition, Imperative, and Others

In Arabic, the present tense negation of a verb is formed based on present / present Continuous

(

) form by preceding it particle or . If we put preceding particle before present (

)

form, it renders into past tense negation. This also renders the Harakah on radical into sukun ( ).

Present (

) form is also being used to construct imperative form, prohibition form, future tense,

etc. We’ve learnt, in former class, the imperative of the 2nd person (

) . The imperative of

the 3rd person is formed by preceding present (

) form the particle of

. The Harakah of the

third radical (

) is rendered into sukun ( ). Preceding particle is used to make prohibition

form, while

or

is used to form future tense.

Below table is an overview of some grammar forms based on present / present Continuous (

form, including negation, prohibition, future tense, imperative, etc. We’ll learn the detail of some forms in the following classes.

)

Table 12 Negation, Prohibition, Imperative, and Others

Meaning

Forms

Grammar Name

He doesn’t do

He doesn’t do

He will never ever do

He didn’t do

He never ever did

He will do (near future)

He will do (far future)