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1. DIRECTIONS for question : Answer the question independently.

Hemant bought a car with a listed price of Rs.4 lakh. Thanks to Hemant's good relations with the auto dealer he got two successive discounts of 10% and 20%. After buying the car, he spent 10% of the purchase price of the car on buying accessories for the car. At what price should he sell the car to earn a profit of 20% assuming zero depreciation?

Rs.380160 Rs.410218 Rs.274140 Rs.393600 explanation: Because of the two successive discounts, the purchase price of the car becomes 80% 90% of 400000 = Rs.288000 Total cost of the car for Hemant = 288000 + 10% of 288000 = Rs.316800 For 20% profit, S.P. = 1.2 316800 = Rs.380160. Hence, [1]. 2.A letter stands for each digit between 0 and 9 (including both the digits). No two letters stand for the same digit. If (AB)2 = CBB, (DE)2 = GDE. Find A + B + C.

6 12 9 Cannot be determined Explanation:

3. If 1, log4 (4x 1), 2log16 (4x 2) are in A. P., then what is the value of x?

Log 2


4. DIRECTIONS for question : Answer the question independently.

Data insufficient Explanation:



6. Different four-digit numbers are formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (repetition is allowed). If 'n' numbers
out of these are divisible by 3, then the value of 'n' is:

324 432 242 234


7. Sameer owns a piece of land in the shape of a quadrilateral. Sameer's father takes 10 minutes to walk along
a diagonal from one end to the other at the rate of 1.5 m/s; 5 minutes at the rate of 1.25 m/s along one of the perpendiculars to the same diagonal through one of the vertices and 7 minutes along the other perpendicular to the same diagonal from another vertex at 1.75 m/s. Find the area of the land.

None of these


8. (x 2)(x 4)(x 6)(x 8) ... (x 20)

0. How many integer values of x satisfy the given equation?

10 15 20 Cannot be determined


9. Two ants Amy and Pamy are running on a graph paper. Amy is at a distance 2 cm from the X-axis and 3 cm
right of Y-axis. Pamy is directly 2 cm below the X-axis and 4 cm to the right side of Y-axis. They spot a food particle dropped on the first quadrant of the paper. The food particle's shortest distance from the X-axis is 6 cm and 8 cm from the Y-axis. If Amy can run at a speed of 1 cm/sec and Pamy at speed of 1.5 cm/sec and, Pamy is

further away from the food particle than Amy, then in approximately how many seconds would the food particle be grabbed by either of the ants?

5.2 seconds 7 seconds 6.4 seconds 5.9 seconds


10. In a party people are in different combinations of colours with one of the colours being either black or white

or red and

of the people in a party were in black, white and red colour dresses

respectively. The number of people wearing a black-blue combination was % of the people wearing white. The number of people wearing a black-violet combination was 65% of those wearing black. If the total number of

people wearing violet is 700, out of which 22% wore a non-black-violet combination, then the number of people wearing a black-blue combination must be:

210 420 546 740






Points A, B and C are marked on the three sides PQ, QR and PR of a triangle PQR respectively, such that AB = QB and BC = BR. If P = 45o, the measure of ABC is:

You skipped this question.





n = 1! + 2! + 3! + ... + 13! and m = 1! + 4 2! + 5 3! + ... + 14 12!, then which number should be added to m so that n 1 will divide m?

0 13! 2.13! 1! + 13!


On 15th August, a programme is organised by 12 students in a school. They have 3 bamboos two red and one green. They form rows of 3 each and hold bamboos in such a way that the bamboos lie between the rows and each bamboo is held by 6 students. If all the students are facing eastwards, then how many different arrangements are possible?


12! 2 12! 3 12! 6


17.Consider a uniform cylinder of height h cm and radius

cm. A string of thickness t cm, when wound around the cylinder without keeping any space between two turns, covers the lateral surface of the cylinder completely. What is the length of the string?

8h cm


A 10% sugar solution is one in which 10 gm of sugar is dissolved in 100 dm3 of water. On heating the solution water evaporates. So, 1 kg of the 10% solution is reduced to 0.4 kg. What is its concentration now? [1 dm3 = 1 gm]

32% 29.4% 18.2% 22.2%


19. (x + 1)(y 1) = 16, x > 0, y > 1, then:




DIRECTIONS for question : Refer to the data below and answer the question that follow.

If the exports of Indonesia in the years 2008 and 2009 are constant at 6000 mn US , then what is the percentage increase in imports of Indonesia in the year 2009 over that in 2008?


250% 250% 425%


22. Let p = average B-O-T per country in South-East Asia and q = growth in B-O-T of South-East Asia in the
current year over the previous year. Which of the following is true?

The lowest value of q is achieved in 2009. The highest values of p and q are achieved in 2007. Both of the above statements are true None of the above statements are true

Explanation: From observation, it is obvious that the highest value of p is in 2007. The highest value of q is also in 2007, as in subsequent years, it is negative. Thus, [2] is true. Aggregate B-O-T in 2008 = 4800 + 6500 + 8100 + 3800 + 4600 = 27800 Aggregate B-O-T in 2009 = 300 + 2700 + 5500 + 7500 + 4200 = 19600 Aggregate B-O-T in 2010 = 3200 + 3500 + 7000 + 6100 + 2900 = 16300 Observing these values, it can be seen that the lowest value of q is in 2009. Thus, [1] is true. Hence, [3].

23. Which of the following statements is/are true?

I. The B-O-T of all countries first show an increasing trend, then a decline and then finally an increase. II. The trend of B-O-T of Singapore and Malaysia is in line with the trend in aggregate B-O-T for the entire region. III. Aggregate B-O-T of Malaysia during 2006-2010 is higher than that of Thailand during the same period.

I only II only III only Both II and III

Explanation: Statement I is false as the B-O-T of all the countries together first show an increase and then a declining trend. Statement II is false as Malaysia and Singapore show an increasing, declining and then again increasing trend, which is different from the trend shown by all the countries together. Statement III is true. The amount by which B-O-T of Malaysia is higher than that of Thailand in 2008 is approximately the same by which the B-O-T of Thailand is higher than that of Malaysia in 2010. The similar relationship is observed for 2007 and 2009. Hence, as the B-O-T of Malaysia is higher than that of Thailand for 2006, the aggregate B-O-T of Malaysia is higher than that of Thailand. Hence, [3].

24. A survey was conducted among 145 students of a school in order to find which health drink among A, B and
C was most popular. The survey gave unexpected results. i. The number of students who liked only one out of A, B or C was the same. Likewise an equal number of students liked only A and B or only B & C or only A & C. ii. The number of students who didnt like any of these three drinks was same as the number of students who liked B. iii. 51 students liked C. Find the maximum number of students who liked only A.

19 20 21 22


25. Find the minimum difference in the number of students who liked all the three drinks and the number of students who liked A and B but not C.

0 2 3 7


26. The number of students who liked all the three drinks was less than the number of students who liked only
A and B and this was less than the number of students who liked only C. How many students liked all the three drinks?

7 10 13 15


27. Sachin, Sunil, Anil, Saurav, Gaurav, Dinesh and Ramesh are hockey players. Each of them applies for the
selection to two hockey teams A and B. Each team selects three players, from these players. No player is selected by both the teams. The selections are subject to the following conditions: i. if Saurav is selected by team A, Gaurav must be in team B. ii. if Sunil is in team A, Anil must be in team B. iii. Sachin and Anil cannot be in the same team. iv. Gaurav and Dinesh cannot be in the same team. If Sunil is in team A, then in how many ways can team B select the three players?

6 13 5 10

Explanation: If Sunil is in team A, then Anil must be in team B. Of the remaining 5, 2 can be selected in team B in 5C2 = 10 ways. But, these two players cannot be "Gaurav& Dinesh" and "Sachin&Saurav/Gaurav/Ramesh/Dinesh". Hence, team B can select the two players in 10 5 = 5 ways. Hence, [3].

28. Which of the following can be the right selection of players?

T e a m A B S S a u c n h i i l n , 1 , ] D S i a n u e r s a h v S S a a c u h r i a n v 2 , , ] G S a u u n r i a l v 3 S ] a u c r h a i v n ,

R S a u m n e i s l h R S a a m u e r s a h 4 v , ] , G A a n u ir la v

1 2 3 4

Explanation: From (i), in option [1], Gaurav and Dinesh will be in the same team ... contradicts (iv) From (ii), in options [2] and [3], Anil and Sachin will be in the same team ... contradicts (iii) Option [4] can be a right selection, as Team A: Saurav, Anil, Dinesh; Team B: Ramesh, Gaurav, Sunil Hence, [4]. 29. Which of the following statements when true give/s the exact selection by the two teams? I. Saurav and Gaurav are in the same team II. Sunil and Anil are in the same team III. Ramesh is not selected by either team

Only II Only III Both II and III Both I and II


DIRECTIONS for question : Choose the correct alternative. In a classroom, students are asked to assemble a single toy out of building blocks. There are blocks of exactly six different solid colorsred, yellow, violet, green, white and black. Blocks must be assembled into a single toy according to the following rules: Each toy must contain at least three blocks and blocks of at least three different colors. If one block is violet, then no block can be green. At most two blocks in a single toy can be white. At most two blocks in a single toy can be black. There can be at most one block of each of the other colors in a single toy. If one block is red, then one block must be yellow. The maximum number of blocks that can be used in a single toy is:

8 7 6 Data insufficient Explanation:

A schedule is being prepared for an MBA College seminar that will cover exactly seven topicsBusiness Ethics, Economics, Finance, Marketing, Human Resource Management, Information Technology and Business Communicationone at a time, during a four-day period. Because some topics build upon information presented in other topics, the schedule of topics must comply with the following restrictions:

Each topic must be covered exactly once, and on exactly one day. No more than three topics are to be covered on any one day. Marketing must be covered on the second day. Business Ethics must be covered on the same day as Human Resource Management. Marketing must be covered at some time before Finance is covered and at some time after Economics is covered. Finance must be covered at some time before Business Ethics is covered and at some time after Information Technology is covered. Which of the following is a pair of topics that can be covered on the first day?

Business Ethics and Human ResourceManagement Marketing and Information Technology Information Technology and Business Communication Business Communication and Finance Explanation:

A code analyst must translate into letters all of the digits included in the following two lines of nine digit each: 933456667 223344578 The code analyst has determined some of the rules of the decoding.

Each of the digits from 2 to 9 represents exactly one of the eight letters P, Q, R, S, T, U, V and W and each letter is represented by exactly one of the digits. If a digit occurs more than once, it represents the same letter on each occasion. The letter W and the letter S are each represented exactly 3 times. The letter R and the letter P are each represented exactly two times. The letter Q is represented exactly four times. Which of the following is a possible decoding of the five-digit message 4-6-5-3-6?



Two-way roads exist among the following towns in a district Between Mirpur and Nagpur Between Raipur and Udaipur Between Omarpur and Raipur Between Raipur and Tarapur Between Mirpur and Omarpur Between Tarapur and Palanpur Between Palanpur and Solapur There is also a one-way road between town Palanpur and town Nagpur; the permitted direction of travel is from Palanpur to Nagpur. None of these roads intersect each other except at the towns. There are no other towns or roads in the district. Vehicles must follow the direction established for general traffic on roads. If a rock slide temporarily makes the road between Omarpur and Raipur impassable, then in order to reach Mirpur by road from Udaipur, a vehicle would have to go to or through a total of how many other towns besides Mirpur and Udaipur?

2 3 4 5 Explanation:

DIRECTIONS for question : Refer to the data below and answer the question that follow. Five students, Anjali, Chandra, Mahesh, Kumar and Sadanand collected money for charity from five housing societies A, B, C, D and E. The amounts that each one of them collected are given in the following table.

A Anjali Chandra Mahesh Kumar Sadanand Total

B 30 40 40 185

C 180 190 150 140

D 135 140 145 640


75 410


670 600

The following is known: i. Kumar collected Rs.2 less from B than the average amount collected by the five students fromB. ii. Chandra collected Rs.2 more from D than the average amount collected by the five students from D. How much more money did the five students collect from C than from D?

Rs.100 Rs.190 Rs.150 Rs.170


35. If Sadanand collected equal amounts from A and D, then how much did he collect from E?

Rs.245 Rs.225 Rs.230 Rs.240

You skipped this question.


36. The average amount donated by each society was Rs.634. How much more money did Anjali, Chandra
and Mahesh collect from E than from A? (Use data from previous question if necessary).

Rs.260 Rs.245 Rs.375 Rs.400

You skipped this question.


DIRECTIONS for question : Refer to the data below and answer the question that follow. A map is being prepared that will represent the following seven states of a certain country: Maharashtra, Goa, Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, Karnataka, and West Bengal. Maharashtra has common borders with all of the other six states on the map except Jharkhand. Goa has common borders with exactly four other states-Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. Jharkhand has common borders with exactly two other states-Goa and Orissa. Bihar has common borders with exactly two other states-Maharashtra and West Bengal. Orissa has common borders with exactly three states-Maharashtra, Goa and Jharkhand. Karnataka has a common border only with Maharashtra, West Bengal has common borders with exactly three other states-Maharashtra, Goa and Bihar. Exactly six colours-yellow, orange, gren, red, silver and white-will be used in representing the seven states. Each color will be used at least once. Each state will be one solid color on the map. The following restrictions apply to the map's colors: No state can be the same color as any state bordering on it. Orange and green cannot be used for states bordering on each other. Silver and white cannot be used for states bordering on each other. Maharashtra must be red. Goa must be orange. Which of the following states can NEITHER be red NOR be orange on this map?

Goa Jharkhand Bihar


You skipped this question. Explanation:

38. If West Bengal and Jharkhand are white on the map, then which country can be shaded silver on the

Goa Maharashtra Bihar Karnataka Explanation:

39.Mark [1]; if the question can be answered by one of the statements alone but not by the other.
Mark [2]; if the question can be answered by using either statement alone. Mark [3]; if the question can be answered by using both the statements together but cannot be answered using either statement alone. Mark [4]; if the question cannot be answered even by using both the statements I and II together.

There are eight kids. Meena, Dilip, Ramesh, Prabhat, Sonia, Kavita, Raj and Rajni. Four of them belong to the

Mittal family and the other four to the Singhania family. Which family does Kavita belong to if the Mittal family does not have any twins? I. Meena is Dilips elder sister. Ramesh and Prabhat are twin brothers. Sonia has 2 sisters. II. Kavita and Raj are siblings. One family has three girls and a boy as their kids and Rajni is a part of this family.

1 2 3 4

Explanation: From statement I, we see that Meena is Dilips sister and Ramesh and Prabhat are twins so they belong to the Singhania family, but statement I does not give any information about Kavita. From statement II, we see that Kavita and Raj are siblings and one of the families has three female kids and one male kid and Rajni is a part of this family. But we still cannot decide which family Kavita belongs to. Combining statements I and II: Since Ramesh and Prabhat are twins they are from the Singhania family and they cant be part of the family that has 3 girls and a boy as their kids. Also, it is given that Sonia has 2 sisters, So she is part of the family that has 3 girls and a boy as their kids, which is the Mittal family. Hence, Sonia, Meena, Dilip and Rajni could be part of the Mittal family and Ramesh, Prabhat, Kavita and Raj could be part of the Singhania family OR Sonia, Rajni, Kavita and Raj could be from Mittal family and Ramesh, Prabhat, Meena and Dilip could be from the Singhania family. Thus, Kavitas family cannot be determined. Hence, [4]. 40. Let there be a five-digit number such that it contains two pairs of digits whose sum is 11. Find the number if the fourth digit from the left is 2 and all it's digit are distinct I. The first digit from the left is greater than the last digit by 4. II. The middle digit is thrice the second digit from the left.

1 2 3 4 Explanation: Statement I and II are not sufficient individually to answer the question. Combining both the statements together: We know that the fourth digit is 2. Let the second digit be x. The middle digit is 3x. x and 3x can have values (1, 3), or (3, 9) Let the last digit be y.

The first digit is y + 4. y and (y + 4) can have values (0, 4), (1, 5), (3, 7), (4, 8) and (5, 9). The only values that satisfy the given condition are x = 3 and y = 4 The number is 83924. Both the statments together are sufficient to answer the question. Hence, [3].

DIRECTIONS for question : The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph. A. Toohey is correct when he argues that chronic boredom can bring about agitation, anger, and depression, but that boredom and depression are not the same. B. One must discriminate and make distinctions when trying to define boredom. C. Boredom is chiefly an emotion of a secondary kind, like shame, guilt, envy, admiration, embarrassment, contempt, and others. D. Ennui, apathy, depression, accidie, melancholia, mal de vivrethese are all aspects of boredom, but they do not quite define it. E. Depression is a mental illness, and much more serious. F. Perhaps the most serious distinction that needs to be made is that between boredom and depression.


Explanation: The passage is about boredom and not depression, so the concept of boredom would be discussed first followed by that of depression. So C should always come before E. The most prominent link is the DF link. D states different terms that are often associated (and confused) with boredom, though none of them provide the accurate definition. F connects to this by stating that perhaps the two words that are most confused and that require proper distinction are boredom and depression. A should follow F because it quotes Tooheys opinion to support the idea of a proper distinction between boredom and depression. C further clarifies what boredom is and should follow A. E should come next because it states how depression is different from boredom. Sentence B can come only at the beginning; it introduces the theme of the paragraph. So, the correct sequence is BDFACE. Hence, [1]. 42. A. We are thus perpetually startled by our evident fusion with the brain; as a result, neurology is never boring. B. It has all the fascination of a horror storythe Jekyll of the mind bound for life to the Hyde of the brain. C. And this is true in spite of the fact that the science of the brain has not progressed much beyond the most elementary descriptive stages. D. Neurology, or the science of the brain, is gripping in proportion, as it is foreign. E. There is something uncanny and creepy about the way the brain intrudes on the mind, as if the mind has been infiltrated by an alien life form. F. All those exotic Latin names for the brains parts echo the strangeness of our predicament as brain-based conscious beings: the language of the brain is not the language of the mind, and only a shaky translation manual links the two.


Explanation: Only D or E can start the sequence because among all the sentences only these two are stand-alone sentences. The most prominent link in the whole sequence is the DB link. D states that neurology is grippingly fascinating and the reason is explained in B. It in B refers to the subject neurology. B also introduces the fact that our brain and mind are bound for life. F should follow B, and not C, because F states how the situation is perplexing for the brain-based conscious beings since the language of the brain is quite distinct from the language of the mind and the two have no clear translatory link between them. E carries forward the idea by stating how the brain invades the mind. This perplexity actually makes neurology ever interesting; hence the EA link. C makes another remark that neurology is a very young science but it is so interesting even at this elementary stage; this carries forward the paragraph. Thus, the correct sequence is DBFEAC. Hence, [3]. 43. We want to acknowledge the griever's pain, because we also know it as our own. We offer our hand, our clumsy platitudes, or a cup of broth. But at some point we itch to move on to our lives, and leave the mourner to move on to his or hers. Not out of callousness, but out of the knowledge that in the end, grief is a lonely and entirely personal place. What we wish for the grieving is that they learn to pull away from the wild, unruly currents of mourning and rejoin us, knowing that nothing we say can really matter, because we know grief's dark allure.

We metabolize the deaths of those we love, and the dead linger among us in all kinds of ways. Grief is a democratic wrecking ball of loss, love, guilt and a soul-shattering understanding of the disposability of all we hold dear, including ourselves. In grief we sound the depths of our love and in that regard, it's a private privilege where society has no place. There's the fear that, wrapping yourself in grief, you're cheating your own precious life.

Explanation: The passage states that when we see someone grieving, we tend to empathise with him/her. But we console for a short time and then let the person cope with his / her grief, and we move on with our lives. This apparently callous behaviour is actually indicative of our deep-seated belief that grief is a very personal experience and whatever one says or does, has no effect on the griever because grief has its own appeal. So, the next sentence should explain why grief is fascinating. [1] is restrictive because it mentions only the death of a near one as the cause of grief, whereas a person may grieve some other form of loss. Since the passage states that grief is alluring in some way, the last sentence should indicate a positive quality of grief, whereas [2] is utterly negative. Hence, it does not explain the allure aspect. Similarly, [4] would also not explain how grief is alluring. Only [3], by stating that in grief we try to ascertain or measure the depths of our love, presents a positive idea about grief and also connect the idea why we treat grief as a lonely and entirely personal place. Hence, [3].

DIRECTIONS for question : In the following question, a word has been used in sentences in four different ways. Choose the option corresponding to the sentence in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate. LIFTED

They stopped at the Mount of Olives for a stirring sermon that lifted their spirits. Whenever she could find time, she lifted us by car on her way to work Tajikistan has lifted the ban on the import of livestock products from Vietnam. Each member in the congregation lifted his voice to God.

Explanation: In [1], 'lifted' is used in sense of raising a person's confidence or happiness; hence the usage is correct In [3], 'lifted' means formally remove or end a legal restriction; thus it is a correct usage. In [4] also the word is used correctly and it means to make one's voice louder. 'Lift' in the sense of a free ride in another person's vehicle is used only as a noun. The correct expression would be 'she gave us a lift by car on her way to work'. Hence, [2].


DIRECTIONS for question : In the question, there are four sentences. Each sentence has a pair of words that are italicised and highlighted. From the italicised and highlighted words, select the most appropriate words (A or B) to form correct sentences. The sentences are followed by options that indicate the words, which may be selected to correctly complete the set of sentences. From the options given, choose the most appropriate ones. The hermit could scarcely forbear (A) / forebear (B) from smiling at his guests reply. After 1330, England and much of Europe, was in the throws (A) / throes (B) of the Black Death, an outbreak of bubonic plague that reduced the population of Europe by a third. Even if you riffle (A) / rifle (B) through the pages you will realize that this is a work of wonderful illustration and masterful book making. In moments he began to sway on his feet as the poison took effect, and he doubled forward, trying to wretch (A) / retch (B) it out.


Explanation: Forbear means to refrain or politely restrain an impulse to do something. Forebear means an ancestor. The first sentence conveys that the hermit could not refrain from smiling; so forbear would be the correct choice. Throws is the present tense of the verb to throw; it also refers to the act of throwing, i.e., hurls or tosses. Throesmeans great pain or difficulty; to be in the throes of something means dealing with something difficult or painful. So, in the second sentence throes would be the correct choice. To riffle through means to turn over the pages of a book quickly or casually. Rifle is a firearm or gun; rifle as a verb means to search something in a hurried manner in order to steal. The third sentence implies that even if one flips through the pages of the book one would understand how creative it is.

So, riffle would be the correct choice here. Wretch refers to an unfortunate or a despicable person; whereas retch means to react in a way as if you are vomiting. So, in the fourth sentence, retch would be the correct choice. Thus, the correct sequence is ABAB. Hence, [2]. 46. Seoul is ambivalent (A) / ambiguous (B) about buying spent uranium fuel rods from Pyongyang because of the high price being demanded. Our ancestral house is being renovated and will be hospitable (A) / habitable (B) once again by Christmas. Droplets of rain slivered (A) / slithered (B) down her neck and into the fabric of her sweate r. The cohesive (A) / coherent (B) forces between liquid molecules are responsible for the phenomenon known as surface tension.


Explanation: Ambivalent means having mixed feelings or contradictory ideas about something or someone; whereas ambiguous means open to more than one interpretation or unclear. The first sentence implies that Seoul is undecided about the deal, so ambivalent would be the appropriate word here. Hospitable means friendly or welcoming to visitors; whereas habitable means suitable for living in. Since the house is being renovated, the correct choice for the second sentence would be habitable. Slivermeans to cut or break something into small and thin slices or pieces; slither means to move quickly or slip unsteadily on a slippery surface. In the third sentence,slithered would be the correct word. Cohesive means united and working together effectively; coherent means clear and logical or consistent. Since the fourth sentence talks of forces exerted by molecules that work in unison, cohesive would be the correct word here. Thus, the correct sequence is ABBA. Hence, [1]. 47. DIRECTIONS for question : In the following question, there are sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence(s) or part(s) of sentence(s) that is/are correct in terms of grammar and usage (including spelling, punctuation and logical consistency). Then, choose the most appropriate option. A. Excellent first sentences are about seduction, seducing the reader, at minimum, B. to read the second sentence. Often first sentences arent composed as first sentences at all, C. and rarely, I should say, is the writer who has never had the experience of discovering that D. his initial first sentence was a misfit and that his composition had started better by opening E. with the sentence beginning his second or third or fourth paragraph.

A, B and C C, D and E B and E A and D

Explanation: There is an article error in part A. At a minimum would be the correct expression, which means the smallest amount allowed or possible. In the given excerpt, we do not need an article before first sentences because here first sentences of all novels is being considered, hence a generalization. In part C, I should say is parenthetical information; so the adverb rarely relates to the noun writer. Since

an adverb cannot qualify a noun, we require the adjective rare to make the sentence correct. The entire excerpt is in the present tense; so the past perfect tense in D (had started) is uncalled for. So, it should be changed to the simple present tense starts. Parts B and E are grammatically correct. Hence, [3].


DIRECTIONS for question : In the following question, there are sentences that form a paragraph. Identify the sentence(s) or part(s) of sentence(s) that is/are correct in terms of grammar and usage (including spelling, punctuation and logical consistency). Then, choose the most appropriate option. A. One of the most significant change in the Internet since the release in 1993 of the first B. graphical browser, Mosaic, which was built with the basis of Berners-Lees work, C. has been the quest to monetize it. In its inaugural days, the Web was a strange, eclectic D. collection of personal homepages, a kind of digital wall art that bypassed traditional gatekeepers, E. did not rely on mainstream media companies or corporate cash, and commercial interest did not drive it.

A, B and E B, C and D A and B C and D

Explanation: In part A, the expression one of the should be followed by the plural noun changes and not the singular as given. One of something means one from a group of many. In part B, there is a pronoun error with is an inappropriate preposition in the context. Here the appropriate preposition would be on. Build on means to use something as a base for further achievement. In E, there is a parallelism error. Taking D and E together, we see that the clauses after that follow a particular pattern. Changing to another pattern will break the uniformity. The clauses are framed as that bypassed. and that did not rely (though that is not repeated before each clause, it is implied). So the last part of E should be changed to was not driven (it implies that was not driven by) to make the sentence correct. Parts C and D are grammatically correct. Hence, [4]. 49. Orwell educated himself, not without difficulty, out of racial prejudice and took a ________ position on the side of the workers.

reticent perspicuous stalwart capricious

Explanation: The sentence implies that getting over racial prejudice was not an easy task for Orwell and that is why he had to educate himself in that direction. After putting in such effort, it is obvious that he wont take a capricious, i.e., arbitrary or erratic position on the side of the underdogs. Reticent meaning reluctant or reserved can also be eliminated. Perspicuous, meaning lucid or clearly presented, wont be appropriate in the context, which describes a persons opinion or stand. Only stalwart, which means firm or uncompromising, would fit the context appropriately. Hence, [3].

50. Household lists are becoming increasingly important to historians documents produced not as a message to _________, like a memoir or diplomatic record, but as a simple ________ of everyday life.

modernity, vignette posterity, snapshot chroniclers, sacrament providence, cusp Explanation: The sentence implies that historians are becoming increasingly conscious of the importance of household lists as important clues about the everyday life of a society. Modernity cannot be an appropriate option for the first blank because we do not know the time frame to which these household lists belong they may be chronicles of modern times. Moreover, vignette, which is an ornamental design or evocative writing, cannot go with the preceding adjective simple. Sacrament meaning a religious ceremony would give rise to contradiction if used in the second blank after the word simple. Providence meaning divine protection or foresight does not make any sense in the context, which discusses the importance of household lists from a historical perspective. Posterity, meaning future generations, is an apt choice for the first blank because a memoir is usually meant for the future generations. Moreover, snapshots, meaning a brief profile or summary, makes proper sense when used in the second blank. Hence, [2].

51. The earliest experience of art must have been that it was incantatory, magical; art was an instrument of
ritual. (Cf. the paintings in the caves at Lascaux, Altamira, Niaux, La Pasiega, etc.) The earliest theory of art, that of the Greek philosophers, proposed that art was mimesis, imitation of reality. It is at this point that the peculiar question of the value of art arose. For the mimetic theory, by its very terms, challenges art to justify itself. Plato, who proposed the theory, seems to have done so in order to rule that the value of art is dubious. Since he considered ordinary material things as themselves mimetic objects, imitations of transcendent forms or structures, even the best painting of a bed would be only an imitation of an imitation. For Plato, art is neither particularly useful (the painting of a bed is no good to sleep on), nor, in the strict sense, true. And Aristotles arguments in defence of art do not really challenge Platos view that all art is an elaborate trompe loeil, and therefore a lie. But he does dispute Platos idea that art is useless. Lie or no, art has a certain value according to Aristotle because it is a form of therapy. Art is useful, after all, Aristotle counters, medicinally useful in that it arouses and purges dangerous emotions. In Plato and Aristotle, the mimetic theory of art goes hand in hand with the assumption that art is always figurative. But advocates of the mimetic theory need not close their eyes to decorative and abstract art. The fallacy that art is necessarily a realism can be modified or scrapped without ever moving outside the problems delimited by the mimetic theory. The fact is, all Western consciousness of and reflection upon art have remained within the confines staked out by the Greek theory of art as mimesis or representation. It is through this theory that art as such above and beyond given works of art becomes problematic, in need of defence. And it is the defence of art which gives birth to the odd vision by which something we have learnt to call form is separated off from something we have learnt to call content, and to the well-intentioned move, which makes content essential and form accessory. Even in modern times, when most artists and critics have discarded the theory of art as representation of an outer reality in favour of the theory of art as subjective expression, the main feature of the mimetic theory persists. Whether we conceive of the work of art on the model of a picture (art as a picture of reality) or on the model of a statement (art as the statement of the artist), content still comes first. The content may have changed. It may now be less figurative, less lucidly realistic. But it is still assumed that a work of art is its content. Or, as its

usually put today, that a work of art by definition says something. (What X is saying is. . ., What X is trying to say is . . ., What X said is . . . etc., etc

According to the passage, how is Aristotle's theory of art different from that of Plato?

Plato believed that any work of art has a utilitarian goal, whereas Aristotle believed that all art is transcendental. Plato believed that all art is just an imitation of reality, hence useless; but Aristotle believed that art is useful because of its cathartic effect. Plato believed that since art is a mere simulation, it is always figurative, whereas Aristotle strongly advocated the existence of decorative and abstract art. According to Plato, the palpability of ordinary material things justifies their use in art, whereas Aristotle considered everything to be imitative.

Explanation: Refer to the second and third paragraphs. According to Plato, art is neither particularly useful (the painting of a bed is no good to sleep on), nor, in the strict sense, true. So, he would not believe in a utilitarian goal for art. Thus, [1] is incorrect. [3] distorts the information given in paragraph 3. The second paragraph states that Plato considered ordinary material things as themselves mimetic objects, imitations of transcendent forms or structures, hence [4] is also ruled out. The last part of paragraph 3 states that Aristotle believed that art is a form of therapy in that it arouses and purges dangerous emotions, which points to [2] as the answer. Hence, [2]. 52. According to the passage, despite moving away from the Greek theory of art as mimesis, which of its legacies is still evident in modern criticism of art?

Art being an imitation of transcendent forms does not have any inherent value. In any work of art, it is the content, which is of primary importance. All art is figurative in form; hence art is nothing but a kind of visual deception. In an art form that is purely a subjective expression, form overrides content.

Explanation: Refer to the last paragraph where it is clearly stated that even in modern times, the main feature of mimetic theory persists. Whether we conceive of the work of art on the model of a picture (art as a picture of reality) or on the model of a statement (art as the statement of the artist), content still comes first. Only [2] captures this idea. That art does not have any inherent value was Platos opinion and Aristotle refuted it. Even [3] states something, which Plato believed. It is nowhere mentioned in the passage how these assumptions have influenced modern art. The last sentence of the penultimate states that content in art is considered essential, whereas form is an accessory. So, [4] is also ruled out. Hence, [2]. 53. Which of the following statements are true according to the passage? I. In the hands of the modernist artists, the idea of art for arts sake has been turned into a tool for delimiting the

focus on content. II. Modernist art strictly believes that a work of art is an embodiment of the creators vision and does not have to justify itself. III. Compared to art in the Greek era, modernist art has shown a remarkable shift in form but the content still remains unaltered.

I, II and III II and III I and II None of these

Your answer is incorrect. Explanation: The last paragraph clearly states that even in modern times, Whether we conceive of the work of art on the model of a picture (art as a picture of reality) or on the model of a statement (art as the statement of the artist), content still comes first. So, I is incorrect. The first sentence of the last paragraph states that most artists and critics in modern times favour the theory of art as subjective expression but the main feature of mimetic theory, which insists that an art has to justify itself, still survives. So, II is also incorrect. The passage does not mention anything about whether the form in art has changed over a period of time. The last two sentences clearly state that the content in art may have changed, that it may be less figurative or less lucidly realistic. So, we cannot say that the content is still unaltered as incorrectly mentioned in III. Hence, [4]. 54. Environmental poisons never play by the rules. Just when you think youve got them figured out and rounded up, they give you the slip. Get the lead out of gasoline, and it comes at you through aging pipes. Bury waste and toxins in landfills, and they seep into groundwater. Mercury, at least, we thought we understood. For all its toxic power, as long as we avoided certain kinds of fish in which contamination levels were particularly high, wed be fine. And not even everyone had to be careful, just children and women of childbearing age. But mercury is famously slippery stuff, a series of recent studies and surveys suggests that the potentially deadly metal is nearly everywhere and more dangerous than most of us appreciated. Researchers testing birds in the Northeast have found creeping mercury levels in the blood of more than 175 once clean species. Others have found the metal for the first time in polar bears, bats, mink, otters, panthers and more. Just as alarming are new discoveries about unexpected sources of mercury contamination. While coal-fired power plants and chemical factories are familiar culprits, a recent study reveals that wetlands are mercury time bombs; if hit by wildfire, they release centuries worth of accumulated toxin in a single, sudden blaze. In addition, theres a growing body of research that reveals the extent to which medium to high levels of exposure to the metal can harm adults as well as children, causing a wide range of ills including fatigue, tremors, vision disorders and brain, kidney and circulatory damage. All told, the breadth of the problem has expanded greatly, says biologist David Evers of the BioDiversity Research Institute in Gorham, Maine. Its far more prevalent and at higher levels than considered even a couple of years ago. Mercury has to work hard to do all the damage it does. In its pure state, it is only moderately toxic because it passes quickly through the body, leaving little to be absorbed. Not so the mercury we pump into the skies. Smokestack mercury exists in either particle form which falls relatively quickly back to earth - or aerosol form, which can travel anywhere around the globe. Either way, when it lands, trouble begins. On the ground or especially in the low-oxygen environment of the oceans, mercury is consumed by bacteria that add a bit of carbon to convert it to methylmercury, a metabolically stickier form that stays in the body a long time. That is bad news for the food chain, since every time a bigger animal eats a smaller animal; it consumes a heavy dose of its preys mercury load. Thats why such large predatory fish as shark, swordfish, mackerel, tilefish and albacore tuna are so heavily contaminated. Less publicized but still problematic is toxic mercury vapour, which can be

emitted in an odourless manner from factories and dumps where batteries, fluorescent lamps, jewellery, paints, electrical switches and other mercury-containing products are manufactured or discarded. According to the passage, which of the following is true about environmental poisons?

We can never completely know and control all possible sources. Not all ill effects caused by them have been discovered. They have been a serious issue for a very long time. Animals living in water bodies show higher levels of contamination. Explanation: In the first paragraph, the author mentions the various ways in which environmental poisons can affect human beings. They are unpredictable and can appear from nowhere, so we find it difficult to figure them out. [1] presents this idea. Option [2] is inappropriate because the author mentions it specifically for mercury and not in general for all types of environmental poisons. [3] is irrelevant because it cannot be determined from the passage as to when people started becoming conscious of the ill effects of environmental poisons. [4] is also mentioned in the context of contamination from mercury. Hence, [1]. 55. Mercury is called a 'slippery stuff' in the second paragraph probably because:

it passes quickly through the body when ingested in pure state. mercury is difficult to store and carry due to its sublime nature. its ingestion causes a wide range of problems in different organs in the human body. mercury is ubiquitous and controlling mercury poisoning is a difficult job.

Explanation: Slippery stuff here means something that cannot be caught or controlled. The passage clearly states that scientists keep discovering new ways in which mercury can come in contact with human beings. So, it is difficult for scientists to control mercury poisoning. Mercury is called slippery stuff not just on the basis of its physical properties. Thus, options [1] and [2] are incorrect. [3], though correct, is not the reason for mercury being called a slippery stuff. Hence, [4]. 56. Which of the following would strengthen David Evers argument that the problem of mercury contamination has increased a lot recently?


Mercury falls back to earth as quickly as it is emitted and in aerosol form, it can travel anywhere around the

Mercury poisoning is a subject of intensive research. Mercury is emitted from factories and dumps where batteries, fluorescent lamps, jewellery, paints, electrical switches and other mercury-containing products are manufactured or discarded.

Researchers testing animal species in mountains have found a steady increase in mercury levels in the blood of all the species studied over the last 10 years.

Explanation: Option [1] states a general property of mercury; hence it is not a recent development. Mercury poisoning being the subject of intensive research would just yield additional understanding of the problem, and cannot be the cause of increase in mercury contamination recently. So, [2] is incorrect. [3] only gives us information but does not indicate the seriousness of the problem. In the first as well as the last paragraph, it is mentioned how mercury contamination levels are higher among certain animals living in water bodies such as fish, shark, swordfish, etc. No major concern is put forth regarding contamination levels in land animals. If [4] happens, then the concern will be heightened. Hence, [4]. 57. Labour is that activity which corresponds to the biological processes and necessities of human existence, the practices that are necessary for the maintenance of life itself. Labour is distinguished by its never-ending character; it creates nothing of permanence, its efforts are quickly consumed, and must therefore be perpetually renewed so as to sustain life. In this aspect of its existence humanity is closest to the animals and so, in a significant sense, the least human. Indeed, Arendt refers to humanity in this mode as animal Labourans. Because the activity of Labour is commanded by necessity, the human being as Labourer is the equivalent of the slave; Labour is characterized by unfreedom. Arendt argues that it is precisely the recognition of Labour as contrary to freedom, and thus to what is distinctively human, which underlay the institution of slavery amongst the ancient Greeks; it was the attempt to exclude Labour from the conditions of human life. In view of this characterization of Labour, it is unsurprising that Arendt is highly critical of Marxs elevation of animal Labourans to a position of primacy in his vision of the highest ends of human existence. Drawing on the Aristotelian distinction of the oikos (the private realm of the household) from the polis (the public realm of the political community), Arendt argues that matters of Labour, economy and the like properly belong to the former, not the latter. The emergence of necessary Labour, the private concerns of the oikos, into the public sphere (what Arendt calls the rise of the social) has for her the effect of destroying the properly political by subordinating the public realm of human freedom to the concerns of mere animal necessity. The prioritisation of the economic, which has attended the rise of capitalism, has for Arendt all but eclipsed the possibilities of meaningful political agency and the pursuit of higher ends which should be the proper concern of public life. If Labour relates to the natural and biologically necessitated dimension of human existence, then work is the activity which corresponds to the unnaturalness of human existence, which is not embedded in, and whose mortality is not compensated by, the species ever-recurring life-cycle. Work corresponds to the fabrication of an artificial world of things, artifactual constructions, which endure temporally beyond the act of creation itself. Work thus creates a world distinct from anything given in nature, a world distinguished by its durability, its semipermanence and relative independence from the individual actors and acts, which call it into being. Humanity in this mode of its activity Arendt names homo faber; he/she is the builder of walls (both physical and cultural) which divide the human realm from that of nature and provide a stable context (a common world) of spaces and institutions within which human life can unfold. Homo Fabers typical representatives are the builder, the architect, the craftsperson, the artist and the legislator, as they create the public world both physically and institutionally by constructing buildings and making laws. The common world of institutions and spaces that work creates furnish the arena in which citizens may come together as members of that shared world to engage in political activity. Which of the following points out the problem with the definition of and distinction between, work and labour made by Arendt that she uses to criticize Marx's position?

Explanation: Arendt defines labour as activities that are temporary and necessitated by nature and work as activities that are not necessitated by nature and result in creation of artificial things. In defining things as such, she ignores the fact that labour is also involved in the production of artificial things; it is this labour that Marx elevates. Option [3] best states this. Option [1] is incorrect since the problem stated is not with the distinction that Arendt makes but with the awareness of the same. Option [2] is incorrect since it points out an outcome of the distinction made by Arendt but not the problem with the distinction itself. Option [4] is incorrect since it is not supported by information in the passage. Hence, [3]. 58. Which of the following have been marked out by Arendt as the distinction between labour and work? I. Work violates the realm of nature by shaping and transforming it according to the specific plans and needs of humans whereas labour is bound to the demands of biology and nature. II. Work is under humans sovereignty and control and thus exhibits a certain quality of freedom unlike labour, which is subject to nature and necessity. III. Labour is concerned with satisfying the individuals life-needs and so remains essentially a private affair, work is inherently public.

Both I and II Both II and III Both I and III I, II and III

Explanation: The passage makes the following distinction between labour and work: labour is defined by nature whereas work is defined by man, labour unlike work is something that man cannot escape and hence shackles his freedom, labour is private and work is public. The three statements capture each of the distinctions drawn by Arendt. Hence, [4]. 59. Which of the following, according to Arendt, is the relationship between work and political activity?

Work is the mode of human activity that corresponds to politics, since it creates the institutions and spaces that facilitate people to engage in political activity. While work is not the mode of human activity that corresponds to politics, its fabrications are nonetheless the preconditions for the existence of a political community. While work is not the mode of human activity that corresponds to politics, it creates the need for political

activity due to the web of relations it engenders in the realm of the public. Work is the mode of human activity that corresponds to politics, since it enables the demarcation of human life into work and labour and related political activity.

Explanation: The last sentence of the passage states that the common world of institutions and spaces that work creates furnish the arena in which citizens may come together as members of that shared world to engage in political activity. So, work in itself is not a political activity, it creates the common ground or space for people to come together and engage in political activity. Only options [2] and [3] correctly classify work itself as not being directly political activity. But option [3] is incorrect since it states that work creates the need for political activity, which is not mentioned in the passage. Hence, [2]. 60. Based on the passage, it can be inferred that Arendt would consider the role of economic policy in politics to be:

integral secondary ambiguous heterodox Explanation: The last sentence of the first paragraph indicates that Ardent considers that economic matters should not be given primary importance in politics and the latter should be used to pursue higher ends. Option [1] states the opposite of this, option [3] means unclear and option [4] means not conforming to traditional principles, option [2] best answers the question. Hence, [2].

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