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1 Christianity and Armed Struggles: A Search For The Root of Armed Struggles in North East India -Rosiamliana Tochhawng

We are theologising in a context riddled by violence: especially in North East India, we have been witnessing increasing violence at an alarming rate. This has gripped our mind with fear and terror as well as confusion and perplexity. A question to be squarely addressed in such context is what is the root of such armed insurgencies? This question has become more and more prompting when Christianity is accused as playing clandestine role in the armed struggles. This paper tries to explore the relationship between Christianity and armed insurgency in NEI Christianity has become a target of attack by Hindutva forces in India today. In order to play down Christianity as anti-national religion they always cited armed struggles in NEI as stoked by Christianity. In the face of such allegations this paper tries to clarify that, Christianity is not the root of armed struglles in NEI; rather a tendency to secede from India evolved from the peoples feeling of being ill-treated, they resorted to armed violence as a defence mechanism and a struggle for self-determination in the face of a threat to assimilate them. The role of Christianity is seen as a factor that empowered and conscientized the people to resist the threat of being marginalized and annihilated. A Turbulent Situation of North East India: North East India as a region has been deeply characterised by political unrest of various kinds and it became a sensitive region because of armed struglles. It is said that there are more than fifty insurgent groups in NEI1. Lalsangkima Pachuau rightly observes, Since Indias independence in 1947 the region has not seen a single decade of calm political atmosphere. Instead, each decade saw new movements of political unrest turned to violent revolutions 2 Indeed, the Communist Party of Manipur, under the leadership of Hijam Irabot started underground movement in 19493 and today there are more than twenty insurgent
New Look at North East, Times of India (Bangalore), July 21, 2002, p.10 Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity: A Socio-Historical and Missiological Study of Christianity in North East India with Special reference to Mizoram, (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2002), p.47 3 Ibid.,p.47
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2 groups operating in the state among which the United Liberation Front, the People Liberation Army, and the Peoples Revolutionary Army of Kangleipak Kuki National Army, Zoumi Revolutionary Army, Kuki National Front are the main groups continuing armed struggle for autonomy.4 The Nagas started armed struggle in 1950s5, till today, both of the factional groups of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-IM and NSCN-Khaplang) continues to fight for political self-determination. In Mizoram the Mizo National Front staged their armed struggle for independence in 1966 and lasted for twenty years. In Tripura, armed insurgency began in 1970s Tribal National Volunteer, and All Tripura Tribal Force, Tripura National Liberation Front, Tripura National Army are continuing their armed struggle for separate homeland for tribals. In Assam the struggle of All Assam Student Union against the influx of foreigners in 1970s was changed to a struggle for political self-determination under the United Liberation Front of Asom. The Bodo and Karbis in Assam are also fighting for their political autonomy. Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya seem to be peaceful, but they also witnessed formation of insurgent groups. The United Liberation Volunteers of Arunachal Pradesh was formed in 1990s, and at the same time, the Meghalaya United Liberation Army, Hynniewtrep Achik Liberation Council, and Achik Liberation Matgrik Army were formed in Meghalaya. Though these groups ceased to exist soon, anti-others agitations are continuing. In Arunachal Pradesh, a demand for repatriation of Chakma refugees and in Meghalaya, it was reported that every year there are anti-Nepali and anti-Bengali riots in Shillong.6

L. Jeyaselan, Conflict Situation in North-East India: The Churchs Response, in A.Wati Longchar (ed.), No More Guns! Peoples Struggle For Justice: Focus On North East India, (Jorhat: Tribal Study Centre, ETC,2000), p.27 5 The idea of political independence get its first foot-hold in Naga society before Indian independence, the Naga self-rule was first initiated in 1920s by Haipou Jadonang Kabui who was hanged on 29th 8 1931.Ram Narayan with Laxmi Murthy, Four Years of the Ceasefire Agreement between the Government of India and The National Socialist Council of Nagalim: Promises and Pitfalls, (New Delhi: Civil Society Initiatives on the Naga Peace Process & Other Media Communications, 2002), pp.25f. The Nagas declared independence on 14th August 1947, and the Government of India could not accept it and arm fighting began in 1955. Ibid.,p.49 6 Sanjoy Hazarika, Strangers of the Midst: Tales of War and Peace from Indias Northeast, (New Delhi: Viking, 1994) p.128,quoted in Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity, p.57.

3 In this chaotic situation,7 killing, looting, ambush, kidnap and such kind of shocking news are regular features in newspapers and magazines. This jeopardised economic development and social tranquillity. A search for the root of armed struggles: Is Christianity that stoke? Why did the Northeasterners wanted to secede from India to the extent of taking up arms? In a search for a root or roots of turmoil in the region, a number of explanations have been put forward.8 Of a number of explanations, a view that Christianity has been stoking violence has gained currency among etic scholars and politicians and this view is elevated and eulogised by the Sangh Parivar. Since this presumption challenged the credibility of Christianity, it is necessary to examine seriously. Accusation of Christians or Christianity as enemy of a country is not new development in the history of Christianity, so too in India. Tribal armed struggles in NEI are also often explained as caused by Christianity. Jawaharlal Nehru, angered by the Naga walkout in 1953, accused Christian missionaries as instigating the people to do so. Nehrus prejudice represents a widespread opinion among the national majority.9 The Hindu fundamentalists, thus, blame Christianity as the root of separatist movements.10 Arun Shourie insinuates that Churches in Nagaland and Mizoram are instigating and helping secessionist bodies.11 In the same line, Ashok V.Chowgule pointed out insurgency movements in NEI as a showcase of anti Indian nationalism of Christianity. For him, it is Christian religious activities and preaching

For a brief information on the chaotic and turbulent situation in NEI see, Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity, pp.29-58; A.Wati Longchar (ed.), No More Guns!,pp 27-31,124-129. For a more comprehensive study, some of the many books dealing with the issue are: V.I.K.Sarin, Indias North-East in Flame, (Ghaziabad:Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.,1982);B.B.Goswami, The Mizo Unrest: A Study of Politicalisation of Culture,(Jaipur: Aalekh Publishers, 1979);R.Gopalakrishnan, Insurgent North-Eastern Region of India,(New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.,1995), B.P.Shukla, What Ails Indias North East? (New Delhi: Suruchi Sohitiya, 1980); Shibanikinkar Chaube, Hill Politics in North East India,(New Delhi: Orient Longman Limited, 1973) 8 Cf.,K.Thanzauva, Theology of Community: Tribal Theology in the Making, (Aizawl: The Mizo Theological Conference, 1997),p.28f 9 Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity, p.145 10 Peter Van der Veer, Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India, (Berkeley & London: University of California Press, 1994), p. 136 quoted in Ibid.,p.146. 11 Arun Shourie, Missionaries in India: Continuities, Changes, Dilemmas, (New Delhi: ASA Publications, 1994), pp.234f. One of the best critique of, challenge to and defence against Shouries book is Vishal Mangalwadi, Missionary Conspiracy: Letters to a Postmodern Hindu, (Mussoorie: Vishal Manglwadi, 1996) A reply to Shourie from North East India by North East Thinkers Forum, The March of Hindutva, Strategies, Stratagems: Reflection on Arun Shouries Anti-Others Literature with Special Reference to North East India (n.a.)

4 that led to Mizo and Naga rebellions.12 The present RSS chief, K.S.Sudarshan is also reiterating the same prejudice asserting that churches are involving in insurgencies in NEI.13 Not only politician and Hindu fundamentalist, but also some scholars accused Christianity as the root of violence in NEI. B.P.Shukla termed Christianity as invisible invader that created suspicion and alienate from the rest of the country thereby encouraging underground terrorist movements.14 H.L.Deb Roy insisted that Christianity was responsible for creating anti-national spirit among tribals in NEI. 15 Kapila Chaterji, writing on Christianity in Meghalaya, argued that anti India ideas have been injected to tribal Christians through Christianity and thus, The general attitude of the converted tribals towards everything Indian is open or veiled hostility.16 Thus, a number of charges have been levelled against Christians for armed struggles in NEI and this has become one of the Sangh Parivars slogans against Christianity. If Christianity is anti-India religion as exemplified in NEI, what would be the fate of minority Christians, where, according to Sudarshan, the security of minority is at the good will of the majority?17. Hence, these allegations have to be clarified in order to prevent misunderstanding as well as to unearth the real roots of violence in NEI. In spite of the allegation that Christianity stokes violence in NEI, the fact is that the first underground movement in NEI after Indian independence is started by a Hindu namely Hijam Irabot as I have indicated above; even before that the struggle for selfrule was started in 1920s by Haipou Jadonang Kabui who hated the British colonial government as much as the foreign religion (Christianity) 18 Moreover, all the insurgent groups in NEI are not necessarily Christian. Thus what is the rationale of accusing Christianity as the culprit of armed struggles in NEI?
12

Ashok V.Chowgule, Christrianity in India: the Hindutva Perspective, (Mumbai: Hindu Vivek Kendra, 1999),pp.104 & 109. 13 RSS, Christian Leaders hold talks, The Hindu,(Bangalore) August 21, 2002, p.6 14 B.P.Shukla, What Ails Indias North East? p.58 15 H.L.Deb Roy, A Tribe in Transition: The Jaintias of Meghalaya, (New Delhi: Cosmos Publications, 1981), p.184. 16 Prof.Kapila Chaterji, Christianity in Meghalaya-Trends and Reactions Vivekananda Kendra Patrika Vol.8.No 2. August 1979, p.219 17 Cf., RSS Reiterates Minorities Need Hindus Goodwill, Times of India (Bangalore), March 23,2002,p.1. 18 Ram Narayan Kumar with Laxmi Murthy, Four Years of the Ceasefire, p.25

The presumption that Christianity created suspicious, hostile or anti-national attitude to everything India is worthy of serious consideration. The widespread struggles for secession from India largely represent the attitude of Northeasterners to India. Christianity is no doubt one of the factors that alienate them in some ways that they might be, I believe, closer to the mainstream if they had been Hindu and if missionaries did not introduce Roman script they might have closer linguistic affinity. But had they become Hindu and diffused to Hindu culture, they would surely be treated as an outcaste in which case irruption of resentment would be inevitable as in the case of Meiteis in Manipur and some tribes in Tripura. Besides, Christianity is not the prime factor for the alienation of tribals in NEI from the rest of the country. They are racially different, the policy of both British and Indian governments towards them,19 and the derogatory attitude of the dominant group are forceful alienating forces. The prime factor is the derogatory attitude of the dominant group towards them as I argued below. The fact is that when a society encounters another that is simultaneously other and potentially threatening then all the resources of identity are mobilised, in which religion is one. In fact it is the Churches, which raised the first critical objection to the violence of the insurrection and counter-insurgency measures because of which the insurgent groups warned and threatened the Church leaders.20 It is ironical to accuse the Churches that are playing pivotal role in peace making process in the region, as the instigator of violence. Digging deep to unearth the root of armed struggles in NEI Rajamohan Gandhi said, Too many Indians have purchased the cheap allegation that foreign agents or missionaries have somehow shown enmity in North East. The truth is simplier(sic.) and uglier, the North East India people feel neglected, because India has neglected21
19

For a brief study of Tribal policy in NEI see, K.Thanzauva, Theology in the Making, pp.1428.,Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity, pp.20-25.; R.N.Haldipur, Policy, Politics and Administration of the Tribes of North-East India in K.Suresh Singh (ed.), Tribal Situation in India: Proceedings of a Seminar, (Simla: Indian Institute of Advance Study, 1972), pp.305-315 20 Cf., Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity, pp.163-167, S.Chaube, Hill Politics in NEI, pp.156 & 167; John Vanlal Hluna, Church and Political Upheaval in Mizoram, (Aizawl: Mizo History Association, 1985), pp. 105-132 21 Quoted by V.K.Nuh, The Tribal Perspective, Religion, State & Communalism: A Post-Ayodhya Reflection, edited by J.John & Jesudas Athyal, (Madras: The Academy of Ecumenical Indian Theology

6 Indeed, the root of armed struggles in NEI is the peoples feeling of negligence and insecurity under nepotism and derogatory attitude of the so-called mainline Indians. Politically, neither the romanticists approach of zoo and sanctuary22 policy nor the assimilationists approach of side streams joining the mainstream recognise their identity and appeal to the people.23 They were quite apprehensive of the idea of assimilation expressed by some of national politicians; for instance, in the Constitutional debate, R.H. Choudhuri said, We want to assimilate tribal people. We are given that opportunity so far24B.P Chaliha, the Assam Chief Minister, in his address to the Mizos in May 1966 said that India wanted Mizoram and not the people in it, the then Union Home Minister, Gulzarilal Nanda also expressed that the Government of India did not care to annihilate the Mizo people so long as Mizoram is a part of India.25 Economically, they are neglected and cornered to be objects of economic planning, which forced them to economic dependency. Socially, they are marginalized with a mindset of caste system. It was not because of Christianity that they have somewhat negative attitude towards Indic Indians as Zairema remarks, From the pre-Christian days our contact with Indians had not been often too happy. We developed and gained the impression that all of them were wily and were likely to cheat us.26 Recalling his experience in 1930s Zairema narrated that the Indian Army (Assam Rifles) who settled in Aizawl brought their caste consciousness with which they despised and look down upon the Mizos to be below the bottom among them. 27 This is a typical contact between the tribals in NEI and the Indic Indians. They are regarded as untouchables and dirties because of their religion and food habit. Asoso Yonuo regarded this attitude to tribals as the root of their separatist tendency.28 Religiously, they were aware of the partitioning of India on the ground of religion and the news of

and Church Administration,1995), p.147 22 H.L.Deb Roy, A Tribe in Transition, p.7 23 For a debate between romanticists and assimilationists on tribal policy, refer Footnote no 28. 24 Quoted in J.V.Hluna, Church and Political upheaval in Mizoram, p.86 25 Ibid.,pp.105f 26 Rev.Dr.Zairema, The Fire Must be Kept Burning in the Alter and Never Allowed to Go Out in Messages of the Platinum Jubilee Celebration, Presbyterian Church of India, (Shillong: Presbyterian Church of India, 2002), p.7 Also see, M.M.Thomas & R.W.Taylor (eds.), Tribal Awakening: A Group Study, (Bangalore: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, 1965), pp.108111;B.K.Roy Burman, Integrated Approach to the Problems of the Hill Tribes, in Tribal Situation,p.80 27 Rev.Dr.Zairema, Ka lehkha zir dan, Sikulpui Boys Middle School Kum 95-na leh a Sawrkar Kum 50-na Golden Jubilee Souvenir, edited by J.Malsawma et al.,(Aizawl: NA, 2002), p.43 28 Asoso Yonuo, The Rising Nagas: A Historical and Political Study, (Delhi: Vivek Publishing House, 1974), p.166, quoted in Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic Identity and Christianity, p. 161.

7 Hindu-Muslim confrontations and thus apprehensive of becoming a minority with a threat of annihilation. Therefore, when we are digging deep to unearth the root of violence, it is evident that it was the covert violence of the dominant group that resulted the overt violence of the marginalized groups. It is a defence mechanism in the face of the threat of assimilation backed by their geographical location. It is a struggle for selfhood in the midst of identity crisis. The Role of Christianity in the Armed Struggles in NEI. I have refuted the allegation of Christianity as the root of violence, I also explicate the ways in which Christianity is responsible for tribal alienation which contributed for insurgency. It is thus, necessary to look at the role of Christianity in the armed insurgency in NEI. I will try to construe the role of Christianity in three ways. First, as F.S.Downs advocated, Christianity helped tribals to adjust to the tremendous change brought by the British by providing ideological under girding for living under the new circumstances thereby providing a new tribal identity.29 The British annexed the northeastern frontiers to India that exposed the tribals to the wave of sanskritization. Christianity prevented them from the process of sanskritization and helped them to retain their distinctive identity, a consciousness of which became one of the factors for insurgency. Second, Christianity, through education and humanitarian services, empowered the tribals to resist the force of domination, assimilation or annihilation. Christianity enlightened the people to become conscious of their situation so as to defend themselves against the dominating force. It has also served as the vehicle for unification of small isolated communities into a coherent and larger entity. Obviously, this has become a source of strength for their collective defence mechanism. Third, good or bad, the insurgent groups appeal to peoples religious sentiment was one important factor for earning support of the people. The NSCN slogan Nagaland
29

Frederick S.Downs, History of Christianity in India, Vol.V Part 5: North East India in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, (Bangalore: The Church History Association of India, 1992) pp.144ff.

8 for Christ and the Mizo National Front slogan Defend your country and your religion were persuasive appeals to the people in the backdrop of partitioning of India on religious ground and the threatening of religious majorities to assimilate minorities especially of alien influence. Thus, whereas it is not the root of armed violence in NEI we could not totally dissociate Christianity from it for it was Christianity that empowered and enabled the tribals in NEI in their struggle for self-determination. In so doing, is Christianity to be blamed as aggressive religion that injected anti-national spirit and hostility? Theological Reflection Violence is perceived as something bad to be overcome as the WCC declared 20012010 as the Decade to Overcome Violence. However, Christian view of violence has never been in unanimous agreement and always changing. Cursorily speaking, the early Christian pacifism was overlapped by Augustinian-Thomistic concept of just war that was again overlapped by the idea of holy war, 30 and these three models have often been identified as key Christian ideas of violence.31 These models concerned about morality of individual participation in warfare and today we are confronted with violent uprising of the oppressed against structural violence, 32 in which violence is seen, by some Christians, as a legitimate means of self defence.33 The concept of violence itself is complex and fragile.34 A conventional definition seems to be overt physical destruction. But this definition is too limited, as it could not comprehensively envelope the various forms of violence. Browns view that

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See, Roland H.Bainton, Christian Attitude Towards War and Peace: A Historical Survey and Critical Re-Evaluation, (Nahsville, NY: Abingdon Press, 1960); Jean-Michel Hornus, It Is Not Lawful For Me to Fight: Early Christian Attitudes Towards War, Violence and the State, trans, Alan Kreider and Oliver Coburn, (Kichener,Ont: Herald Press, 1980); Jacques Ellul, Violence: Reflection From a Christian Perspective, (London: SCM Press Ltd.,1970) 31 Cf. R.H.Bainton, Christian Attitude Towards War and Peace, pp.1-17; Idem,The Christian and War: A Theological Discussion on Justice, Peace and Love, (NA: The Historical Peace Churches and the Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1958), pp.5-24; Paul H.Bainton, A Christian Perspective on Violence, (London: British Council of Churches, 1979) pp.62-80); Robert McAfee Brown, Religion and Violence: A Primer for White Americans, (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1973), pp.18f 32 Cf., Dale W.Brown, Biblical Pacifism: A peace Church Perspective, (Elgin, Illinois: brethren Press, 1986),p.97 33 Cf.,Archbishop Oscar Romero, Voice of the Voiceless: The Four Pastoral Letters and Other Statement, trans, Michael J. Walsh, (Maryknoll,NY: Orbis Books, 1980), p.108 34 See P.H.Bainton, A Christian Perspective on Violence, pp.5-29

9 Whatever violates another, in the sense of infringing upon or disregarding or abusing or denying that other, whether physical harm is involved or not, can be understood as an act of violence.35 suggests that there are both overt and covert violence. Understood in this way, armed insurgency in NEI is to be construed as an overt physical resistant violence to a covert violence meted out to them by the culturally and religiously majorities. It is their resistance to the inhuman treatment from the majority and their determination for selfhood in the dominant groups tendency to assimilate and marginalize them. Christianity can be said to be a factor only in as much as it constitute one maker of their identity that can be referred to in the search for political solidarity.36 Non-violence has been strongly advocated as a Christian means of struggle with pacifists notion that all war is inconsistent with the spirit and teaching of Christ.37 But there are some situations where non-violence would not be sufficient for bringing about a kind of revolution needed.38 The question that confront us in NEI is whether to go for armed violence against inhuman and unjust treatment that seemingly cannot be changed in any other way or remain passive responsible for continuing inhuman and unjust treatment that will lead to annihilation of minorities. In a situation like this violence is a necessary evil to resist a perilous dominating forces. It is a struggle for life against a system of death39 and the struggle humanizes and empowers them.40 Violence can become a means of social change.41 Human being as a fallen creature is tainted by the sin of pride and egoism that tends to dominate others and this

35 36

Brown, Religion and Violence, p.7 Cf., David Martin, Does Christianity Cause War, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), pp.22f. For a study of ethnic violence within social system and religion, see, Veena Das (ed.), Mirrors of Violence: Community Riots and Survivors in South Asia, (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996) 37 For this line of thought see, R.H.Bainton, Christian attitude to War and Peace; John Howard Yoder, The Politics of Jesus,(Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B.Eerdman Publishing Company, 1972); G.H.C. Macgregor, The New Testament Basis of Pacifism and the Relevance of an Impossible Deal, (New York: Fellowship Publication, 1954); J.Ellul, Violence: Reflection from Christian Perspective; Archarya K.K.Chandi, Peace Culture Amidst Power Conflicts: Caste, Class, Race, State Tensions, (Delhi: Christavanashram/ISPCK, 2000) 38 Cf., Philip Berryman, The Religious Roots of Rebellion: Christian in the Central American Revolutions, (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1984), p.312; Matthew Zachariah, Revolution Through Reform: A Comparison of Sarvodaya and Conscientization, (New Delhi: Vistaar Publications, 1986), pp.38, 66, Paulo Freire, Education for Liberation, Bangalore: ECC Publication, 1983), p.24 39 Cf., Jose Miques Bonino, Commonalities: A Latin American Perspective in K.C. Abraham, Third World Theologies: Commonalities And Divergences,(Maryknoll NY: Orbis Books, 1990),p.108 40 Cf., M.M.Thomas, Religion and the Revolt of the Oppressed, (Delhi: ISPCK, 1981), p.51 41 Reinhold Niebuhr, Moral Man and Immoral Society, (New York/London: Charles Scribners Sons, 1932), pp.169-230

10 necessitates some kind of coercion for maintaining peace and balance of power.42 Thus, it is possible to discern the work of Christ for humanization in the revolutions of the oppressed albeit tainted by the seed of human fallen ness.43 To overcome violence, suppression of overt physical violence is not enough; the root must be destroyed. Peace is often the cruel ideology of the privileged.44 The peace we sought must be based on justice. Justice and peace must kiss each other (Cf.Ps.85:10). Equality and liberty should be there in all systems to overcome violence.45 Conclusion: When the oppressed people struggles for their liberation, the oppressors always projected it as being caused by something wrong on the part of the oppressed. Such is the case in armed insurgency in NEI; due to desperation and worrying about the emancipation of the marginalized group, the Hindu fundamentalists alleged Christianity as stoking secessionist revolt in NEI.46 But armed insurgency in NEI is a struggle for self-determination in the face of a threat to annihilate or dehumanise them. It is not wrong when Christianity empowered the oppressed people in their struggle for liberation. Justice is demanded in order to overcome violence and to have a lasting peace.

42

Cf., Reinhold Niebuhr, The Nature and Destiny of Man: Volume I Human Nature,(London: Nisbet & Co.Ltd.,1941),pp.190-255; Idem, The Nature and Destiny of Man: Volume II, Human Destiny, (London: Nisbet & Co.Ltd.,1943),pp.253-279 43 Cf., M.M.Thomas, The Christian Response to the Asian Revolution, (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1966); Idem, Acknowledged Christ of the India Renaissance, (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1969); Sathianathan Clarke, Untouchable Culture, Liberating Religion and the Christian Gospel in Arvind Sharma (ed.), Religion in a Secular City: Essays in Honour of Harvey Cox,(Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2001),p.190 44 I John Mohan Razu, Violence in Contemporary Society: Reflection from Humanistic Prspective, National Council of Churches Review, Vol CXX,No 6,July 2000, p.575 45 Reinhold Niebuhr, Christian Realism and Political Problems, (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1953),p.66 46 Cf., P.Moses Manohar,Hindutva-Indian Nationalism on the threshold of the Third Millennium in Gnana Robinson (ed.), Challenges and Response: Churchs Ministry in the Third MillenniumImplication for Theological Education, (Bangalore: Asian Trading Corporation, 2000), p.149; Ravi Tiwari, Religious Fundamentalism and Nationalism: Reflection on Hindu Perspective, National Council of Churches Review, Vol. CXX.No.11, December 2000,p.1000