Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

THE WORKS

01

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT:

VOLUME III.

THE NATIVE EACES.


VOL. III. MYTHS AND LANGUAGES.

SAN FRANCISCO:
THE HISTORY COMPANY PUBLISHERS.,

1886,
Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1882, \>\

HUBERT H. BANCROFT,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

All Rights Reserved.


CO3TTE3TTS OF THIS VOLUME.

MYTHOLOGY.

CHAPTER I.

SPEECH AND SPECULATION.


PAGE
Difference between Man and Brutes Mind-language and Soul-Ian-
%

guage Origin of Language: A


Gift of the Creator, a Human In
vention, or an Evolution ? Nature and Value of Myth Origin of
Myth: The Divine Idea, a Fiction of Sorcery, the Creation of a
Designing Priesthood Origin of Worship, of Prayer, of Sacrifice
Fetichism and the Origin of Animal-worship Religion and My
thology 1

CHAPTER II.

ORIGIN AND END OF THINGS.

Quiche Creation-myth Aztec Origin-myths The Papagos Montezu-


ma and the Coyote The Moquis The Great Spider s Web of the
Pimas Navajp and Pueblo Creations Origin of Clear Lake and
>>.

Lake Tahoe Chareya of the Cahrocs Mount Shasta, the Wig


wam of the Great Spirit Idaho Springs and Waterfalls How
Differences in Language Occurred Yehl, the Creator of the Thlin-
keets The Raven and the Do 42

CHAPTER III.

PHYSICAL MYTHS.

Sun, Moon, and Stars Eclipses The Moon Personified in the Land
of the Crescent Fire How the Coyote Stole Fire for the Cahrocs
How the Frog Lost his Tail How the Coyote Stole Fire__for )(
the Navajos Wind and Thunder The Four Winds and the Cross
Water, the First of Elemental Things Its Sacred and Cleansing
Power Earth and Sky Earthcpaakes and Volcanoes Mountains
How Hawk and Crow Built the Coast Range The Mountains
the
of Yosemite 108
(v)
vi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.
ANIMAL MYTHOLOGY.
PAGE
ROles Assigned to Animals Auguries from their Movements The 111-
omeiied Chvl Tutelary Animals Metamorphosed Men The Og
ress-squirrel of Vancouver Island Monkeys and Beavers Fallen
Men The Sacred Animals Prominence of the Bird An Emblem
of the The Serpent, an Emblem of the Lightning
"Wind Not
Specially Connected with Evil The Serpent of the Pueblos The
Water-snake Ophiolatry Prominence of the Dog, or the Coyote
Generally, though not Always, a Benevolent Power How the Coyote
Let Salmon lip the Klamath Danse Macabre and Sad Death of the
Coyote 127

CHAPTER V.
SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.
GODS,
Eskimo Witchcraft The Tinneh and the Koniagas Kugans of the
Aleuts The Thlinkeets, the Haidahs, and the Nootkas Paradise
Lost of the Okanagans The Salish, the Clallams, the Chinooks,
the Cayuses, the Walla Wallas, and the Nez Perces Shoshone
Ghouls Northern California The Sun at Monterey Ouiot and
Chinigchinich Antagonistic Gods of Lower California Coman- Y
dies, Apaghes, and Navajos Montezuma of the Pueblos Moquis
and Mojaves Primeval Race of Northern California 140

CHAPTER VI.
GODS, SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.
Gods and Religious Rites of Chihuahua, Sonora, Durango, and Sinaloa
The Mexican Religion, Received with Different Degrees of Credu
lity by Different Classes of the People Opinions of Different Writers
as to its Nature Monotheism of Nezahnalcoyotl Present Condition
of the Study of Mexican Mythology Tezcatlipoca Prayers to Him
in Time of Pestilence, of War, for Those in Authority Prayer Used
by an Absolving Priest Genuineness of the Foregoing Prayers
Character and Works of Sahagun 178

CHAPTER VII.
GODS, SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.

Image of Tezcatlipoca His Seats at the Street-corners Various


Legends about his Life on Earth Quetzalcoatl His Dexterity in
the Mechanical Arts His Religious Observances The Wealth
and Nimbleness of his Adherents Expulsion from Tula of Quet
zalcoatl by Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli The Magic Draught

Huemac, or Vemac, King of the Toltecs, and the Misfortunes


CONTENTS. vii

PAGE
Brought upon Him and his People by Tezcatlipoca in Various Dis

guises Quetzalcoatl in Cholula Differing Accounts of the Birth


and Life of Quetzalcoatl His Gentle Character He Drew up the
Mexican Calendar Incidents of his Exile and of his Journey to
Tlapalla, as Belated and Commented upon by Various Writers
Brasseur s Ideas about the Quetzalcoatl Myths Quetzalcoatl Con
sidered a Sun-god by Tylor, and as a Dawn-hero by Brinton Helps
Domenech The Codices Long Discussion of the Quetzalcoatl
Myths by J. G. Mtiller PJ

CHAPTER VIII.

GODS, SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.

Various Accounts of the Birth, Origin, and Derivation of the Name of


the Mexican War-god, Huitzilopochtli, of his Temple, Image, Cere
monial, Festivals, and his Deputy, or Page, Paynal Clavigero
Boturini Acosta Solis Sahagun Herrera Torquemada J. G.
Miiller s Summary Myths, their Origin, Re
of the Huitzilopochtli

lation, and Signification Codex Vaticanus Tlaloc, God of


Tylor
Water, Especially of Rain, and of Mountains Clavigero, Gama,
and Ixtlilxochitl Prayer in Time of Drought Camargo, Motolinia,
Mendieta, and the Vatican Codex on the Sacrifices to Tlaloc The
Decorations of his Victims and the Places of their Execution Gath
ering Rushes for the Service of the Water-god Highway Robberies
by the Priests at This Time Decorations and Implements of the
y Priests Punishments for Ceremonial Offences The Whirlpool of
Pantitlan Images of the Mountains in Honor of the Tlaloc Festival
Of the Coming Rain and Mutilation of the Images of the Moun
tains General Prominence in the Cult of Tlaloc, of the Number
Four, the Cross, and the Snake 288

CHAPTER IX.
GODS, SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.
The Mother or All-nourishing Goddess under Various Names and in
Various Aspects Her Feast in the Eleventh Aztec Month, Och-
paniztli Festivals of the Eighth Month, Hueyteciiilhuitl, and of the
Fourth, Hueytozoztli The Deification of Women that Died in
Child-birth The Goddess of Water under Various Names and in
Various Aspects Ceremonies of the Baptism or Lustration of Chil
dren The Goddess of Love, her Various Names and Aspects Rites
of Confession and Absolution The God of Fire and his Various
Names His Festivals in the Tenth Month, Xocotlveti, and in the
Eighteenth Month, Yzcali; also his Quadriennial Festival in the
LatterMonth The Great Festival of Every Fifty -two Years; Light
ing the New Fire The God cf Hades, and Teoyaomique, Collector
viii CONTENTS.

PAGE
of the Souls of the Fallen Brave Deification of Dead Rulers and
Heroes Mizcoatl, God of Hunting, and his Feast in the Fourteenth
Month, Quecholli Various Other Mexican Deities Festival in the
Second Month, Tlacaxipehualiztli, with Notice of the Gladiatorial
Sacrifices Complete Synopsis of the Festivals of the Mexican Cal
endar, Fixed and Movable Temples and Priests 349
. . . . .

CHAPTER X.

GODS, SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.


Revenues Mexican Temples Vast Number of the Priests Mexi
of the
can Sacerdotal System Priestesses The Orders of Tlamaxcaca-
yotl and Telpochtiliztli Religious Devotees Baptism Circum
cision Communion Fasts and Penance Blood- drawing Human
Sacrifices The G-ods of the Tarascos Priests and Temple Ser
vice of Michoacan Worship in Jalisco and Oajaca Votan and Quet-
zalcoatl Travels of Voan The Apostle Wixepecocha Cave near
Xustlahuaca The Princess Pinopiaa Worship of Costahuntox
Tree Worship 430

CHAPTER XI.

GODS, SUPERNATURAL BEINGS, AND WORSHIP.

Maya Pantheon Zamna


Cukulcan The Gods of Yucatan The
Symbol of the Cross in America Human Sacrifices in Yucatan
Priests of Yucatan Guatemalan Pantheon Tepeu and Hurakan
Avilix and Hacavitz The Heroes of the Sacred Book Quiche Gods
Worship of the Choles, Maiiches, Itzas, Lacandones, and Others
Tradition of Comizahual Fasts Priests of Guatemala Gods,
Worship, and Priests of Nicaragua Worship on the Mosquito
Coast Gods and Worship of the Isthmians Phallic Worship in
America 461

CHAPTER XD
FUTURE STATE.

Aboriginal Ideas of Future General Conceptions of Soul Future


State of the Aleuts, Chepewyaiis, Natives at Milbank Sound, and
Okanagans Happy Land of the Salish and Chinooks Conceptions
of Heaven and Hell of the Nez Perces, Flatheads, and Haidahs
The Realms of Quawteaht and Chayher Beliefs of the Songhies,
Clallams, and Pend d Oreilles ThgJFuture State of the Califpr-
^ man and Nevada Tribes, Comanches, Pueblos, Nayajos. Apaches,_
Moquis, Maricopas, Yumas, and Others The Sun-house of the
Mexicans Tlalocan and Mictlan Condition of the Dead Jour
ney of the Dead Future of the Tlascaltecs and Other Nations 510
CONTENTS.

LANGUAGES,

CHAPTER I.

GENERAL REMARKS.
PAGE
Native Languages in Advance of Social Customs Characteristic Indi
viduality of American Tongues Frequent Occurrence of Long
"Words Reduplications, Frequentatives, and Duals Intertribal

Languages Gesture-language Slave and Chinook Jargons


Pacific States Languages The Tinneh, Aztec, and Maya Tongues
the Larger Families Inland Language as a Test of Origin Simi
larities in Unrelated Languages Plan of This Investigation 551

CHAPTER II.

HYPERBOREAN LANGUAGES.
Distinctionbetween Eskimo and American Eskimo Pronunciation
and Declension Dialects Koniagas and Aleuts Language
of the
of the Thlinkeets Hypothetical Affinities The Timieh Family
and its Dialects Eastern, Western, Central, and Southern Divis
ions Chepewyan Declension Oratorical Display in the Speech
of the Dialects of the Atnahs and Ugalenzes Compared
Kutchins
Specimen of the Koltshane Tongue Tacully Gutturals Hoopah
Vocabulary Apache Dialects Lipan Lord s Prayer Navajo
Words Comparative Vocabulary of the Timieh Family 574

CHAPTER III.

COLUMBIAN LANGUAGES.
The Haidah, its Construction and Conjugation The Nass Language
and its Dialects Bellacoola and Chimsyan Comparisons The
Nootka Languages of Vancouver Island Naiiaimo Ten Command
ments and Lord s Prayer Aztec Analogies Fraser and Thomp
son River Languages The Neetlakapamuck Grammar and Lord s
Prayer Sound Languages The Salish Family Flathead Gram
mar and Lord s Prayer The Kootenai The Sahaptin Family
Nez Perce Grammar Yakima Lord s Prayer Sahaptin State and
Languages The Chinook Family Grammar of the Chinook
Slave"

Language Aztec Affinities The Chinook Jargon C04

CHAPTER IV.
CALIFORNIAN LANGUAGES.

Multiplicity of Tongues Yakon, Klamath, and Palaik Comparisons


Pitt River and Wintoon Vocabularies Weeyot, Wishosk, Weitspek,
CONTENTS.

PAGE
and Ehnek Comparisons Languages of Humboldt Bay Potter
Valley, Russian and Eel River Languages Porno Languages
Gallinomero Grammar Transpacific Comparisons Chocuyem
Lord s Prayer Languages of the Sacramento, San Joaquin, Napa,
and Sonoma Valleys The Olhone and Other Languages of San
Francisco Bay Rmisien and Eslene of Monterey Santa Clara
Lord s Prayer Mutsun Grammar Languages of the Missions, Santa
Cruz, San Antonio de Padua, Soledad, and San Miguel Tatche
Grammar The Dialects of Santa Cruz and Other Islands 635

CHAPTER V.
SHOSHONE LANGUAGES.

Aztec-Sonora Connections with the Shoshone Family The Utah, Co-


manche, Moqui, Kizh, Netela, Kechi, Cahuillo, and Chemehuevi
Eastern and Western Shoshone, or Wihinasht The Bannack and
Digger, or Shoshokee The Utah and its Dialects
The Goshute,
Washoe, Paiulee, Piute, Sampitche, and Mono Popular Belief as
to the Aztec Element in the North Grimm s Law Shoshone, Co-
manche, and Moqui Comparative Table Netela Stanza Kizh
Grammar The Lord s Prayer in Two Dialects of the Kizh Cheme
huevi and Cahuillo Grammar Comparative Vocabulary 680

CHAPTER VI.

,/ THE PUEBLO, COLORADO RIVER, AND LOWER CALIFORNIA LANGUAGES.


Traces of the Aztec not Found among the Pueblos of New Mexico and
Arizona The Five Languages of the Pueblos, the Queres, the
Tegua, the Picoris, Jemez, and Zuni Pueblo Comparative Vocabu
lary The Yuma and its Dialects, the Maricopa, Cuchan, Mojave,
Diegueno, Yampais, and Yavipais The Cochimi, Guaicuri,
and Pe-
ricii, with their Dialects of Lower California
Guaicuri Grammar
Pater-noster in Three Cochimi Dialects The Languages of Lower
California Wholly Isolated 680

CHAPTER VII.

THE PIMA, OPATA, AND CERI LANGUAGES.


Pima Alto and Bajo Papago Pima Grammar Formation of Plurals
Personal Pronoun Conjugation Classification of Verbs Ad
and Interjections Syntax of
verbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions,
the Pima Prayers in Different Dialects The Opata and Eudeve
Eudeve Grammar Conjugation of Active and Passive Verbs-
Lord s Prayer Opata Grammar Declension Possessive Pronoun
Conjugation Ceri Language with its Dialects, Guaymi and Tepoca
Ceri Vocabulary 694
CONTENTS. xi

CHAPTER VIII.
NORTH MEXICAN LANGUAGES.
1 A JK
The Cahita and its Dialects Caliita Grammar Dialectic Differences
of Mayo, Yacjui, and Tehueco Comparative Vocabulary
the
CahitaLord s Prayer The Tarahumara and its Dialects The
Tarahumara Grammar Tarahumara Lord s Prayer in Two Dialects
The Concho, the Toboso, the Julime, the Piro, the Suma, the
Chinarra, the Tubar, the Irritila Tejano Tejano Grammar-
Specimen of the Tejano The Tepehuana Tepehuaiia Grammar
and Lord s Prayer Acaxee and its Dialects, the Topia, Sabaibo
and Xixime The Zacatec, Cazcane, Mazapile, Huitcole, Guachi-
chile, Colotlan, Tlaxomultec, Tecuexe, and Tepecano The Cora
and its Dialects, the Muutzieat, Teacuaeitzica, and At eacari Cora
Grammar 700

CHAPTER IX.
THE AZTEC AND OTOMI LANGUAGES.
Nahua or Aztec, Chichimec, and Toltec Languages Identical Anahuac
the Aboriginal Seat of the Aztec Tongue The Aztec the Oldest
Language in Anahuac Beauty and Richness of the Aztec Testi
mony of the Missionaries and Early Writers in its Favor
Specimen
from Paredes Manual Grammar of the Aztec Language Aztec
Lord s Prayer The Otomi a Monosyllabic Language of Anahuac
Relationship Claimed with the Chinese and Cherokee Otomi
Grammar Otomi Lord s Prayer in Different Dialects 723

CHAPTER X.
LANGUAGES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN MEXICO.
The Pame and its Dialects The Meco of Guanajuato and the Sierra
Gorda The Tarasco of Michoacan and its Grammar The Matlal-
tzinca and its Grammar The Ocuiltec The Miztec and its Dialects
Miztec Grammar The Amusgo, Chocho, Mazatec, Cuicatec, Cha-
tino, Tlapanec, Chinantec, and Popoluca The Zapotec and its
Grammar The Mije Mije Grammar and Lord s Prayer The
Huave of the Isthmus of Tehuautepec Huave Numerals 742

CHAPTER XL
THE MAYA-QUICHE LANGUAGES.
The Maya-Quiche, the Languages of the Civilized Nations of Central
America Enumeration of the Members of This Family Hypothet
ical Analogies with Languages of the Old World Lord s Prayers
in the Chanabal, Chiapanec, Choi, Tzendal, Zoque, and Zotzil
Pokonchi Grammar The Mame or Zaklopahkap Quiche Gram
mar Cakchiquel Lord s Prayer Maya Grammar Totonac Gram
mar Totonac Dialects Huastec Grammar 759
rii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.
LANGUAGES OF HONDURAS, NICARAGUA, COSTA RICA, AND THE ISTHMUS OF
DARIEN.
PAGE
The Carib an Imported Language The Mosquito Language The Poya,
Towka, Seco, Valiente, Rama, Cookra, Woolwa, and Other Lan
guages in Honduras The Chontal Mosquito Grammar Love
Song in the Mosquito Language Comparative Vocabulary of
Honduras Tongues The Coribici, Chorotega, Chontal, and Orotina
in Nicaragua Grammar of the Ortina or Nagrandan Comparison
between the Orotina and Chorotega The Chiriqui, Guatuso, Tiri-
bi, and Others in Costa Rica Talamanca Vocabulary Diversity
of Speech on the Isthmus of Darieii Enumeration of Languages
782
Comparative Vocabulary