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UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN GANESHA

TERMS IN MATHEMATICS
POINT, LINES, ANGLES, PLANES GROUP I

2011

JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIKA

TERMS IN MATHEMATICS
No. 1. 2. 3. Indonesia Garis Dua garis berimpit Dua garis bersilangan Line Coincide lines Skew lines
Skew lines is a two lines which neither parallel nor intersecting lines. Two parallellinesis a straight lines that are always the same distance apart. Figure :

English

Example or Explanation
Line is a straight set of points that extends off to infinity in two directions.

Note Infinity (tidak terbatas)

line

4.

Dua garis sejajar

Two parallel lines

line

The symbol of parallel lines is ( // ).

line // m line Two lines are perpendicular if the angle between them is a 90 angle. Figure :

5.

Dua garis saling tegak lurus

Two perpendicular lines

90
line

() dibaca degree atau derajat.

line

Transversal is a straight line that crosses parallel lines.Or transversal is a line that intersects two lines.

6.

Garis potong

Transversal

For examples, see corresponding angles and alternate interior angles.

Corresponding angles (sudutsudt yang bersesuaian atau sehadap); Alternate interior angles (sudut-sudut dalam bersebrangan) Circle (Lingkaran)

7.

Garis singgung

Tangent line

Tangent line is a line that intersects a circle at one point. Figure :

8.

Gradien

The gradient, the slope


Line segment is like a piece of a line. It consists of two endpoints and all of the points on the straight line between those two points. Example : A line touches a curve at P (1,2). (Suatu garis menyinggung kurva di P(1,2)) Example :

9.

Segmen garis

Line segment

10.

Menyinggung

Touches

Curve (kurva)

11. 12.

Titik A (absis,ordinat) Titik potong

Point A Point A (3,1). So, 3 is value of (abscissa,ordinate) abscissa and 1 is value of


ordinate.

The point of intersection English Angle Example or Explanation


Angle is the union of two rays with a common endpoint. An angle equal with 90 angle is called right angle. Figure :

No. 1.

Indonesia Sudut

Note Union (gabungan)

2.

Sudut siku-siku

Right angle

90
An angle smaller than a 90angle is called an acute angle. Figure :

Equal (sama dengan);() dibaca degree atau derajat.

3.

Sudut lancip

Acute angle

() dibaca degree atau derajat.

4.

Sudut tumpul

Obtuse angle

An angle larger than a

() dibaca

90angle but smaller than a 180angle is called an obtuse angle. Figure :

degree atau derajat.

The angle of depression for an object below your line of sight is the angle whose vertex is at your position, with one side being a horizontal ray in the same direction as the object and the other side being the ray from your eye passing through the object.

5.

Sudut depresi

Angle of depression

Figure : A = Angle of depression

You A

Object
The angle of elevation for an object above your line of sight is the angle whose vertex is at your position, with one side being a horizontal ray in the same direction as the object and the other side being the ray from your eye passing through the object.

6.

Sudut elevasi

Angle of elevation

Figure :

Object

A You
A = Angle of elevation

1 4 5 7 8 6 3

Co-interior angles : Interior angles on the same side of the transversal.

7.

Sudut-sudut dalam sepihak

Co-interior angles

Example :


Co-exterior angles : exterior angles on the same side of transversal.

8.

Sudut-sudut luar sepihak

Co-exterior angles Example :


 

9.

Sudut-sudut dalam bersebrangan

Alternate interior angles : the transversal and the parallel lines form pairs of alternate angles.

Alternate interior angles

Example :

 

 

Alternate exterior angles.

10.

Sudut-sudut luar bersebrangan

Alternate exterior angles

Example :


Example :

11.

Sudut-sudut sehadap Sudut-sudut bertolak belakang Sudut-sudut berpelurus

Corresponding angles


Example :

12.

Vertical angles Supplementary angles


Example :

13.

14. 15. No.

Berl ara jarum jam eara jarum jam Indonesi

C unterclockwi e Clockwi e English E


P i ti t i ti l t i

le or E

l nation

Note

1.

itik

Point

P i t A(1,

f l pe m passes If a li a poi t ( , , its t equation an e i tten:

2.

itik kemiringan persamaan garis

Point slope e uation of line

A fi ure as poi t ymm t y about a point P if, for every point on t e fi ure, t ere is anot er point on t e fi ure t at is t e same istance from P but in t e opposite irection. i ure :

3.

itik imetri

Point symmetry

                    
l i . Exampl :

i fi t .A i ti ti i . It t, i t ,

y A(1,2) 2 x 1

BA

D C D C @ 9

5 4 3 2 1 0 )('& # $ #%! % "

5 3

an e ewritten:

C 8

2 62 6 4

 7 C

DF

No.

Indonesia

English

Example or Explanation
Circle : the set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a fixed point called the center. Figure :

Note

1.

Lingkaran

Circle
d

d = diameter; r = radius; C = center.


r

.
r

2.

Keliling Perimeter (sebarangpoligon)

3.

Keliling lingkaran

Circumference

The perimeter of a polygon is the sum of the lengths of all the sides. The circumference of a closed curve (such as a circle) is the total distance around the curve. Formula :

= pi (=3.14159...); r = radius.

4.

Lingkaranlingkaran konsentris Lingkaranlingkaran kongruen Luas lingkaran Luas permukaan ...

Concentric circles
Two circle are congruent if they have exactly the same shape and exactly the same size.

5.

Congruent circles The area of the circle The surface area of a...

6. 7.

Formula :

= pi (=3.14159...); r = radius.

The radius of a circle is the distance from the center of the circle to a point on the circle. Figure :

8.

Jari-jari lingkaran

Radius

.b

An arc of a circle is t e set of points on t e circle t at lie in t e interior of a particular central angle. Fi :

9.

Busur lingkaran

rc (Circular arc)
Intercepted arc

.
Protractor, the center of protractor

10.

Busur derajat

A chord is a line segment t at connects two points on a curve.

Fi

11.

ali busur (lingkaran)

Chord (of circle)

chord

A compass is a evice consisting of two adjustable legs, used for drawing circles and measuring off equal distance intervals.

12.

Jangka

Compass
i gure :

Fi

13.

Juring lingkaran

ector

r = radi s; = theta (used for angles).

Sector : minor sector, major sector. A sector of a circle is a region bounded by two radii of t e circle and by t e arc of t e circle whose endpoints lie on those radii. In other words, a sector is shaped li e a pie slice.

Y Y

G G

QPI H VUT S dcb a

Curve (kurva)

The area of the sector is :

14.

Tembereng lingkaran

Segment

Segment : minor segment, major segment. A segment of a circle is an area bounded by an arc and the chord that connects the two endpoints of the arc. Diameter : a chord through the center of circle; it is the longest chord and is twice the length of a radius. The diameter is equal to twice the radius, and , where c is the circumference. Figure :

15.

Diameter lingkaran

Diameter

d = diameter; r = radius.
d c r a

.b

The center of a circle is the point that is the same distance from all of the points on the circle. Figure :

16.

Pusat lingkaran

The centre of the circle

C = center.

.
C
The tangent line to a circle, with center O, at a point P is the straight line through P that touches the circle. Geometrically, this tangent line is perpendicular. Or a tangent line is a line that intersects a circle at one point.

17.

Garis singgung lingkaran

The tangent line to a circle

Secant to a circle : a line that intersects the circle at two points. r A secant line is a line that intersects a circle, or some other curve, in two places. Lines AB and CD in figure are both secant lines.

1 .

ecant to a circle

19. 20.

21.

i gure :

22.

egiempat dalam lingkaran

uadrilateral BCD inscribed into a circle

23.

egibanyak dalam lingkaran

nscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon : a polygon all of whose sides are chords of a circle. r inscribed polygon is a polygon placed inside a circle so that each vertex of the polygon touches the circle. i gure :

s i i p qi

p p qp qp p i

s r

p pq

etengah lingkaran udut pusat lingkaran udut pusat lingkaran =2 X sudut keliling lingkaran

emicircle
Center angle : an angle that is formed by two radii. In circle the angle at the center is double of the angle at circumference, wh n ngl h v th me ci c mference b e, ll circ mscribed ngles subtending (mengh dap) the same arc are . equal irrespective f their position on the circle A quadrilateral ABC inscribed into a circle : A cyclic quadilateral which has all four vertices touching the circumference of a circle.

Central angle

Garis memotong lingkaran

i gure :

Circumscribed circle : a circle passing thourgh each vertex of a polygon. Circumscribed pol gon : a polygon all of whose sides are tangents (bersinggungan) to a circle. Inscribed circle : a circle to which all the sides of a polygon are tangents. Orinscribed circle of a polygon is a circle located inside a polygon, with each side of the polygon being tangent to the circle.

24.

Segibanyak luar lingkaran

Circumscribed polygon

Figure :

25.

Titik singgung lingkaran dengan garis singgung Garis singgung persekutuan dalam Garis singgung persekutuan luar

Point of contact

26.

Inner common tangent line Outer common tangent line

27.

No.

Indonesia

English

E ample or E planation
A triangle is a three-sided polygon. i gure :

Note

1.

egitiga

riangle

egitiga sebarang

Oblique triangle

An oblique triangle is a triangle that is not a right triangle. Equilateral triangle : a triangle having three congruent sides. All three of the angles in an equilateral triangle are 6 angles.

Isosceles triangle: a triangle having at least two congruent sides. i gure :

3.

egitiga sama kaki

sosceles triangle

4.

egitiga siku-siku Right isosceles samakaki triangle

2.

egitiga sama sisi

quilateral triangle

i gure :

i gure :

Scalene/acute triangle: a triangle having no congruent sides.

5.

egitiga lancip (segitiga tidak sama sisi)

i gure :

calene/acute triangle

Right triangle is a triangle that contains one right angle. he side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse; the other two sides are called the legs.

6.

egitiga siku-siku Right triangle

Obtuse triangle : a triangle that has one obtuse angle. i gure :

7.

egitiga tumpul

Obtuse triangle

8.

egitiga-segitiga yang kongruen

Congruent triangles

9.

egitiga-segitiga yang sebangun

imilar triangle

10.

egitiga dalam lingkaran

nscribed triangle

Inscribed triangle : a triangle all of whose sides are chords of a circle.

i gure :

Figure :

Circumscribed triangle : a triangle all of whose sides are tangents (garis-garis singgung) to a circle. Figure :

11.

Segitiga luar lingkaran

Circumscribed triangle