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PAPER 1

(50 marks)

PHYSICS SPM Forecast Paper

Time: 1 hour 15 minutes

Instructions: This paper consists of 50 questions. Each question is given choices, A , B, C and D. Choose the most suitable answer. Answer all questions.

1 Which of the following units is not a base unit?

 A s C g B K D A

2 The graph in Figure 1 shows the relationship between quantities p and q.

b

p

O a

b

A p = —– q + b

a

b

B p = —– q + a

a

C p = – —– q + b

b

a

b

D p = – —– q + a

a

Figure 1

q

3 Figure 2 shows a velocity-time graph for a moving object. v (m s 1 )

10
O 5
15
22

Figure 2

t (s)

The kinetic energy of the object is constant from

 A 0 s to 5 s C 15 s to 22 s B 5 s to 15 s D 0 s to 22 s
4 Which solid would exert the greatest pressure on
the ground if all the solids have the same mass?
A
C
B
D

5 A long jumper landed on the sandy ground with his knees bent.

Figure 3

Why did he bend his knees?

A To reduce the impulse of his legs on the ground.

B To increase the impulse of his legs on the ground.

C To reduce the impulsive force of his legs on the ground.

D To increase the impulsive force of his legs on the ground.

6 Figure 4 shows a metal sphere moving on a
frictionless rail.
P S
R
Q

Figure 4

1

The metal sphere possesses maximum potential energy at the position

A P

B Q

C R

D S

7 Figure 5 shows two metal cubes.

1 kg

cube P

3 kg

cube Q

Figure 5

Which of the following quantities is constant when cubes P and Q are in free fall?

A Velocity

B Momentum

C Acceleration

D Gravitational force

8 Figure 6 shows a boy holding a spring balance with a load on it in a stationary lift. The reading of the spring balance is 16 N.

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Figure 6

What is the reading of the spring balance when the lift moves down with a deceleration of 3 m s 2 ?

A 11.2 N

B 16 N

C 17.8 N

D 20.8 N

9 A ball is dropped from a height in a vacuum

cylinder. Which physical quantity of the ball is constant while it is falling?

A Momentum

B Kinetic energy

C Potential energy

D Acceleration

10 Figure 7 shows the path of a trolley moving down

a smooth rail.

trolley
A
B D
C rail

Figure 7

At which position does the trolley have the greatest kinetic energy?

11 In Figure 8, PQRS is a parallelogram. m, n, and k are three vectors.

P

Q
n
m
S
k

Figure 8

R

Which of the following shows the correct relationship between m, n and k?

 A n = m + k B m = k + n C k = m + n D m + n + k = 0 12 long jumper bends his legs while landing on the A

ground. This action is important because

A the jumper can jump further.

B the impulsive force acting on the jumper can be reduced.

C the frictional force acting on the jumper can be reduced.

D the collision time between the jumper’s legs and the ground can be reduced.

13 Figure 9 shows a glass prism.

T
10 cm
U
S
R
6 cm
5 cm
P 8 cm
Q

Figure 9

The prism exerts mininum pressure on a horizontal table if it is resting on the face

 A PUQ C PQRS B QRTU D PSTU
2

14

15

16

17

A boy blows into a filter funnel with the

polystyrene ball held inside as shown in Figure 10.

filter funnel
polystyrene ball
Figure 10

Which principle explains the diagram?

A Pascal’s principle

B Archimedes’ principle

C Bernoulli’s principle

A spring extends 2 cm when subjected to a load

of 200 g. The spring is cut into two equal lengths

and arranged in parallel to each other. What is the extension of the spring system when subjected to

A 0.75 cm
C
2.00 cm
B 1.50 cm
D 2.25 cm
Figure 11 shows a cross section of a pool.
m
P 2
water
3 m
5 m
Q
R 4
m

Figure 11

What is the difference in water pressure between points P and Q? [Density of water = 1000 kg m 3 ]

A 2.0 × 10 4 Pa

B 3.0 × 10 4 Pa

C 4.0 × 10 4 Pa

D 5.0 × 10 4 Pa

Figure 12 shows a test tube with some ball bearings floating upright in water.

test tube

water

ball bearing

Figure 12

Which of the following gives the correct relationship between the physical quantities in the situation above?

A Upthrust = Weight of test tube + Weight of ball bearings

B Upthrust > Weight of test tube + Weight of ball bearings

C Volume of water displaced = Volume of test tube

D Volume of water displaced > Volume of test tube

18 A boy running at 5 m s –1 jumps onto a stationary
skateboard as shown in Figure 13.
v m s –1
skateboard

Figure 13

The possible value of v is

A greater than 5 m s 1

B equal to 5 m s 1

C less than 5 m s 1

19 A wooden block is placed on an inclined plank as shown in Figure 14. The frictional force acting on the block is 3 N.

plank
weight = 10 N
30°
Figure 14
F

What is the minimum force, F, required to maintain the block in equilibrium?

 A 2 N C 5 N B 3 N D 7 N

20 Figure 15 shows a manometer measuring the pressure of a gas. The difference between the mercury levels is 3 cm.

gas
3 cm
mercury
Figure 15

What is the pressure of the gas, in cm Hg? [Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg]

 A 73 C 79 B 76 D 82
3

21 The boiling point of pure water at the summit is less than100 °C. It is due to

A the lower temperature at the summit.

B the lower atmospheric pressure at the summit.

C the windy condition at the summit.

22 1.5 kg of iron is cooled from 360 °C to 200 °C. How much heat has been released from the iron? [Specific heat capacity of iron = 460 J kg 1 °C 1 ]

A 100.4 kJ

B 101 kJ

C 105.5 kJ

D 110.4 kJ

23 In Figure 16, an observer cannot see the coin in an empty cup but he can see the coin when the cup is filled with water.

coin
Figure 16

The phenomenon of light involved in this situation is

A reflection

B diffraction

C interference

D refraction

24 Figures 17 (a) and (b) show incident rays of light travelling to liquid X and liquid Y.

air
air
50º
50º
liquid
liquid
X
θ 1
Y
θ 2
(a)
(b)
Figure 17

If θ 1 > θ 2 , then

A refractive index of liquid X = refractive index of liquid Y

B refractive index of liquid X < refractive index of liquid Y

C refractive index of liquid X > refractive index of

liquid Y

25 Figure 18 shows a pencil placed in front of a convex mirror with focal length of 5 cm.

convex mirror
OF
C
10 cm

Figure 18

The characteristics of the image formed are

A virtual, upright, larger than object.

B virtual, upright, smaller than object.

C real, inverted, larger than object.

D real, inverted, smaller than object.

26 Figure 19 shows the formation of the image using

a convex lens.

object

image
20 cm

50 cm

Figure 19

What is the focal length of the lens?

 A 10 cm C 15 cm B 12 cm D 20 cm

27 Figure 20 shows an incident ray of light travelling into a prism. The critical angle of the prism is 40°.

C
D
B
80º
P
A
50º
50º

Figure 20

In which path does it travel from point P ?

28 Figure 21 shows the distance between the object

and its image in a liquid.

6 cm
Figure 21

liquid

image

object

If the refractive index of the liquid is 1.4, what is the real depth of the liquid?

A 8.4 cm

B 9.8 cm

C

18.0 cm

D 21.0 cm

4

29 Figure 22 shows the side view of a ripple tank in which the depth decreases towards both sides. G is an iron bar that vibrates at a constant frequency.

G

Figure 22

Which pattern of the wavefronts will be observed in the ripple tank?

A

B

C

D

30 A set of plane waves is produced in a ripple tank. The period of the waves is T seconds. A cork is placed in the tank. What is the time taken for the cork to move from the crest to the trough?

A

B

T

—–

8

T

—–

6

D

C

T

—–

2

T

—–

4

31 Which of the following waves is a longitudinal wave?

B X-rays

C Sound wave

D Visible light

32 In a Young’s double-slit experiment, blue fringes are formed on the screen when a blue light source is used. The experiment is repeated using a red light. What is the ratio of the distance between two consecutive blue fringes to that of red fringes? [Wavelength of red light = 7 × 10 7 m and wavelength of blue light = 4.5 × 10 7 m]

A 0.64

B 0.90

C 1.25

D 1.43

33 Figure 23 shows the wavefronts of a plane wave moving towards a gap.

Figure 23

Which statement is correct about the waves going through the gap?

A The frequency of the waves becomes lower.

B The wavelength of the waves becomes longer.

C The speed of the waves remains constant.

34 Figure 24 shows an interference pattern of two coherent water waves.

R P
trough
crest
Q

Figure 24

The constructive interference occurs at

 A P and Q C Q and R B P and R D P, Q and R

35 Figure 25 shows a current-carrying straight wire, PQ in a magnetic field.

P
N
S
I
Y
V X
W
Q

Figure 25

The wire experiences a force in the direction

 A V C X B W D Y

36 Four circuits A, B, C and D have three identical resistors respectively.

A

B

A
A
5

C

D

A
A

Which circuit records the highest ammeter reading?

37 Figure 26 shows an insulated wire wound on a soft iron core and connected to a battery.

X
Y
Figure 26
Pole at X
Pole at Y
A North
North
B South
North
C North
South
D South
South

38 Figure 27 shows the wave form of an alternating current on the screen of a cathode-ray oscilloscope. The timebase is set to 5 milliseconds per centimetre.

1 cm

Figure 27

1 cm

What is the frequency of the alternating current?

 A 15 Hz C 25 Hz B 20 Hz D 50 Hz

39 Figure 28 shows an alternating current source connected to a transformer, two diodes and a cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO).

R CRO
Figure 28

The display shown on the screen of the CRO is

A
C
B
D
40 Figure 29 shows a transistor circuit.

Y

2 k
X

Figure 29

Which of the following are component X and component Y ?

 Component X Component Y A B C D

41 An ideal transformer has the same value of a

quantity in both the primary and secondary coils. The quantity is

A current

B power

C potential difference

D number of turns of coils

42 Which of the following figures gives the greatest deflection of the galvanometer?

A

B

2 m s –1
N S
G
4 m s –1
S
N
G
6

C

D

2 m s –1
N S
G
4
m s –1
S
N
G

43 Table 1 shows the truth table of a logic gate.

 Input Output P Q R 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

Table 1

The symbol for the logic gate which gives the above truth table is

A

P
R
Q
P
R
Q
P
R
Q
P
R
Q

B

C

D

44 Figure 30 shows the circuit for a combination of logic gates.

P
Q
Figure 30
If the inputs P and Q are 1011 and 0101
respectively, then the output X is
A 1010
C 0111
B 1100
D 1110

X

45 A telescope consists of two convex lenses of power 10 D and 4 D. What is the distance between the lenses in normal adjustment?

 A 10 cm C 15 cm B 14 cm D 35 cm

46 Figure 31 (a) shows air trapped in an airtight

cylinder.

airtight
piston
air
(a)
(b)

Figure 31

When a load is put on the piston as shown in

Figure 31 (b), the quantity which remains constant

in the trapped air is

A density

B volume

C mass

D

pressure

47 Nucleus m n X has k neutrons. The value of k is

A m

B n

C m n

D m + n

48 A radioactive sample has an initial activity of 3600 disintegrations per minute. After two hours, its activity decreases to 225 disintegrations per minute. What is the half-life of the radioactive sample?

A 60 minutes

B 40 minutes

C 30 minutes

D 24 minutes

49 Thermionic emission is the process of

A emission of electrons from a hot metal surface.

B deflection of electron beam from the Y-plates.

C accelerating electrons from cathode to anode.

D emitting light when electrons collide with a fluorescent screen.

50 Figure 32 shows the shooting marks on a target.

A

BC

Figure 32

Among the participants A, B and C, which participant is consistent but not accurate?

7

PAPER 2

Section A (60 marks)

Time: 2 hours 30 minutes

Instructions: Answer all questions in this section. The suggested time to complete this section is 90 minutes.

1 Figure 1.1 shows a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the diameter of a wire.

wire
P

Figure 1.1

 (a) (i) Name the part labelled P. [1 mark] (ii) State the function of P. [1 mark] (b) The diameters of the wire at three different places are shown in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 Diameter, d (mm) 1 2 3 3.21 3.20 3.22 (i) Why is the diameter measured three times? [1 mark] (ii) The measurements are consistent. What does it mean? [1 mark]

2 Figure 2.1 shows light from the same source passing through two narrow slits which are close together. They emit a coherent light wave. Vertical bright and dark lines are formed on the translucent screen at a distance 3.0 m in front of the double slit.

light

source

vertical
translucent
double slit
screen
vertical
bright and
dark lines
3.0 m

Figure 2.1

 (a) The bright vertical lines are due to the constructive interference of the light waves. State how constructive interference occurs. [1 mark] (b) Given that the slit separation is 0.5 mm and the distance between 11 bright vertical lines is 4.0 cm, calculate the wavelength of the light source used. [2 marks] (c) What will happen to the distance between two bright lines if the slit separation is decreased? [1 mark]

3 Figure 3.1 shows a block P immersed in boiling water for a long time and then transferred into beaker X. The mass of water in beaker X is 0.2 kg at 25 °C.

boiling

water

beaker
P
Figure 3.1
8

X

water

Specific heat capacity of P = 900 J kg 1 °C 1 Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg 1 °C 1

 (a) (i) What is the initial temperature of the block P ? [1 mark] (ii) Give a reason for your answer in (a)(i). [1 mark] (b) (i) Calculate the rise in temperature of water in the beaker X if the block P releases 12 kJ of heat energy. [2 marks] (ii) Calculate the mass of P. [2 marks]

4

5

weighing scale
Figure 4.1

lift

friend

Figure 4.1 shows student A standing on a weighing scale in a lift with a friend standing beside her. The effect of the movement of the lift on the readings of the weighing scale was observed by her friend. The mass of the student A is 60 kg.

 (a) What is the weight of the student A? [1 mark] (b) State three types of possible movement of the lift when the reading of the weighing scale is 60 kg. [3 marks] (c) (i) State the type of movement of the lift which involves a physical quantity when the reading of the weighing scale is 54 kg. [1 mark] (ii) Find the value of the physical quantity as in (c)(i). [2 marks]

student A

Figure 5.1 shows the image of a black line when viewed through a piece of glass with a focal length of 10 cm.

Figure 5.1

 (a) State the light phenomenon that causes the image of the line to be diminished. [1 mark] (b) (i) Name the type of lens used in Figure 5.1. [1 mark] (ii) Given that the distance between the lens and the black line is 8 cm, calculate the distance of the image from the lens. [3 marks] (c) Sketch a ray diagram to show how the image is formed. [3 marks]

6

Figure 6.1 shows a spring balance supporting a piece of stone immersed in a beaker of water. The reading of the spring balance is 2.0 N.

spring balance
string
beaker
water
stone
Figure 6.1
9

(a)

What is the resultant force acting on the stone as shown in Figure 6.1?

[1 mark]

 (b) (i) Name three forces that act on the stone. [2 marks] (ii) State the relationship of the three forces in (b)(i). [1 mark] (c) Which of the three forces gives the reading of the spring balance? [1 mark] (d) (i) What will happen to the reading of the spring balance if the water is replaced with a brine solution? [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in (d)(i). [3 marks]

7 A machine has a green lamp, a red lamp and a buzzer. The green lamp is on when the machine is operating normally. If a fault is detected, the green lamp is off, while the red lamp and the buzzer are on. When an operator acknowledges the fault by pressing a red button, the buzzer stops but the red light stays on.

 (a) Complete the truth table in Table 7.1 to show the function of the machine. Table 7.1 Input Output Fault Red button Green lamp Red lamp Buzzer 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 [4 marks] (b) Based on the truth table in Table 7.1 for the output of the green lamp, complete the logic circuit in Figure 7.1, by using one AND gate, one NOT gate and one OR gate [ignore the outputs for the red lamp and the buzzer].
Fault
Green lamp

Red button

Figure 7.1

 [6 marks] 8 Figure 8.1 shows an electric iron with specification 120 V, 1.1 kW. to power supply Figure 8.1 (a) What is meant by specification 120 V, 1.1 kW ? [1 mark] (b) The iron is connected to a 120 V supply. Calculate (i) the current passing through the iron, [2 marks] (ii) the resistance of the iron. [2 marks] (c) What will happen to the power of the iron if it is connected to a power supply of 240 V ? Determine the value of the new power (assuming the resistance of the heating element does not depend on temperature). [3 marks] (d) If the iron is to maintain its power of 1.1 kW, a resistor with resistance R’ is to be connected to the iron. (i) State the value of R’. (ii) Suggest how you would connect the resistor to the iron. [3 marks]
10

(e) Table 8.1 shows the power rating of appliances used in the home.

Table 8.1

 Appliances Power rating, P (W) Shower heater 3000 Television 250 Kettle 2500 Hairdryer 1200

If all the appliances are used for the same length of time, state which one would cost the most to run. [1 mark]

Section B (20 marks)

Instructions: Answer any one question from this section. The suggested time to answer this section is 30 minutes.

9 Figures 9.1 and 9.2 show the parallel rays of light directed toward a curved mirror P and a lens Q. F is the focal point.

curved mirror P
F
Figure 9.1
lens Q
F

Figure 9.2

 (a) (i) Name the curved mirror in Figure 9.1. [1 mark] (ii) What is meant by focal point of the curved mirror? [2 marks] (b) Using Figures 9.1 and 9.2, compare the effects of the curved mirror and the lens on the light rays and the characteristics of the image formed. [5 marks] (c) Explain an application of the curved mirror in Figure 9.1. [2 marks] (d) You are given two pieces of 45° right-angled glass prisms. Describe how you would make a periscope.
 [10 marks] 10 Nuclear energy is the energy released during the process of a nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. Nuclear fission: Uranium-235 + neutron → Barium-141 + Krypton-92 + 3 neutrons + energy 235.044 a.m.u. 1.009 a.m.u. 140.914 a.m.u. 91.898 a.m.u. 3.027 a.m.u. Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen-2 + Hydrogen-2 → Helium-3 + neutron + energy 2.015 a.m.u. 2.015 a.m.u. 3.017 a.m.u. 1.009 a.m.u. (a) (i) What is meant by nuclear fusion? [2 marks] (ii) Based on the equations of reaction and information given above, compare nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. [5 marks] (b) Describe how a chain reaction takes place in a nuclear fission of uranium-235. [5 marks] (c) There are many uses for radioisotopes in medicine. Using your knowledge on radioactivity, explain the uses of radioisotopes in (i) diagnosis [6 marks] (ii) therapy [2 marks]
11

Section C (20 marks)

Instructions: Answer any one question from this section. The suggested time to answer this section is 30 minutes.

11

Figure 11.1

Figure 11.1 shows a ship which has dropped its anchor over its side in order to prevent it from moving. Another interesting feature of the ship is the lifeboats attached to its side.

(a)

How can a huge and heavy ship float on the sea?

[6 marks]

(b)

Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of materials which can be used to make anchors and lifeboats. You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the materials in Table 11.1 which could be used to make an anchor and a lifeboat.

Table 11.1

 Characteristics Materials Density (kg m –3 ) State Nature (Hardness) P 2800 Metal Medium Q 1200 Non Metal Hard R 3600 Metal Hard S 760 Non Metal Medium T 13 600 Liquid Soft

Explain the suitability of each characteristic in Table 11.1 and hence determine which material is most

suitable to be used to make the anchor. Do the same for the lifeboats. Justify your choice.

(c) A boat of mass 5 × 10 5 kg floats on sea water of density 1030 kg m 3 . Calculate the volume of sea water

[10 marks]

displaced.

[4 marks]

12 Table 12.1 shows five ideal transformer circuits P, Q, R, S and T. The input voltage for all the circuits is 240 V alternating current.

Table 12.1

 Transformer Input voltage, V p (V) Number of turns of coil Rectification Capacitor circuit Primary, N p Secondary, N s P a.c. 240 4000 200 Without With Q a.c. 240 100 2000 Without Without R a.c. 240 4800 400 With Without S a.c. 240 4000 200 With With T a.c. 240 2000 100 With Without
 (a) (i) Explain the meaning of rectification. [2 marks] (ii) What is the function of the capacitor in the circuit? [1 mark] (iii) Explain the efficiency of a practical transformer. [4 marks] (b) Based on the information given in Table 12.1, which of the circuits is suitable to run a radio of 12 V d.c.? [10 marks] (c) A transformer has 10 000 turns on its secondary coil and 100 turns on its primary coil. An alternating current of 10 A flows in the primary coil when it is connected to a 24 V a.c. supply. What is the maximum

current that could flow in the secondary coil if the transformer is 90% efficient?

12

[3 marks]

PAPER 3

Section A (28 marks)

Time: 1 hours 30 minutes

Instructions: Answer all questions in this section. The suggested time to complete this section is 60 minutes.

1 A student carries out an experiment to study the relationship between the resistance, R and the diameter, d of a coil. A 1.5 m length of constantan wire is used. A coil of 10 turns is wound on a glass rod before connecting to the circuit with crocodile clips as shown in Figure 1.1.

3.0 V
switch
A
rheostat
constantan
coil
10 turns
d
V

Figure 1.1

The turns are close to but not touching each other. An adhesive tape is used to stick the turns to the glass rod. The rheostat is adjusted so that the current flow is 0.5 A. The reading on the voltmeter, V is read. V

V

The diameter, d of the coil is measured and the resistance, R of the coil is calculated from R = —–

I

.

The above procedure is repeated by winding the wire on glass rods of different diameters. The actual sizes of the coils and the corresponding values of V are shown in Figures 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6.

d
V = 1.00 V
V = 1.40 V
V = 1.80 V
Figure 1.2
Figure 1.3
Figure 1.4
V = 2.20 V
V = 2.50 V
Figure 1.5
Figure 1.6
13

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Based on the experiment described, identify

(i)

(ii)

the manipulated variable, the responding variable, a fixed variable.

(iii)

Use a metre rule to measure the diameters, d of the coil. V

Calculate the corresponding resistances, R from R = —–

Tabulate the values of d, V, I and R.

Draw a graph of R against d on a graph paper. Use your graph to state the relationship between R and d.

V

I

.

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

[7 marks]

[5 marks]

[1 mark]

2 A student carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the reading of the volume of water in a measuring cylinder and the number of steel spheres used for displacing the water to determine the radius of the sphere. The student used 25 steel spheres of the same size. The spheres were dropped into the measuring cylinder to displace the water in the cylinder upwards. The results of the experiment are shown in the graph V against n in Figure 2.1.

V
(cm 3 )
Graph
V against
n
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
n
O
5
10 15
20
25 30

Figure 2.1

 (a) State the relationship between V and n. [1 mark] (b) Using the graph, determine the volume of water, V o before any sphere is dropped into the measuring cylinder. Show on the graph how you obtained your answer. [2 marks] (c) (i) Calculate the gradient, k, of the graph of V against n. Show on the graph how you determined k. [3 marks] (ii) The gradient, k represents a physical quantity. Name the physical quantity. [1 mark] (d) (i) From the graph of V against n, determine the number of spheres, n’ needed to displace 10.0 cm 3 of water. Show on the graph how you obtained your answer. [2 marks] (ii) The radius of the steel sphere used to displace the water is given by the formula: r = 3 —– 4π 3k Calculate the radius of the sphere. [2 marks] (e) State one precaution that should be taken during this experiment. [1 mark]
14

Section B (12 marks)

Instructions: Answer any one question from this section. The suggested time to answer this section is 30 minutes.

3 Steven and his twin brother who has the same weight as him were in a water park. They slid down two different water slides with different heights as shown in Figure 3.1. Steven hit the water at a further distance and splashed up more water.

Steven

Figure 3.1

Based on the above information and observation;

 (a) State one suitable inference. [1 mark] (b) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a trolley, a ticker-timer and other apparatus, describe an experiment

framework to investigate the hypothesis stated in 3(b). In your description, clearly state the following:

 (i) aim of the experiment, (ii) variables in the experiment, (iii) list of apparatus and materials, (iv) arrangement of the apparatus, (v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable, (vi) the way you would tabulate the data, (vii) the way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]

4 A student throws a stone into a lake with depth of water increasing towards the centre of the lake as shown in Figure 4.1. The wave pattern formed is as shown in Figure 4.2.

stone

lake-bed
shore

Figure 4.1

Based on the above information and observations;

Figure 4.2

wavefront

 (a) State one suitable inference. [1 mark] (b) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. [1 mark] (c) With the use of apparatus such as a ripple tank and other apparatus, describe an experiment framework to investigate the hypothesis stated in 4(b). In your description, clearly state the following:
 (i) aim of the experiment, (ii) variables in the experiment, (iii) list of apparatus and materials, (iv) arrangement of the apparatus, (v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable, (vi) the way you would tabulate the data, (vii) the way you would analyse the data. [10 marks]
15

Paper 1

 1 C 2 C 3 B 4 C 5 C 6 A 7 C 8 D 9 D 10 C 11 A 12 B 13 B 14 C 15 A 16 B 17 A 18 C 19 A 20 C 21 B 22 D 23 D 24 B 25 B 26 B 27 A 28 D 29 B 30 D 31 C 32 A 33 C 34 B 35 B 36 B 37 A 38 D 39 C 40 D 41 B 42 D 43 D 44 D 45 D 46 C 47 C 48 C 49 A 50 B

Paper 2

Section A

1 (i) Ratchet knob

(a)

(b)

 (b) • The lift is stationary. • The lift is moving up with uniform velocity • The lift is moving down with acceleration, a (c) (i) The lift is moving down with acceleration, a. (ii) R = 54 kg × 10 N kg –1 = 540 N

mg R = ma 600 – 540 = 60a

a = 1 m s 2

5 (a) Refraction of light.

 (b) (i) Concave lens (ii) Focal length, f = –10 cm Object distance, u = 8 cm 1 1 1 — u + — = — v f 1 1 1 — + — = —— 8 v –10 1 1 1 — = —— – — v –10 8 v = –4.4 cm Image distance is 4.4 cm on the same side as the black line. (c)

concave

lens
I
F O
v
u
f
F = Focal point

O = Object

I = Image

(ii) Ratchet knob is used to prevent the user from exerting undue pressure on the wire.

(i) The repeated measurements are to ensure the consistency of the measurements.

(ii) It means the measured values are close to each other with little or no deviation amongst them.

2 Constructive interferences occur when the crests of two waves from the slits coincide. Constructive interferences also occur when the troughs of two waves coincide.

(a)

(b) D = 3.0 m

a

x

10

=

=

=

= 0.4 cm

= 4 × 10 3 m

0.5 mm 5 × 10 4 m ——— 4 cm

ax

Wavelength, λ = —–

D

= ———————————— (5 × 10 4 m)(4 × 10 3 m)

(i)

100 °C

3.0 m

= 6.7 × 10 7 m

The distance between two bright lines increases.

(c)

3 (a)

6 (a) Resultant force acting on the stone = 0 (as it is in equilibrium)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(i)

• Force of gravity or weight

• Buoyant force

• Tension in the string

(ii) Block P is in thermal equilibrium with boiling water at 100 °C

(i) Q = mcθ

(ii)

(b)

 12 000 J = (0.2 kg)(4200 J kg –1 °C –1 )(θ) θ = 14.3 °C Q = mcθ 12 000 J = m × 900 × (100 – 39.3) ∴ m = 0.22 kg

= (60 kg)(10 N kg 1 )

= 600 N

(ii) F x + F y = F z

F x

(i) Reading of spring balance will decrease.

(ii) The buoyant force equals to ρVG where ρ is the density of the liquid. As ρ (brine solution) is greater than water, the buoyant force is greater, thus reducing the tension in the string.

4 Weight, W = mg

(a)

16

7 (a)

 Input Output Fault Red Green Red Buzzer button lamp lamp 00100 01100 10011 11010
(b)
Fault
NOT
AND
Green lamp
OR
Red button
8 The iron will release 1.1 kJ of heat energy per
second when it is connected to a 120-V power
supply
(a)
(b)
(i)
P = VI
P
I
=
V
=
———— 1100 120 V W = 9.2 A
2
V
(ii)
P = —–
R
V 2
R
= —–
P
2
120
= ——– 1100 = 13.1 Ω

(c)

(d)

The power of the iron will increase.

P = —– V 2

R

2

= ——– = 4.4 kW

240

13.1

(i)

(ii)

13.1

The resistor is connected in series with the

iron (both have the same resistance, so the voltage across each component is

120 V).

 (e) Shower heater Section B 9 (a) (i) Convex mirror. (ii) Focal point of a curved mirror is the point on the principal axis to which all rays originally parallel and close to the principal axis converge, or from which they appear to diverge, after reflection from the mirror. (b) Parallel rays of light appear to diverge from the focal point F after reflection from the mirror. Parallel rays of light appear to diverge from the focal point F after refraction from the lens. Since the reflected rays from the curved mirror and the refracted rays from the lens are diverging, therefore, the image form is virtual, upright and diminished.

10

17

(c) Convex mirrors are used as rear view mirrors in vehicles, since they are always give an erect image and a wider field of view. Convex mirror has a wider field of view than a plane mirror of the same size.

(d)

 glass prism total internal reflection eye

object

image

(a)

(b)

Periscope can be made by using two 45° right- angled prisms as shown in the above figure. Light rays from object enter the faces of the prisms normally and fall on the hypotenuse face internally at an angle of incidence of 45°. Total internal reflection occurs here, since the critical angle for a glass is 42°. The image formed is upright and has the same size as the object. The prism periscope produce a single bright and clear image as the image is formed by total internal reflection of light. Prism periscope can be used to view objects behind obstacles. In submarines, periscopes are used to observe ships on the surface of the sea. (i) Nuclear fusion is a type of nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of large amounts of energy. (ii) Nuclear fusion involves fusion of light nuclei to form heavier nucleus. Nuclear fission involves breaking up of a large nucleus to form lighter nuclei. Both processes produce loss in mass, i.e. mass defect. Both processes release large amounts of energy. In both process, the release of energy is due to mass defect, based on the formula, E = mc 2 .

neutron
uranium-235
barium-141
krypton-92

When uranium-235 is bombarded by a neutron, it forms uranium-236, which is unstable and breaks down, splitting into barium-141, krypton-92 and three neutrons, as shown in the above figure. The three neutrons are slowed

down to produce further fission by colliding with other uranium-235 nuclei to generate more fission. This sets up a chain reaction and leads to release of very large amounts of energy. The mass of uranium-235 must be more than the critical mass. Critical mass is the minimum mass of a fissile material that will sustain a chain reaction.

 (c) (i) A radioisotope and a stable isotope of the same element have exactly the same chemical properties and they form the same compounds. For example, the radioisotope Sodium-24 forms sodium chloride molecules of the same chemical properties. Salt of Sodium-24 can be used as tracer which can be followed wherever it goes. If a patient takes in some of this Sodium-24 tracer, its progress through the body can be followed by a Geiger-Muller tube or othe radiation detector moved over the body of the patient to show where the Sodium-24 reached and how much of it has been absorbed. This is because Sodium-24 decays by emitting yyy-rays which pass out of the body to be detected. (ii) A nuclide of Cobalt-60 is widely used to give patients a large dose of yyy-rays for the treatment of cancers. A restricted beam of yyy-rays is carefully directed at the cancer site from an external Cobalt-60 source during radiotherapy.

Section C 11 (a) According to Archimedes’ principle, when a body is partially or completely immersed in a fluid, the buoyant force acting on the body is equal to the weight of fluid displaced. The two forces acting on the floating ship, i.e., the weight of the ship and the buoyant force are in equilibrium. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the sea water displaced by the ship. The heavy and huge ship can float because the buoyant force acting on it is equal and opposite to the weight of the ship. (b) The anchor must have a high density so that it can sink easily in the sea. Anchor is made of metal that is very hard in nature so that it can withstand rough use and very rough seabed. The material suitable for making the anchor is R, because R is a very dense metal and it is hard in nature. Life-boat must be able to float

12

18

easily on the sea water, so it must be made of material of lower density than sea water. It is made of non-metal so that it is light weight. Life-boat is made of medium soft material so that it safe when it knocks into something or people. The material suitable for making life- boat is S because it is of low density, it is a non-metal and of medium hardness.

(c) Weight of sea water displaced

= Weight of the boat

ρVg = 5 × 10 5 kg × 10 N kg 1 = 5 × 10 6 N Volume of sea water displaced, V

= ———————————— 5 × 10 6 N

(1030 kg m 3 )(10 N kg 1 )

= 485.4 m 3

(a)

(b)

(i) Rectification is the process of obtaining a direct current from an alternating electrical supply. Rectification consists of half-wave rectification and full-wave rectification.

(ii)

(iii)

Capacitor provides the extra energy needed to keep the power output constant at its peak value. Capacitor is used to smooth the output of the transformer.

All pratical transformers waste some energy because of heating effects in the core and coils. It means that the power output is less than the power input. The two main

factors affecting the efficiency of a pratical transformer are:

• the coils have resistance and heat up. Thick copper wire of low resistance is used to make the primary and secondary coils.

• the changing magnetic field in the core induces eddy currents which produces heat. The core is laminated with insulated sheets of iron to reduce the eddy current.

• It must have a step-down transformer so as to step-down voltage from 240 V to 12 V.

: N s

• The transformer must have the ratio

N p

= 20 : 1 so as to produce an voltage output of 12 V.

• It must have rectification so that the voltage output is direct current. i.e. 12 V d.c

• It must have capacitor to produce smoothing effect on the voltage output.

• Circuit S is the most suitable because it has a step-down transformer with N p : N s = 20 : 1,

rectifier and capacitor.

(c) Input power = V p I p

= (24 V)(10 A)

= 240 W

—– V s

V

p

=

N

s

—–

N

p

V s =

——–— 10 000 × 24 V

100

= 2400 V

Efficiency = ——–———– Power Power output input × 100

90% = ——–———– Power output × 100 240 W

Power output = 216 W V s I s = 216 W ——–— 216 W

I s =

2400 V Current output, I s = 0.09A

Paper 3

Section A

1
(a)
(i)
Diameter, d of the coil
(ii)
Resistance, R of the coil
(iii)
Number of turns of the coil or type and
thickness of the wire.
(b)
d (cm)
I (A)
V (V)
R (Ω)
1.7
0.50
1.0
2.0
2.2
0.50
1.4
2.8
2.9
0.50
1.8
3.6
3.5
0.50
2.2
4.4
4.0
0.50
2.5
5.0
(c)
Graph R against d:
R (Ω)
5
x
x
4
x
3
x
x
2
1
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0 d (cm)
(d)
The resistance, R of the coil is proportional to
the diameter, d of the coil.
2
(a)
V increases linearly with n.
(b)
V (cm 3 )
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
n

(c)

From the intercept on the V-axis, V o = 12.0 cm 3 33.0 – 16.0

(i)

20

= 0.85 cm 3

(ii) The gradient, k represents the volume of a sphere

(d)

(i) n’ = 12 (please refer to the graph)

(ii) r

= 3 —– 4π 3k
3 —–——— 3 × 0.85
=
=
0.588 cm

(e) While reading V, the eyes should be at the

same level with the water surface in the measurinng cylinder to avoid parallax error.

Section B 3 (a) Inference:

The velocity of the boys at the lower ends of the water slides is affected by the height of the slide. (b) Hypothesis:

The higher the upper end of the slide, the greater the velocity at the lower end of the

slide.

 (c) (i) Aim: To investigate the relationship between the velocity of an object and the height where it is released. (ii) Variables: Manipulated variable: Height, h Responding variable: Velocity, v Fixed variable: The inclined angle of the runway (iii) Appratus and materials:

Ticker-timer with accessories, ticker tape, metre rule and runway

(iv)