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MPLS VPN

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2004

. .......................................................................................................................3
1. . ......................4
1.1. NGN.............4
1.1.1. . .............8
1.2. ...........................9
1.2.1. QoS..........................................................12
1.3. VPN.....................................................16
1.4. MPLS.......................................................................................18
1.5. . ...................................20
2. MPLS. ..............................................................................21
2.1. .......................................................................................21
2.2. ...................................................................................22
2.2.1. . ...........................................................................................................22
2.2.2. FEC. ..............................26
2.2.3. LSP. ..................................28
2.3. ........................................................................................29
2.3.1. ............................................................................................33
2.4. . ............................................................................35
2.4.1. ...................................................................................36
2.5. ..................................................................38
2.6. Traffic Engineering....................................................................................40
2.6.1. TE-..........................................................................44
2.6.2. TE-. ...........................................................................48
2.6.3. RSVP-TE.................................................................................50
2.7. ............................................................................................................56
3. VPN....................................................59
3.1. VPN..................................................................................................59
3.2. VPN ...................................................62
3.3. ..........64
3.4. VPN. .....................................................71
3.5. MPLS
...................................................................................................................72
4. VPN
MPLS. ........................................................................................................75
4.1. VPN
MPLS. ...........................................................................................................................75
4.1.1. . ..........................................76
4.1.2. LSP-. ..........................................................78
4.1.3. . ........................................................................................79
4.2. VPN ..........80
............................................................................................................89
..................................................................................................................90

.

,
.

, .
, ,
.
.

MPLS.
,
. RSVP-TE MPLS

, .

MPLS
,
VPN.

1. .
1.1. NGN.
,
,
. IP-,
, ,
, ,

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,
,
,
.
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.


NGN, .
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NGN :


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IP.
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,
QoS.

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,
6

,
NGN - Softswitch.
.
,


.
.
NGN
,

.

IP ATM.
, ,
. ,
IP, ,
VoIP ( IP ) ,

IP

, , IP
NGN.

MPLS .

IP ATM, ,
.
7

MPLS
Traffic Engineering.
Traffic Engineering
LSP
QoS.
MPLS 2
.
1.1.1. .
NGN
.

.

, . ,

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, ,
.


.

.

,
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NGN, .
, ,
NGN.
1.2. .
NGN

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IP-
. QoS
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.


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IP-
:
9

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QoS
10

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, QoS,

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QoS

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:



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-, .

, ()

11

-,

, :

,
.
,

.
1.2.1. QoS.
IP
.
Best Effort.

, ,
,
.
,
.
IntServ.

,
, ,
IntServ.

:
.

- .
, ,
IP-, .

.
12

, IntServ,
.
RSVP.
RSVP
IntServ.

,
,
.
, ,

.

Path,
, Resv
. QoS flowspec
RSVP.

RSVP


, .

.
RSVP .

.

RSVP

.
13

, , ,
.
, . ,

, .. .
,
, .

, ,
.
.

DiffServ.

, -
.
, ,
, DS-.
,
.

:
-
-
DiffServ
SLA .
,
. , QoS,
, 32
14


.
,
. DiffServ
IntServ.
,

.
QoS ATM, FR
.,
QoS.
MPLS ,
,

.
MPLS

. ,
.
MPLS
.

QoS
, , ,
RSVP. , MPLS
.
, MPLS
.

15

1.3. VPN.


,

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,
, ,
.
,

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,
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. ,

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VPN?
VPN ,

. VPN

.

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VPN

16

IP-

. ,
VPN, , ,
NGN.
,
,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
.. ,
QoS ,
,
. , VPN
, (,
, ),
.
,
IP, ,
, ,
.

, ..
,

/

QoS


17

MPLS,
, ,
QoS .
1.4. MPLS.
MPLS ,

,

IETF.

MPLS

.
,
.
MPLS ATM, ,

IP-,
IP
ATM.
MPLS
IP- ,
.

MPLS



.
, MPLS,
18


.

MPLS. ,
(CoS) (VPN),
.
.
, ,
: ,
,

VPN ,
, ,
.

VPN


. MPLS

VPN,

.
MPLS VPN

.
, VPN
IP-,
. VPN
,
IP- .

VPN

MPLS.

19

1.5. .
VPN ,
.
,
-
VPN,
VPN-. ,

VPN


.
,
, ,
VPN .

MPLS.
,

. MPLS

.
, , VPN MPLS,
,
.

20

2. MPLS.
2.1. .
,


IP-.
,
,
1.
,
, MPLS.
MPLS

(Multiprotocol

Label

Switching)

.
IETF
, IP
Switching, Tag Switching, Aris Cell Switch Router.
MPLS IP-
, ,
BGP OSPF.

,
,
.
Multiprotocol

. , MPLS
, .. MPLS
,

21

OSI.

;
, ,
,
,
,

;
,
,
,
.
,

,

MPLS 2 3
IP, ATM Frame Relay, ,
,

RSVP

OSPF.
2.2. .
IETF
MPLS:
-
- FEC
- LSP
.
2.2.1. .

FEC.
22

, .. FEC
.
, ,
,

.
,
.
MPLS

4- ,
. ,

(VCI/VPI)
(DLCI).

2.
4 .
20 .
MPLS
CoS,
.

MPLS.
IP QoS MPLS- IP CoS. MPLS IP QoS
23

. MPLS QoS
CoS, IP
IP-.
QoS
:
,

LSP-,

LSR

,
.

.
TTL
(Time to Live), ,
,

.
.
: LSR
FEC ,

.
.
, MPLS, ,
, . .

LSP, LSR, , ,

24

, LSP.
:
LSR , LSR
, , ,
FEC,
, .
, - LSR,
, ,
.

.
() .

,
.
. ,
m,

, ,
m. , ,
, . LSP-,
, m, LSP m.

, :
-,

.
-, ,
. ,
.

25

, ,

.

. , ,
. ,

. LER
.
:
.
.
OSPF, IS-IS, BGP.
.
, (,
RSVP).
.

.
2.2.2. FEC.
FEC -
.
, IP-

.
:
FEC.

FEC

26

IP-

,
,
,


.

,

.
,

FEC
MPLS. FEC ,
.
.
FECs
.
, ,
FEC. FEC

, . .

.
FEC FEC-,
.
FEC-:

Address Prefix Host

Address.

27

FEC
IP-,
. FEC ,
MPLS.
FEC ,
MPLS, ,
.
,

MPLS

, ,

, .
2.2.3. LSP.

MPLS-.
, LSP, FEC,
LSR LSP-
. LSP- LSP-. ,

LSP-. , .
.
,
LSP- .
LSP LSP-
,
LSP- .
MPLS.
: hop-byhop,

,
,
28

, ,
, LSR. ,
,
.
MPLS

FEC, , ,
FEC LSP-
. LSP
LER, LSP,
.
LSP

,
, MPLS
( ).
, MPLS ,
IP- ,
.
LSP

),
( LSP).

. ,
,
,
.
2.3. .
MPLS .
IP- MPLS,

29

, MPLS- ,
FEC
(Forwarding Equivalence Class). FEC

,

. , IP- FEC

3. MPLS.
FEC FEC-,
,
. , ..

. ,
, ,
, .
30


,
, FEC,
. , ,
,
,
(label swapping).
, ,


IP.
MPLS

.
, MPLS ,
, ,
,
.

MPLS

:
LER (Label Enge Routers) MPLS.
LSR (Label Switching Routers)
MPLS.
MPLS ,

FEC
. LER ,
MPLS, LER ,
IP-, .

31

, , LSR
IP-.
MPLS
, ..,
,

LSR.
MPLS LIB,
.

LIB

,
,
. , LIB, LSR

.
LSR . LIB


, .
LIB LSR ,
,
,

. MPLS
. , ,
FEC, LSP. LSP
.
MPLS
.


32

OSPF, IS-IS BGP.


.
LSP
LDP RSVP,
BGP OSPF.

.
MPLS
,

.

,
LIB. .
, ,
. .
-,

, ,
IP- .

.
2.3.1. .
, , LSR
FEC , LIB,
.
, ,
IP-, ,

33

, . ,
.
,
, LSR, ,
, FEC,
.
.
MPLS
,

. .
LSR ,

. ,
. , LSR
,
.

FEC ,
,
.
MPLS
,
.

LSR ,

FEC. ,

FEC. ,
LSR, , .
, ,

34

LSR,
.
2.4. .
LSP LSR
.
:
LSR , downstream,
;
, upstream,
.

,
FEC,
.
.
MPLS
:



.
.
.
LSR
.
,
, , LSR. ,
, unsolicited downstream downstream ondemand.

35

MPLS

LSR .

LSR, ,

LSR,

, , ,
LSR: .
.
LSR
-FEC, ,
, .
LSR.
.
LSR
FEC , LSR.

,

.

, ,

LSR .
2.4.1. .
,
LSP FEC. MPLS
:


36

FEC, .
MPLS
LSR
LIB
, ,

-FEC.

FEC. ,
.

IP-.
,
, .

.
. ,
, , ,
,


LER,
. LER
. LSR
.
.

LSR

. ,

.
37

2.5. .
LSP
, MPLS -
.

, LSR
-FEC, ,

LSR. .
LDP.
LDP

. OSPF, BGP IS-IS


(SPF)
. LDP
.
, , .

.
.
LSP
LSR,
.

LDP

: .

LSR

UDP-646 IP 224.0.0.2. Hello.


, ,
.
38

, ,
.
Hello IP LSR.
Hello

,
LSR TCP,
.

646 TCP-

,
, .

LSR

KeepAlive,

LDP-.

Label Request, FEC
. .
,
Label
Mapping,

Notification,

.
-FEC ,
Label Mapping,
,
LSP .
39

LDP

. LDP
Path Vector Hop Count Label
Request Label Mapping.
Path Vector

, .
LSR
,
.
Hop Count
.

.

PDU.
.
PDU :
, , LDP
, LSR;

LDP

-- (TLV).

2.6. Traffic Engineering.



IP-, .
Traffic Engineering

40

,
.
IP-

,
.
,
. ,
, ,

,
,

.
,

, ,

, .

. TE
: TE
-
: , ,
, ,
.

:
- .
.

41

QoS ,
.
- .
.

.
- ,
.

, , , .

MPLS.

, ,
.
MPLS
Traffic Engineering :


.
.

LSP.

MPLS

.

,
.
42

MPLS

LSP,

RSVP-TE.
,

.
, LSP.
.

:

FEC.
FEC
.


.
TE ,

. MPLS
LDP
CR-LDP
RSVP - RSVP-TE.
MPLS
: OSPF IS-IS,

, ,
,
.
43


, .
,
,

LSR,
,
.
,
, TE-.
.
TE-.
2.6.1. TE-.
TE-

,
.
.
, TE-.
, TE-.

.
.
,

.
,
. TE-
.

44

TE-.

TE. - .
.

TE- ,
.
.
.
.
.

.
.


.
:
.

.

, ,
.

.
45

.
, ,
.
,
, , ,
,
,
, ,
.

TE-.
, TE-,

; ,
.
( ..)
,
.
.
,
, .
.
, SPF TE.
MPLS :
(strict) (loose).

.
,
.

46


RSVP-TE

LSR, ,

.
: ,
.

, ,
. -,

.
TE.
MPLS :

, .

.

.
MPLS

MPLS

:
MPLS ,
.
47

,
IP-, MPLS
,
, .
FEC
, .
MPLS

.
.
, TE-
.
:
. ,
.

,

.

.
2.6.2. TE-.
48

TE- ,
.
TE-.

TE-
.
- ,
TE-.
TE , ,
.
CR-LDP.
CR-LDP LDP .
LDP
LDP,
, CoS.
CR-LDP
,
.

ERO Path.
CR-LDP
,

OSPF IS-IS
.
CR-LDP .

49

OSPF IS-IS,
LSP.
2.6.3. RSVP-TE.

RSVP-TE

TE-.

RSVP-TE


RSVP-TE.
LSP-,
:
RSVP-.

RSVP

MPLS

, LSR,
, IP-,
, ,
. ,
, ,
FEC.
RSVP-TE
RSVP. RSVP,

.
, MPLS,
.
,

(OSPF, IS-IS)
; ,

50

RSVP-TE
LSP.
LSP-
QoS.

LSP .

LSP ,

LSP

.
LSP
.
,
.
RSVP
, ,
.

Resv Label,

Resv. , RSVP

MPLS. LSR
Resv RSVP, LSR
,
LIB, ,
Resv,
LABEL. , , Resv
, .

51

Resv, ,
LIB ,

LSR. ,
LSP. Resv

LSR

QoS LSP.
RSVP, LABEL,

LSP

IP. ,
RSVP ,
Path,
, , Path,
LSP. Path,
,
,
, ,
IS-IS, OSPF, RIP BGP, ,
IP-.
Path, ,

RSVP-TE
Explicit Route Object (ERO). ERO
,
Path.
Resv,
,
LSP. , ERO
.
,

52

,
.
,

,
. , ERO
TLV,
.
, LSP ,
,
, IP,
. , LSP.
LSP- RSVP-TE

RSVP SESSION, SENDER_TEMPLATE

FILTER_SPEC,

LSP_TUNNEL_IPv4

LSP_TUNNEL_IPv6. ,
, ,
LSP_TUNNEL.
RSVP-TE
RECORD_ROUTE

SESSION_ATTRIBUTE.

RECORD_ROUTE Path.

, LSP-,
LSP.
SESSION_ATTRIBUTE
Path.
LSP .

53

,
.
LSP- LSP-.
, ,
. RSVP
RSVP-TE
Resv Tspec Rsepc.

TE-
, . ,
,
. , LSP
LSP.
,
. RSVP-TE

LSP.
MPLS
,
.

.
:
- . ,
,
, .
- .

,
-

54

,
.
-
,

.
- ,
.
RSVP-TE,
:
.
RSVP-TE

RSVP LSP-

. RSVP- , RSVP-TE
RSVP
.
Flow Spec. , RSVP-TE
.
.

LSP-

RSVP-TE

ERO.
RSVP-TE - .
RSVP, PATH
RESV ,
RSVP-TE

.
, LSP.

Filter Spec Sender Template.
55

.
TE
Tear Confirm.
2.7. .
MPLS,

IP IP/ATM. :
.
.
,

,
.
,
.
QoS.
MPLS
.

(Traffic

Engineering).


,
.

VPN MPLS

.

MPLS


, .

2
56

MPLS

.
MPLS


, , .

MPLS

.
MPLS-,
,
.
Cisco, Juniper, Nortel, Lucent
.
MPLS.
, MPLS
. MPLS
, , , LAN,

, ,
, ,
. QoS

. MPLS
.
MPLS -
,
57

IP.

, ,

MPLS

, LSP.

58

3. VPN.
3.1. VPN.

,


.
VPN
,
, .
VPN Frame Relay,
ATM, VPN,
VPN .
,
VPN .
,
.

,
,
, , .
VPN
.
VPN
, ,
VPN ,
.
, VPN-
.

59

Web
.
VPN
, , ,
.

, VPN:
VPN
:
. ,
-
.

,
,
.

, , ,
, .
,
.
VPN .
VPN (Intranet VPN).
VPN (Extranet VPN).
VPN (Remote Access VPN).
.
VPN,

60

,
.
.
VPN
,
, .
,
,
,
.

(Firewalling). ,
,
, .
VPN .

VPN


(POP),
,

(Toll-free Numbers).

. -

.
,

61

VPN,

, .

VPN

, ,
VPN-.

VPN-

,
. ,
VPN: (Customer Provided
VPN) (Provider Provisioned VPN).

VPN :
.
,

.

VPN-

, .

,
,
.
3.2. VPN .

:
,
.

62


.
VPN
.

.

VPN

.
.
, ,
.
,
.
, .

,

.
.

.

.
:
, .
,
.
,
.
63

,
, (
).
.

.
.


.
,
.

.
3.3. .

,
VPN.
VPN
: IPSec VPN, MPLS VPN, VPN
PPTP, L2TP.
IP,
VPN,
( ,
Web ,
).

.

64

, ,
.

4. .

IPSec VPN.
Internet Protocol Security
VPN. IPSec
, ,

.

IP : .
65

IPSec,

VPN,

, -
,
.
IPSec
:

.

.


.
,
IPSec

IPSec

.
QoS

IP-.
VPN IP.
, VPN
IP-.
,
(L2TP)
(PPTP).
PPTP
IP.

,
. PPTP
66

,
.
,
,


.
L2TP IETF.
, ,
L2TP .
PPTP

L2TP

.
MPLS VPN.
MPLS
VPN.
MPLS VPN : IP-
() ,
.

IP,

IP
MPLS
.

IGP.
MPLS VPN
:

67

Customer Enge Router, CE

.
Provider Router, P -
.
Provider Enge Router, PE -
.

.
VPN.

CE

CE

PE

TCP/IP.
CE-


. ,
VPN , ..
.
IP- VPN-IP-
MP-BGP . , CE

VPN. PE-
CE-,
VPN.
CE
, MPLS
PE , ,
P.

.
68

VPN, :
, . ,
LSP
.

PE-

,
,

, VPN, PE
, VPN.

.

.

PE RT,
, VPN.
, VPN of
Origin,

, ,
; Site of Origin,
,
.
PE
.
, PE
P, - ,
. PE

69

, .

VPN
VPN,
, (private) .

VPN

(Route Distinguisher, RD),


VPN. PE
, VPN,
, - IP.

VPN MP-BGP
(Multiprotocol BGP).
MPLS
, IPSec,
.
MPLS
Traffic Engineering
DiffServ.
VPN MPLS

.

IP

, MPLS.
MPLS VPN

70

.
.
3.4. VPN.
, ,
.

.
( ) ,

.

.
,
.

, , .

.
.
,
.
,
,
.

71

. .


.
,
, .

,
.

.
3.5. MPLS
.
MPLS
(, IP, IPX, Frame Relay,
ATM),
, .
, IPSec
IP, PPTP L2TP
IP, IPX Net BEUI.
MPLS
, ,
, VPN-IP

(, IPSec).
IP Security

IP-,
72

,
, , IPSec
.
L2TP ,
, PPTP
.
MPLS
. MPLS


. IP IPSec, PPTP, L2TP. , MPLS

IP- IP-.
MPLS
, .

Traffic Engineering LSP


. ,

LSP.
, QoS
L2TP.
VPN IPSec

PPTP

73

,
IP-
. MPLS
,
.
,
,
MPLS-TE .
MPLS VPN
.

.

(
).
MPLS - ,
MPLS
. VPN MPLS
.
VPN

CoS .

74

4. VPN
MPLS.

,
,
MPLS.
4.1. VPN
MPLS.
5 VPN MPLS.

MPLS.

. ,
VPN:

,
.
VPN MPLS :
,
VPN LSP.

.
:
PE
CE
PE .
LSP
PE .

75

Laptop A
AN
Laptop A
AS

2
VPN B

IP Router
PE

CE

2
VPN A

CE

PE
P

P
P

PE

P
1
VPN A

CE

3
VPN A

PE
CE

P
PE
CE
1
VPN B

5. MPLS.
4.1.1. .
,

VPN

,
BGP MultiProtocol Border Gateway Protocol.

PE


VRF.
BGP ,

,
IGP, ,
.
VPN
RD. -
76

RD.

,
, RD
RD,
.

, RD

,
IP-, VPN. ,
, ,
. , ,
PE , VRF
, VPN
MP-BGP.

, Site
of Origin, VPN of Origin, Target VPN, .
, ,
,
, . :
, Site of Origin,

-,

IGP, EBGP).
PE CE
, CE VPN .
,
.

IBGP.
77

AS, IBGP
ASBR,

ASBR,
EBGP.
4.1.2. LSP-.
MPLS LSP PE.
LSP
:
(IGP) LDP,
Traffic Engineering RSVP CRLDP.
, LDP,
Best Effort (
).
LSP
LSP,
RSVP,
.
,
PE

LDP.

Best Effort.
,

, LDP.
, .

78

LSP
PE P, LSP.
-
.

.
, ,

LIB,
.
,
.
4.1.3. .

:
-
.

MPLS.

.
.
, ,

CE.

,
.
.
,
VRF.
79

. ,
VRF LIB,
.
MPLS, -
-,
IP-.
.

VPN.

MPLS:

,

,
.

.
.


.


.
4.2. VPN .

.
80

,
:

.
LSP-.

6 .
.
2
2.

IP-

VPNA
2 (if1),
IGP (, OSPF
IS-IS).
Net = 10.2.0.0.
Next Hop = CE2
2

81

,
VRF.
,
MP-BGP ,

.
,
1, 2 VPN-I
:
RD.
Next Hop,

.
VPN,
VPN 2,
.
RT, Site of Origin, VPN of Origin
, MP-BGP,
:
VPN-IP = 123.45.67.89:1:10.2.0.0
Next Hop = 123.45.67.89
Lvpn=7
RT=A.
1 VPNIPv4, R,
VFR,
VRF1A VRF1B. route-target ,
( IPv4
RD) VRF2A,
. VRF2B

82

, ,
route-target .
1 1


EBGP.
, 1
1, 1
:
Network = 10.2.0.0.
Next Hop = PE1
Interface = if 2

7 .

LSP.
LSP-TE- MPLS
LDP,
83

LSP-.

, ,
,
TE- .

PE1

P1

P2

P3

PE2

Label Request
Label Mapping
LMPLS=1

Label Request
Label Mapping
LMPLS=2

LSP

Label Request
Label Mapping
LMPLS=3

LSP
LSP

Label Request
Label Mapping
LMPLS=4
LSP

8. .
TE-.
TE-
LSP
,
QoS ERO
Path, . ERO
: 3, 2, 1, 1.

84

Path : Label Request, Session,


Sender Template, Time Values, Sender Tspec.

9. -.

Path,


ERO ,
. , ,

3,

2,

Path

1. , ,
,
, 1
,
85

Resv,

1.

Resv, : Label, Session, Filter Spec, Time


Values. Style, Flowspec, ,

Path,

..,

1, 2, 3 2. ,
.
TE-,
,


.
.

10.

, ,
VPNA MPLS-TE.
IP-.

86

(AS),
2.
, ,
CE2
2.
IP- 2 VRF

Lvpn=7.

LIB,
(ToS)
- MPLS.

,
LMPLS. ,
P , LMPLS
. -,
PE1, Lvpn=7.
.

PE1: 1
VRF VPNA,
.
1
IP.
IP- 1

FW. ,

87

4.3. -.
11 -.



,

.


,
.

.
,

,
,
.

-.


,
-.


.


.

ERROR

,

.
LER ()
-

.

.

-.

,
, -
(LSP)

RSVP-TE.

88

.
,
VPN MPLS
,
,

IPSec, L2TP, PPTP.
,
VPN MPLS
.
, , -
,
MPLS
.
MPLS Traffic Engeenering

.

VPN MPLS -

89

.
1. ..
(VPN) MPLS//54 -

-
,
. 28 1 2002
/. .-, 2002. c.18.
2. .. VPN
MPLS//57- ,
. 15-16 2002 ., . . 1/.:
, 2002. .54 56.
3. ...
// . -., 2002. 12.-.26-32.
4. .. MPLS /57 ,
19-23 2003. .-, 2003.
5. Goldstein A., Yanovsky G. Traffic Engineering in MPLS Tunnels//
International Conference on "Next Generation Teletraffic and
Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking (NEW2AN'04)". February
02-06, 2004.
6. ..
MPLS/56- -
-
,

/. -., 2004.-.5.
7. ..
MPLS// . ., 2004. 2. . 48-54.
8. ..
MPLS /58 -
, . 17-21
2004. .-, 2004.
9. .., .., .. IP
// .: , 2003.
10. ., . //
: -, 2000.
11. . IP-// .: DiaSoft, 2002.
12. IP. // .:
, 2003.
13.www.loniis.ru
14.www.cisco.com
15.www.networld.ru
16.ccc.ru
17. www.comptek.ru
18. www.poplar.ru
90

19. www.osp.ru
20. www.book.itep.ru

91



,
. . .. -
.
: " MPLS
VPN.`

VPN,

.
MPLS
VPN, VPN
MPLS.

. ,
, IP
MPLS, MPLS VPN,
VPN MPLS.
,

.
.
,
.
.

,
.

. .

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