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NAME: Amit Bisht Roll No. 292509 SEMESTER: Fifth ORGANIZATION: Motherson Sumi Systems Limited

PLACE OF TRAINING: Motherson Sumi Systems Limited, Plot No.:21, Sector: 18 Gurgaon, Haryana MENTOR: Mr.Sanjay Yadav (Sr. Production Engineer) PERIOD: FROM 01/07/2011 TO 31/07/2011 DURATION: 4 weeks FIELD OF TRAINING: General

It is always a pleasure to remind the fine people in the Industry for their sincere guidance I received to uphold my practical as well as theoretical skills in engineering. Firstly I would like to thank Mr. Sanjay Yadav (Sr.Production Engineer) for convincing me the fact Whatever a man can imagine, that can be achieved, treating me as a son of his own and guiding me to taste the real flavor of engineering. Secondly I would like to thank Mr.Balak Ram (Head of Maintenance Department) for the positive attitude he showed for my work, always allowing me to question him and giving prompt replies for my uncertainties in all the fields including educational, social and managerial to labor work. And I always great him for his aspects of crew resource management who always said, I may be wrong. Thirdly I would like to thank Mr. Raman (Sr. Maintenance Engineer) and Mr.Vishal shrivastva of Department of Maintenance Engineering for extending their friendship towards me and making a pleasure-training environment in the industry. A paper is not enough for me to express the support and guidance I received from them almost for all the work I did there. Mr. Sarwar Kumar (Head of Applicator Cell) is always reminded for allowing me to work in the machine tools in the Department. Mr.Samir Solanki (Sr.Maintenance Engineer) and all the employs of the Department of Maintenance Engineering are greeted as well fir various supports they extended. Mr. Pappu Choudhary Member of maintenance Department and all other workmen are also greeted. I thank all the motherson sumi systems ltd. trainees who underwent training with me for the mutual support I received from them. Finally I apologize all other unnamed who helped me in various ways to have a good training. Knowledge is power and unity is strength.


Company Profile 1. Wire harness 2. Department in M.S.S.L. 3. Material Movement 4. Applicators 5. Crimping 6. CFM Wire Processing 7. Shinmaywa 8. Ultrasonic Welding

The Sumi Motherson Group is a focused, dynamic and progressive group providing customers with value added products, services and innovative solutions. The Group has a diversified product range to serve multiple industries, with automotive industry being the main industry served. The Group business portfolio comprises electrical distribution systems (wiring harnesses), polymer processing, injection molding tools, elastomer processing, modules and systems, machined metal products, cutting tools, IT services, design engineering, CAE services, sunroofs, vehicle air conditioning systems, lighting systems, cabins for off highway vehicles, cutting tools and thin film coating metals. The Group has invested in technologies that provide manufacturing support, including compressors, paint coating equipment, auxiliary equipment for injection molding machines, sales, installation and servicing of industrial robots and automotive manufacturing engineering services. Key Facts Largest in India: Largest automotive wiring harnesses manufacturer. Largest automotive wire manufacturer. Largest manufacturer of rear view mirrors for passenger cars in India. One of the largest supplier of molded plastic components, assemblies & modules for automotive industry. One of the largest manufacturer of automotive rear view mirrors in the world.

Presence in 20 countries across the globe. Group sales over $USD 806 Million (FY 2007-08). Joint ventures in key technology areas. Over 22,000 qualified professionals.

1975: Motherson was founded 1977: First Cable factory started 1983: Technical agreement with Tokai Electric Co. (Now Sumitomo Wiring Systems Japan) for Wiring Harness 1986: JV with Sumitomo Wiring Systems Japan 1989: Injection Molding 1992: Cutting Tool Manufacturing 1994: Tool Room for small and Medium sized Molds (upto 650 Tons) 1995: Cockpit Assemblies Automotive Mirrors 1997: Blow Molding 1998: Rubber Injection Molding 1999: First Overseas office established (Austria) 2000: IT and Design Company Representative Office at Singapore 2001: Liquid Silicon Rubber Injection molding Machined Metal Components 2002: Wiring Harness manufacturing at Sharjah Design Centre at Ireland 2003: Offices in USA & UK established Tool Room at Sharjah Automotive Sunroofs 2004: European Headquarters at Germany Sheet Metal Die Design 2005: Injection Molding & metal Machining in Germany JVs for Environment Management Systems

Industrial Robots Automotive Manufacturing Engineering Plastic Molding & Metal Machining at Germany PVC Tube Manufacturing 2006: Wiring Harness Manufacturing in UK Bus Air-conditioning Systems 2007: Rubber parts Manufacturing in Australia JVs for HVAC Systems, Meter clusters, Body Control Modules & Compressors Bimetal Band Saws Transport & Stationary Refrigeration Systems Thin Film coating metals 2008: JV for Lighting Systems, Pedal Box Assembly & Air Intake manifolds JV for Precision machined metal components 2009: Visiocorp becomes a part of Sumi Motherson Group. Gear cutting tool manufacturing through a new venture Motherson advanced tooling solutions. 2010: JV for hvac systems for commercial vehicles and off the highway vehicles. JV for gear cutting tools. Freezers and retail refrigeration.

The largest manufacturer of integrated wiring harnesses in India, the Sumi Motherson group holds over 65% share of the Indian passenger car wiring harness market. The group manufactures wiring harnesses for the entire crosssection of the automotive industry - from passenger cars to commercial vehicles, two wheelers and three wheelers,multi utility vehicles, farm, material handling equipment and off-the-road vehicles. The group also manufactures specialized wiring harnesses for white goods, office automation, medical diagnostic equipment, electrical and electronic equipment. Designing and developing wiring harnesses from first principle concepts on latest design software, the group provides total solutions in wiring harness manufacturing. The group has complete backward integration for manufacturing critical wiring harness components. In-house capability for design and manufacturing of applicators, jigs, assembly boards and circuit checking boards enable process design control and flexibility. The Engineering Capabilities for Wiring Harness Process Design & Development In-house capability of process design and validation Designing & manufacturing of Jigs & Fixtures Applicator design & manufacturing Design & manufacturing of circuit checking & assembly boards. Tooling design for wiring harness process equipment, testing & assembly equipment Electrical Distribution System - Products

Cable & Harness

Wiring Harness Lead Wire Battery Cable Flat Cable Harness High Tension Cords (Engine Cables)

Wiring Harness Components


Terminals Connectors Caps & Sleeves Clamps & Binders Fuse Boxes Modules with integrated wiring harnesses.

A cable harness, also known as a wire harness, cable assembly, wiring assembly or wiring loom, is a string of cables and/or wires which transmit informational signals or operating currents (energy). The cables are bound together by clamps, cable ties, cable lacing, sleeves, electrical tape, conduit, a weave of extruded string, or a combination there of. Commonly used in automobiles, as well as construction machinery, modern-day cable harnesses provide several advantages over loose wires and cables. For example, many aircraft, automobiles and spacecraft contain many masses of wires which would stretch over several kilometers if fully extended. By binding the many wires and cables into a cable harness, the wires and cables can be better secured against the adverse effects of vibrations, abrasions, and moisture. By constricting the wires into a non-flexing bundle, usage of space is optimized, and the risk of a short is decreased. Since the installer has only one harness to install (as opposed to multiple wires), installation time is decreased and the process can be easily standardized. Binding the wires into a flame-retardant sleeve also lowers the risk of electrical fires.


Cable harnesses are usually designed according to geometric and electrical requirements. A diagram is then provided (either on paper or on a monitor) for the assembly preparation and assembly. The wires are first cut to the desired length, usually using a special wire-cutting machine. The wires may also be printed on by a special machine during the cutting process or on a separate machine. After this, the ends of the wires are stripped to expose the metal (or core) of the wires, which are fitted with any required terminals and/or connector housings. The cables are assembled and clamped together on a special workbench, or onto a pin board (assembly board), according to the design specification, to form the cable harness. After fitting any protective sleeves, conduit, or extruded yarn, the harness is either fitted directly in the vehicle or shipped. In spite of increasing automation, in general, cable harnesses continue to be manufactured by hand, and this will likely remain the case for the foreseeable future. In part, this is due to the many different processes involved, such as:
y y

routing wires through sleeves, taping with fabric tape, in particular on branch outs from wire strands, crimping terminals onto wires, particularly for so-called multiple crimps (more than one wire into one terminal), inserting one sleeve into another,

Fastening strands with tape, clamps or cable ties It is clearly difficult to automate these processes. In spite of this, these processes can be learned relatively quickly, even without professional qualifications. Thus, manual production remains more cost effective than automation. For certain vehicles, such as trucks, there are also a large number of variants (due to different configurations and the length of the vehicles), which produce very


small batch sizes (as low as one). However, the number of variants has been decreasing in recent years due to the use of data bus technology, such as a CAN bus, in conjunction with intelligent control units. In spite of this, different variants are produced on the same assembly board. Even here, man has an advantage over machine, since he can change over to the different variants (no "re-programming" being required). Pre-production, however, can be automated in part. This affects:
y y y

y y

Cutting individual wires (cutting machine), crimping terminals onto one or both sides of the wire, partial plugging of wires prefitted with terminals into connector housings (module), soldering of wire ends (solder machine), and Twisting wires.

Testing the electrical functionality of a cable harness can be done with the aid of a test board. The circuit diagram data are preprogrammed into the test board, where harnesses can be tested individually or in multiple numbers. Crimping is joining two pieces of metal or other malleable material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp. Crimping is most extensively used in metalworking. Crimping is commonly used to join bullets to their cartridge cases, and for rapid but lasting electrical connectors. Because it can be a coldworking technique, crimping can also be used to form a strong bond between the work piece and a non-metallic component. Sometimes, a similar deformity created for reasons other than forming a join may also be called a crimp.


Research & Development (R&D) Department. Purchase Department. Production Department. Marketing Department. Personal and Administration Department (P&A). Customer Support Department. Quality Control Department (Q.C.). Store Department.


In an organization, there is a flow material with different departments right from the raw material to the final assembled product. The material movement steps may be summarized as follows: According to order placed, the material is delivered to the company from the supplier. The received material is kept in the store and its quantity is verified. From here it goes to RQL (Receipt Quality Control) where it is checked for its quality and the defective and non-defective materials are segregated. The non-defective material is stocked in the store. The production department places its order according to the requirement and receives the components accordingly from store. After the complete assembly of the product, it is sent to PQC (Product Quality Control) that looks after the product quality. If the product meets the required standards it is sent to PDI (Pre Dispatch Inspection) that is done with the help of customer support.

If the product does not meets required standards, it is sent back to production department for rectification and reworking.


Once the product is inspected it is ready for dispatch to the customer.


CIC has developed expertise in manufacturing of Applicators of various designs over the past 10 years. These applicators have proved their credibility as we have all the major Multinationals as our customers. Our standard design applicator fixes on most of the popular quick change applicator fixing arrangements available in presses. The applicators have a shut height of 135.8 mm and works well on both 30mm & 40 mm stroke press. These applicators have either mechanical or pneumatic feed of the terminal reel and micro-setting of crimp height is continuous (stepless). All the parts are fully hardened & tempered and made from special steel so that we get maximum life of the part. The components in the applicator assembly are made in Jigs/Fixtures & C&C Machining Center to ensure interchangibility of parts. We have all the perishable tooling permanently marked for easy identification and spare ordering. Normally any spare will be shippied the very next day of receiving the order.



Side Feed Mini Applicator are designed crimp Side Feed Terminals being fed into the applicator from left to right. The present Dial Type adaptor can be changed to Screw Type if the terminal is thicker. These applicators are modified to suit thick base plate of Asian Style. This design applicator is also suitable to run fine terminals, center carrier terminals, middle carrier terminals, rear carrier terminals, double carrier terminals etc. Applicators can also be supplied with proper documentation, trial samples and in ready to use condition.



End Feed Mini Applicators are designed to suit various types of End Feed Terminals (end to end) in chain form. An option is available where we change the Dial Type arrangement to a screw type where terminal is heavy (above 0.6 mm). We can also modify the Base Plate to suit to the Asian Type model. Applicators are supplied with proper documentation and ready to use condition.


Crimping is joining two pieces of metal or other malleable material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp. Crimping is most extensively used in metalworking. Crimping is commonly used to join bullets to their cartridge cases, and for rapid but lasting electrical connectors. Because it can be a coldworking technique, crimping can also be used to form a strong bond between the workpiece and a non-metallic component. Sometimes, a similar deformity created for reasons other than forming a join may also be called a crimp. Outside of metalworking, crimping is notably used for joining the edges of food products such as jiaozi, patties, and sealed crustless sandwiches.


What exactly is a crimp?

Crimping is a complex procedure requiring an optimal interaction of different processes and processing media. Depending on the final product and the required quality, the ability to automate the process must be taken into consideration early in the terminal design stage. Although the choice of appropriate materials (conductor type, wire cross-section, crimp terminal design, etc) is strongly related to the end product, the ability to automate the process should also be considered in the early stages of development.

Cutting and Crimping machine (C&C)


At first sight, it is not possible to tell whether a crimped wire was processed using semi or fully-automatic equipment. Therefore, important issues to consider are the quality to be achieved and the necessary expense and effort during the process. Since the basic processing steps are identical for both processing types, the same quality requirements apply. The main difference is in how the wire is moved between the individual processing steps. It can be moved automatically (=high process security, short cycle times) or manually (=high flexibility). Some types of terminals cannot be crimped automatically, or can only be automated with considerable expense and effort. An example is crimping of loose-piece closed barrel terminals onto battery cables.

Terminal crimp on wire Here, the terminal must first be manually placed onto the stripped cable end, whereby all individual strands must be covered by the barrel/sheath. This process requires fingertip touch and is therefore usually carried out manually. This type of terminal is often crimped using hexagonal form (cable cross-sections >25 mm). Battery cables are large and heavy, making them difficult to handle. They are often fitted with loose-piece closed barrel terminals or battery connectors and run in small production quantities. In most cases, special heavy duty crimp applicators are used for the different designs.


Manual crimping machine

Push and pull gauge


Micrometer These are the tools used in Lead preparation cell.  Manual crimping machine It is a machine that done only crimping operation, it doesnt do cutting like C&C.This machine has motor which is rotating and this rotating motion is converted into reciprocating motion and applicator is attached to ram screw which done crimping. It is operated by foot pedal.


 Push and pull gauge As its name denotes it is a gauge which is used to check the strength of crimping joint or welding joint. It is used in both types: digital and analog. Mostly it is used in digital form. The strength is measured in kilogram-force. 1 kgf=9.81N (Newton) By knowing this we can find out stress, strain or modulus of elasticity.  Micrometer A micrometer sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge is a device incorporating a calibrated screw used widely for precise measurement of small distances in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers. A micrometer is composed of: Frame The C-shaped body that holds the anvil and barrel in constant relation to each other. It is thick because it needs to minimize flexion, expansion, and contraction, which would distort the measurement. The frame is heavy and consequently has a high thermal mass, to prevent substantial heating up by the holding hand/fingers. It is often covered by insulating plastic plates which further reduce heat transference. Explanation: if you hold the frame long enough so that it heats up by 10C, then the increase in length of any 10 cm linear piece of steel is of magnitude 1/100 mm. For micrometers this is their typical accuracy range. Micrometers typically have a specified temperature at which the measurement is correct (often 20C [68F], which is


generally considered "room temperature" in a room with HVAC). Tool rooms are generally kept at 20C [68F]. Anvil The shiny part that the spindle moves toward, and that the sample rests against. Sleeve / barrel / stock The stationary round part with the linear scale on it. Sometimes vernier markings. Lock nut / lock-ring / thimble lock The knurled part (or lever) that one can tighten to hold the spindle stationary, such as when momentarily holding a measurement. Screw The heart of the micrometer, as explained under "Operating principles". It is inside the barrel. (No wonder that the usual name for the device in German is Messschraube, literally "measuring screw".) Spindle The shiny cylindrical part that the thimble causes to move toward the anvil. Thimble The part that one's thumb turns. Graduated markings. Ratchet stop Device on end of handle that limits applied pressure by slipping at a calibrated torque. The least count of micrometer is 0.001 inch


It is used to measure the crimping height (C/H), crimping width (C/W), vinyl height (V/H), vinyl width (V/W) and thickness of the wire.


Quality Assurance Fault recognition and fault prevention processes are also critical steps of the crimping process. Crimp force monitoring (CFM) is the "in-process" quality control method used to monitor the quality of the crimping process during production. The CFM measures the crimping force during the crimping process. It compares the force/time curve of each terminal being crimped against the stored reference curve. If the measured values are outside of the specified tolerance limits, the crimp is identified as bad. Today, two out of three crimping presses have a CFM system installed on them. In modern production environments, early recognition of production faults is generally standardized and supported by numerous measuring methods. Follow-up costs can be reduced, but only after a few faulty wires have already been produced. It is better to avoid faults in the first place. Alongside internal organizational measures, faults can also be avoided through the use of modern technology. Most measures can be used in both semiautomatic and fully-automatic processing. Human Factor With semi-automatic processing, the individual processes are carried out using different machines (in different places). This requires additional processing steps and thereby creates additional potential for error. Through the combination of processing steps (e.g. Stripper-Crimper) and a targeted quality assurance, the highest quality requirements can also be realized here. The human factor is not just important during semi-automatic processing. Specialist competency in setting up, operation, and maintenance is just as important as material quality and precision of the processing medium. In the end, the interplay of people and technology determines the crimp quality. Crimping, also known as terminating, can be understood as the gastight connection of a wire and a terminal. There are an almost infinite number of different crimp terminals available on the


market, but they all have one thing in common: they are joined to a wire through a mechanical deformation process (crimping). Banded or Loose? Terminals are either sold as banded (connected together on a carrier strip) or as loose piece terminals. Banded terminals are simpler to handle as they can be easily fed from a terminal reel and processed on semi- or fully automatic machines.

Single-banded,carrier strips front

Single-banded, carrier strips in the middle

Double-banded, carrier strips front and back With loose terminals, there are no carrier strips. Loose-piece terminals must be brought into the correct position either manually or by a vibratory feeder. Due to their more demanding handling, loose-piece terminals are not used as often as banded terminals. Open or Closed? Both banded as well as loose-piece terminals can be open- or closed-barrel type terminals. This term "open" or "closed" relates to the design of the terminal. With closed barrel terminals, such as insulated wire end ferrules or insulated quick-disconnects, the terminal is shaped like a fully closed cylinder. The stripped wire must be inserted into the circular crimp barrel from the open end


of the terminal. Open barrel terminals are shaped like the letter "U," allowing the wire to be moved downwards from the top into the crimp barrel. As open-barrel terminals are easier to automate, they are used most often in mass production. Side- or Rear-Feed? With open-barrel, banded terminals, a deciding factor in the selection of an appropriate processing medium is whether the terminals are connected on the carrier strip end-to-end or side-byside. The arrangement on the carrier strip determines the type of feed into the crimping press as well as the transport direction of the crimping tool (from left, right or rear). Manufacturers of crimping machines and tools, such as Schleuniger, offer different variants of their equipment to be able to process virtually all terminal types. Single or Double? Other than open or closed, and side or rear feed, banded crimp terminals can also be single-banded or double-banded,depending on the number of carrier strips between the terminals. The position of the carrier strip between the terminals, as well as the number of carrier strips, determines the design of the crimping tools. The majority of crimp applicator manufacturers have focused on the most common terminal types. However, the Schleuniger crimping specialists follow a different strategy: from standard terminals to complex terminal types, Schleuniger offers machines and tooling to process every terminal. For instance, the Uni-A crimp applicator, for cable cross-sections up to 6 mm, is available as a side- and rear-feed applicator, with mechanical or pneumatic feed, for single- and double-banded terminals of different types. In addition, the Uni-A and Schleuniger crimping presses, such as the UniCrimp 200 (with standard Split Cycle Function), can also process closed barrel terminals (e.g. insulated wire end ferrules) or Mylar banded terminals. In addition to the Uni-A,and


FlexoCrimper (up to 6 mm) universal crimp applicators, the Schleuniger range of applicators also includes the HeavyCrimper applicator up to 35 mm as well as special crimping tools for loose terminals up to 50 mm. Wire and Insulation Crimp? As a rule, with banded terminals, two connection procedures take place simultaneously the wire crimp and the insulation crimp.

Insulation and wire crimp The continual development of connection technology has led to many new crimp connections types, such as the 3-zone crimp for coaxial cable. The wire crimp forms the mechanical-electrical connection between the stripped inner wire (e.g. stranded conductor) and the terminal. It must be gas-tight. The insulation crimp should absorb influencing forces such as vibration or tension so that they do not affect the wire crimp. The insulation crimp forms a purely mechanical connection between the terminal and the insulation of the cable. Therefore, it is important that the insulation is not damaged during the insulation crimp process. B-Crimp, O-Crimp or U-Crimp? The final shape of the terminal after the crimping process has led to the relatively common terms B-crimp, O-crimp and Ucrimp.


Different types of insulation connections Other types of crimps, which are used less frequently, include the 4-point crimp, the hexcrimp and the trapez-crimp. After the stripped wire is inserted into the terminal, the terminal and wire are compressed through terminal-specific parts (known as tooling) of the crimp applicator during the crimping procedure. The characteristic shape, which has led to the name, can be seen in the cross-section of the crimped terminal and wire, in both the insulation crimp and the wire crimp. Wire Crimp The most common wire crimp used for stranded wires is the Bcrimp. When the ears of the terminal are formed during the crimping process, the individual wire strands move symmetrically within the terminal inner space due to the symmetry of the crimped terminal shape. A gas-tight connection is easier to achieve for stranded conductors with a B-crimp than with an Ocrimp. In contrast, crimping of solid wires cannot be gas-tight with a B-crimp since there are no individual strands that can move during the crimping process. Therefore, the wire crimp for solid wires is generally carried out as an O-crimp.


Different types of wire crimp connections Insulation Crimp As the insulation crimp serves exclusively to absorb influencing forces on the wire crimp, the challenge is to form a connection to the insulation without damaging it. In this case, a B-crimp allows very high connection stability but damages the insulation to a certain degree. The danger of damage is greater than with an Ocrimp or U crimp, where the crimping ears only surround, rather than penetrate, the insulation. Why Dont Crimp Tools Cost More? The crimp applicator is the heart of the crimping process regardless whether it is carried out semi-automatically or fully automatically. With the deformation of the crimping ears of a crimp terminal, the degree and type of deformation are determined by the crimp applicator and its terminal-specific parts (tooling), such as crimp die and anvil.Only tooling that is optimally matched to the crimp terminal to be processed can assure high crimp quality. Beat Locher, Product Manager for Schleuniger: Our crimp applicators stand for quality without compromise at an extremely attractive price. He judges the requirements for quality and precision of the tooling as follows: If the terminal-specific parts are not precisely made, then even the best crimp machine will not be able to achieve a good result. At Schleuniger, we design and manufacture not only crimp applicators, but also crimping machines, StripperCrimpers, fully automatic crimping machines


and transfer systems, so we know only too well the importance of the crimp applicator as the central element in production. Therefore, from the very beginning, key factors in Schleuniger crimp applicators have been designed with the highest precision and to be maintenance-friendly. As proof of quality for customers, every crimp applicator is tested internally and a ground crosssectional view is prepared. Central Role of the Feed Next to an optimal, terminal-specific design of the tooling, the basic design of the feed plays a central role. With banded terminals, the feed is responsible for the exact positioning of the terminal parts before crimping. At first glance, it appears to be of secondary importance whether the feed is pneumatic or mechanical. Deviations from the ideal position with either types of feed can lead to faulty crimping.

Transport distance = distance between two crimp terminals on the carrier strip Mechanical or Pneumatic? With mechanical feed, the vertical stroke of the crimping press is translated into a horizontal transport movement of the terminal carrier strip, so that after each crimp, the next terminal part is brought into the exact pre-defined position between the anvil and crimp die. As the distance between two terminals on the carrier strip is usually different between different terminal types, most applicators have user adjustable settings for setting the terminal feed stroke and terminal position. Pneumatic feed is often used in


automatic operation, in order to achieve the highest level of accuracy for positioning and precision over large transport distances. The advantage of pneumatic feed is that the transport movement is not coupled to the press stroke directly. Therefore, the speed and timing of the feed can be controlled individually. Side- or Rear-Feed? Depending on how the terminal is positioned on the carrier strip, the feed must either take place from the side (= side-feed applicator) or from behind (= rear feed applicator).Internationally, the universal crimp applicator with a stroke of 40 mm and a shut height of 135.788 mm (height of applicator in closed state) predominates, but as far as feed direction (which is determined ultimately by the terminal manufacturer) is concerned, all types are still to be found in the global market: feed from the side (left or right possible) or feed from rear naturally, all with different terminal pitches.

Depending on how the terminal is positioned on the carrier strip, the feed must either take place from the side from left or right (=side-feed applicator) or from behind (=rear-feed applicator) Numerous Settings In order to achieve optimal crimping, numerous terminal-specific settings can be made on the crimp applicator: from basic parameters, such as crimp height of the wire and insulation crimps, to fine-adjustments of the bell mouth, terminal end position, compensation of play, and adjusting the force of the terminal braking system. It is a decisive advantage if settings, such as those with the Schleuniger Uni-A, can take place directly


in the crimping press so that any necessary adjustments can be made quickly and verified directly. What is Standard? At least in Europe, the 40 mm stroke and the 3-point mounting of an applicator in the press are defined as standard. In general, these applicators are appropriate for wire crosssections up to 6 mm (AWG 10). For larger cross-sections or for use with flat foil cables, there is as yet no international standard. As a worldwide company, Schleuniger offers, for example, the Uni-A standard crimp applicator in different designs (mechanical / pneumatic / side-feed / rear-feed), with special designs for closed barrel terminals, 30 mm stroke or as a double crimp applicator. Next to the FlexoCrimper (a special standard applicator for highspeed automatic production), Schleuniger also has special tools for cross-sections up to 50 mm as well as solutions for crimping of flat foil cables (FFC / FPC) in the product range. What Influence Does The Crimping Press Have On Crimp Quality? In comparison to the crimp applicator (for which the numerous set-up possibilities lead to numerous influencing factors), a crimping machine's press force, repeatability and cycle times are important factors. Other important criteria are the seamless interaction of the press with the crimp applicator and the crimp force monitoring system. Basic Function The crimping press moves the crimp applicator into the lower bottom dead center" position, deforming the crimp terminal with the conductor at the set crimp height and brings the tool back into the initial position at "top dead center."


Shut Height & Press Stroke The basic prerequisite for being able to use a crimp applicator in a crimping press is that the shut height, press stroke and interlock system are identical for the press and the crimp applicator. The shut height is the distance between the upper and lower applicator mounting positions of the press in the closed position (= height of applicator in closed position). Every crimp applicator to be used on a given press must have an identical shut height and stroke. In order to be able to use the widest possible spectrum of crimp applicators, a press with the international standard shut height of 135.788 mm is recommended. This height has more or less become the norm in both Europe and the USA.

Example shut height The distance between the open and closed positions of the crimping press is described as the press stroke. As the vertical movement of the applicator is carried out exclusively by the crimping press, the press strokes should concur precisely. Depending on the crimp applicator manufacturer, this varies as a rule between 39 and 42 mm, but 30 mm is also common in USA and Asia. Therefore, Schleuniger offers crimping machines with a stroke of 40 mm as well as 30mm (and adapters for different strokes). An exact stroke of the press, especially with mechanical crimp tools, is of central importance for the terminal feed, as here the press stroke is translated directly into a horizontal terminal transport movement.


Crimp Force & Operation Modes The force of the press usually given in Kilo-Newton (kN) or tons determines the cross-sectional area that can be processed. In order to achieve an optimal deformation the required minimum force varies, depending on wire cross-section, the type of wire (solid or stranded) and the terminal to be processed. The UniCrimp 200 from Schleuniger has a high press force of 33 kN so that it can be used with a wider variety of wires and terminals. As far as crimp drives go, the eccentric crank drive predominates, with the rotational movement of the drive motor being transformed into a linear movement through a crankshaft with an eccentric crank arm. The advantage of this design is that the "bottom dead center" position of the press is precise and repeatable. The maximum force occurs a few degrees before bottom dead center and continues until dead center. The deformation of the terminal must therefore be completed upon reaching the bottom dead center position. A second maximum force, occurring shortly after bottom dead center is reached, does not contribute to deformation.

UniCrimp 200 programmable crimp machine


A combined knee-lever-crank-drive, such as with the Schleuniger UniCrimp 500, has the advantage that the closing procedure takes place very quickly, thus favoring short cycle times. The actual deformation process is carried out more slowly in order to achieve an optimal result without requiring longer cycle times. There are also crimp machines on the market with pneumatic linear or knee-lever drives. Cycle Time More and more, short cycle times are determining factors when purchasing a new crimping press. Especially with mechanical crimp applicators, high press speed automatically effects the feed / transport velocity of the crimp applicator and thereby influences the precision of positioning of the terminal. Depending on conductor and terminal, the material also needs a certain time during the deformation to flow optimally. Insufficient time can lead to reduction in quality or faulty crimps. Therefore, the optimal set-up of the press and crimp tool depends on the material (steel, brass) as well as the coating (gold, silver, pewter). In order to achieve the best possible result, individual setting of the press velocity is necessary. Repetitive Precision The repetitive precision of the press is an important characteristic. Otherwise, the initial fine-tuning becomes partially lost during operation. If the crimping process doesnt take place with constant speed and force, it can lead to undesired variations. If a crimp applicator is used in different presses, it is worthwhile to make sure that the shut height is re-set to the identical height regularly using a calibration device in order to achieve the same results independent of which press is in use. The shut height can be adjusted with most crimping presses. Stability of bearings and precision of the guides are also important points to consider in


regard to achieving long-term high-quality production. The wear and tear on the mechanical parts of old presses leads to more play and thereby to a reduction in crimp quality. Crimp Force Monitoring Crimp force monitoring is a measuring device used to monitor the crimp quality during the crimping process. It monitors how the crimp press, crimp applicator and terminals are "working together" during the process. During the crimping procedure, a sensor measures the press force applied and reports this to the electronic control system, which converts the recorded force into a curve over time. The aim is to find out where the curves deviate. Known good crimps are used to "teach" the system the characteristics of a good crimp and to calculate a reference force. Each and every subsequent crimp is compared with the reference crimp force. Deviations of the crimp force that lie outside of the pre-set tolerance limit are registered as bad. Today, two out of three crimp presses have an integrated crimp force monitoring system. Other crimp quality characteristics include only one parameter such as crimp height, crimp width and pull-out force. On the other hand, crimp force monitoring includes forces that are influenced by the entire system. Each of these components can have an effect on crimp characteristics. Changeover Time & Flexibility With changeover and maintenance, it is an advantage if the press is accessible and not too small. The applicator change should take place simply, and if possible, without additional tools. If the working area is too small, the use of certain standard applicators may not be possible. For maximum flexibility, the crimping machine, such as the UniCrimp 200 from Schleuniger, should have an adjustable press velocity, a valve for pneumatic crimp applicators and a split-cycle function for the processing of closed barrel terminals. Only with the perfect interplay of crimping press, crimp applicator and crimp force monitoring system can an


optimal result be achieved. At first glance, the crimp applicator seems to be more important because of its complexity. However, upon more careful examination, the extensive influence of the crimping press on the quality of the product to be processed becomes evident. What Is The Stripper-Crimper Needed For? Numerous characteristics determine the quality of a crimp connection. The following essential conditions must be considered and fulfilled before crimping can take place: The correct assignment of terminal and conductor The selection of the correct crimp tool for the terminal The terminal must be positioned correctly in the crimp tool The conductor must be stripped to the correct length The stripping must be carried out to perfection The correct position of the stripped conductor in the crimp barrel Strip Length and Position of the Conductor in the Crimp Most crimp connections use stranded wires with an insulating jacket (insulation) in different designs. The wire must be stripped before it is crimped. The strip length and the position of the wire must be selected so that the individual strands are visible on both sides of the crimp zone (crimp barrel). The individual wires should not jut into the plugging or connection area as this can limit the function of, or damage, the terminal. The exact positioning of the wire is especially difficult with very small terminals with very short distances both sides of the crimp barrel. High precision is extremely important during the stripping and the feeding of the cable. The insulation should be visible between the insulation holding device (insulation crimp) and the crimp zone (wire crimp). Under no circumstance should it appear inside the crimp barrel (in wire crimp).


Example of stranded wire in a crimped terminal Perfect Stripping Perfect stripping of the wire is a must for a good and durable crimp connection. Faults that occur during stripping often remain undiscovered and can have fatal consequences for the crimp connection.

Wire crimp in cross section For perfect strip quality, the individual strands of the wire must not be damaged or cut off during the stripping process. The insulation must not be damaged. There must be no remnants of insulation on the stripped part of the wire. The individual strands must not be untwisted during the stripping process as this often leads to spreading out of the individual strands, which can cause some of them to fall outside the crimp area during crimping. The crimp connection would thereby be faulty, creating the risk to short circuit. On the other hand, the individual strands must not be overtwisted as this causes an uneven distribution in the crimp barrel and the wire cross-section becomes larger. Therefore, it is especially important to use precise and reliable systems for the stripping process.


Crimp Dimensions with Open Barrel Terminals One of the most important methods of checking the quality of a crimped terminal is to measure the key dimensions after crimping. The crimp width and especially the crimp height, determined by the manufacturer, have an important influence on the quality and the long-term behavior of a crimp connection. Also for the insulation crimp, crimp dimensions are defined by the manufacturer (generally as approximate values). Bellmouth The conductor entry end of the crimp barrel must have a visible radius (funnel-shaped expansion). This entry radius prevents the notching or separation of individual wires and is therefore important for the quality of the crimp connection. A radius on the conductor exit end is permitted but not essential. General Condition of the Crimped Terminals After the crimping process, neither the terminals nor the conductor should show evidence of damage, which could restrict function or influence long-term behavior. Faults can occur with crimped terminals through incorrect handling, incorrect set-up or inappropriate crimp applicators. In practice, the following cases occur frequently: The terminal is bent: Generally, the limit for the curvature of the terminals is max. 3 to 4 degrees The terminal is twisted The plugging area is damaged The dividing wedges are not correct (too long or too short) or imprecisely cut There are signs of crack formation in the terminal seams or terminal base Over-sized ridge formation (flash) in the crimp base: the flash height must be less than half of the material thickness


Tolerance ranges for crimp terminals Quality Assurance with Crimping The most important instruments for quality assurance are the visual and dimension checks, optical tests, crimp force monitoring, the measurement of tensile strength and the preparation of a cross-sectional view. Visual Check The human eye is still irreplaceable for quality assurance. Many defects/faults can be recognized through a visual check carried out by an expert: Are all individual wires covered? Are the individual wires, the insulation and the seal of the individual wires undamaged? Is the terminal undamaged and not bent? Is the radius on the crimp barrel correctly formed? Is the base of the crimp claw visually deformed? Are the crimping ears closed and do they support each other? Is there flash, and if so, is it less than half of the material thickness? Does the conductor lie correctly in the crimping area? Is the strip length correct?


Eventually existing flash height should be less than half of the material thickness. Dimension Check The measurement of crimp height must be very precise and reproducible. For this measurement, a special micrometer or a special crimp height measuring devices is used. The crimp height measuring equipment is used mostly in fully automatic processing or where quality assurance has a high priority. Through their high precision and network interfaces, such devices offer the possibility of direct electronic data recording and evaluation. In networks with crimping presses, the crimp height can be automatically adjusted by the press according to the measured values. The crimp width and the crimp dimensions of the insulation holding device are measured with a measuring gauge.

Crimp height measuring Optical Test Devices Some characteristics can only be measured optically (e.g. curvature of the terminals, length of the dividing wedges, size of


the radii on the crimp barrel). For such checks, measuring or profile projectors or measuring microscopes are used. Also, the aforementioned visual tests are often supported by the use of optical instruments, such as a hand-held or bench-top magnifying glass.

Crimp Force Monitoring The measurement, recording and evaluation of the crimp force allows crimp faults to be recognized during the running process. This task, known as crimp force monitoring, is carried out by crimp force monitors that are either integrated into the crimping press or connected as optional devices. The crimp force monitoring system records the crimp force curve at the same time as the press runs. After each crimp, the actual curve is compared to the saved reference curve. Deviations of the curves are evaluated according to different criteria. If the deviation exceeds the defined tolerance limit, the crimp is classed as faulty. This procedure allows a 100% test of crimp connections without requiring any additional time. Faults, such as the cut-off of individual strands, wire that is not stripped or fully stripped, or the incorrect positioning of the conductor in the crimp, are found in real time. Of particular importance is that the crimped samples used to create the reference curves are perfect. If, for example, the reference curve was created with divided individual strands, then divided individual strands will not be recognized as a fault during production . This fault will probably reveal itself once the first perfect examples are finished after the correction (because they are then classified as faulty crimps). Measuring the Pull-Out Force


In contrast to the previously described test procedures, this test and the tests which follow are destructive tests. The tensile strength of the crimp connections, independent of the cable crosssection, is not allowed to fall below certain values. These values are normalized or defined by the terminal part manufacturer. For the measurement of these values, corresponding pullforce measuring devices are used. These devices come in different sizes and designs. It is also possible for network access here, direct data recording, evaluation and archiving. Possibly occurring deviations from the ideal values allow faults in the crimp process to be recognized at an early stage and enable the introduction of corrective measures. Preparation of Ground Cross-Sectional View The preparation of the ground cross-sectional view largely serves as the assessment of the degree of deformation and the symmetry of the crimp. A ground cross-sectional view also allows any occurring ridges to be measured and to recognize possible cracks in the material. To create a ground cross-sectional view, the crimp zone is cut horizontally. After that, the cut surface is polished and cleaned in an electrolyte staining process. The prepared samples are then visually checked under a microscope and assessed

Ground cross-section of wire A good crimp connection shows the following characteristics: All individual wires of the strand are pressed in honeycomb form


The rolled-in crimping ears support each other There are no empty spaces between the individual wires There are no empty spaces between the individual wires and the terminal walls The base of the terminal is visually deformed Marked deviations from this ideal condition often suggest errors in wire and terminal selection, selection of the proper crimp applicator, incorrectly set crimp height, poor quality stripping or wear and tear of the crimp tooling. However, the crimp quality also depends largely on the specialist competency of the employees, on the material quality (terminals and wires) and on the quality of the crimp applicators and machines.


Wire End Quality Assurance - Crimp Force Monitoring

In modern, high volume wire harness production, automatic wire strippers are used to strip insulation from the wire prior to the crimping process where a terminal is fixed to the stripped wire.


Crimp-on terminals are attached to wires to allow the wires to be easily connected to electrical component terminals and quickconnect terminals. Crimp-on terminals are attached by inserting the stripped end of a stranded wire into the tubular portion of the terminal, which is then compressed tightly around the wire in a crimping die on either a bench press or automatic crimping machine. What can a CFM detect? Missing or bent wire strands Incorrect insulation strip Strands outside main crimp Insulation in main crimp Insulation crimp faults Crimp misfeeds Incorrect wire use

Wire processing involves high speed precision cutting and stripping, and often the placement of a weather seal onto the wire before the terminal is applied. Failing to ensure absolute quality through every step of this high speed process can result in significant penalties, containment, reduced profits, or loss of business. Providing this type of critical quality assurance at parts


per second speed for pennies per part prices poses a significant challenge. To accomplish this, leading wire harness manufacturers employ 2 primary quality assurance methods to assure the quality expected by their customers. The first is the crimp force monitor, which can be considered a process variation monitor. The other is an inprocess strip and seal inspection device, such as the LPA56B WireScan. These are complimenting technologies process variation monitoring, combined with wire strip and seal inspection that will ensure effective and reliable detection of wire processing defects for even small gauge wire processing applications. Crimp force monitors have proven to be essential for in-process monitoring of the crimp quality for wire processing, and are now mandated by most wire harness manufacturers globally. Crimp force monitors, or more appropriately called crimp process variation monitors, detect process variations that can be directly correlated to crimp defects, tool wear, incorrect alignment or adjustment, etc. that might result in defective parts, accumulation of unnecessary scrap, and rework. To date, there have been few technological innovations in the wire processing industry that have proven to be as effective as crimp process monitors. How it Works The CFM series of crimp force monitors from OES utilize a piezostrain sensor bolted to the frame of the crimping press to capture a signature of the relative force of the crimp stroke over the time of the cycle. On stable equipment, this signature is highly repeatable, so that any variance in the process will be reflected in a change in the signature, as in this example of a missing strand. The patented analysis of each production curve against a learned reference curve of a known good crimp, allows the monitor to provide a Pass for cycles within tolerance or a Fail output for


cycles outside of tolerance allowing the part to be segregated for quality assurance. Detectable Defects: Missing wire strands, strands out of the core, no strip, high/low insulation, missing terminals and twisted terminals, changes to crimp height, and scrap in the tooling. Key Features and Options of the CFM4000: One to three channel Crimp Force Monitor utilizing the most current microprocessor technology. Unique automatic setup features with user-friendly alphanumeric and graphic displays to minimize setup time. Three display screens available in RUN mode, showing: 1. Graphic display of process relative to compared Control Limits. 2. Engineering data results on each crimp (target, actual, tolerances, deviation). 3. Graphic display of Force Curve following every crimp. Option to store multiple force signatures for special applications. CPK computation and automatic optimization of the control limits based on process capability. Two levels of failure detection and ability to interface with advanced wire processing equipment batch separators, choppers, etc. A counter that maintains a running total of passes and failure types for each press.


Communication port configurable for a wide range of requirements (computer for crimp studies using OES CFMView Software, external printer, network link, etc.) Built in self-diagnostics. WIFI option for remote monitoring, configuration and setup.




Ultra short conversion times, additional applications and a userfriendly user interface with multiple-language capability. The Shinmaywa makes it all possible! With its third processing station and state of the art control software, you are assured maximum flexibility and an even more efficient way of meeting your wire processing needs. Whats more, the system is a superb value for the money.


Maximum flexibility With its additional processing station on side 1, the Shinmaywa PC enables you to crimp both ends of the wire, to create double crimp connections with three different contacts, to carry out oneended seal application, tinning or ink-jet marking. In addition, process monitoring is all integrated to ensure that the wire is cut to length and stripped perfectly to specification and that quality control is optimized. Special features Guide tubes can be changed without tools thanks to the quickrelease system. The contact rolls are positioned in the lower part of the machine and the safety cover opens upwards to ensure optimum access to the tools. Thanks to the fully programmable C&C axes plus the stored wire and processing parameters, production is always economical, even with small batches. Integrated device Wire processing today requires cost-optimized, comprehensive solutions. To this end, the MCI 711 and MCI 761 peripheral stations have been specially adapted for use with these new machine generations. You benefit from the compact design and standardized operating concept. Thanks to serial control, the peripheral devices with integrated process monitoring are also integrated into the TopWin user software. Here is how you benefit Exact reproducible settings for processing stations Optimum accessibility to the processing stations and contact rolls Drawer for storing the guide parts


Maintenance-free step and servo motor of top quality Encoder measurement system with ACS anti-slip monitoring Frequency and voltage independent MCI 711 crimp module and MCI 761 seal module High piece output Compact wire gripper with high level of holding force V blade principle, optional form blades Ink jet marking integrated into the user interface Your benefits Ultra short conversion times thanks to integrated processing modules Highly comfortable and convenient to operate thanks to graphicbased TopWin software User specified language ? more than ten different languages to choose from Crimp force analyser with statistic analysis Seal monitoring Integrated good/bad sorting Can be networked with additional WPCS software


Freely definable access rights to ensure excellent productivity and quality Top Win The Windows user interface is designed for quick, simple data input. Thanks to the excellent graphics-based layout, users are able to master all machine operations in record time. Accessories Through the addition of various accessories, the Shinmaywa can be customized to meet your exact needs yet remains adaptable to accommodate future requirements. Accessories for crimp module Height adjustable module elevating table Contact feed units with paper strip take-up Contact strip cutter Wire deposition Feed belt and extension to deposition system (2m or 4m) for long wires Process monitoring Crimp force monitoring Seal monitoring Splice monitoring Detection system for wire end and knots.


Wire cross-sections: 0,125mm2 ? 5mm2 AWG 26 ? AWG 10 Length range: 60mm? 50000mm (optional 30mm) (+/- 1mm bzw. < 0, 2% depending on wire length) Stripping lengths: Side1: 0,1 ? 15mm (optional 28mm) Side2: 0,1 ? 15mm Wire feed rate: max. 6m/s Noise level: < 75dB (without crimp modules) Electrical connections: 3x208 ? 480 V / 50 ? 60Hz 6kVA Pneumatic connection: 5-6 bar Air consumption weight: 6,5 m3/h Weight: 840 kg with two crimp modules Dimensions (W?D): 3137 x 1377mm Height with cover closed: 1790mm (70.5 in.) Height with cover open: 2670mm (105.1 in.) Reference values for piece output on Shinmaywa

Wire length (mm)


Wire data Wires FLK-R 0,75 mm2 Pneumatic pressure 6 bar Speed 6 m/s Acceleration 40 m/s2 MCI 711 crimp modules MCI 761 seals module Quality control OFF


When bonding material through ultrasonic welding, the energy required comes in the form of mechanical vibrations. The welding tool (sonotrode) couples to the part to be welded and moves it in longitudinal direction. The part to be welded on remains static. Now the parts to be bonded are simultaneously pressed together. The simultaneous action of static and dynamic forces causes a fusion of the parts without having to use additional material. This procedure is used on an industrial scale for linking both plastics and metals.

Figure Differences in the process for welding plastics and metals with ultrasonics Anvil Parts to be welded Sonotrode Ultrasonic oscillation Ultrasonic welding of plastics


Oscillations are introduced vertically Ultrasonic welding of plastics is a state-of-the-art technology that has been in use for many years. When welding thermoplastics, the thermal rise in the bonding area is produced by the absorption of mechanical vibrations, the reflection of the vibrations in the connecting area, and the friction of the surfaces of the parts. The vibrations are introduced vertically. In the contraction area, frictional heat is produced so that material plasticizes locally, forging an insoluble connection between both parts within a very short period of time. The prerequisite is that both working pieces have a near equivalent melting point. The joint quality is very uniform because the energy transfer and the released internal heat remains constant and is limited to the joining area. In order to obtain an optimum result, the joining areas are prepared to make them suitable for ultrasonic bonding. Besides plastics welding, ultrasonics can also be used to rivet working parts or embed metal parts into plastic.

Ultrasonic metal welding Horizontal oscillation direction

Whereas in plastic welding, high-frequency vertical vibrations (20 to 70kHz) are used to increase the temperature and plastify the material, the joining of metals is an entirelydifferent process. Unlike in other processes, the parts to be welded are not heated to melting point, but are connected by applying pressure and high-frequency mechanical vibrations. In contrast to plastics welding, the mechanical vibrations used during ultrasonic metal welding are introduced horizontally.


The mechanisms during ultrasonic metal welding

Principle of ultrasonic metal welding 1. Sonotrode 2, 3 Parts to be joined 4. Anvil 5. Welding area During ultrasonic metal welding, a complex process is triggered involving static forces, oscillating shearing forces and a moderate temperature increase in the welding area. The magnitude of these factors depends on the thickness of the workpieces, their surface structure, and their mechanical properties. The workpieces are placed between a fixed machine part, i.e. the anvil, and the sonotrode, which oscillates horizontally during the welding process at high frequency (usually 20 or 35 or 40 kHz). The most commonly used frequency of oscillation (working frequency) is 20 kHz. This frequency is above that audible to the human ear and also permits the best possible use of energy. For welding processes which require only a small amount of energy, a working frequency of 35 or 40 kHz may be used.


Figure Ultrasonic metal welding mechanism Rough surfaces prevents slippage The sonotrode and anvil (welding tools) usually feature rough surfaces or have a milled or ground structure (cross-ribbed or


grooved structure, etc.) to grip the parts to be joined and prevent unwanted slippage. Locally limited metal deformations The static pressure is introduced at right angles to the welding interface. Here, the pressure force is superimposed by the highfrequency oscillating shearing force. As long as the forces inside the workpieces are below the limit of linear elasticity, the pieces will not deform. If forces surpass a given threshold value, local material deformation will soon take place. These shearing forces, at high frequency, break down contamination, remove it and produce a bond between pure metal interface. The further oscillation makes the interface deformation grow until a large welding area has been produced. At the same time, there is an atomic diffusion in the contact area and the metal re-crystallizes into a fine grain structure having the properties of a cold-worked metal. Temperature rise in the welding area No fusion Ultrasonic metal welding is local and limited to the shear forces and displacement of intermediate layers. However, a fusion does not take place if the pressure force, the amplitude and the welding time have been properly adjusted. Microscopic analyses using optical and electronic microscopes make re-crystallization, diffusion and other metallurgical phenomena evident. However, they provide no evidence of fusion (melted interface). The use of highly sensitive thermal sensing devices in the intermediate layers shows in initial quick rise in temperature with a steady temperature drop afterwards.


The temperature profile can be controlled The maximum temperature obtained is a function of the process settings at the welding equipment. An increase in welding energy likewise leads to an increase of possible maximum temperature. An increase in the static force also leads to an increase of the initial temperature, but at the same time limits the possible maximum temperature. Consequently, the temperature profile can, within certain limits, be influenced by proper machine adjustments. The temperature in the intermediate layer is, of course, also a function of the properties of the material. The basic rule is that the temperature obtained is higher for materials with a low thermal conductivity such as iron, and lower for metals with a higher thermal conductivity such as copper and aluminum. Temperature measurements carried for different materials with widely varying melting points have shown that the maximum temperature in the welding interface will not exceed some 35 to 50% of the melting temperature of the individual metal, provided that the proper welding parameters have been selected. Homogeneous and lasting joints Diffusion takes place Ultrasonic metal welding is not characterized by superficial adhesion or glued bonds. It is proven that the bonds are solid, homogeneous and lasting joints. If, for example, a thin aluminum sheet is ultrasonically welded to a thin copper sheet, it can easily be ascertained that after a certain period of weld time, copper particles appear on the back side of the aluminum sheet. At the same time, aluminum particles appear on the back side


of the copper sheet. This shows that the materials have penetrated each other -- a process which is called diffusion. This process takes place within fractions of a second.


The different processes for joining metal parts can be systematically subdivided into different categories depending on their action principle. Their bond can be form-closed, frictional or positive-substance bond (figure). Very often, it is not possible to make a clear distinction between closing shape and frictional bond, as some processes render a clear distinction between operating principles impossible.

Figure: classification of weldings by their action principle A positive substance bond is mostly inseparable, and the bond takes place only by using additional material or consumables. The most frequent types of joints in this category are adhesive, soldered, brazed and welded joints. When welding materials, one


has to be joined distinguish between fusion welding and pressure welding. Fusion and pressure welding Strong plastification Fusion welding leads to a welding of the pieces by applying heat at the point of connection which fuses the pieces together and even joins a material. After the hardening of the mixed components, a solid joint occurs. Unlike fusion welding, pressure welding depends on the application of high pressures and/or high temperatures, resulting in a strong plastification and a local deformation of the pieces to in the welding area so that a bond between both pieces is made. The energy required for the welding process is of a different kind for both types of procedure.

Figure: Process principle of metallic pressure welding based on movement


Proven energy sources here are gas, arc welding, light, electron or plasma beams. Ultrasonic welding belongs in the category of pressure welding and uses motion and kinetic energy for welding pieces together. Depending on the kind of motion, a distinction in metal welding between cold-pressed welding, friction welding and ultrasonic welding can be made. All three procedures show a high similarity. Ultrasonic metal welding is a combination of cold-press welding and friction welding because of its mode of action. Figure shows the different principles of cold-press, friction and ultrasonic welding. Coldpress welding takes place at room temperature. By applying high pressures to both pieces the materials weld together. A strong material deformation at the welding zone accounts for the bond. The differences between the various metal welding processes In the friction welder, one or both pieces rotate while they are pressed together. The frictional heat which emanates together with the static pressure causes the bond between the pieces. The back pressure required for joining the pieces in comparison to cold-press welding is drastically reduced because of the additional rotational energy. The matching of the surfaces promotes plastification and local deformation of the pieces being welded. A considerably lower welding pressure During ultrasonic metal welding, the rotational motion is replaced by mechanical linear vibrations. The welding surfaces are periodically scrubbed during the welding process.


This further reduces the required welding pressure compared to friction welding, the final value being only about 1% of that required for cold-press welding.