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Food Microbiology and Parasitology Alfonso, Adelle Joy G.

20101131479 Experiment #3 Cell Morphology The cell is the fundamental and functional basis of life. It is the seat of all process that makes life possible. Cells are of varied shape and sizes. The cell can be divided into the following parts: cell membrane covering the cytoplasm and nucleus. Objective: to examine the typical plant and animal cells under the microscope. Materials: Compound microscope, toothpick, saucer, egg, onion bulb, methylene blue solution, dropper, glass slide, cover slip, scalpel blade, alcohol, prepared slide of human blood cell. Procedure: 1. Cut the onion bulb and get the inner white membrane between the layers of the bulb. Drop a small portion of methylene blue solution and cover. Focus under LPO and HPO. 2. Sterilize the toothpick with alcohol. Using its side, scrape of lightly the wall of your mouth. Place the scrapings on the slide. Let it stand for 3 minutes then put a drop of methylene blue. Let it stand for 10 minutes then tilt the slide to remove excess dye. Cover with cover slip and observe under LPO and HPO. Observe for squamous cell. 3. Carefully break the egg and place it in a saucer. Observe the parts of the cell: a. Cell membrane b. Nucleus c. Nuclear membrane 4. Carefully pick the nucleus to break it. Separate the nuclear membrane. Drawing: HRM4C 07/07/2011

Onion cell (LPO)

Onion cell (HPO)

Cheek cell (LPO)

Cheek cell (HPO)

Whole egg

Human blood (LPO)

Human blood (HPO)

Questions: 1. Give the structural and functional characteristics of plant and animal cells used in this experiment. Plant Cell Cell Wall: The outermost covering of the plant cell is the protective layer, the cell wall. Its main function includes giving support, maintaining the cell shape and controlling the growth of the cell. Cell Membrane: Next to the cell wall, lies the cell membrane that comprises a protein and lipid bilayer. Its main function is selective transport of nutrients, wherein some are allowed to enter the cell, while others are restricted. Vacuole: Vacuoles are organelles, which shape and structure, alter with respect to the cell requirements. They are filled with water like solution that contains enzymes, organic and inorganic molecules. Nucleus: The cell nucleus is simply called the control center of the plant cell, as it contains hereditary material along with other essential cell components. Overall, the nucleus is responsible for protein synthesis, cell growth, division and development. Cytoplasm: The portion of the plant cell excluding the nucleus is called cytoplasm. Filled with jelly-like cytoplasmic fluid, maximum organelles are present in the cytoplasm. Read more on structure and function of cytoplasm. Plastids: These are the organelles, which perform the function of photosynthesis and storage of starch molecules. Plastids are of different types and contain photosynthetic pigments. Mitochondria: Mitochondria, also known as powerhouse of the cell, play the crucial role of generating chemical energy for proper functioning of the plant cell. They are present in many numbers and contain hereditary material. Ribosomes: Ribosomes are of two types, attached and free. The former is found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, while the latter is suspended freely in the cytoplasm. Both ribosomes are

responsible for protein synthesis. Golgi Bodies: Golgi bodies are made up of 4-8 stacks (called cisternae) and are useful for packaging macromolecules that are synthesized by the cell. They are also responsible for transportation of nutrients. Endoplasmic Reticulum: This is the organelle that connects the nucleus and cytoplasm. It performs the function of synthesizing and storing steroids and glycogen. Endoplasmic reticulum with attached ribosomes is called rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Peroxisomes: These are microbodies of the plant cells that contain various degradation enzymes. Peroxisomes play the major role of digesting complex fatty acids including aiding in photosynthesis. Animal Cell Cell Membrane: The cell membrane is the outer most part of the cell which encloses all the other cell organelles. The cell membrane function is to control the influx of the nutrients and minerals in and out of the cell. Cell Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is supposed to be the matrix or gel like substance/fluid present inside the cell. It is mainly made up of water and protein material. The cytoplasm is the key site wherein all life processes occur. Nucleus: Cell nucleus is supposed to be the brain or the control center of the cell and thus one of the most important animal cell parts. It contains the genetic material i.e. the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and the chromosomes. The DNA is made up of nucleotides which eventually help in protein formation by the process of transcription and translation. Nucleolus: Nucleolus is a dark stained area inside the nucleus mainly responsible for the protein formation using RNA (Ribonucleic acid). Nuclear Membrane: This is the porous, protective sheath that covers the nucleus which allows influx of substances and is one of the distinctive characteristics of an animal cell. Read more on nuclear membrane function. Nucleoplasm: This dense fluid inside the nucleus contains chromatin fibers, which condense to form chromosomes and genes which carry hereditary information. Mitochondria: Mitochondria are among the largest cell organelles also known as the engine house of the cells. Oxygen combines with glucose to form energy (ATP) required for metabolism and cellular activities in this organelle. It is an independent organelle having its own Mitochondrial DNA, RNA and ribosomes owing to self replication and duplication.

Ribosomes: As I mentioned previously, protein synthesis (transcription and translation) takes place in ribosomes. These organelles could be bound to the endoplasmic reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm. Lysosomes: These are membrane bound sacs containing enzymes needed to break down unnecessary parts of the cell for reuse. It mainly helps phagocytosis and promotes intracellular digestion. Centrosomes: These small organelles surrounded by the microtubules or the centrosphere, contain the centrioles which are responsible for the initiation of cell division. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): The animal cell model clearly suggests ER to be the second largest cell organelle after mitochondria since these forms a series of interconnecting flattened tubular tunnels; rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The RER is mainly responsible for holding onto the proteins formed in the ribosomes, thus being rough in appearance. Golgi Apparatus: The proteins formed and bounded by the ER need to be processed so as to perform normal functions. Golgi, membranous sacs associated chiefly with the endoplasmic reticulum, do that to release the protein chains. Vacuoles: Smaller gas and membrane vacuoles filled with fluids and water are present in animal cells. Their main function is storage.

2. In a tabulated form give the differences between plant and animal cells. Plant Cell Plant cells don't have lysosomes Plant cells don't have centrosomes Plant cells don't have nuclear membrane Plant cells don't have nucleolus Animal Cell Animal cells don't have chloroplasts Animal cells don't have plastids Animal cells don't have cell wall

Conclusion: