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FUNCTIONS

Organized by
Jabatan Pelajaran Pulau Pinang 2006
ADDITIONAL
MATHEMATICS
MODULE 1
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CHAPTER 1 : FUNCTIONS
Contents Page
1.1 Concept map 2
1.2 Determine domain , codomain , object,
image and range of relation
3
1.3 Classifying the types of relations 3
2.1 Recognize functions as a special relation.
2.2 Expressing functions using function
notation.
2.3 Determine domain , object , image and
range
4 - 5
3.0 Composite Functions 6 -9
4.0 SPM Questions 9 10
5.0 Assessment test 11 12
6.0 Answers 13 14
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CONCEPT MAP
Functions
Function
Notation
Composite
Functions
Inverse
Functions
Relations
Type
of
relation
f: x y
Or

Object
images
.,,

FUNCTIONS
One to
one
Many to
one
fg ( x ) = .
.. Object
f ( x ) = y

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1.1 Functions
Express the relation between the following pairs of sets in the form of arrow diagram,
ordered pair and graph.
Arrow diagram Ordered pair Graph
a ) Set A =
{ Kelantan, Perak ,
Selangor }
Set B = { Shah Alam
, Kota Bharu ,Ipoh }
Relation: City of the
state in Malaysia
b )Set A
={ triangle,rectangle,
pentagon }
Set B = { 3,4,5 }
Relation : Number of
Sides
1.2 Determine domain , codomain , object, image and range of relation.
List down the domain , codomain , objects , images and the range of the following relation
.
Domain = { }
Codomain = { }
Object =
Image =
Range =...
3
2
-2
5
4
3
9
Set P
Set Q
Diagram 1
-3 1
1
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1.3 Classifying the types of relations
State the type of the following relations
a)
..
b )
.
c)
..
d)

2.0 Functions
2.1 Recognize functions as a special relation.
2.2 Expressing functions using function notation.
2.3 Determine domain , object , image and range
2.1 Identify each of the following relations is a function or not.
a)

b)

c)

x
4
16
2
2
x
36
4
6
A
B
p
q
r
1
2
3
A B
p
q
r
a
b
c
d
A B
a
b
c
p
q
r
3
2
4
9
4
9
Prime
-3
-3
x
3
2
4
-2
9
-3
Even
x
X
x
X
2
Type of number
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2.2 Express each of the following functions using function notation.
a)
Function notation
f : x ..
or f ( x ) =
b )
Function notation
g : x ..
or g ( x ) =
c)
Function notation
h : x ..
or h ( x ) =
2.3 a)Find the image for each of the following functions.
( i ) f : x 2x + 9
f (5 ) =

( ii ) f : x
2
3 5 + x
f (-3 ) =

iii) h : x
5
x
+6
find h ( -2 )
..
b ) Find the object for each of the following functions.
i )f : x 2x 3 , find the
object when the image is 5.
ii )f : x
3
8 2 + x
, find the
object when the image is 3.
i )f : x
x
6
7 , find the
object when the image is -5.
A
B
2
3
4
4
6
8
A
B
2
3
4
4
9
16
A
B
1
2
3
5
7
9
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c ) Find the value of x for each of the following function.
i ) f ( x ) = 2x + 7
for which f ( x ) = 3
ii ) g ( x ) =
1 2
8
+ x
for which g (x) = 4
iii) h(x) =
2
3 x
for which h ( x ) = x
3.0 Composite Functions
3.1 ( a ) Find the value for each of the following composite functions
i ) f( x ) = x + 2 and
g ( x) = 5x + 3
find fg ( 2 ) =
ii ) g ( x ) = 2 +5x
find g
2
(4)
iii) f(x) = 3x+
2
1
and g ( x )
=
1
1
+ x
.Find fg ( 1 )
a
c b
fg

f: a b
g: b c
gf : a c
f g
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( b ) Find the following composite function.
( i ) f( x ) = 2x + 3
g( x ) = 1 x
fg ( x ) =
( ii ) f( x ) = 2x + 3
g( x ) = 2 + 5 x
2
gf ( x ) =
( iii ) f ( x ) = 1 -
2
x
g ( x ) =
x
4
fg ( x ) =
( c) Find the value of x for each of the following composite function.
i) f ( x ) =
x
3
g ( x ) = 2x + 1
fg ( x ) = 5
ii )f( x ) = 2x + 4
g ( x ) = x -2
fg ( x ) = 2
iii) f ( x ) = 1 -
2
x
,
g (x ) =
x
4
fg ( x ) = -1
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( d ) Solve
i )Given the function
f: x 4x + k ,
g : x x 2
fg : x mx + 8
Find the value of k and m
ii )Given the function
f: x 9 2x ,
g : x ax + b and
fg: x 1 6x
Find the value of a and b.
iii)Given the function
f: x 2x 1 ,
g : x 4x and
gf : x ax + b
Find the value of a and b
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4.0 SPM QUESTIONS
SPM 2004 ( paper 1, question no 1 )
1. Diagram 1 shows the relation between set P and set Q
State
( a ) the range of the relation,
( b ) the type of relation. [2 marks]
Answer:
d
e
f
-
x
y
z
w
Set P Set Q
Diagram 1
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SPM 2004 ( paper 1, question no 3)
1. Given the function h ( x ) =
x
6
, x = 0 and the composite function hg ( x ) = 3x , find
( a ) g ( x )
( b ) the value of x when gh ( x ) = 5. [ 4 marks]
Answer:
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SPM 2005 Question
1. In Diagram 1 , the function h maps x to y and the function g maps y to z.
Determine
( a ) gh ( 2 )
Answer:
y z x
2
5
8
h g
Diagram 1
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5.0 Assessment( 30 minutes)
1)
The diagram above shows the relation between set A and set B. State
a) the type of relation
b) the range of relation
Answer:
2) Given that f : x2x + 7 find the object when image is 3.
Answer:
3) Given that f ( x ) = 10 kx and f ( 2 ) = 4 ( k constant ) . Find the value of k.
Answer:
a
b
c
-
q
r
s
P
A
B
Diagram 1
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4) Given that f ( x ) = 4x -1 and g ( x ) = 2x + 3 .
Find
i ) fg ( x )
ii ) fg ( - 2 )
Answer:
5 ) Given the function f : x px + 2 and g : x qx + 3 . If the composite function fg is
such that fg ( x ) = 8x + 8 , find the values of p and q.
Answer:
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6.0 ANSWERS
1.1
Arrow diagram Ordered pair Graph
{ (kel, kb), (Sel,
S.Alam), (
Perak,Ipoh) }
{ (Tri, 3), (rec,
4), ( Pen,5) }
1.2 Domain = { -3,-2,1,2,3 } , codomain = { 1,3,4,5,9 } , Object =1,2,3,-2,-3
Image = 1,3,4,5,9 , Range = { 1,4,9 }
1.3 ( a ) one to one ( b ) One to many( c ) many to one( d ) many to many
2.1 ( a ) function ( b ) Not function ( c ) function
2.2 (a) 2x (b) x
2
(c) 2x + 3
2.3 a) ( I ) 19 (ii) -6 (iii ) 3 b) (i) 2 (ii)
2
1
(iii) 3 c) (i) -2 (ii)
2
1
(iii) -3
3.1 a) ( i) 15 (ii ) 102 ( iii) 2
b) (i) 5 2x (ii) 20x
2
+60x+47 (iii) 1-
x
2
c) (i) -
5
1
(ii) 1 (iii) 1
d) (i) k=16,m=4 (ii) a=3,b=4 (iii) a=8,b= - 4
4.0 SPM QUESTIONS
SPM 2004( P1,Q1) a) range ={ x,y } b )many to one
SPM 2004( P1,Q3) (a) g(x) =
3
2
, x = 0 ( b) x = 15
SPM 2005( P1,Q1) 8
Tri
rec
Pen
4
5
3
A
B
Kel
Sel
Per
Ipoh
SA
KB
A
B
KB
SA
Ipoh
Kel
Sel Per
3
3
4
5
rec
Tri
Pen
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5.0 Assessment( 30 minutes)
1) ( a)many to many ( b ) range = { p,q,r }
2) -2
3) k = 3
4) (i) 8x+11 (ii) -5
5) p =
2
1
, q = 16
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FUNCTIONS
ADDITIONAL
MATHEMATICS
MODULE 2
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CHAPTER 1 : FUNCTIONS
Contents Page
1.0 Inverse Functions ( concept map )
2 4
2.0 Absolute Function
4 - 6
3.0 SPM Questions
7 8
4.0 Assessment ( 30 minutes )
9 10
5.0 Answers
11 13
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CHAPTER 1 : FUNCTIONS
1.0 Inverse Functions
1.1 Determine the object by inverse mapping
1.2 Determine the inverse functions
a ) Find the inverse function of each of the following functions.
i ) f ( x ) = x + 3
ii) f ( x ) =
5
x
iii ) f ( x ) =
2
1 3 + x
Functions
Function
Notation
Composite
Functions
Inverse
Functions
Relations
Type
of
relation
f: x y
Or
f(x) = y
f ( x ) = y
f
-1
( y ) = x
Object
images
Domain
Codomain ,
Range
FUNCTIONS
Arrow diagram
Ordered pairs
graph
One to
one
One to
many
Many to
one
Many
to many
fg ( x ) = f [ g(x) ]
image Object
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iv ) f ( x ) = 7 5x
v ) f ( x ) =
4
3 x
vi ) f( x ) =
3
4 5 x
b ) Find the inverse function of each of the following functions in terms of p and q
i ) f ( x ) = px - q
ii ) f ( x ) =
q
p x
iii) f ( x ) = px +
q
1
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c ) Given the function f : x
1
2
+

x
x
, x = 1 and g(x) =2x -6 , find f
-1
g .
Answer:
d ) Inverse function f is define by f
-1
: x
1 2
5

x
x
, x =
2
1
. Find f ( 2 )
Answer:
2.0 Absolute Function
1. Sketch the graph of each of the following functions
a ) f ( x ) = x b ) f ( x ) = x + 1
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c) f (x ) = | x | d ) f ( x ) = | x + 1 |
e ) f (x) = |x| + 1 f ) f ( x ) = | x | - 1
2.Sketch the graph of each the following functions and state the corresponding range.
a) f : x 2x 3 for 0 sx s4
Range :.
b) f : x |2x 3| for 0 sx s4
Range :
f(x) f(x)
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c) f : x | 5 2x |for -1 sx s4
Range :.
d) f : x |9 2x| for 0 sx s6
Range :.
e) f : x |2x| 1 for -1 sx s3
Range :.
f ) f : x | 3x | for -2 sx s2
Range :.
f(x)
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3.0 SPM QUESTIONS
SPM 2004 Question.
1. Given the functions h : x 4x + m and h
-1
: x 2kx +
8
5
, where m and k are
constants, find the value of m and of k.
[ 3 marks]
Answer:
SPM 2005 ( Paper 1, Question 1 )
2. In Diagram 1 , the function h maps x to y and the function g maps y to z.
Determine
( a ) h
-1
( 5 )
Answer:
y z x
2
5
8
h g
Diagram 1
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SPM 2005 ( Paper 1, Question 2 )
1.The function w is defined as w ( x ) =
x 2
5
, x = 2.
( a ) w
-1
( x ),
( b ) w
-1
( 4 ). [ 3 marks]
Answer:
SPM 2005 ( Paper 1, Question 3 )
1.The following information refers to the functions h and g.
Find gh
-1
( x ). [ 3 marks]
h: x 2x 3
g: x 4x - 1
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4.0 Assessment ( 30 minutes )
1.A function f is defined by f: x 6 -
2
1
x
Find
a ) f ( x ) b ) f
-1
( 5 )
Answer:
2. Inverse function f is defined by f
-1
: x
3
4 5 x
find f ( 2 ).
Answer:
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3.Given the function f : x 2x - m and inverse function f
-1
: x nx +
3
7
Find the value of m and n.
Answer:
4. Sketch the graph of the function f ( x ) = |2x 5 | for 0sxs6. Hence , state the
corresponding range.
Answer:
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5.0 ANSWERS
1.1
( a )( i) x- 3 ( ii) 5x (iii)
3
1 2 + x
(iv)
5
7 x
(v) 3 4x (vi)
4
3 5 x
( b )
p
q x +
(ii ) xq + p (iii)
p
x
-
pq
1
( c)
x
x
2 7
4 2

, x =
2
7
( d ) -1
Absolute function
2.
.
8 ) ( 3 s s x f 0sf(x) s5
f(x)
x
b )
_ 5
|
1
|
2
f(x)
x
a )
_ 8
|
1
|
2
_
-3
f(x)
x
f )
_ -1
|
-1
|
1
f(x)
x
e )
_ 1
|
-1
f(x)
x
d )
_ 1
|
-1
f(x)
x
c )
f(x)
x
b )
_ 1
|
-1
f(x)
x
a )
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0sf(x) s7 0sf(x) s9
-1sf(x) s5 0sf(x) s6
SPM 2004 ( P1,Q2)
K=
8
1
, m=-
2
5
SPM 2005 ( P1,Q2)
(a) 2
SPM 2005 ( P1,Q2)
( a )
x
x 5 2
, x = 0 ( b )
4
3
SPM 2005 ( P1,Q3)
2x+ 5
Assessment ( 30 minutes )
1)( a) 12 2x ( b ) 8
2) -
4
1
3) n =
2
1
, m=7
4)
f(x)
x
f )
_ 6
|
2
|
-2
f(x)
x
d )
_ 9
|
4
|
5
f(x)
x
e )
_ 5
|
1
|
-1
_ -1
_ 1
|
3
f(x)
x
c )
_ 7
|
2
|
3
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The corresponding range of f(x ) = 0 sf(x) s7
f(x)
a )
_ 5
|
2
|
3
_ 7
|
6 x
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