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18.What is a spaghetti organization An Organization without any traditional structure or hierarchy is known as spaghetti organization.

In this organization every individual have its own tasks and projects The spaghetti organization sounds a bit like a matrix organization. This is the situation where people don't have fixed supervisors and departments, but rather people are organized around individual projects, and one individual might work on several projects at once. Likely you can find things written about the matrix organization if you do an electronic search. "the spaghetti organisation".All formal job titles were scrapped. No employee had a desk or office of their own, or a role except one they chose for themselves from a list of projects on a bulletin board. Staff could take on as many different projects as they wanted, and were expected to pick up new skills along the way. Projects were not managed in the traditional way - leaders were mere coordinators, and the team took a project through from start to finish by itself. Allowing organisational members to sign on to tasks with complete independence and to switch tasks frequently. Nobody has a fixed office or fixed working environment. This is the situation where people don't have fixed supervisors and departments, but rather people are organized around individual projects, and one individual might work on several projects at once

21 How can a company use multimedia today? You need to be more specific. A company can use multimedia to present powerpoints with image, audio and video add ons to sell an idea or present findings. A company can use Artistic imagery to promote a product. A company can use video imagery to promote a product. A company can use healthy work audio and video music to enhance work productivity. A company can use different types of media, together as one, to create a ad or slogan to help benefit the company. Multimedia or animation is industry is growing and progressing to leaps and bounds. It is a perfect combination of audio, still images, animation, video, text and interactivity content forms. All these can be recorded and played together and give a perfect combination of multimedia content. It enables a user to perfectly and artistically create videos or interactive content. A user can create such content with the help of processing devices like electronic or computerized devices. There are a variety of uses of such artistic and interactive effects in an electronic form. Usage: In the modern world, technology has developed and advanced to a great extent. As a result of which the expectations of the corporate world is increasing in terms of ideas and concepts. In other words, a businessperson has started relying on the Power Point presentation for making business presentations or proposals. One can make use of the presentation in the corporate world and here animation is necessary. In educational fields, this kind of interactive media is used. Students are trained to prepare presentations and even teachers impart lessons to the students for this purpose. You may require this media often in case of virtual reality. Creative industries such as advertisement, public relations, journalism and many more require this form of rich media. Film and entertainment firms make its extensive use for the purpose of entertaining their target audiences. Animated films are becoming more popular than ever before. Online games are also becoming popular. Engineering industries require this form of media in computer simulations. Mathematical and scientific researches require simulation and modeling. For instance, scientist may prepare a molecular model and manipulate it accordingly. Forensic and investigation bureau often require this form of content in order to investigate and understand the crime. More on : http://www.inc.com/guides/multimedia-for-business-marketing.html http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4812448/Multimedia-in-a-science-learning.html

11. Why are standards so important in communications? Because in order to communicate both parties need to understand each other. If two people do not speak the same language, it is very hard for them to understand each other. If communications equipment are using different standards, they will not be able to communicate. So agreed standards have to be used in any form of communication. At a personal level we can see why standards are important. They provide a guarantee of safety, predictability and usability. We do not have to worry whether our electrical wiring is safe, or that a piece of paper will fit into an envelope and we can play any CD in any machine. Standards provide a safety net for many areas including clothing, food, furniture, transport and air quality. They remove anxiety for consumers by assuring the fitness for purpose of items we buy and use, as well as creating confidence in the businesses we are buying from. So, in data communication data has to be sent from one place to another. So, when data is going to be sent then sender must has some rules under which it transform and send data to receiver.now if the receiver does also follow that rules only then it can be obtain correct form of data from sender. Otherwise we can say it like that they are connected with each other but not communicating. Computer networks are created by different entities and if standards are not developed it may be possible that every network uses it own rules. But what if they want to communicate with each other. Standards are needed so that these heterogeneous networks can communicate with one another. Due to this we needed the standards so that communicating devices or nodes follow same rules to do communication. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_are_standards_needed_in_data_communication#ixzz1TTSsmqZW 10 What is OLAP? How does it contribute to the organization? http://thefuturevalueofbusiness.com/using-olap-to-improve-organizational-effectiveness-%E2%80%93-part-2.htm

2 How does an Organization acquire & disseminal knowledge? First respondent meant from technical perspective . data 1s and 0s . knowledge can be acquired by working in a domain . no other legitimate shortcut. both for a business and an individual. it is the collective experience that resides in a non physical plane of existence. it can be imparted/propogated to others in the form of a process or documentation( paper or electronic ) or it will be ingrained in the team members even without documentation. this process or documentation should not be dependent on a single person. ie nobody should be indispensable including top leadership. many business entities thrive as leaders even without proper documentation of their working knowledge . it is ingrained in their employees& stakeholders. There are a number of ways, but all are connected with a common link-experienced workers need to share best practices. Formal Mentor programs encourage face to face meeting where mentors can monitor and validate their protege's progress. Another method that we are implementing is wikis where we ask very specific questions and monitor the responses. This has been a good way for the organization to share the collective knowledge and defines our corporate culture

1 What are the characteristics of a technologically enabled organization? Although this questions is vague and not specific with regards to what type of answer you are looking for I will attempt an answer, it might spin off supplemental discussion :) To me, a technologically enabled organization is a technologically capable company. Data and information will be at the heart and information re-use shall be constant. In other word, everything is integrated, finance, services, customer files, support database, helpdesk, quality management, customer satisfaction, email, attachments...

The information both flow in and out where you can get an holistic view of every information, communication, exchange concerning a specific project that might affect multiple customers, or every bits and pieces of information that pertain to a specific customer... It is a an organization where you have a symbiosis between the customer, who request and the customer who contribute, again, idea bounce in and out and might potentially be shared among interest group, much like a social network, the organization being the enabler between various customers with similar issue, reason why they are the customer of organization XYZ... The information is on the ecommerce site, in the corporate portal, in the intranet, on the mobile phone, the communications are interactive and customers share whiteboard, desktop, files, document management with the organization. Every relation the organization have with its customer contact is managed through a unique ID assigned to each of those contact, nothing complex, maybe an OpenID since so many people already have them or a simple challenge response via SMS, Text Message, Email to login your customer/employee experience center...

4 What kind of technology is least flexible? Most flexible? I would say that it is dependent on the licensing. The most flexible being that which comes from the Open Source family. At the root of it all, Open Source software allows any to read edit and redistribute any technology they encounter (based on the licensing). The closed source model, is exactly that closed, you can not even view the code usually without first signing a non-disclosure agreement, if you can even see it at all. This means you can not audit the code that may be entering your environment, nor can you make any real modifications or taylor it to your own specific needs. This is well documented in the book, The Cathedral & the Bazaar: http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596001087/ In the Software Industry an example of this is the adoption of Unix (FreeBSD) by Apple to develop their Software on. The BSD licensing has been a favorite of big business due to its flexibility. However it would seem Apple has shot themselves in the foot by alienating the open source community, the lack of support from Apple for the OpenDarwin project resulted in its end of life. This was a community who was actively contributing to the core of their Operating System for free. There is still a wealth of portable code that is available to anyone looking to develop on their platform, however the closed source elements within due definitely inhibit growth. Linux is often deemed the champion of Open Source Software, however since its inception it has been a mixed bag of software licenses. This has been brought to light by the influx of lawsuits over the years, its licensing GPL may be less favorable for the corporate developer. In Biotechnology the application of open technologies has a heavier impact, the following article highlights this: http://www.nationalreviewofmedicine.com/issue/2004/09_23/government_medicine02_17.html In summary, patent free medicine allows for medicine to be distributed and produced at a lower cost. The Anthrax scares shortly after 9/11 caused congress to rethink the residing patent monopolies: http://www.reason.com/news/show/28314.html In conclusion closed software more often than not inhibits the growth of technology. The compatibility issues that most technicians face on a day to day basis are a direct result of this.

Yet another case study in the area of supercomputing, using opensource technology to cut costs and increase productivity: http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9127150&source=rss_to pic122 posted February 5, 2009

19 How can you transform a huge firm like General Motors with the help of information technology? http://www.linkedin.com/answers/technology/information-technology/computerssoftware/TCH_ITS_CMP/414176-39799038

22 How does one go about identifying the expert to be used in developing an expert system? http://www.linkedin.com/answers/technology/information-technology/computerssoftware/TCH_ITS_CMP/573407-56566017