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IEEE

TRANSACTIONS

ON

MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES,

VOL.

MTT-14,

NO.

 

REFERENCES

 

[1]

A.

C. LIacpherson,

‘[The

center-frequency

properties

of negative-

 

conductance

 

amplifiers,’’

IEEE

Trans.

on

Circuit

Theory,

vol.

CT-11,

pp.

136-145,

Llarch

1964.

[2]

R.

D,

Hall,

'' NIicrowave

tunnel

diode

devices,

''Sylvania

Electric

Products,

Inc.,

Electronic

Defense

Labor~tory,

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View,

Calif.,

Technical

Memorandum

Ef)L-M609,

 

March

20,

1964.

[3]

R.

M.

Aron,

“Bandwidth

limitations

and

synthesis

 

procedures

 

for

negative

 

resistance

and

 

Variable

reactance

amplifiers,

 

California

Institute

 

of

Technology,

 

Pasadena,

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‘~ech.

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15, August

 

1960.

 

[+]

L.

I.

Smilen,

“Atheoryf

orbroadbandt

 

unnel

diode

amplifiers,”

 

Rept. Polytechnic

 

Institute

 

of

Brooklyn,

New

York,

N.

Y.,

PIBMR1998-62,

 

Apri120,

1962.

 

[5]

E.

S.

Kuh

and

J.

D.

Patterson,

 

“Design

theory

of

optimum

 

rIegative-resistance

amplifiers,

 

P?oc.

IRE,

vol.

49,

pp.

lo+3

1050,

Tune

1961.

 

[6]

B.

T’. -Henoch

and

Y.

Kvaerna,

 

‘(Broadband

tunnel

diode

am-

plifiers,

” Stanford

Electronics

 

Lab.,

Stanford

Univ.,

Palo

Alto,

 

Calif.,

Tech.

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213-2,

August

1962.

 

[7]

tV.

J.

Getsinger,

“Prototypesf

 

oruseinb

roadbanding

 

reflection

 

amplifiers,

IEEE

T?ans.

on

4~ic~owatle

Tkeory

and Techniques,

vol.

IbITT-11,

 

pp.

486–497,

November

1963.

 

[8]

J.

O.

Scaukm

and

J.

T.

Lim,

 

“A

design

theory

for

optimum

 

broadband

 

reflection

amplifiers,

IEEE

Tram.

on

Microwave

Theory

and

Techniques,

vol.

MTT-12,

pp.

50&511,

September

1961.

[9]

R.

L.

Kyhl,

R. A.h’fcFarlane,

 

and

M.tl’,

P. Strandberg,

 

“Nega-

 

tive

L

and

C

in

solid-state

masers,

Prczc.

IRE,

vol.

50,

pp.

1608–1623,

 

July

1962.

 

[10]

Itr.

H.

Ku,

‘[.L

broad-banding

 

theory

for

varactor

 

parametric

 

amplifiers)

’’Parts

Iand

II,

lEEE

 

Truns,orc

 

CircuitTkeo?y,vol.

 

CT-11,

pp.

50-66,

 

March

1964.

 

[11]

J.

O. Scanlanand

 

J.

T.

Lim,

“Thee ffectofpa

rasiticelementson

 

reflection

type

tunnel

diode

 

amplifier

performance,

IEEE

 

Tfuns.

on

Microwave

 

Theoyy

and

Techniques,

vol.

MTT-13,

pp.

827–836,

November

 

1965.

 

[j’2]

E.

W.

Sard,

 

“Analysis

of

a

negative

conductance

amplifier

 

operated

with

a ncmideal

circulator,

IRE

Trans.

on

Microwave

Tlzeory

and

Techfiiqa.s,

vol.

L’[TT-7,

pp.

288-293,

April

1959.

[13]

D.

H.

Travena,

 

“Non

ideal

circulator

with

negative

 

conduc-

tance

amplifier;

Ferranti

Ltd.,

Wythenshami

 

Manchester,

LT.

K.,

Tech.

Note

2322,

May

 

1962.

 

[14]

D.

W.

MacGlashan,

 

“New

tunnel

diode

preamplifier

improves

 
 

phased

array

radar,”

 

Electronics,

 

vol.

35,

pp.

57–.59,

September

?8

--,

1967 ., ---

 

[15]

J. H.

Lepoff,

“Howtod

esignstable,b

roadbandt

damplifiers,”

Coupled~Transmission~Line

Coupled

Lines

of

Unequal

 

ED

WARD

 

G.

CRISTAL,

Absfracf—A

 

new

class

of

coupled-transmission-line

directional

couplers,

called

“nonsymmetrical

 

directional

couplers,

” is described.

Unlike

conventional

 

directional

couplers,

nonsymmetrical

directional

couplers

use

coupled

lines

of unequal

characteristic

impedances.

The

principal

difference

between

the

performance

 

of

nonsymmetrical

directional

couplers

and

that

of

conventional

designs

is

the

imped-

Manrrscript

 

received

hIarch

1,

1966;

revised

April

3,

1966.

The

work

reported

in

this

paper

was

supported

in

part

by

the

U.

S. Army

Electronics

Command

Laboratories,

 

Fort

LIonmouth,

N.

J.,

under

Contract

DA

28-043

AM

C-01271

(E).

The

author

is

with

Stanford

Research

Institute,

Menlo

Park,

Calif.

7,

JULY,

1966

 

337

 

Microwaves,

vol.

3,

no.

11,

pp.

38-45,

November

1[964.

 

[16]

R.

D.

Gallagher,

“A

microwave

 

tunnel

diode

amplifier,

” .lficro

wave

~.,

vol.

8,

pp.

62–68,

February

1965.

[171

H.

M.

Wachowski,

“A

tunable

L-band

tunnel-diode

 

aznplifier,

1961

IRE

Intemat’1

Cont.

Rec.,

pt.

.3, vol.

9,

pp.

64–74,

l\Iarch

1961

 

[18]

J,

Reindel,

“.+

coznpact

tunable

 

tunnel

diode

.S’-band

receiver,

Mic?owave

1.,

vol.

4,

pp.

92–96,

December,

 

1961.,

[19]

J.

Halmasaki,

“A

low-noise

and

wide-band

Esaki

chode

amplifier

with

a

comparatively

high

negative

conductance

 

dicde

at

1.3

Gc/s,

IEEE

T~ans.

OH Micyowave

Theory

and

Teclrn iqaes,

vol.

MTT-13,

pp.

213–223,

March

1965.

 

[20]

1.

W.

Bandler,

“Stabilitv

and

gain

Prediction

 

of

micr(jl~,ave

{zznnel-diode

reflection

arnplitiers~

IE’EE

Trans.

on

Micf

owa~e

Theory

and

Techniques,

vol.

MT1-13,

pp.

814–819,

November

1965.

 

[21]

H.-J.

Butterweck,

“Der

I’-Zirculator,

” Arc-h.

elekt.

~bert~agangen

(Ge?}nany),

Band

17,

Heft

4,

pp.

163-176,

.4pril

1963.

[22]

H.

Bosma,

“On

stripline

Y-circulation

at

UHF”

IEEE

Trans.

on

Microwatle

Theory

and

Teckniqzdcs,

vol.

MTT-12,

 

pp.

61–72,

January

1964.

 

[23]

[24]

C. E.

circulator,

vol.

L.

~.

Fay

and

R.

IEEE

NITT-13,

pp.

Anderson,

L.

Comstock,

on

Tram.

“Operation

Micrcrwutle

15–27, Jauuary

1965.

“Broadband

circulators

of the

Theory

ferrite

juz)ction

and

Techigues,

for

negative

resistance

 

amplifiers,

” presented

at

Internat’1

 

Conf.

at

the

Microwave

Be-

havior

of

Ferrimagnetics

 

and

Plasmas,

London,

England,

September

1965.

 

[25]

H.

W.

Bode,

Network

Analysis

 

and

Feedback

A iilpli$er

Desizn.

Princeton,

N.

J.:

Van

Nostrand,,

1945.

 

[26]

R.

NI.

Fano,

“Theoretical

limitations

on the

broadband

ma tching

of arbitrary

impedances,

J.

Franklin

Inst.,

vol.

249,

pp.

57-8$

139–154,

Jazluary

and

February,

1950.

 

[27]

B.

K.

Kiuariwala,

“Realizatiozl

of

broadband

matching

net-

works

for

arbitrary

impedances,

Electronic

Research

Labora-

tory,

Univ.

of

California,

 

Berkeleyl

Rept.

59,

1957.

[28]

D.

C.

Fielder,

“Broad-band

 

matchmg

between

load

and

source

systems,

IRE

Tt’ans.

on

Cwcuit

Theory,

vol.

CT-8,

pp.

13/3-1 53,

 

June

1961.

 

[29]

L.

Weinberg

and

P. Slepian,

“Takahasi’s

results

on

Tchebyscheff

azld

Butterworth

ladder

networks,

IRE

T?ans.

on

Circuit

Theo~y,

vol.

CT-7,

pp.

88–101,

June

1960.

 

[30]

R.

Lev]-,

“Explicit

formulas

for

Chebyshev

impedance-

matching

networks,

filters

and

interstages,

P~oc.

IEE

(Lzwrdon),

vol.

111,

pp.

1099-1106,

June

1964.

 

[31]

G.

L.

Matthaei,

L.

Young,

and

E.

M.

T.

Jones,

Micvowaue

Filters,

Impedance

Matchin~

Networks

 

and

Coupling

Stractares.

New

York:

McGraw-Hill,

1964.

Directional

Characteristic

Couplers

with

Impedances

SENIOR

 

MEMBER,

IEEE

ante

level

of

the

coupled

waves,

which

may

be

changed

to

higher

or

lower

impedance

levels

than

that

of

the

incident

wave.

These

direc-

tional

couplers

may

be

designed

to have

infinite

directivity

an(i

to

be

matched

at

all

frequencies,

or they

may

be

designed

to have

infinite

directivity

at

all

frequencies

and

a

specified

maximum

VSWR.

Coupling

relationships

and

design

equations

for

lboth

cases

are

presented,

 

and

the

relative

properties

 

of

both

cases

are

discussed.

 

The

theoretical

limitation

on

the

maximum

coupling

and

the

maxi-

mum

impedance

transformation

that

can

be

obtained

simultaneously

 

are

derived.

 

Techniques

for

broadbanding

by

cascading

additional

sections

of

coupled

limes

are

described.

Experimental

results

of

a

trial

10-dB

coupler

with

coupled

lines

of

50

and

75

ohms

are

presented.

338

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON

MICROWAVE

THEORY

AND

TECHNIQUES

JULY

lNTRODUCTION

coupled-transmission-line

to-end

geometrical

symmetry,

the

conclusions

 

and

de-

sign

equations

presented

herein

only

require

that

the

structure

have

end-to-end

electrical

symmetry.

While

nonsymmetrical

directional

couplers

may

be

realized

in

many

configurations

that

satisfy

these

conditions,

the

electrical

characteristics

are

independent

of

the

physical

configuration.

voltage

the

The

admittance

matrix

corresponding

to

and

current

coordinates

 

of

Fig.

 

Yoo” +

Y

til

2“s

 

Yoob –

Y.eb

41

 

2

s

 

YOO~_

yOeb

1

 

2

s

 

Yoo”

+

Y.,”

1

2

s

complex

coupled

tan

sections,

and

1

is

S2 1

S2

6

In

is

<–

]1

(1)

[8

1

the

the

1.

being

constant

and

L

the

length

of

important

case

of

lossless

lines,

electrical

length

of

the

coupled

the

the

s =j

propagation

=

section.

0, where

j

Y.,”

Y.o”

the

finite

mode

is

infinite

is

the

admittance

measured

section

with

of

coupled

lines

voltage

sources

at

admittance

measured

at

at

Port

excited

Ports

1

Port

section

of

coupled

lines

excited

1

in

for

the

an

in-

even

and

1

in

2.

for

the

an

odd

N

THE

PAST,

direc-

coupled

[1]-

[6].

power

direc-

paper

 

tional

couplers

 

have

been

designed

with

I

lines

of

equal

characteristic

 

impedances

These

couplers

are

used

in

many

applications:

samplers,

reflectorneters,

directional

detectors,

tional

filters,

and

multiplexer

are

several.

In

a new

class

of

coupled-transmission-line

this

directional

Y

+

JToe” 1

 

Y

Y

1

Yoo” –

Y

41

St

 

.—

.

.—

 

2

s

2

s

2“s–

 

I’.ob –

Voeb

1

Yoob

+

Yo.b

1

Yoob

+

Y.eb

dl

S2

 

.—

.—

 

2

s

2

s

2“s

Y*ob

Y.eb <1

S2

Y.ob

+

Y.eb

/1

S2

Yoob

+

Y.eb

1

 

.—

 
 

2

.s

2“s

2

s

Y

+

Yoe” <1

S2

Y

Y.,”

<1

S2

Y

Y

1

 

.

.—

 

2

s

2“s

2

s

called

nonsymmetrical

 

directional

 

couplers,

 

where

 

s =

tanh

 

yL,

y

In

contrast

to

conventional

directional

couplers,

is

described.

couplers,

nonsymrnetrical

directional

couplers

use

cou-

pled

lines

of

unequal

characteristic

 

impedances.

 

The

principal

difference

between

the

performance

of

non-

symmetrical

directional

couplers

and

that

of

conven-

tional

directional

couplers

is

the

impedance

 

level

of

the

coupled

waves,

which

may

be

changed

 

to

higher

or

lower

impedance

levels

than

that

of

the

incident

wave.

Nonsymmetrical

 

directional

couplers,

 

therefore,

act

as

conventional

 

directional

 

couplers

 

combined

with

im-

pedance

transformers

at

the

two

ports

of

one

of

the

transmission

 

lines.

Thus,

nonsymmetrical

 

directional

couplers

should

prove

 

useful

in

applications

 

calling

for

directional

 

coupling

and

impedance

 

transforming

 

in

combination,

since

these

functions

 

can

be

accomplished

in

a

single

device.

For

example,

a

practical

 

application

for

which

the

new

device

may

prove

useful

is

in

direc-

tional

detectors

 

[7],

wherein

the

diode

detector

might

be

better

matched

in

a

line

of

different

impedance

from

that

of

the

main

line.

 

The

nomenclature

 

nonsymmetrical

 

directional

coupler

pertains

 

to

the

side-by-side

asymmetry

 

of

the

direc-

tional

coupler.

 

It

should

not

be

confused

with

cascaded

asymmetrical

[4]

or

cascaded

symmetrical

[5],

[6]

directional

couplers,

which

use

coupled

 

lines

of

equal

characteristic

impedances

and

have

end-to-end

asym-

metry

or

symmetry,

respectively.

 

Figure

1

shows

the

 

nonsymmetrical

coupled-trans-

mission-line

directional

coupler

in

diagrammatical

 

form,

and

it

also

 

specifies

voltage

 

and

current

coordinates

used

throughout

this

paper

for

such

couplers.

The

structure

 

in

the

figure

is

to

be

regarded

as two

uniformly

coupled

transmission

lines

of

unequal

characteristic

impedances

 

that

have

equal

propagation

constants

in

balanced

 

(odd-mode)

 

and

unbalanced

(even-mode)

excitation

[1

].

Although

the

structure

shown

has

end-

 

mode

with

voltage

sources

at

Ports

1

and

2.

 

yo>

is

the

admittance

measured

at

Port

2

for

an

in-

 

finite

section

of

coupled

lines

excited

 

in

the

even

mode

with

voltage

sources

at

Ports

1

and

2.

 

yOob

is

the

admittance

measured

at

Port

2

for

an

in-

 

finite

section

of

coupled

lines

excited

 

in

the

odd

mode

with

voltage

sources

at

Ports

1

and

2.

 

The

following

 

notation

simplifies

the

design

equations

presented

later

and

is

therefore

adopted:

 
 

Yoo”

+

Y.,”

 

A=

2

(2)

 

yOOb +

yOeb

 

B=

(3)

 

2

 

~

=

Y

Ye,

 

yOOb _

yOeb

   

(4)

2=

 

2“

G.

and

 

G6

are

the

terminating

 

admittances

 

of

lines

a

and

b,

respectively.

 
 

In

the

derivations

and

equations

that

follow,

excita-

tion

at

Port

1

 

has

been

assumed.

However,

 

had

excita-

tion

at

Port

2 been

assumed,

the

results

could

be

made

 

i

B.

M.

Schiffman

pointed

out

that

the

Y-matrix

given

in

C)zaki

and

Ishii

[8]

is

incorrect

with

respect

to

the

signs

of

its

entries;

the

correct

matrix

is given

by

(l).

1966

CRISTAL:

COUPLED-TRANSMISSION-LINE

DIRECTIONAL

COUPLERS

339

Fig.

1.

NonsYmmetrical

couPled

. transmission

-

line

directional

coupler

with

coupled

lines

of unequal

characteristic

 

impedances.

 

to

carry

over

directly

by

an

interchange

of

G.

and

Gb

and

an

interchange

of

A

and

B.

All

formulas

presented

in

the

following

sections

were

obtained

 

by

operating

on

the

admittance

 

matrix

of

(I)

directly.

The

resulting

formulas

are

thus

exact

for

all

values

(of coupling.

CONDITION

FOR

INFINITE

DIItECTIVITY

 

The

directivity

of

a

directional

coupler

may

be

de-

fined

as

follows.

Let

each

transmission

line

of

the

cou-

pler

be

terminated

in

its

respective

load

admittance

at

Ports

2,

3,

and

4.

Let

a signal

be

incident

at

Port

1. The

directivity

in

decibels

is

given

by

 
 

(5)

 

IV31

Thus

the

condition

for

infinite

directivity

 

is

that

Va be

equal

to

zero.

A

method

of

solving

for

the

directivity

is

given

in

Appendix

1.

In

the

interest

of

shortening

 

the

presenta-

tion,

only

the

final

result

is given

here.

 

The

condition

for

infinite

directivity

is found

to

be~

 

f&fh

=

AB

D2.

(6)

There

is

no

other

constraint.

Note

that

G.

and

G~ need

not

be

real

to

satisfy

(6),

although

in

the

remainder

of

this

section

they

are

so assumed.

 
 

CONDITIONS

FOR

IMPEDANCE

IMATCHING

 

.4

method

of

determining

the

conditions

for

im-

pedance

matching

is

given

in

Appendix

II;

again,

only

the

final

results

are

presented

here.

There

are

two

condi-

tions

for

impedance

matching.

They

are

 
 

G.

A

,k.

(“/)

GaGh

=

AB

D2.

(8]

hTotice

that

the

condition

for

infinite

directivity

is

in-

cluded

in

the

conditions

for

impedance

matching.

 

Thus

a matched

directional

coupler

must

have

infinite

directivity.

The

converse,

however,

need

not

be

so.

A

 

z Using

a low

frequency

approximation,

Firestone

[9] showed

that

the

condition

for

infinite

directivity

for

coupled

open-wire

lines

is

(in

our

notation)

GGG* = Cm/Lm,

where

Cm and

 

L~

are

the

mutual

capacitance

and

inductance

per

unit

length

of

the

coupled

lines.

It

can

be shown

that

this

equation

and

(6)

are

equivalent,

so that

in

fact

the

expression

originally

derived

by

Firestone

for

electrically

short

couplers

is true

in

general.

nonsymmetrical

directional

coupler

may

halve

infi

nite

directivity

 

without

being

matched.

(This

conclusion

may

also

be

established

using

the

scattering

matrix

for

a directional

coupler

[9].)

Additional

consequences

of

these

conditions

are

de-

scribed

later

in

the

section

in

which

design

equations

for

mismatched

 

directional

 

couplers

having

infinite

d irec-

tivity

are

presented.

 

Equations

 

(7)

and

(8)

may

be

solved

for

G.

ancl

(%,

giving

 

(9)

(lo)

Note

that

the

right

sides

of

(9)

and

(10)

 

are

real

positive

numbers

for

all

physically

realizable

 

values

of

A,

B,

and

D.

Therefore,

the