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At this moment of accomplishment, we are presenting our work with great pride and pleasure, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to all those who helped us in the successful completion of our venture. First of all, we would like to thank our Principal Dr. Mohd Asgar who provided us with all facilities and amenities for the development of our project. We would like to thank our HOD, Prof S P Sharma for helping us in the successful accomplishment of our project. We are exceedingly grateful to our project coordinator Assistant Professor, Mr.Vishal Puri for his timely and valuable suggestions. We also sincerely thank Mr.Shakeel Lab Technicians, department of Electronics and Communication for their constant support and encouragement for our project. We would also like to thank our parents and friends M.Yasir Thakur, Junaid Khalid, Pz Nayeem for their over whelming and whole hearted encouragement and support without which this would not have been successful.Above all we thank God almighty for constantly motivating us with His love, and giving us courage at each stride to step forward with confidence and selfbelief.

Muhammad Yahaya Shah Anwar-ul-Haq Saleem Ramzan Danish Rashid


Abstract Biasing arrangement for SCR SCR Characteristics Uses of SCR 2P4M SCR data sheet How to study I.V characteristics of SCR TRIAC (Triode for alternating currents) Uses of TRIAC How to study IV characteristics of TRIAC The triac used in that and its data sheet TRIAC Characteristics DC Motor principle DC Motor speed control. Application of DC Motors Starting of DC machines DC shunt motor Speed control of DC shunt motor Components Used References


Power electronic refer to control and conversion of electrical power by power semiconductor devices where in these devices operate as switches advent of silicon controlled rectifiers, abbreviated as SCR,s led to the development of new areas of applications called the power electronics prior to the introduction of SCRs mercury are rectifiers were used for controlling electrical power, but such rectifier circuits were part of industrial electronics and the scope for applications of mercury-arc rectifiers was limited. Once the SCRs were available, the applications area spread to many fields such as drives, power supplies, aviation electronics, high frequency inverters and power electronics originated. The few applications of power electronics are:
y Uninterruptible power supplies and standby power supplies (emergency

power supplies) for critical loads such as computers, medical equipments etc.
y Power conversion for HVAC and HCDC transmission systems. y Speed control of motors which are used in traction drives, textile mills,

rolling mills, cranes, lifts, compressors, pumps etc.

y Solid state power compensators, static contractors, transformer tap

changers etc.
y High voltage supplies for electrostatic precipitators and X-ray generators


The word thyristor comes from the Greek and means door as in opening a door and let something pass through it. A thyristor is a semiconductor device that uses internal feedback to produce switching action. Usually four layers and also five layers semiconductor devices are called the thyristor. According to their construction they have at least two terminals to maximum four terminals. Specifically the five layer members (TRIAC, DIAC) of thyristor family are used their four semiconductor layer in the state of conduction. The thyristor family members includ e: a) SCR b) TRIAC c) DIAC d) SHOCKLY DIODE e) SIDAC (Unidirectional) (Bidirectional) (Bidirectional) (Unidirectional) (Bidirectional)

The two terminal devices DIAC ,SIDAC and SHOCKLY DIODE and the three terminal device TRIAC and SCR are mostly used in the section of power electronics where a large power are need to be controlled, regulated and switched. Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR): One of the common and leading devices of the thyristor family is silicon controlled rectifier. After diode and transistor the most important device is SCR and invented in 1947. This member of thyristor family is unidirectional that is SCR control current in only one direction and this is why it is called rectifier. The device is made of silicon not germanium the semiconductor material because leakage current in silicon is very small as compared to germanium. As the SCR is used like a switch so in off condition it should be carry the leakage current as small as possible. In construction the SCR is a four layer PNPN semiconductor device with three terminals. Again we can explain it also three diode sandwiched in series in reverse with each other or two transistor one is PNP and other is NPN connect to base collector and collector-base with each other or one diode p-n and a transistor npn connected to same polarity layer.

The SCR also have three terminals that mentions earlier are Anode the positive terminal, Cathode the negative terminal and the gate that control the triggering. The negative terminal cathode is connected with the most outer n-type layer, the positive terminal anode is connected with the most outer p-type layer, and the gate is connected to the next p-type layer or the base of NPN transistor also called gate. For the arrangement of layers the SCRs have also three junctions J1 , J2 , and J3. The symbol of SCmR is shown in fig. The constructional view of SCR is shown in fig. and the simple connection arrangement of SCR is also shown in fig


Construction of SCR

b) Simple Connection arrangement of SCR

Biasing arrangement of SCR:

If the anode of the SCR is connected to the positive terminal and the cathode is connected to the negative terminal of external supply voltage is shown in fig4 then we find the second junction is in reverse biased and the other two are forward biased. In

this condition until the break of the reverse biased junction no current flow through the SCR. In practice this type arrangement are used.

Forward biased SCR connection

Reverse biased SCR connection

Otherwise if the anode is connected to the negative terminal and cathode is connected to the positive terminal is shown in fig5 therefore the second junction is forward biased and the other two junctions are reverse biased so no current can flow through the SCR until breaking that two junctions which are in reversed biased. This arrangement is not used because to break those two reverse biased junction we need a large amount of current that may damage the SCR.

SCR operation mechanism: In the arrangement of anode positive and cathode negative we need to break only one reverse biased junction to flow the current through the SCR. To break that junction earlier an external circuit connected to the gate that is injects current into the p-type layer this forward biased the second junction of SCR and make the SCR in

conduction early, without gate current a large amount of anode current is required to break that junction.

SCR characteristics: The V-I characteristics of SCR is shown in fig 8. The first quadrant of the characteristics curve shows the forward characteristics of SCR where shows the different break over voltage VBo0 ,VBo1 ,VBo2 for the different gate current IG0 ,IG1 ,IG2 where IG2 >IG1>IG0 i.e. large gate current need for early break over at a low supply voltage. For different gate current there are different holding current.

The third quadrant of characteristics curve shows the reverse characteristics of SCR. In this case, two reverse junction need to be break to reach the conduction state though it is possible but it needs a large amount of current, which may damage the SCR. It is very interesting to off the SCR after its on state that is in conduction state it does not off if we remove the applied gate current it is because a large amount of anode current is flowing. In this case, we must reduce the anode current below the holding current IH. Uses of SCR: SCR can be used as follows: 1) SCR as static conductor. 2) SCR for power control. 3) SCRs for speed control dc motor. 4) SCR for over light detector.

5) Series st ti swit 6) Variable resistance phase control 7) Battery charging regulator 8) Emergency light system. 9) Relay controls 10) Motor control 11) Inverters 12) Heat control



Observation Table: VAK IA

Procedure: 1) Study the circuit given on front panel of kit. 2) Connect mill-ammeter & voltmeter in the circuit 3) Connect dc power supply in gate & A to K circuit. 4) Keeping gate current constant increase VAK in steps to note anode- cathode current IAK , for each step till SCR fires 5) Note the value of IH by gradually decreasing the voltage VAK 6) Plot SCR characteristics between IAK & VAK .

Result: Characteristics of SCR were studied & found that SCR turned on when IA > IL & Remained in on state until IA > IH


TRIAC (Triode for Alternating Current): TRIAC is one of the bidirectional devices of thyristor family. TRIAC have five layer and three terminals, the name TRIAC comes from its three electrodes (terminals) shown in fig. It has no cathode terminal, one of the three is gate and the others are A 1 (MT1 i.e. main terminal) and A2 (MT2) as it conducts by terminal. Triac can be triggered with either positive or negative gate pulses when the anode terminal potentials are positive or negative respectively. The symbol of TRIAC is shown in fig.

The five layers TRIAC can be divided into two haves one is SCR1 and other is SCR2 connected in parallel of opposite polarity i.e. four transistor as each SCR consist of two transistor shown in fig. The terminal anode1 and anode2 of TRIAC are not connected only one layer (like SCR) it connects the outer most two. TRIAC characteristics: The V-I characteristics of TRIAC is shown in fig12. The first quadrant and the third quadrant are identical to those of the first quadrant of SCR but in normal operation the gate voltage is positive in first quadrant and the gate voltage is negative in third quadrant.


In the family of V-I characteristics curve for a TRIAC, the magnitude of break over voltage and holding current become smaller as the values of gate current (IG2 >IG1 >I G0) increases like SCR. To turn the TRIAC off the anode current must be reduced below the holding current. Use of TRIAC: TRIAC can be used as follows: 1) As a high power lamp switch. 2) Electronic change-over of transformer taps. 3) Light dimmer 4) Speed controls for electric fans and other electric motors 5) Modern computerized control circuits 6) For minimizing radio interference

HOW TO STUDY I-V CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIAC Theory: TRIAC is three terminal bi-directional high power device. Conduction takes place in both directions i.e. from MT1 to MT2 or MT2 to MT1. Gate terminal is towards MT1 in operation TRAIC is equivalent to two SCRs connected in anti parallel. The layer diagram symbolic representation of TRAIC is as

shown V-I characteristic of SCR and TRAIC are similar. The only difference is that VI characteristics is symmetrical in TRAIC. TRAIC can be run on in four modes I+ Mode: In this mode MT2 is positive with respect to MT1 and gate is made positive w.r.t. MT1. I- Mode: In this mode MT2 is positive with respect to MT1 and gate is made negative w.r.t. MT1. III+ Mode: In this mode MT2 is negative with respect to MT1 and gate is made positive w.r.t. MT1. III- Mode: In this mode MT2 is negative with respect to MT1 and gate is made negative w.r.t. MT1. Circuit diagram: -


Observation Table: Forward characteristics IG ( CONSTANT) = 4 , 8mA

Reverse characteristics IG ( CONSTANT) = 15 , 16mA .

Procedure :1) Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram .

2) Make the connections for I + mode . 3) Keep the IG constant and note down the voltmeter and ammeter reading . 4) Now make the connections in III - mode . 5) Keep IG constant and note down the voltmeter and ammeter reading . 6) Plot the graph for both the characteristics. Results :- Characteristics of TRIAC were studied and plot the graph from the reading.




DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the demanded speed, and to drive a motor at that speed. The controller may or may not actually measure the speed of the motor. If it does, it is called a Feedback Speed Controller or Closed Loop Speed Controller, if not it is called an Open Loop Speed Controller. Feedback speed control is better, but more complicated. Motors come in a variety of forms, and the speed controller's motor drive output will be different dependent on these forms. The speed controller presented here is designed to drive a simple cheap starter motor from a car, which can be purchased from any scrap yard. These motors are generally series wound, which means to reverse them, they must be altered slightly. APPLICATION Of D.C. MOTOR Some elementary principles of application alone are dealt with here. The focus is on the mechanical equation of dynamics which is reproduced here once again.
TM  TL ! J d[ dt

Here TM and TL are the motor torque and the load torques respectively which are expressed as functions of

. Under steady state operation

d[ will be zero. The dt

application of motors mainly looks at three aspects of operation. 1. Starting 2. Speed control 3. Braking The speed of the machine has to be increased from zero and brought to the operating speed. This is called starting of the motor. The operating speed itself should be varied as per the requirements of the load. This is called speed control. Finally, the running machine has to be brought to rest, by decelerating the same. This is called braking. The torque speed characteristic of the machine is modified to achieve these as it is assumed that the variation in the characteristics of the load is either not feasible or desirable. Hence the methods that are available for modifying the torque speed characteristics and the actual variations in the performance that these methods bring about are of great importance. When more than one method is available for achieving

the same objective then other criteria li e, initial cost, running cost, efficiency and ease operation are also applied for the evaluation of the methods. Due to the absence of equipment li e transformer, d.c. machine operation in general is assumed to be off a constant voltage d.c. supply. The relevant expressions may be written as

As can be seen, speed is a function of E and T is a function of Ia Using these equations, the methods for starting , speed control and braking can be discussed .
Starti of D.C. Machi For the machine to start, the torque developed by the motor at zero speed must exceed

that demanded by the load. Then TM  TL will be positive so also is

d[ dt

and the = 0 The

machine accelerates. The induced emf at starting point is zero as the

armature current with rated applied voltage is given by V/Ra where Ra is armature circuit resistance. Normally the armature resistance of a d.c. machine is such as to cause 1 to 5 percent drop at full load current. Hence the starting current tends to rise to several times the full load current. The same can be told of the torque if full flux is already established. The machine instantly picks up the speed. As the speed increases the induced emf appears across the terminals opposing the applied voltage. The current drawn from the mains thus decreases, so also the torque. This continues till the load torque and the motor torque are equal to each other. Machine tends to run continuously at this speed as the acceleration is zero at this point of operation. The starting is now discussed with respect to specific machines


DC shunt motor If armature and field of d.c. shunt motor are energized together, large current is drawn
at start but the torque builds up gradually as the field flux increases gradually. To improve the torque per ampere of line current drawn it is advisable to energize the

field first. The starting current is given by V/Ra and hence to reduce the starting current to a safe value, the voltage V can be reduced or armature circuit resistance Ra can be increased. Variable voltage V can be obtained from a motor generator set. This arrangement is called Ward-Leonard arrangement. A schematic diagram of WardLeonard arrangement is shown in Fig. By controlling the field of the Ward-Leonard generator one can get a variable voltage at its terminals which is used for starting the motor. The second method of starting with increased armature circuit resistance can be obtained by adding additional resistances in series with the armature, at start. The current and the torque get reduced. The torque speed curve under these conditions is shown in Fig. It can be readily seen from this graph that the unloaded machine reaches its final speed but a loaded machine may crawl at a speed much below the normal speed. Also, the starting resistance wastes large amount of power. Hence the starting resistance must be reduced to zero at the end of the starting process. This has to be done progressively, making sure that the current does not jump up to large values. Starting of series motor and compound motors are similar to the shunt motor. Better starting torques are obtained for compound motors as the torque per ampere is more.



Speed Control of D.C. Motors In the case of speed control, armature voltage control and flux control methods are available. The voltage control can be from a variable voltage source like WardLeonard arrangement or by the use of series armature resistance. Unlike the starting conditions the series resistance has to be in the circuit throughout in the case of speed control. That means considerable energy is lost in these resistors. Further these resistors must be adequately cooled for continuous operation. The variable voltage source on the other hand gives the motor the voltage just needed by it and the losses in the control gear is a minimum. This method is commonly used when the speed ratio required is large, as also the power rating. Field control or flux control is also used for speed control purposes. Normally field weakening is used. This causes operation at higher speeds than the nominal speed. Strengthening the field has little scope for speed control as the machines are already in a state of saturation and large field mmf is needed for small increase in the flux. Even though flux weakening gives higher speeds of operation it reduces the torque produced by the machine for a given armature current and hence the power delivered does not increase at any armature current. The machine is said to be in constant power mode under field weakening mode of control. Above the nominal speed of operation, constant flux mode with increased applied voltage can be used; but this is never done as the stress on the commutator insulation increases.


Thus operation below nominal speed is done by voltage control. Above the nominal speed field weakening is adopted. For weakening the field, series resistances are used for shunt as well as compound motors. In the case of series motors however field weakening is done by the use of diverters . Diverters are resistances that are connected in parallel to the series winding to reduce the field current without affecting the armature current.




General purpose operational amplifier QA741/QA741C/SA741C


The mA741 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open-loop gain, internal compensation, high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. The QA741 is short-circuit-protected and allows for nulling of offset voltage. FEATURES
y Internal frequency compensation y Short circuit protection y Excellent temperature stability y High input voltage range



Components Used
Device SCR TRIAC Value/No./Size 2P4M BT136 100 100 1K Resistances 1K 4.7 K 10 K pot 47 K pot 100 F Capacitors 10 1000 Diode PCB 1N4007, by Rating 2 Amp 2 Amp 0.5W 1W 0.5 W 1W 1W 1W 1W 50 V 63 V 200V 1Amp Total required 3 3 5 5 5 3 2 7 5 3 2 3 8 3


1. Integrated Electronics Analog & Digital Circuit and System.

Thirteenth reprint 1998, published by Tata McGraw-Hill ----Jacob Milliman, Christos C. Halkias
2. Electronic devices and circuit theory,

Eighth edition, published by Prentice Hall ----Robert L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky 3. Electronics made simple Published by S. Chand & Company Ltd ----V.K. Mehta
4. 4QD manufacture speed controllers, and publish this basic technical guide: 5. SGS Thomson produced a good document about current limiting in a full bridge circuit. 6. DC motor driving including methods of speed regulation. 7. Driving DC motors 8. Electronics for You