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Deduction, uncertainty: must, may.

1. Модальные глаголы must и may употребляются для выражения предположения, возможности

совершения действия с разной степенью его вероятности (deduction, uncertainty).
1.1 Глагол must выражает предположение совершения действия (deduction), в вероятности ко-
торого говорящий вполне уверен. В этих случаях must переводится на русский язык словами
должно быть, вероятно, конечно. В данном значении must употребляется только в утвер-
дительных предложениях.
You must be very tired. Вы, должно быть,
(I'm sure you are tired.) очень устали.
11.2 Глагол may выражает допускаемую возможность совершения действия (uncertainty), в ко-
тором говорящий не совсем уверен. May переводится на русский язык с помощью слов может
быть, возможно.
Wait a little, he may соте. Подожди немного, он, может быть, придет.
(Perhaps he will come.)
Вместо may возможно употребление формы might, причем степень предположения совершения
действия уменьшается.
They might still come. Они еще, может быть, придут.
Но для выражения альтернативного предположения о возможности совершения действия
употребляется только may.
It may rain or it may not. Может пойдет дождь, а может нет.
2. Глаголы may, might и must употребляются в сочетании со всеми формами инфинитива.
2.1. May и might в сочетании с неперфектным инфинитивом (Indefinite Infinitive)
употребляются для выражения предположения, относящегося к настоящему или будущему.
Не might be in England. Может быть, он в Англии сейчас.
They may come to Moscow in autumn. Возможно, они приедут в Москву осенью.
Глагол must в сочетании с неперфектным инфинитивом (Indefinite Infinitive) выражает пред-
положение, относящееся к настоящему.
Mr. Brown must know М-р Браун, вероятно, знает Лондон хорошо, так как
London well, as he has живет в нем всю жизнь.
lived here all his life.
2.2 Сочетание may, might и must с неперфектным инфинитивом длительного вида (Continuous
Infinitive) выражает предположение, что действие совершается в момент речи.
Не might be waiting for you. Может быть, он и ждет вас.
You must be feeling tired Вы, должно быть, чувствуете себя усталым,
after working all day проработав весь день.
2.3 Сочетание may, might и must с перфектным инфинитивом (Perfect Infinitive)
употребляется для выражения предположения, относящегося к прошлому.
I may have lost your address. Возможно, я потерял твой адрес.
Не must have gone abroad. Должно быть, он уехал за границу.
3. Глагол must не употребляется, если предположение относится к будущему. В таких случаях
употребляются модальные слова evidently, probably, или глагольное сочетание be (un)likely в
значении вероятно, очевидно.
It is likely to rain tonight. Вечером, вероятно,пойдет дождь.

Exercise 95. Defeni the meaning of may, might, must in these sentences. Translate them into
1. Carol knows a lot about films. She must go to the cinema a lot.
2. He must leave early not to miss the train.
3. They may find this book in our library.
4. Jack must have been waiting for us since morning.
5. She may have spoken to the teacher, but I'm not sure.
6. Don't be upset. Your watch may still turn up.
7. I think you might like to meet him.
8. Ann didn't answer the doorbell, she may have been in the bath.
9. May I make a
10. I can'd have found my scarf choice myself I must have lost it.
11. Qrandpapa might have secretly married the girl.
12. You mustn 't breathe a word of this to anyone.
Exercise 96. Complete these sentences with may or might.
Example: - Do you know if Ann likes sweets?
-I'm not sure, she might like sweets.
1. Do you know if they are married? I'm not sure, they .....
2. Do you know if she's telling the truth? I .....
3. Do you know if he is at school? I .....
4. Do you know if it will rain tonight? I .....
5. Do you know if she likes poetry? I .....
6. Do you know if she is still asleep? I .....
7. Do you know if he speaks French fluently? I .....
8. Do you know if they still live in the country? I .....
Example: - Do you know if he was rude towards the boy.
- I'm not sure. He may have been rude.
1. Do you know if they missed the train? I am not sure. They.....
2. Do you know if the man was serious? I .....
3. Do you know if they were ready to go? I .....
4. Do you know if she was listening to the music? I .....
5. Do you know if the car was damaged? I .....
6. Do you know if they left early? I .....
7. Do you know if Fred flew to Paris last year? I .....
8. Do you know if Ann caught the early train? I .....
9. Do you know if Helen was ill? I .....
Exercise 97. Write uncertain answers to the following questions, using may or might.
Example: Where is Sue going? (to the theatre)
She may be going to the theatre.
1. Where are you going for your holidays? (Switzeland)
2. Why didn't Ann answer the doorbell? (go to bed early)
3. Where is the meat I left on the table? (the cat, steal it)
4. Where is George? (play tennis)
5. How did the fire start? (Someone, drop a cigarette)
6. Why is Peter late? (miss the train)
7. Why didn't Mary come to see us? (fall ill)
8. Who was that man? (Smith)
9. When do you expect them to come? (arrive next week)
10. Whose book is this? (Nina's or not)
11. When did he finish his work? (a day or two ago)
Exercise 98. Rewrite the sentences using may or might to express uncertainty.
Example: The day, perhaps, will be fine.
The day may be fine.
1. It's possible the child has gone to his friend.
2. Perhaps they hear it for the first time.
3. Try this medicine, perhaps it'll help you.
4. Perhaps they were proud of their daughter, but they never showed it.
5. I'm not sure whether you are right.
6. Perhaps the problem is too difficult for children.
7. Perhaps she will win the race.
8. Perhaps you changed at the wrong station.
9. It's possible that Molly wrote to her bank.
10. Perhaps they forgot about the meeting.
11. Hurry up! Perhaps the shop is still open.
12. Perhaps they did not receive our message.
13. A Forsyte still living in that house.
Exercise 99. Answer these questions expressing your supposition, deduction. Use the words in
Example: - Where is Mother? (in the kitchen)
- She must be in the kitchen.
1. Who is this? (the new teacher)
2. What's the time? (3 o'clock now)
3. What's this? (a new text book)
4. I wonder how much such a dress may cost? (35 pounds)
5. Whose copy-book is this, I wonder? (Mike's)
6. Where are my slippers? (in the bathroom)
7. Why does Lena miss her classes? (catch cold)
8. Why is the tap leaking? (spoil)
9. Why is he looking for the key? (lose it)
10. Where is your text-book? (leave it at home)
Exercise 100. Rewrite the sentences using must.
Example: It's probably a very complicated machine.
It must be a very complicated machine.
1. I feel sure there is something unpleasant in the man.
2. The town was probably founded about six hundred years ago.
3. You have probably heard the story before.
4. We feel sure she likes her new job.
5. He probably postponed his visit to the relatives.
6. Probably the tower on the cliff is a lighthouse.
7. I am sure you've seen the film.
8. I'm certain they have changed the programme. The singer is singing a new song.
9. She was obviously upset by something.
10. They probably have realized what they were losing.
11. No doubt, you are tired of my talking.
Exercise 101. Supply the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.
1. She speaks English much better than she did last year. She must ... (practise) a lot.
2. You make no progress in English. You must . (practise) it much more than you do.
3. You look worn out. You must ... (have) a good rest in summer.
4. The girl looks fine. She must ... (have) a good rest this summer.
5. What a shower! The water is streaming down the street. It must ... (rain) for some hours.
6. Look! There's not a single human being in the street. It must ... (rain) fast.
7. There's light in the window. They must ... (be) at home.
8. The pianist is playing a piece that hasn't been announced. They must ... (change) the pro gramme.
9. He must ... (take) a lot of photos when he wa on the islands.
10. You haven't eaten for hours. You must ... (be) hungry.
11. I shall get your things out of the hotel. You must ... (stay) here tonight.
12. The last people who lived here must ... (be) dwarfs.
Deduction, uncertainty: must, may, might.
1. Глаголы may и might в значении предполагаемой возможности совершения действия
(uncertainty) употребляются как в утвердительных, так и в отрицательных предложениях.
Не may enter the University Может быть, он поступит в университет,
or he may not. а может и нет.
2. Глагол must в значении предположения, вероятности совершения действия (deduction) не
употребляется в отрицательных предложениях. Если нужно выразить предположение, содержа-
щее в себе отрицание, то глагол must употребляется только в сочетании с другим глаголом или
иной частью речи, лексическое значение которых имеет в себе отрицание (например, глаголы
fail, misunderstand, прилагательные unable, unpleasant; местоимения nobody, nothing и т. д.).
Не must have failed to do it. Должно быть, он не сделал это.
I must have misunderstood him. Вероятно, я не понял вас (понял вас неправильно).
В отрицательных предложениях также возможно употребление модального слова probably,
после которого следует смысловой глагол в отрицательной форме.
Probably I didn’t understand you. Должно быть, я не noнял вас.

Exercise 102. Translate the sentences into English, avoiding the use of not.
1. Вы, должно быть, не узнали меня. – You must have failed to recognize me
2. Ему, наверное, не сказали, когда начнется собрание. – He must have been to
3. Их, очевидно, неправильно информировали. Они должны были придти сегодня.
4. Вы, должно быть, не сумели сразу уснуть из-за шума на улице.
5. Они, должно быть, не опоздали на поезд, иначе они бы вернулись.
6. Она, наверное, ничего не знает о нашей встрече.
7. Вероятно, они не попали на поезд, так как вышли из дома поздно.
8. Должно быть мы неправильно записали адрес. Такого дома нет здесь.
9. Очевидно, она не купила билеты в театр. 10. Они, наверное, тебя не видели.
Exercise 103. Comment on the use of must, have to. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Then you must leave my home at once.
2. He's had nothing to eat since morning. He must be hungry.
3. I can't find the key. I must have left it in the bag.
4. He had to write. He was obliged to earn money.
5. You mustn't miss your lessons.
6. He must have known the truth if anyone did.
7. This is a hospital. You must be quiet.
8. She gave Julia a broach which must have cost at least two hundred pounds.
9. Her English is rather good. She must be studying hard.
10. Tell her she will have to be here by ten tomorrow.
11. The Garden has to be seen when the moon directly overhead.
Exercise 104. Use the correct modal verb in the following sentences.
1. I must/may not have made a very distinguished career, but I certainly have done nothing to be
ashamed of.
2. We may/must meet again before all is over and then again we must/may not.
3. The waiter may/must have misunderstood the foreigner and brought him a wrong dish.
4. Any doubt I must/may have had as to whether we really needed advice was swept away then.
5. All I know that he must/may get paid a lot for it because he buys such expensive things.
6. I tried to get you twice last night, but you must/may have been out.
7. We must/may have run across one another in the war, but I am not sure.
8. I may/must have sounded more convincing than I felt as they let me go.
9. Good bye and thank you. Perhaps we may/must see each other again some time.
10. You may/must pack my bag to capacity. I am strong enough to carry it.
Exercise 105. Translate the sentences into English, using mast and its equivalents.
1. Этот фильм, очевидно, пользуется большим успехом у зрителей.
2. В окнах нет света. Вероятно, они уже легли спать.
3. "Где Вэл?" - "Наверное, во дворе играет в футбол."
4. Вы должны много работать, чтобы успешно сдать экзамены.
5. Он не может найти билеты. Очевидно, or оставил их дома.
6. Должно быть, он не встретил ее.
7. Ему нужно было выполнить упражнение в письменном виде.
8. Они, вероятно, жили на этой улице много лет назад.
9. Вероятно, завтра выпадет снег.
10. Должно быть, он вернется поздно.
11. Она, должно быть, очень скучный человек
12. Может быть, они еще дома. Позвони ей.
13. Возможно, он оставил тебе записку, а может быть, он еще позвонит.
14. Возможно, дети не выполнили задание, так как оно достаточно сложное для них.

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