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Strong acid Weak Acid
Strong acid
Weak
Acid
Acid that completely ionise in water to produce H + Exp: HCl, H 2 SO
Acid that completely ionise in
water to produce H +
Exp: HCl, H 2 SO 4
Substance that
dissociates in water to
produce hydrogen ion, H +

Diprotic

Substance produced hydrogen 2 mol H + ions when ionise in water. Example:

H 2 SO 4

Substance produced hydrogen 2 mol H + ions when ionise in water. Example: H 2 SO

2H + + SO 4 2-

Acid that partially ionise in water to produce H + Exp: CH 3 COOH

H + CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - CH 3 COOH CH 3 COOH
H +
CH 3 COOH
CH 3 COO -
CH 3 COOH
CH 3 COOH
CH 3 COO -
H +
CH 3 COOH

Monoprotic

Substance produced hydrogen 1 mol H + ions when ionise in water. Example:

HCl

H + +

+

Cl -

Triprotic

Substance produced hydrogen 3 mol H + ions when ionise in water. Example:

H 3 PO 4

Substance produced hydrogen 3 mol H + ions when ionise in water. Example: H 3 PO

3H + + PO 4 3-

Properties of

acid

Taste sour Turn blue limus paper to red pH < 7 conduct electricity

Chemical Properties
Chemical Properties
A cid+ Alkali H 2 SO 4 + NaOH Acid + metal oxide
A cid+ Alkali
H 2 SO 4 + NaOH
Acid + metal oxide

salt + H 2 O

Na 2 (SO 4 ) + H 2 O salt + H 2 O
Na 2 (SO 4 ) + H 2 O
salt + H 2 O

HCl + ZnO

MgSO 4 + H 2 O 4 + H 2 O

Asid + reactive metal

2 O HCl + ZnO MgSO 4 + H 2 O Asid + reactive metal HCl

HCl + Mg

MgCl 2 + H 2 2 + H 2

Salt + H 2

Acid + metal carbonate

+ Mg MgCl 2 + H 2 Salt + H 2 Acid + metal carbonate HCl

HCl + CaCO 3

2 + H 2 Salt + H 2 Acid + metal carbonate HCl + CaCO 3

CaCl 2 +

Salt + CO 2 + H 2 O

CO 2 + H 2 O

Uses of acid
Uses of acid
Sulphuric acid Making electrolyte in car battery Methanoic acid Coagulate of latex Ethanoic acid Food
Sulphuric acid
Making electrolyte in car battery
Methanoic acid
Coagulate of latex
Ethanoic acid
Food preservatives
Carbonic acid
Making soft drink
acid Food preservatives Carbonic acid Making soft drink Strong alkali Alkali that can ionize completely in

Strong alkali

Alkali that can ionize completely in water to form high concentration of hydroxide ion, OH - Example: NaOH, KOH

KOH

K + +

+

OH -

Properties of alkali
Properties of alkali

Taste bitter and

slippery Turns red limus

paper to blue pH > 7

conduct electricity

Base Chemical compound that react with acid to form salt and water only
Base
Chemical compound
that react with acid to
form salt and water
only
compound that react with acid to form salt and water only Weak alkali Alkali that can
Weak alkali
Weak alkali

Alkali that can ionize partially in water to produces low concentration of hydroxide ion, OH - Example: ammonia, NH 3

NH 3

in water to produces low concentration of hydroxide ion, OH - Example: ammonia, NH 3 NH

NH 4 +

+

OH -

Dissolve in water

NH 3 NH 3 NH 4 + + OH - Dissolve in water Alkali Substance that

Alkali Substance that dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ion, OH +

Uses of alkali
Uses of alkali
in water to produce hydroxide ion, OH + Uses of alkali Sodium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Calcium
in water to produce hydroxide ion, OH + Uses of alkali Sodium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Calcium

Sodium hydroxide

Magnesium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide

Ammonia

Making soap/detergent

Making toothpaste

Making cement

Prevent coagulation of latex

Chemical Properties
Chemical Properties

Alkali

H 2 SO 4 + NaOH

+ Acid

salt + H 2 O Na 2 (SO 4 ) + H 2 O 2 O Na 2 (SO 4 ) + H 2 O

Alkali + ammonium salt

NH 3 NaOH + NH 4 Cl NaCl + H 2 O + NH 3

(SO 4 ) + H 2 O Alkali + ammonium salt NH 3 NaOH + NH

salt + H 2 O +

(SO 4 ) + H 2 O Alkali + ammonium salt NH 3 NaOH + NH
H 2 O water help Role of water in acid acid ionize to produced H+
H
2 O
water
help
Role of water in acid
acid
ionize
to produced
H+ ions
Without water/in organic solvent/glacial acid
With water
does not show acid properties
acids remain in the form of
molecules
no free mobile hydrogen ions
no acid properties
Molecules in acids will ionise to
hydrogen ions
HCl(aq) → H + +
Cl -
The presence of hydrogen ions are the
causes the show acidic properties
Has free mobile hydrogen ions
HCl
HCl
There are no
free H + ions
There are
free H + ions
H+
H+
Cl-
HCl
HCl
H+
Cl-
H 2 O
H 2 O

Role of water in alkali

H+ H+ Cl- HCl HCl H+ Cl- H 2 O Role of water in alkali Without

Without water/in organic solvent/glacial acid

does not show alkaline properties Alkali remain in the form of - . molecules no
does not show alkaline properties
Alkali remain in the form of
-
.
molecules
no free mobile hydroxide ions
No conduct electricity

There are no free OH- ions

NaOH

NaOH
NaOH

NaOH

NaOH
NaOH
are no free OH- ions N a O H NaOH NaOH NaOH water help alkali ionize
are no free OH- ions N a O H NaOH NaOH NaOH water help alkali ionize
water help alkali ionize to produced OH - ions
water
help
alkali ionize
to produced
OH - ions

With water

Molecules in alkali will ionise to form hydroxide ions NaOH(aq) → Na + + OH
Molecules in alkali will ionise to
form hydroxide ions
NaOH(aq) → Na + +
OH -
The presence of hydroxide ions are
the causes the show alkaline
properties
Has free mobile hydroxide ions
Na +
Na+
There are
free OH -
ions
OH -
Na +
OH -
Na + Na+ There are free OH - ions OH - Na + OH - Concentration
Concentration of H +
Concentration of H +
Concentration of OH -
Concentration of OH -
OH - Na + OH - Concentration of H + Concentration of OH - pH Scale
pH Scale

pH Scale

pH Scale

Strong acid: pH 1 -2 Weak acid : pH 3-6

 

Strong alkali pH 13 -14 Weak alkali : pH 8-12

Why At same concentration, the pH value of a weak acid lower than strong acid?

OH - ions weak alkali is lower. Weak alkali ionises partially but a strong alkali ionizes completely.

Because the concentration of

alkali is lower. Weak alkali ionises partially but a strong alkali ionizes completely. Because the concentration

Dilution

pipette
pipette
Dilution pipette X Mr Concentration in g dm -3 Concentration in mole dm -3 (M) ÷
X Mr Concentration in g dm -3 Concentration in mole dm -3 (M)
X Mr
Concentration in g dm -3
Concentration in mole dm -3 (M)
Concentration in g dm -3 Concentration in mole dm -3 (M) ÷ Mr = Mass (g)
÷ Mr = Mass (g) Volume of solution(dm 3 )
÷ Mr
= Mass (g)
Volume of solution(dm 3 )
M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2
M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2

M 1 – Molarity before dilution V 1 – Volume before dilution M 2 – Molarity after dilution V 2 – Volume after dilution

Molarity (M) =

n = MV

1000

No. of mole of solute

Volume of solution ( dm 3 )

Preparation standard solution 1 Weigh the mass of sodium hydroxide 2 Transfer the solid sodium
Preparation standard solution
1 Weigh the mass of sodium hydroxide
2 Transfer the solid sodium hydroxides into
beaker contain distilled water and stirred
3 Solution from beaker poured into volumetric
flask
4 Rinsed beaker and filter funnel into
volumetric flask
5 Add distilled water until graduation mark
6 Shake the volumetric flask

Example 1:

3.25 g of zinc, Zn reacted completely with hydrochloric acid, HCl with molarity of 0.5 mol dm -3 .Calculate volume of acid used. (RAM Zn = 65)

dm - 3 .Calculate volume of acid used. (RAM Zn = 65) Zn + 2HCl ZnCl
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 Step 1 3.25 g 0.5 moldm -3
Zn
+
2HCl
ZnCl 2 + H 2
Step 1
3.25 g
0.5 moldm -3
Step 2
No. mole: 3.25/65 = 0.05
Zn
:
HCl
Step 3
Ratio mole
1
:
2
No.of mole
0.05
0.05 x 2 = 1
Step 4
Molarity, M = no.of mole
Volume (dm -3 )
Volume : 0.1 / 0.5 = 0.2 dm 3 / 200 cm 3
ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication ofofofof neutralizationneutralizationneutralizationneutralization
Slake lime – reduced soil acidity
Toothpaste – Mg(OH)2 neutralise acid in mouth
Baking powder – cure bee sting
Magnesium hydroxide – treat gastric pain
Neutralization -reaction accur between acid and base to form salt and water In neutralization ,
Neutralization
-reaction accur between acid and base to form salt
and water
In neutralization , hydrogen ion in acid react with
hydroxide ion from alkali.
H +
+
OH
H 2 O
Hydrochloric acid
Potassium hydroxide
solution
+ phenolphthalein
End Point – when all hydrogen ions from acid react
completely with hydroxide ions from alkali to form
water.
Colour in
Colour ion
Colour in
Indicator
alkali
neutral
acid
Phenolphtalein
Pink
Colourless
Colourless
Methyl orange
Yellow
orange
Red

Example 2:

What is the volume of 1.0 moldm -3 sodium hydroxide solution which can neutralize 25 cm 3 of 1.0 moldm -3 sulphuric acid

H 2 SO 4

+

2NaOH

of 1.0 moldm - 3 sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH Na 2 SO

Na 2 SO 4 + H 2 O

Step 1

1.0 moldm -3

1.0 moldm -3

 

Volume? 25 cm 3

 

Step 2

No. mole: 3.25/65 = 0.05

   
 

H 2 SO 4

:

NaOH

Step 3

Ratio mole

1

:

2

No.of mole

0.025

0.025 x 2 = 0.5

Step 4

Molarity, M = no.of mole Volume (dm -3 ) Volume : 0.5 / 1.0 = 0.5 dm 3 / 500 cm 3

Molarity, M = no.of mole Volume (dm - 3 ) Volume : 0.5 / 1.0 =