IEEE 
TRANSACTIONS 
ON MICROWAVE 
THEORY 
AND 
TECHNIQUES, 
VOL. 
MTT14, 
NO. 

REFERENCES 

[1] 
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CT11, 
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[2] 
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R. M. 
Aron, 
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[+] 
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_{P}_{?}_{o}_{c}_{.} 
_{I}_{R}_{E}_{,} 
_{v}_{o}_{l}_{.} 
_{4}_{9}_{,} 
_{p}_{p}_{.} 
_{l}_{o}_{+}_{3}_{–} 

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[7] 
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Getsinger, 
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amplifiers, 
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IEEE 
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4~ic~owatle Tkeory and Techniques, 

vol. IbITT11, 
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486–497, 
November 
1963. 

[8] 
J. O. 
Scaukm 
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J. 
T. Lim, 
“A 
design 
theory 
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broadband 
reflection 
amplifiers, 
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IEEE 
Tram. 
on 
Microwave 

Theory 
and 
Techniques, 
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MTT12, 
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50&511, 
September 

1961. 

[9] 
R. L. 
Kyhl, 
R. A.h’fcFarlane, 
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M.tl’, 
P. Strandberg, 
“Nega 

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IRE, 
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50, 
pp. 

1608–1623, 
July 
1962. 

[10] 
Itr. H. 
Ku, 
‘[.L 
broadbanding 
theory 
for 
varactor 
parametric 

amplifiers) 
’’Parts 
Iand 
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lEEE 
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CircuitTkeo?y,vol. 

CT11, 
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5066, 
March 1964. 

[11] 
J. O. Scanlanand 
J. 
T. 
Lim, 
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reflection 
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diode 
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Tfuns. 
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827–836, November 
1965. 

[j’2] 
E. W. 
Sard, 
“Analysis 
of 
a 
negative 
conductance 
amplifier 

operated with 
a ncmideal circulator, 
” 
IRE 
Trans. 
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Microwave 

Tlzeory 
and 
Techfiiqa.s, 
vol. 
L’[TT7, 
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April 
1959. 

[13] 
D. H. 
Travena, 
“Non 
ideal 
circulator 
with 
negative 
conduc 

_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{f}_{i}_{e}_{r}_{;}_{”} 
Ferranti 
Ltd., 
Wythenshami 
Manchester, 

LT. K., 
Tech. 
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1962. 

[14] D. W. 
MacGlashan, 
“New 
tunnel 
diode 
preamplifier 
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[15]
J. H.
Lepoff,
“Howtod
esignstable,b
roadbandt
damplifiers,”
Coupled~Transmission~Line
Coupled
Lines
of
Unequal
ED 
WARD 
G. CRISTAL, 

Absfracf—A 
new 
class of 
coupledtransmissionline 
directional 

couplers, called 
“nonsymmetrical 
directional 
couplers, 
” is described. 

Unlike 
conventional 
directional 
couplers, 
nonsymmetrical 
directional 

couplers use 
coupled 
lines 
of unequal 
characteristic 
impedances. 
The 

principal difference 
between 
the 
performance 
of nonsymmetrical 

directional couplers 
and 
that 
of 
conventional 
designs 
is the 
imped 

Manrrscript 
received 
hIarch 
1, 
1966; 
revised 
April 
3, 1966. 
The 

work 
reported 
in 
this 
paper was supported 
in 
part 
by 
the U. 
S. Army 

Electronics 
Command 
Laboratories, 
Fort 
LIonmouth, 
N. 
J., 
under 

Contract DA 
28043 
AM 
C01271 
(E). 

The author 
is with 
Stanford 
Research 
Institute, 
Menlo 
Park, 
Calif.
7, JULY, 
1966 
_{3}_{3}_{7} 

Microwaves, 
vol. 3, no. 
11, 
pp. 
3845, 
November 
1[964. 

[16] 
R. 
D. 
Gallagher, “A 
microwave 
tunnel 
diode 
amplifier, 
” .lficro 

wave 
~., 
vol. 
8, pp. 62–68, 
February 
1965. 

[171 
H. 
M. 
Wachowski, “A 
tunable 
Lband 
tunneldiode 
aznplifier, ” 

1961 
IRE 
Intemat’1 
Cont. 
Rec., 
pt. .3, vol. 
9, 
pp. 
64–74, 
l\Iarch 

1961 

[18] 
J, 
Reindel, 
“.+ coznpact 
tunable 
tunnel 
diode 
.S’band 
receiver, ” 

Mic?owave 
1., vol. 4, 
pp. 
92–96, 
December, 
1961., 

[19] 
J. 
Halmasaki, 
“A lownoise 
and 
wideband 
Esaki chode 
amplifier 

with 
a 
comparatively 
high 
negative 
conductance 
dicde at 

1.3 
Gc/s, 
” 
IEEE T~ans. 
OH Micyowave 
Theory 
and Teclrn iqaes, 

vol. 
MTT13, 
pp. 213–223, 
March 
1965. 

[20] 
1. 
W. 
Bandler, “Stabilitv 
and 
gain 
Prediction 
of 
micr(jl~,ave 

{zznneldiode 
reflection 
arnplitiers~ 
IE’EE 
Trans. 
on 
Micf 
owa~e 

Theory 
and 
Techniques, 
vol. MT113, 
pp. 
814–819, 
November 

1965. 

[21] 
H.J. 
Butterweck, “Der 
I’Zirculator, 
” Arch. elekt. 
~bert~agangen 

(Ge?}nany), 
Band 17, 
Heft 
4, 
pp. 
163176, 
.4pril 
1963. 

[22] 
H. 
Bosma, 
“On stripline 
Ycirculation 
at 
UHF” 
IEEE 
Trans. 

on 
Microwatle 
Theory 
and 
Teckniqzdcs, 
vol. 
MTT12, 
pp. 
61–72, 

January 
1964. 
[23]
[24]
C. E.
circulator,
vol.
L.
~.
Fay
and
”
R.
IEEE
NITT13,
pp.
Anderson,
L.
Comstock,
on
Tram.
“Operation
Micrcrwutle
15–27, Jauuary
1965.
“Broadband
circulators
of the
Theory
ferrite
juz)ction
and
Techigues,
for
negative
resistance
amplifiers, 
” presented 
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Conf. 
at 
the 
Microwave 
Be 

havior 
of 
Ferrimagnetics 
and 
Plasmas, 
London, 
England, 

September 
1965. 

[25] 
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Bode, 
Network 
Analysis 
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A iilpli$er Desizn. 

Princeton, 
N. 
J.: 
Van 
Nostrand,, 
1945. 

[26] 
R. 
NI. 
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broadband 
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” 
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249, 
pp. 
578$ 

139–154, 
Jazluary 
and 
February, 
1950. 

[27] 
_{B}_{.} 
_{K}_{.} 
_{K}_{i}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{w}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{,} 
“Realizatiozl 
of 
broadband 
matching 
net 

works 
for 
arbitrary 
impedances, 
” Electronic 
Research Labora 

tory, 
Univ. 
of 
California, 
Berkeleyl 
Rept. 
59, 
1957. 

[28] 
D. 
C. 
Fielder, 
“Broadband 
matchmg 
between 
load 
and 
source 
systems,
”
IRE
Tt’ans.
on
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Theory,
vol.
CT8,
pp.
13/31 53,
June 1961. 

[29] 
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Weinberg 
and 
P. Slepian, “Takahasi’s 
results 
on 
Tchebyscheff 

azld Butterworth 
ladder networks, 
” 
IRE 
T?ans. on 
Circuit 

Theo~y, 
vol. 
CT7, pp. 
88–101, June 
1960. 

[30] 
R. 
Lev], 
“Explicit 
formulas for 
Chebyshev 
impedance 

_{m}_{a}_{t}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
_{n}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{o}_{r}_{k}_{s}_{,} 
filters and 
interstages, 
” 
P~oc. 
IEE 

(Lzwrdon), 
vol. 
111, pp. 
10991106, 
June 1964. 

[31] 
G. 
L. Matthaei, 
L. 
Young, and E. 
M. 
T. Jones, Micvowaue 

Filters, 
Impedance 
Matchin~ Networks 
and 
Coupling Stractares. 

New York: McGrawHill, 
1964. 
Directional
Characteristic
Couplers
with
Impedances
SENIOR 
MEMBER, 
IEEE 

ante 
level 
of 
the coupled 
waves, 
which 
may 
be 
changed 
to 
higher 
or 

lower 
impedance levels 
than 
that 
of 
the 
incident 
wave. 
These direc 

tional 
couplers 
may 
be 
designed 
to have 
infinite 
directivity 
an(i 
to 
be 

matched 
at 
all frequencies, or they 
may 
be 
designed 
to have infinite 

directivity 
at 
all 
frequencies 
and 
a 
specified 
maximum 
VSWR. 

Coupling 
relationships 
and 
design 
equations 
for lboth 
cases 
are 

presented, 
and the 
relative 
properties 
of both 
cases 
are 
discussed. 

The 
theoretical 
limitation 
on 
the 
maximum 
coupling 
and 
the maxi 

mum 
impedance transformation 
that 
can be 
obtained 
simultaneously 

are 
derived. 
Techniques 
for 
broadbanding 
by 
cascading 
additional 

sections 
of 
coupled 
limes are 
described. 
Experimental 
results 
of 
a 

trial 
— 10dB 
coupler 
with 
coupled 
lines 
of 
50 and 
75 
ohms 
are 
presented.
_{3}_{3}_{8}
IEEE TRANSACTIONS
ON
MICROWAVE
THEORY
AND
TECHNIQUES
_{J}_{U}_{L}_{Y}
lNTRODUCTION
coupledtransmissionline
toend 
geometrical 
symmetry, 
the 
conclusions 
and 
de 

sign 
equations 
presented 
herein 
only 
require 
that 
the 

structure have 
endtoend 
electrical 
symmetry. 
While 

nonsymmetrical 
directional 
couplers 
may 
be 
realized 
in 
many 
configurations 
that 
satisfy 
these 
conditions, 
the 

electrical 
characteristics 
are 
independent 
of 
the physical 
configuration.
voltage
the
The
admittance
matrix
corresponding
to
and
current
coordinates 
of 
Fig. 

Yoo” + 
Y 
” 
til 
– 

2“s 

Yoob – 
Y.eb 
41 
– 

2 
s 

YOO~_ 
yOeb 
1 

— 

2 
s 

Yoo” 
+ 
Y.,” 
1 
2
s
complex
coupled
tan
sections,
and
1
is
S2 1
S2
6
In
is
<–
]1
(1)
[8
1
the
the
1.
being
constant 
and 
L 
the 
length 
of 
important 
case 
of lossless 
lines, 

electrical 
length 
of 
the 
coupled 
the
the
s =j
propagation
=
section.
0, where
j
Y.,”
Y.o”
the
finite
mode
is
infinite
is
the
admittance
measured
section
with
of
coupled
lines
voltage
sources
at
admittance
measured
at
at
Port
excited
Ports
1
Port
section
of
coupled
lines
excited
1
in
for
the
an
in
even
and
1
in
2.
for
the
an
odd
N
THE
PAST,
direc
coupled
[1]
[6].
power
direc
_{p}_{a}_{p}_{e}_{r}
tional 
couplers 
have 
been 
designed 
with 

I 
lines 
of 
equal 
characteristic 
impedances 

These 
couplers 
are 
used 
in 
many 
applications: 

samplers, 
reflectorneters, 
directional 
detectors, 

tional 
filters, 
and 
multiplexer 
_{a}_{r}_{e} 
_{s}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{.} 
_{I}_{n} 
a new
class
of
coupledtransmissionline
_{t}_{h}_{i}_{s}
directional
Y 
” 
+ 
JToe” 1 
Y 
” 
– 
Y 
” 
1 
Yoo” – 
Y 
” 
41 
– 
St 

.— 
. 
.— 

2 
s 
2 
s 
2“s– 

I’.ob – 
Voeb 
1 
Yoob 
+ 
Yo.b 
1 
Yoob 
+ 
Y.eb 
dl 
– 
S2 

.— 
.— 
— 

2 
s 
2 
s 
2“s 

Y*ob 
– 
Y.eb <1 
– 
S2 
Y.ob 
+ 
Y.eb 
/1 
– 
S2 
Yoob 
+ 
Y.eb 
1 

— 
.— 

2 
.s 
2“s 
2 
s 

Y 
” 
+ 
Yoe” <1 
– 
S2 
Y 
” 
– 
Y.,” 
<1 
– 
S2 
Y 
” 
– 
Y 
” 
1 

— 
. 
.— 

2 
s 
2“s 
2 
s 

called 
nonsymmetrical 
directional 
couplers, 
where 
s = 
tanh 
yL, 
y 
In
contrast
to
conventional
directional
couplers,
is
described.
couplers, 
nonsymrnetrical 
directional 
couplers 
use 
cou 

pled 
lines 
of 
unequal 
characteristic 
impedances. 
The 

principal 
difference 
between 
the 
performance 
of 
non 

symmetrical 
directional 
couplers 
and 
that 
of conven 

tional 
directional 
couplers is 
the 
impedance 
level 
of 
the 

coupled 
waves, 
which 
may 
be 
changed 
to 
higher 
or 

lower 
impedance 
levels 
than 
that 
of 
the 
incident 
wave. 
Nonsymmetrical 
directional 
couplers, 
therefore, 
act 
as 

conventional 
directional 
couplers 
combined 
with 
im 

pedance 
transformers 
at the 
two 
ports 
of 
one 
of 
the 

transmission 
lines. 
Thus, nonsymmetrical 
directional 

couplers 
should 
prove 
useful 
in 
applications 
calling 
for 

directional 
coupling 
and impedance 
transforming 
in 

combination, 
since 
these 
functions 
can 
be 
accomplished 

in 
a single 
device. 
For 
example, 
a 
practical 
application 

for 
which 
the 
new 
device 
may 
prove 
useful 
is in 
direc 

tional 
detectors 
[7], 
wherein 
the 
diode 
detector 
might 

be 
better 
matched 
in 
a 
line of 
different 
impedance 
from 

that 
of 
the 
main 
line. 

The 
nomenclature 
nonsymmetrical 
directional 
coupler 

pertains 
to 
the 
sidebyside 
asymmetry 
of 
the 
direc 

tional 
coupler. 
It 
should 
not 
be 
confused 
with 
cascaded 

asymmetrical 
[4] 
or 
cascaded 
symmetrical 
[5], 
[6] 

directional 
couplers, 
which use 
coupled 
lines 
of 
equal 

characteristic 
impedances 
and 
have 
endtoend 
asym 
metry 
or 
symmetry, 
respectively. 

Figure 
1 
shows the 
nonsymmetrical 
coupledtrans 

missionline 
directional 
coupler 
in 
diagrammatical 
form, 

and 
it 
also 
specifies 
voltage 
and 
current 
coordinates 

used 
throughout 
this 
paper 
for 
such 
couplers. 
The 

structure 
in 
the 
figure 
is 
to be 
regarded 
as two 
uniformly 

coupled 
transmission 
lines 
of 
unequal 
characteristic 

impedances 
that 
have 
equal 
propagation 
constants 
in 

balanced 
(oddmode) 
and 
unbalanced 
(evenmode) 

excitation 
[1 
]. Although 
the 
structure 
shown 
has 
end 
mode 
with 
voltage sources 
at 
Ports 
1 
and 2. 

yo> 
is 
the 
admittance 
measured 
at 
Port 
2 for an 
in 

finite 
section 
of 
coupled 
lines 
excited 
in the even 

mode 
with 
voltage sources 
at 
Ports 
1 
and 2. 

yOob 
is 
the 
admittance 
measured 
at 
Port 
2 for an 
in 

finite 
section 
of 
coupled 
lines 
excited 
in the 
odd 

mode 
with 
voltage sources 
at 
Ports 
1 
and 2. 

The 
following 
notation 
simplifies 
the 
design 
equations 

presented 
later 
and 
is 
therefore 
adopted: 

Yoo” 
+ 
Y.,” 

A= 
2 
(2) 

yOOb + 
yOeb 

B= 
(3) 

2 

~ 
= 
Y 
” _{–} _{Y}_{e}_{,}_{”} 
yOOb _ 
yOeb 

(4) 

2= 
2“ 

G. 
and 
G6 are 
the 
terminating 
admittances 
of lines 
a 

and 
b, 
respectively. 

In 
the 
derivations 
and equations 
that 
follow, excita 

tion 
at 
Port 1 
has 
been 
assumed. 
However, 
had excita 

tion 
at 
Port 2 been 
assumed, 
the 
results 
could 
be made 
i 
B. 
M. 
Schiffman pointed 
out 
that 
the 
Ymatrix 
given 
in 
C)zaki 

and 
Ishii 
[8] 
is incorrect 
with 
respect 
to 
the 
signs 
of 
its 
entries; 

the 
correct 
matrix is given 
by 
(l). 
1966
CRISTAL:
COUPLEDTRANSMISSIONLINE
DIRECTIONAL
COUPLERS
_{3}_{3}_{9}
Fig.
1.
NonsYmmetrical
couPled
. transmission

line
directional
coupler 
with coupled 
lines of unequal characteristic 
impedances. 

to carry 
over 
directly by 
an interchange 
of G. 
and 
Gb 

and an 
interchange 
of A 
and B. All 
formulas 
presented 

in the following 
sections 
were obtained 
by 
operating 
on 

the admittance 
matrix 
of 
(I) directly. 
The 
resulting 

formulas 
are 
thus 
exact 
for 
all values 
(of coupling. 

CONDITION 
FOR 
INFINITE DIItECTIVITY 

The directivity 
of a 
directional 
coupler 
may 
be 
de 

fined as 
follows. 
Let each 
transmission 
line 
of 
the cou 

pler be 
terminated 
in its 
respective 
load admittance 
at 

Ports 2, 
3, and 
4. 
Let a signal 
be incident 
at 
Port 
1. The 

directivity 
in 
decibels is 
given by 

(5) 

IV31 

Thus the 
condition 
for 
infinite directivity 
is that Va be 

equal to 
zero. 

A method 
of 
solving 
for 
the directivity 
is 
given 
in 

Appendix 
1. 
In the interest 
of shortening 
the presenta 

tion, only 
the 
final 
result 
is given here. 
The 
condition 
for 

infinite 
directivity 
is found 
to be~ 

f&fh 
= 
AB – D2. 
(6) 

There is 
no other 
constraint. 
Note 
that 
G. 
and 
G~ need 

not be real to 
satisfy (6), 
although 
in 
the 
remainder 
of 

this section they 
are so assumed. 

CONDITIONS 
FOR 
IMPEDANCE 
IMATCHING 

.4 method 
of 
determining 
the 
conditions 
for 
im 

pedance 
matching 
is given 
in Appendix 
II; 
again, only 

the final 
results 
are presented 
here. There are two condi 

tions for 
impedance 
matching. 
They 
are 

G. 
A 
,k. (“/) 

GaGh 
= 
AB – D2. 
(8] 

hTotice that 
the 
condition 
for infinite 
directivity 
is 
in 

cluded in 
the 
conditions 
for 
impedance 
matching. 

Thus 
a matched 
directional 
coupler 
must 
have 
infinite 

directivity. 
The 
converse, 
however, 
need 
not 
be so. 
A 
z Using a low 
frequency 
approximation, 
Firestone 
[9] showed that 

the 
condition for 
infinite 
directivity 
for coupled 
openwire lines 
is 

(in 
our 
notation) 
GGG* = Cm/Lm, 
where Cm and 
L~ 
are 
the mutual 

capacitance and 
inductance per 
unit length 
of 
the 
coupled lines. 

It 
can 
be shown 
that 
this 
equation 
and (6) 
are 
equivalent, 
so that 
in 

fact 
the 
expression originally derived by 
Firestone 
for 
electrically 

short couplers is true 
in 
general. 
nonsymmetrical 
directional 
coupler 
may 
halve 
infi 
nite 

directivity 
without 
being 
matched. 
(This 
conclusion 

may 
also 
be 
established 
using 
the scattering 
matrix 
for 

a directional 
coupler 
[9].) 

Additional 
consequences 
of 
these 
conditions 
are 
de 
scribed 
later 
in the 
section 
in 
which 
design 
equations 
for 

mismatched 
directional 
couplers 
having 
infinite 
d irec 

tivity 
are 
presented. 

Equations 
(7) and 
(8) 
may 
be 
solved 
for 
G. 
ancl 
(%, 

giving 

(9) 

(lo) 

Note 
that 
the 
right 
sides 
of 
(9) 
and 
(10) 
are 
real 

positive 
numbers 
for 
all 
physically 
realizable 
values 
of 

A, B, 
and 
D. 
Therefore, 
the 

Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.