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INTRODUCTION Spinning in conversion of fibers into yarn. These fibers can be natural fibers (cotton) or man-made fibers (polyester).

Spinning also entails production of manmade filament yarn (yarn that is not made from fibers). Final product of spinning is yarn. Cotton value chain starts from Ginning that adds value to it by separating cotton from seeds and impurities. Spinning is the foundation process and all the subsequent value additions i.e. Weaving, Knitting, Processing, Garments and Made ups, depend upon it. Any variation in quality of spinning product directly affects the entire value chain. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To know and gathered knowledge about the various departments in the company. The various processes practiced in different departments. To utilize the training program in order make the new suggestions for the problems identified. INDUSTRIAL PROFILE The term textile is derived from the Latin word Texere means to weave. Textile industry come into the scenario even before independence and occupied a very unique positions in the world itself due its consideration made the field of employment , national economy, exporting. The Indian textile industry is one of the largest in the world with a massive raw material and textiles manufacturing base. Our economy is largely dependent on the textile manufacturing and trade in addition to other major industries. About 27% of the foreign exchange earnings are on account of export of textiles and clothing alone. The textiles and clothing sector contributes about 14% to the industrial production and 3% to the gross domestic product of the country. Around 8% of the total excise revenue collection is contributed by the textile industry. So much so, the textile industry accounts for as large as 21% of the total employment generated in the economy. Around 35 million people are directly employed in the textile manufacturing activities. Indirect employment including the manpower engaged in agricultural based raw-material production like cotton and related trade and handling could be stated to be around another 60 million. A textile is the largest single industry in India (and amongst the biggest in the world), accounting for about 20% of the total industrial production. It provides direct employment to around 20 million people. Textile and clothing exports account for onethird of the total value of exports from the country. There are 1,227 textile mills with a spinning capacity of about 29 million spindles. While yarn is mostly produced in the mills, fabrics are produced in the powerloom and handloom sectors as well. The Indian textile industry continues to be predominantly based on cotton, with about 65% of raw materials consumed being cotton. The yearly output of cotton cloth was about 12.8 billion m (about 42 billion ft). The manufacture of jute products (1.1 million metric tons) ranks next in importance to cotton weaving. Textile is one of Indias oldest industries and has a formidable presence in the national economy inasmuch as it contributes to about 14

per cent of manufacturing value-addition, accounts for around one-third of our gross export earnings and provides gainful employment to millions of people. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND GROWTH Indias textile industry is one of the economys largest. In contrast to other major textile-producing countries, mostly mostly small-scale, nonintegrated spinning, weaving, cloth finishing, and apparel enterprises, many of which use outdated technology, characterize Indias textile sector. Some, mostly larger, firms operate in the organized sector where firms must comply with numerous government labor and tax regulations. Most firms, however, operate in the small-scale unorganized sector where regulations are less stringent and more easily evaded. The unique structure of the Indian textile industry is due to the legacy of tax, labor, and other regulatory policies that have favored small-scale, labor-intensive enterprises, while discriminating against larger scale, more capital-intensive operations. The structure is also due to the historical orientation towards meeting the needs of Indias predominately low-income domestic consumers, rather than the world market. Policy reforms, which began in the 1980s and continued into the 1990s, have led to significant gains in technical efficiency and international competitiveness, particularly in the spinning sector. However, broad scope remains for additional reforms that could enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of Indias weaving, fabric finishing, and apparel sectors. Structure Of Indias Textile Industry Unlike other major textile-producing countries, Indias textile industry is comprised mostly of small-scale, nonintegrated spinning, weaving, finishing, and apparel-making enterprises. This unique industry structure is primarily a legacy of government policies that have promoted labor-intensive, small-scale operations and discriminated against larger scale firms. Composite Mills Relatively large-scale mills that integrate spinning, weaving and, sometimes, fabric finishing are common in other major textile-producing countries. In India, however, these types of mills now account for about only 3 percent of output in the textile sector. About 276 composite mills are now operating in India, most owned by the public sector and many deemed financially sick. Spinning Spinning is the process of converting cotton or manmade fiber into yarn to be used for weaving and knitting. Largely due to deregulation beginning in the mid-1980s, spinning is the most consolidated and technically efficient sector in Indias textile industry. Average plant size remains small, however, and technology outdated, relative to

other major producers. In 2002/03, Indias spinning sector consisted of about 1,146 small-scale independent firms and 1,599 larger scale independent units. Weaving and Knitting Weaving and knitting converts cotton, manmade, or blended yarns into woven or knitted fabrics. Indias weaving and knitting sector remains highly fragmented, smallscale, and labor-intensive. This sector consists of about 3.9 million handlooms, 380,000 powerloom enterprises that operate about 1.7 million looms, and just 137,000 looms in the various composite mills. Powerlooms are small firms, with an average loom capacity of four to five owned by independent entrepreneurs or weavers. Modern shuttleless looms account for less than 1 percent of loom capacity. Fabric Finishing Fabric finishing (also referred to as processing), which includes dyeing, printing, and other cloth preparation prior to the manufacture of clothing, is also dominated by a large number of independent, small scale enterprises. Overall, about 2,300 processors are operating in India, including about 2,100 independent units and 200 units that are integrated with spinning, weaving, or knitting units. Growth of Textile Industry India has already completed more than 50 years of its independence. The analysis of the growth pattern of different segment of the industry during the last five decades of post independence era reveals that the growth of the industry during the first two decades after the independence had been gradual, though lower and growth had been considerably slower during the third decade. The growth thereafter picked up significantly during the fourth decade in each and every segment of the industry. The peak level of its growth has however been reached during the fifth decade i.e., the last ten years and more particularly in the 90s. The Textile Policy of 1985 and Economic Policy of 1991 focussing in the direction of liberalisation of economy and trade had in fact accelerated the growth in 1990s. The spinning spearheaded the growth during this period and man-made fibre industry in the organised sector and decentralised weaving sector. ROLE OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE ECONOMY Textile industry plays a significant role in the economy. The Indian textile industry is one of the largest and most important sectors in the economy in terms of output, foreign exchange earnings and employment in India. It contributes 20 per cent of industrial production, 9 per cent of excise collections, 18 per cent of employment in industrial sector, nearly 20 per cent to the countrys total export earnings and 4 per cent ton the GDP. The sector employs nearly 35 million people and is the second highest employer in the country. The textile sector also has a direct link with the rural economy and performance of major fibre crops and crafts such as cotton, wool, silk, handicrafts and handlooms, which employ millions of farmers and crafts persons in rural and semi-

urban areas. It has been estimated that one out of every six households in the country depends directly or indirectly on this sector. India has several advantages in the textile sector, including abundant availability of raw material and labour. It is the second largest player in the world cotton trade. It has the largest cotton acreage, of about nine million hectares and is the third largest producer of cotton fibre in the world. It ranks fourth in terms of staple fibre production and fourth in polyester yarn production. The textile industry is also labour intensive, thus India has an advantage. The key advantages of the Indian industry are:  India is the third largest producer of cotton with the largest area under cotton cultivation in the world. It has an edge in low cost cotton sourcing compared to other countries.  Average wage rates in India are 50-60 per cent lower than that in developed countries, thus enabling India to benefit from global outsourcing trends in labour intensive businesses such as garments and home textiles.  Design and fashion capabilities are key strengths that will enable Indian players to strengthen their relationships with global retailers and score over their Chinese competitors.  Production facilities are available across the textile value chain, from spinning to garments manufacturing. The industry is investing in technology and increasing its capacities which should prove a major asset in the years to come  Large Indian players such as Arvind Mills, Welspun India, Alok Industries and Raymonds have established themselves as 'quality producers' in the global market. This recognition would further enable India to leverage its position among global retailers  India has gathered experience in terms of working with global brands and this should benefit Indian vendors. GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES With a view to raise India's share in the global textiles trade to 10 per cent by 2015 (from the current 3 per cent), the Ministry of Textiles proposes 50 new textile parks. Out of the 50, 30 have been already sanctioned by the government (with a cost of US$ 710 million). Set up under the Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), this initiative will not only make the industry cost competitive, but will also enhance manufacturing capacity in the sector. Apart from the above, a series of progressive measures have been planned, they are:  Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC)  Technology Upgradation fund Scheme (TUFS)  Setting up of Apparel Training and Design Centres (ATDCs)

 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the textile sector under automatic route.  Setting up two design centres in Gujarat in collaboration with National Institute of Fashion Technology.  Setting up a Handloom Plaza in Ahmedabad with an estimated investment of US$ 24.6 million.  Revival plans of the mills run by National Textiles Corporation (NTC). Already, for the revival of 18 textile mills, US$ 2.21 million worth of machineries has been ordered for the upgradation and modernisation of these mills.  Scrapping of the Textile Committee cess being collected from the textile and textile machinery industry under the Textile Committee Act. The schemes for Foreign Investment Promotion to attract foreign direct investment in textiles, clothing and machinery; Brand Promotion on Public-Private Partnership (PPP)) approach to develop global acceptability of Indian apparel brands; Trade Facilitation Centres for Indian image branding; Fashion Hubs for creation of permanent market place for the benefit of Indian fashion industry; Common Compliance Code to encourage acceptability among apparel buyers and Training Centres for Human Resource Development on Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY SWOT ANALYSIS Strength  India has rich resources of raw materials of textile industry. It is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world and is also rich in resources of fibres like polyester, silk, viscose etc.  India is rich in highly trained manpower. The country has a huge advantage due to lower wage rates. Because of low labor rates the manufacturing cost in textile automatically comes down to very reasonable rates.  India is highly competitive in spinning sector and has presence in almost all processes of the value chain.  Indian garment industry is very diverse in size, manufacturing facility, type of apparel produced, quantity and quality of output, cost, and requirement for fabric etc. It comprises suppliers of ready-made garments for both, domestic or exports markets. Weakness  Knitted garments manufacturing has remained as an extremely fragmented industry. Global players would prefer to source their entire requirement from two

     

or three vendors and the Indian garment units find it difficult to meet the capacity requirements. Industry still plagued with some historical regulations such as knitted garments still remaining as a SSI domain. Labour force giving low productivity as compared to other competing countries Technology obsolescence despite measures such as TUFS. Low bargaining power in a customer-ruled market. India seriously lacks in trade pact memberships, which leads to restricted access to the other major markets. Indian labour laws are relatively unfavorable to the trades and there is an urgent need for labour reforms in India.

Opportunity  Low per-capita domestic consumption of textile indicating significant potential growth.  Domestic market extremely sensitive to fashion fads and this has resulted in the development of a responsive garment industry.  India's global share is just 3% while China controls about 15%. In post-2005, China is expected to capture 43% of global textile trade.  Companies need to concentrate on new product developments.  Increased use of CAD to develop designing capabilities and for developing greater options. Threats  Standards such as SA-8000 or WARP have resulted in increased pressure on companies for improvement of their working practices.  Alternative competitive advantages would continue to be a barrier.  To balance the demand and supply.  To make balance between price and quality. Quality Policy     Good quality . Best quality, which saves the cost and time to customer. Best service. Customer friendly in fulfilling their requirements.

Normally the quality pattern of spinning mill is normally measured in terms of count pattern.

COMPANY PROFILE AVANEETHA TEXTILS PVT LTD, COIMBATORE registered on 14-02-2004 under the Companies Act 1956 with a capacity of 36000 spindles. The Company carry on the business of cotton, waste cotton, staple fibre, silk, artificial silk, rayon, nylon, polyester, linen flux, hemp, jute, worsted wool and other natural and or/ synthetic fibrous substances. They are act as the manufacturer, buyer, seller, importer or exporter of materials. The company is located at Kaniyur village, Coimbatore; the registered office is at Mettupalayam road, Coimbatore.In this Company there are 700 employees are working in the factory section. There is 100% women participation. The raw material is used as cotton. At present in Avaneetha Textile Pvt Ltd spinning mills have 30 machines. The capacity of 1 machine is 1200 spindle. OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY Mainly there are 4 objectives  To carry on the business of ginners of kappas, spinners, doubters, twisters, combers, weavers, knitters, finishers, leachers, dyers, printers, mercers, processors, manufactures, merchants, traders, buyers, dealers, importers and exporters of cotton, waste cotton, staple, fibre, silk, artificial silk, rayon, nylon, polyester, linen, flax, hemp, jute, worsted wool and other natural and or/ synthetic fibrous substances.  To comb prepare, spin, dye, colour, shade, bleach, wind stretch, double, red, cone, size, mercerize, print, warp and deal in cotton, waste cotton, staple, fibre, silk, artificial silk, rayon, nylon, polyester, linen, flax, hemp, jute, worsted wool and other natural and or/ synthetic fibrous substances to weave or otherwise manufacture, cut, stitch, design, cloth, and other goods, fabrics, whether textile felted, netted or looped and to produce, manufacture, process or prepare and deal in yarns, threads, cloth of all kinds, knitted wear, hosiery, linen, readymade dress articles, garments, made ups and other textile goods and to deal, sell, import, export any such goods.  To carry on the business of merchants of yarns, threads, fabrics and products made of cotton, waste cotton, viscose staple fibre, silk, artificial silk, rayon, nylon, polyester, linen, flax, hemp, jute, worsted wool in wholesale or in retail, either on own account, or on commission basis .  To manufacture, buy, sell, import, export or otherwise deal in any way reusing materials, sewing threads, lining materials, zips, buttons, elastic materials, knitting materials, needles and other materials.

The liability of the company is limited. The authorized share capital of the company is Rs-/- 6, 00, 00,000 divided into 6, 00,000 equity shares Rs-/- 100 each. The minimum paid up capital of the company one lakh. Quality Policy Avaneetha Textiles (P) Ltd is committed to excel in satisfying its valued customers in manufacturing and timely supplying of cotton yarns with required specifications by ensuring,  Effective maintenance of Quality Management System.  Timely understanding and meeting the ever changing market needs.  The control improvement and sustainable growth with the involvement of employees at all levels by reviewing the company objectives periodically. CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY We concentrate on quality not only in terms of products but also in meeting our customers specific needs and delivering in time. DIVISIONS IDENTIFIED y y y y y y y y y y Production Human Resource Accounts General Stores Quality Assurance Marketing Electrical Maintenance Purchase

DIVISIONS LOCATION Avaneetha Textiles (P) Ltd has placed its main three divisions in different locations. Production Division (Mill Unit) Kaniyur Village Finance Division (Admin Office) Coimbatore Marketing Division Tirupur

ORGANISATIONAL CHART

Managing director

Finance

Production

Human Resource

Accounts Manager

Factory Manager

HRD Manager

Assistant Accounts Officer

Senior Production Manager

Personnel Assistant

Cashier

Supervisors

EDP

Employees

Security HRD

FOR MARKETING DIVISION

JMD

Marketing

Marketing

Manager

Marketing Executives
YARN The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. Yarns are made in different counts like 2s, 4s, 10s, 16s, 20s, 24s, 25s, 30s, 34s, 36s, 38s, 40s, 60s, 80s, 100s, etc. We can consider like this. 0s counts are cotton fiber. 20s counts yarn is thicker than 24s yarn. Likewise 30s yarn is thicker than 34s. So when the yarn counts are increasing, the thickness becomes lesser. We can see, the higher the counts, the lesser the thickness. Yarn prices based on the thickness. Price of 20s yarn is lesser than 24s. Price of 30s yarn is lesser than 34s yarn. We must know, higher the counts, higher the prices. There are 2 qualities of yarn. Combed and Carded. Combed is superior quality. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0.25 inches to 2.5 inches. According to the technical parameters, the fibers with more length are considered to be better. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns. Also the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths, the short length

fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. For this purpose, a special process is being done. This process is called Combing. Because of the same longer length of fibers, the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. Hence after knitting or weaving, the fabric will have very even look. Carded yarn is inferior in quality. As the above said combing process is not being done, the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. Also carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this, the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. Because of this extra process, the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn. Popular Yarn Formation Systems Cotton Yarn Formation On removing the cotton from the bales, the cotton is opened up, blended and mixed with cotton from other bales. Finally the fibers are formed into a thin partially oriented continuous web of intertwined fibers called a picker lap. The picker lap in turn undergoes carding to remove short fibers and remaining trash and to provide additional orientation to the fibers. The cotton sliver from carded machines are combed before feeding to drawing in order to further straighten and orient the fibers and to remove additional short tangled fibers. The drawing portion of the operation is referred to as the drafting process. Subsequent drawing and high speed twisting is carried out by ring spinning in which the drafted, lightly twi sted sliver (roving) is fed from the drafting unit onto a high speed spindle via a traveller holding the spun yarn to a ring surrounding the reciprocating spindle. Woolen and Worsted Yarn Formation The wool is washed in successive baths of detergent solution to remove the impurities. The process is called scouring, and the weight of the raw wool can be reduced by as much as 50% by the scouring process. Vegetable matter remaining in the wool can be removed by passing the wool through concentrated sulfuric acid to chemically destroy the cellulosic matter, a process called carborization. After washing and drying, the cleaned wool is blended and carded to form a sliver. The sliver must undergo additional straightening, orientation, and removal of short fibers to be used in the worsted system. The process involves several successive steps including gilling (a form of pin orientation) and combing to give wool top. The wool top is drawn and slightly twisted in several stages to form a roving which is finally spun into a highly twisted worsted yarn.

Other Staple Yarn Formation Cut staple manmade fibers arrive in boxes at the mill and are ready for carding and processing into yarn. When two or more different staple fibers are mixed, it is critical to provide extensive blending before carding and repeated doubl ing of the sl iver to assure intimate blending prior to roving and spinning. Filament Yarn Formation Filament spinning systems are much less complex because the fibers are continuous and do not need to be highly twisted to give a cohesive strong yarn. Filament yarn spinning usually involves man-made fibers and only the portion of the ring spinning system that involves twisting and winding onto spindles is used. Mercerised Yarn After combing and twisting, the yarn will be singed (gassed). By this process, the yarn will pass rapidly through flames and the superficial hair around the yarn would be eliminated. Due to more heat, the hairy particles of the yarn will be burnt out. (Now this is called Gassed Yarn). Then the yarn is treated with caustic soda under perfectly controlled tension. This process is called Mercerising. Mercerising is done to strengthen the yarn and to improve luster of yarn. After mercerising, the yarn will have great strength and greater brightness. Also the yarn will capture 20% more humidity without getting wet. Further, this mercerising process increases the resistance of yarn and reduces its becoming dirty. (Now the yarn is called Gassed Mercerised Yarn). Grindle / Twisted Yarns These yarns are also called Twisted Yarns. Two yarns of same counts but in different colours are twisted together. Among these 2 colours, one colour will be in lighter shade and the other will be in darker shade. After the twisting, the yarn will be in a different mixing shade. We must be sure of these yarns are in same counts and have same yarn strength. Also when they are being twisted together, the number of twists per inch (usually 14) should be even for the full length of yarn. If the twisting is not done properly, then we will face problems during knitting. Dyed Yarn For making the stripes and jacquard design fabrics, the dyed yarns are used. Yarns are dyed by manually and by sophisticated machines. In manual yarn dyeing, we can not expect the consistency of shades, yarn strength and better quality. Hence it is always advised to dye the yarns with the latest machines only. For yarn dyeing, only combed yarns are used. Also the yarn should have more yarn strength. It is called Count Strength Product (CSP).

Production Process

Cotton Godown Blow Room Process

Carding Breaker Drawing

Semi Process

Combed Process

Omega Lap Finished Drawing Comber Simplex

Spinning

Auto Coner

Packaging

COTTON GODOWN Raw material such as cotton is placed in cotton godown as bales. Cotton is purchasing from Gujarat for processing. Raw Cotton is packed as bales and it is purchased for processing. S6 (Sankar 6) Cotton variety is selected for yawn process. Stock capacity of godown is from 3 months to 6 months. Cotton variety is selected based on the following attributes:     Length Strength Maturity Moisture

BLOW ROOM

Blow room is the starting of the spinning operation where the fiber is opened, cleaned, mixed and evened. The whole machine is subject to suction and the dust is collected in special filters; the material, on the other hand, undergoing contemporaneously, the rotary action of the cylinder and suction along the operating width, effects a helical movement around the drum and exits from the side opposite to that on which it entered. It is then transferred by the delivery hopper into the transportation conduit.

Functions of Blow room Opening  Opening is the first operation within the blow room in which the goal is always a high degree of openness of material with gentle treatment and a fiber loss as less as possible.  Opening is the first operation it means, tearing apart the compressed and matted cotton until it is very much loosened and separated into small tufts with a gentle treatment, and a fiber loss as small as possible.  Opening is also related to cleaning as where is opening there is also cleaning. Cleaning  Cotton contains up to 18% trash in most cases. To clean the material it is unavoidable to remove as much fiber as much waste.  Therefore it is necessary to measure the amount of the waste removed and its composition. As it is of high importance also called cleaning efficiency.  The cleaning efficiency always has to be optimized and not maximized, since the fiber quality (short fibers, neps) as well as fiber loss is always negatively affected by maximum trash removal. Dust removal  An often underestimated task of the blow room line is the removal of dust. However, it is as important as the removal of impurities.  Dedusting in the blow room happens by air suctioning only, either between the machines, e.g. by dust cages, dust extractors, etc., or within the machine by normal air separation.  Every blow room machine must be capable of extracting dust, so that special dedusting machines should be needed.  The efficiency depends not only on the devices but also on the size of the flocks. The smaller the flocks, the higher is the efficiency. Blending\Mixing  Mixing: It is generally meant as the intermingling of different classes of fibers of the same grade e.g. USA Pima grade2, CIS  Blending: IT is meant as the intermingling of different kinds of fibers or different grade of same fibers e.g. polyester & cotton, Viscose & cotton. y Blending of fiber material is an essential preliminary in the production of a yarn.

y y

Fibers can be blended at various stages of the process. These possibilities should always be fully exploited, for example, by transverse doubling. However, the starting process is one of the most important stages for blending, since the components are still separate and therefore can be metered exactly and without dependence upon random effects. A well-assembled bale layout and even (and as far as possible, simultaneous) extraction of fibers from all bales is therefore of paramount importance.

 Objectives of mixing or blending y Economy y Processing performance y Functional properties Even feed of material to card Objectives of Blow room 1. To open the compressed bales of fibers. 2. Remove dirt and dust, broken leaf, seed particles or any other foreign impurities from the fibers. 3. To transfer the opened and cleaned fibers into a sheet form of definite width uniform weight per unit length which is called lap. 4. To roll the lap of predetermined length into a cylindrical shape around a lap pin. 5. To transfer the lap from the lap pin to a lap rod to a suitable and feed it to the subsequent m/c (carding). Action of Blow room line     Action of opposing spikes Action of air currents Action of beaters Regulating action

Wastage in Blow room  Dropping  Dust  Filter waste Faults in Blow room     Irregular lap Knocking off before completion of full lap Rough appearance of full lap Lap sheet thicker at one side than the other

      

Soft lap Lap licking Dropping under beater & grid bars Formation of conical lap Formation of split lap Barrel shaped lap Ragged lap selvedges

Types of beater in Blow room  Porcupine beater  Bladed beater  Krishner beater CARDING

The card used in woollen spinning is traditionally the sort with cylinders (covered with clothings that are angled to varying degrees), which rotate at different speeds, effecting the three cardinal actions: carding, stripping and raising. Appropriately combined, these three actions allow opening of the tufts, continuous detachment of the fibres from the card clothing, which would otherwise soon become clogged up, and delivery of the material from the machine at the end of a processing cycle. Functions of Carding Carding fulfils a series of precise objectives, serving:     to open the blend fibres fully and definitively to arrange (as far as their length allows) the fibres parallel with one another to remove impurities to blend the raw material further

 to reduce the blend to a web of fibres and to divide it up into rovings of the required count, suitable for feeding to the spinning machines. Carding plays a crucial role in all spinning cycles, and its role is never more central than in the woollen spinning cycle, in which it incorporates different functions, all essential in order to obtain the level of quality required of the product. Basically, passing the material over the card undoes tangles of fibers and therefore makes it possible to remove all kinds of impurity. This is achieved thanks to the action of the spikes covering the surfaces of cylinders that rotate around parallel axes. The equipment also fulfils another function, which is both delicate and fundamental: it has to guarantee the accuracy and evenness of the web count and subsequently of the roving count. Indeed, the definitive spinning machines that operate within the woollen spinning cycle can impart only a very low draft, which means that there is practically no possibility, at this stage, of intervening to correct the yarn count. The carding room equipment thus performs the same operations already carried out in the preparation stage, this time more thoroughly, supplying the divider with rovings of the right count. Draw Frame

Within the sequence of m/c in cotton spinning mill, the drawframe is the definitive compensation point for elimination errors. Inadequacies in the product leaving the drawframe not only pass into the yarn, they are actually reinforced by drafting effects following the draw frame. The yarn is never better than the draw frame sliver. At drawing stage, material passes not only one m/c but usually 2, arranged 1 after the other & combined to form a group. Processing in 2 passages is necessary completely to fulfill the requirements. The 2nd passage is often superfluous after combing m/c because then it does not normally generate any improvement in quality. In old machinery 3 drawings were used, breaker, intermediate & finisher. But now in latest m/c only 2 drawings, breaker & finisher are used & in D-35 only one drawing is used.

Tasks of the draw frame


     Drafting Equalizing Parallelizing Blending Dust removal

Drafting The reduction of weight / yard of sliver and increase in length is called drafting. Or Attenuation of sliver without breaking is called draft. Break draft: Draft b/w the 2nd and 3rd rollers is called break draft. Main draft: Draft b/w the 2nd and front rollers is called main draft.      Straightening of crimped and hooked fibers Paralleling of fibers To produce more uniform of sliver of definite wt/yd To reduce wt/yd of materials fed To make perfect blending/mixing of the component fibers

Waste of Draw frame  Filter waste  Clearer waste  Sliver cut

Objectives of Combing      To remove the fiber shorter than a predetermined length. To remove remaining impurities in the comber lap. To remove naps in the carded sliver. To make the fiber more parallel and straight. To produce a uniform sliver of required per unit length.

Necessity of combing      Clean finer Uniformity in length of fiber Absence of nap More parallel arrangement of fibers Straight fibers

The above quality of fibers can only be obtained by combing Combers Noel: The wastage which is removed from the comber m/c during processing is known as combers noel. It is expressed as percentage. It is mainly of short fibers and naps. Noel is used for lower count as raw material. COMBER

Open-end or Carded or Break or Rotor Spinning Rotor Spinning is a more recent method of yarn formation compared to Ring Spinning. This is a form of open-end spinning where twist is introduced into the yarn without the need for package rotation. Allowing for higher twisting speeds with a relatively low power cost. In rotor spinning a continuous supply of fibres is delivered from delivery rollers off a drafting system or from an opening unit.

The fibers are sucked down a delivery tube and deposited in the groove of the rotor as a continuous ring of fiber. The fiber layer is stripped off the rotor groove and the resultant yarn wound onto a package. The twist in the yarn being determined by the ratio of the rotational speed of the rotor and the linear speed of the yarn. The use of this system has two basic advantages. It is fed by sliver, not as with the ringframe by roving, and so eliminates the speedframe from the process line. It can also be modified to remove any remaining trash, thereby improving the yarn quality. Open-end spinning produces a different type of yarn to ringframe spinning. Openend yarns tend to be more uniform, lower in strength, more extensible, bulkier, more abrasion resistant and more absorbent. It is likely then with all of these differences, only some of which are beneficial, that open-end spinning will not replace ringspun yarn as originally thought, but will be a complimentary product. Open-end spinning operates at a rate up to five times that of ring spinning and can be effectively used for cotton, polyester-cotton blends, as well as other short and medium staple systems. Synthetic staple fibers such as polyester alone can not be effectively open

end spun due to dusting of oligomer from the fibers that interferes with the spinning action of the rotor. AUTOCONER With the new Autoconer 5, Oerlikon Schlafhorst together with the customers is continuing the Autoconer success story also in 5th generation. The Autoconer is a classic that never goes out of fashion and sets trends time and again. The Autoconer 5 was the highlight of the ITMA in Munich and during the last several months the machines are running very satisfactory to the customers in various markets and for different applications. Advantages of the new machine were explained by Oerlikon Schlafhorst sales engineers and staff during numerous customer discussions. This new development once again takes account of the latest demands of the market and customers and integrates future-oriented, innovative engineering. The Autoconer 5 offers precisely those services that make you strong for successful business in the global textile industry. In future you can produce in a quicker, more demanding, more efficient, more intelligent and more reliable way. Also with the Autoconer 5, Oerlikon Schlafhorst sets with leading, innovative technologies the benchmarks for the quality factors in the package winding business:  for that which we understand under a quality package: that is to say a package whose inner architecture is precisely aligned with the subsequent process for highest efficiency  for gentle yarn handling to ensure the high-grade yarn quality and yarn structures  for spliced yarn joints that meet highest demands. Be faster, because time is money The trademark of the Autoconer 5: Every winding unit clearly functions more productively. Greater dynamics in the winding process, faster setting up, accurate fault diagnoses, Plug & Wind technology for the rapid expansion / changeover of your performance spectrum and a lower outlay on maintenance all contribute to more productive machine running time and smooth machine and process sequences. AUTOCONER 5, TYPE RM

With first-class quality, you are always a step ahead with your customers: The Autoconer 5 produces high-end packages that are worth their price today and tomorrow. With Autotense FX, Propack FX, Variopack FX and Ecopack FX, you are unbeatable when it comes to package quality. Your valuable yarn receives gentle treatment on the Autoconer 5 -- the greater linearity of the yarn path with its optimised arrangement of the units and the new waxing unit see to that. Its unique splicing competence is based on the universality of the splicing technology. EXCELLENT AUTOCONER PACKAGE QUALITY

Be more efficient, because saving resources means saving money The Autoconer 5 offers various potential savings in terms of time, staff, yarn, energy and air. The user-friendly, open design, intuitive operation thanks to the new Informator and new winding unit display, reduced maintenance, reduced hardware handling make it easier for your staff. Savings of your valuable yarn resources due to Ecopack FX, the unique upper yarn sensor are also worth to be mentioned. And last but not least savings in energy and air consumption are also important advantages of the Autoconer 5. Be more intelligent, because man and machine form a team A well-drilled team is hard to beat, and you should be able to rely on that in your production. That is why the Autoconer 5 communicates simply and clearly with your employees. The Autoconer 5 contains the know-how that your operators need to produce quality packages. Interactive user prompting, built-in protection against faulty operation, optimised hardware-handling and interactive knowledge transfer via the Informator - with this the Autoconer 5 helps your staff to get best winding results. Be more confident, and your investment will bear fruit for many years With the Autoconer 5, you are assured of package winding technology with a future, to produce quality on a long-term basis. The innovative Plug & Wind Technology,

the newly developed electronic concept with modular construction is the main point to give highest flexibility to be prepared for the future. PACKAGING It is a manual process. Yarn cones are packed in three forms. Poly bag packages, box packages and pallet packages. Poly bag packages are mainly used for local customers and other two packaging techniques are used for exporting yarns. Mostly, a poly bag consists of 2.5kg of each yarn cone capacity and export package consists of 1.89 kg of each cone. FINANCE Finance is the lifeblood of business. The meaning of finance is that the concepts of time, money, and risk and how they are integrated. The first and foremost objective of the financial management is to maximize the wealth of shareholders. It is possible only when the company earns sufficient profit. The profitability of the organization fully depends upon the magnitude of sales. However, sales are not converted into cash immediately. Because there is a time gap between the sale of goods and receipt of cash. During the time gap a certain amount is required to sustain the sales volume on a regular basis. That amount is known as working capital. Suppose adequate working capital is not available, the company will not be in a position to maintain the sales volume at an expected level. OPERATING CYCLE Modern business enterprises face severe competitions. They produce goods based upon the demand. In this respect, all manufactured goods are not sold immediately. From the purchase of raw material to the conversion of cash, certain time gap is taken. This time gap is technically known as operating cycle of the business.
 Conversion of cash into raw materials  Conversion of raw materials into work in progress  Conversion of work in progress into finished goods  Conversion of finished goods into debtors  Conversion of debtors into cash

OPERATING CYCLE

Debtors

Cash

Finished goods

Raw materials

Work in progress

These phases affect cash flows, which most of the time, are neither synchronized nor certain. They are not synchronized because cash outflows usually occur before cash inflows. Cash inflows are not certain because sales and collections which give rise to cash inflows are difficult to forecast accurately. Cash outflows, on the other hand, are relatively certain. The firm, therefore, required to invest in current assets for a smooth, uninterrupted functioning. It needs to maintain liquidity to purchase raw materials and pay expenses such as wages and salaries, other manufacturing, administrative and selling expenses and taxes as there is hardly a matching between cash inflows and outflows. The length of the operating cycle of a manufacturing firm is the sum of (i) inventory conversion period and (ii) debtors conversion period. Inventory conversion period is the total time needed for producing and selling the product. Debtors conversion period is the time required to collect the outstanding amount from the customers. The total of Debtors conversion period and Inventory conversion period is referred to as Gross operating cycle.

FORECASTING TECHNIQUES OF WORKING CAPITAL There are so many popular methods for forecasting the working capital requirements which as follows.       Cash Forecasting Method Balance Sheet Method Profit and Loss Adjustment Method Percentage of Sales Method Operational Cycle Method Regression Analysis Method

MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPIATAL Here will use a combination of policies and techniques for the management of working capital. These policies aims at managing the current assets and cash equivalents inventories and debtors and the short term financing such as cash flows and returns are acceptable. Cash Management Identify the cash balance which allows for the business to meet day-to-day expenses, but reducing cash holding costs.

Inventory Management Identify the level of inventory which allows for uninterrupted production but reduces the investment in raw materials and minimizes reordering costs and hence increase cash flow. Debtors Management Identify the appropriate credit policy i.e. credit terms which will attract customers, such that any impact on cash flows and the cash conversion. Cycle will be offset by increased revenue and hence return on capital. Short Term Financing Identify the appropriate source of financing, given the cash conversion cycle the inventory is ideally financed by credit granted by the supplies, however, it may be necessary to utilize a bank loan or to convert debtors to cash through factoring. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION The data collected through secondary data. Secondary data means that the data or information are collected by someone, for some purpose, and we can use it for a study also, such as book reviews, internet sources, newspaper informations, journals etc. Those studies and records available related to the current study.

Here data taken from annual report of the company. The information regarding the management of working capital at AVANEETHA TEXTILES PVT LTD has been obtained through discussions with officials of the finance department of the concern. ANALYTICAL TOOL 1. RATIO ANALYSIS Analysis of financial statement are done by ratio analysis which is the major used in the study of working capital. The ratios are divided broadly in to categories for the study and the following are the ratios which are studied in detailed manner.  Liquidity ratios  Profitability ratios  Turnover ratios 2. TREND ANALYSIS
3. SHEDULES OF CHANGES IN WORKING CAPITAL

CURRENT RATIO FROM 2004-2005 TO 2008-2009

YEARS

CURRENT ASSETS

CURRENT LIABILITIES

RATIO

2004-2005

5681666

1014678

5.59

2005-2006

15898546

3349378

4.75

2006-2007

141538028

16897141

8.38

2007-2008

362864681

76428834

4.75

2008-2009

435907938

204968072

2.13

2009-2010

488567344

170283746

2.87

STATEMENT SHOWING SCHEDULES FOR CHANGES IN WORKING CAPITAL IN THE YEAR 2008-09.

Particulars Current assets Inventories Sundry debtors Cash and bank balances Loan and advances Other current assets Total current assets Current liabilities Current Liabilities & Provisions Total current liabilities Working capital Net decrease in WC

2007-2008

2008-2009

Increase in WC

Decrease in WC

90608175 146207176

127833851 183261617

37225676 37054441

34394997 88249529 3404804 362864681

92576841 23089226 9146403 435907938

58181844 65160303 5741599 73043257

76428834

204968072

128539238

76428834 286435847

204968072 230939866 55495981 73043257 55495981 128539238

Total

286435847

286435847

128539238

128539238

In 2008-09, there is a significant change in the working capital from the previous one. The company is successful in reducing its working capital, which was excess in 2007-08.

HUMAN RESOURCE Human Resource (or personnel ) management, in the sense of getting things done through people, is an essential part of every managers responsibility, but many organization find it advantageous to establish a specialist division to provide an expert service dedicated to ensuring that the humen resource function Is uniformed efficiently. An organization's human resource management strategy should maximize return on investment in the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. Human resources development is the structure that allows for individual development, potentially satisfying the organization's, or the nation's goals. Development of the individual benefits the individual, the organizationand the nation and its citizens. In the corporate vision, the Human Resources Development framework views employees as an asset to the enterprise, whose value is enhanced by development, "Its primary focus is on growth and employee developmentit emphasizes developing individual potential and skills". Human Resources Development in this treatment can be in-room group training, tertiary or vocational courses or mentoring and coaching by senior employees with the aim for a desired outcome that develops the individual's performance. At the level of a national strategy, it can be a broad inter-sectoral approach to fostering creative contributions to national productivity. The HR department has control over the following areas:  Personnel department  Canteen  Healthcare facilities Personnel department The personnel department is the department that works for the welfare of the employees. This department helps the company to solve the problems that are likely to arise between the management and the employees. Personnel management maintains separate files for all the employees. The department manager is responsible for all the activities of the personnel management. Canteen In Canteen subsidies are provided in AVANEETHA TEXTILE (P) LTD., for all items such as Tiffen, Lunch, tea and snacks. In canteen there is no separate manufacturing of items to staff or workers.

FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT The main functions of Human resource Management are;
 Job Design (JD)  Job Analysis  Human Resource Planning (HRP)  Recruitment  Selection  Hiring  Induction  Performance Evaluation  Compensation Management  Training and Development  Employee Movements  Welfare Administration  Health and safety Administration  Discipline Administration  Grievance Handling  Labour Relations

Job Design (JD) JD can be defined as the function of arranging tasks duties and responsibilities in to an organizational unit of work for the purpose of accomplishing a certain objective. Techniques of JD Scientific Techniques: This is done by observing past performances. Job Enlargement: Adding more duties to a job that is related to the current duties of involved (Horizontal Loading) Job Rotation: Shifting an employee from one job to another periodically. Job enrichment: Increasing the depth of a job by increasing authority and responsibility for planning Group Technique: The job ids designed so that a group of individuals can perform it, the job being a collective job. Job Analysis

This includes the systematic analysis of the job and the characteristics of the desired job holders. The information collected through a Job Analysis is of two forms; Job Description: Describes the job, its tasks, responsibilities and service conditions of a job. Job Specification: Describes the requirements of the person for the job, including abilities, educational qualifications, special physical and mental skills, training, experience etc. Human Resource Planning (HRP) HRP can be identifies as the strategy forecasting the organizations future requirements for different types of workers, their acquisitions, utilization, improvement, employee cost control, retention and supply to meet these needs. The HR Planning Process

HRM Planning Process Factors considered when forecasting future HR requirements.


 Demand for the organizations good/services  Plans goals and objectives  Method of productions  Retirement, transfers, resignations  Death  Retrenchments

Recruitment This is the initial attraction and screening of the supply of prospective Human Resources available to fill a given position/s. In other words, it is the process of involving the attraction of suitable candidates to vacant positions from both internal and external sources of the organization. INTERNAL Job posting Intranet Succession plans EXTERNAL Advertising Job Placement Agencies Internet

Referrals Selection

Placement through Colleges and Universities

This is a systematic process of selecting the most appropriate and suitable person to a particular job. In other words, Selection is choosing an individual to hire from all those who have been recruited/ attracted. Methods of Selection Application Evaluation: This involves choosing the most appropriate person through evaluating the applications sent by the candidates Interviews: this is to face a meeting with a member/s of the management. One of tHe most commonly used methods of selection but it requires careful planning. Eg: One on one interviews, Panel interviews, Sequence interviews Background Investigations: this is assessing the appropriateness of an applicant by investigating into his/her family, financial positions, Residential Background, criminal background etc. Medical Tests: this involves assessing the applicants physical fitness for particular jobs. Hiring This is the process of appointing the person selected for a particular job. In this process, letters of appointments will be prepared, employment contracts will be signed and the new employee will be sent in for a probationary period. (Probationary period: the time period where the newly appointed employee will have to work till he/she is made permanent) Induction This is concerned with introducing an employee to the company, job and staff in a systematic way. There are two components of induction,  Introducing the employee to the organization and the organizations culture.  Introducing the employee to his/her job Performance Evaluation This is a regular systematic assessment of an employees performance in order to review whether his/her performance matches the expected performance levels. Performance evaluations are an analysis of an employees recent successes and failures,

personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgment of an employees performance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone. Compensation Management The main objective of the function is to develop and maintain a good salaried and wages system which is reasonable both internally and externally. Factors affecting Salaries and Wages
 Cost of living  Supply and demand of labor  Government requirements (minimum wage rates)  Competitor wage scales  Trade Union influences  Labor productivity

Training and Development Training is the process by which the employees are taught skills and given the necessary knowledge to carry out their responsibilities to the required standard. In other words, it is the improvement of the performance to carry out the current job. Development is concerned with the giving the individual necessary knowledge, skills, attitude and experience to enable an employee to undertake greater and more demanding roles and responsibilities in the future. Development is concerned with the long term prospects of a career succession plan. Methods of training and development
 Apprenticing  On the job training  Off the job training  Simulations  Role playing  Case studies

Employee Movements The movements of employees take place in three methods,

 Promotions: this is the re-assignment of an employee to a higher ranked job in

terms of responsibility, respect and salaries. Promotions are usually based on seniority, competency and merit.  Transfers: this is the movement of an employee from one job to another on the same occupational level and at the same level of wage or salary.  Lay off: This is the temporary stoppage or suspension of the service of the employee to various reasons. Welfare Administration This refers to all the facilities and comforts given to the employee by the employer apart from wages, salaries and incentives.
 Medical facilities  Canteen facilities  Housing facilities  Transport facilities  Recreation facilities  Loan facilities  Educational facilities

Health and safety Administration This is concerned with maintaining required and reasonable levels of professional Health and safety in the job and its environment. The organization should ensure the employees physical and mental health. The work place should be free of hazards. Discipline Administration It is important to control the performance and behavior of the employees according to the rules and regulations of the organization. For this very reason it is important to develop, implement and maintain an appropriate disciplinary system. Importance of a discipline administration:
 To reduce conflicts and confusions  To control the employees in an orderly manner  To ensure employees behavior in accordance with performance standards, rules

and regulations of the organization.

Grievance Handling A grievance can be identified as a situation where the employee is in metal distress, dissatisfies or has a bad attitude, due to a work related unreasonable or unjust situation. A grievance could take place for various reasons;
 Job related reasons  Work services related reasons  Employee management related reasons  Service conditions related reasons  Employee behavior related reasons

Labour Relations The continues relationship between the labour force and the management. Since labour forces are organized as Trade Unions, it is actually a relationship between Trade union representative and the management. However the Government is also an involved as a third party in order to regulate this relationship by ways of laws. This relationship is also more commonly known as a tri-partite relationship. If in case there is a dispute between the employees and the management, the most common way of dispute resolution is through negotiations or Collective Bargaining and when the two parties reach to an agreement its known as Collective Agreement. Collective Bargaining: this can be identified as the negotiation that takes place between the management and the Trade unions during a particular time period regarding labour/Industrial issues. Collective Agreement: The agreements which the management and the Trade unions get into after a collective Bargain. STORES The term stores, storehouse, warehouse etc refer to the physical place be it a building or a room etc. Where materials of all variety are kept. The function of stores is to receive, store and issue materials. Stores are normally divided into various sections such as  Receiving section  Tool stores

 General stores  Raw materials stores  Finished parts stores etc. Stores plays a vital role in the operations of a company. Stores networks are incredibly complex and therein lies the opportunity of improvement. Stores function as an element of materials department, has an interface with many user departments in its daily operations. The basic purpose served by stores is the provision of uninterrupted service to manufacturing divisions. Stores act as a cushion between purchase and manufacturing on one hand and manufacturing and marketing on the other. The inherent limitations of forecasts make the stores function a necessity. Stores function is an inseparable part of all business and non business concerns, whether they are industrial or service oriented, public or private, small or large. The task of store keeping relates to safe custody and stocking of materials, their receipts, issues, and accounting with the objective of efficiently and economically providing the right material at the right time whenever required in the right condition to all user departments. Necessity Of Stores One must always remember that even though store keeping doesnt add any value to the product in the normal sense, it is an essential function and just cannot be wished away. At times stores may add time utility or value by preserving scarce material that may be required in future. By proper preservation and storage, the store department avoids any depriciation in the value of inventory. The financial view considers stores as an overhead i.e. a cost with no return. This all the more highlights the need for economic operation and efficient stores management. The cost of stores can be categorized into a capital cost component and revenue expenditure component. The capital cost consist of the sunk cost in land building, roads, yards, material handling equipment and related facilities. Because of the very irreversible nature of this cost, proper planning of stores can go long way in reducing this capital expenditure that may also have a bearing on the revenue expenditure in the stores. The revenue component of stores expenditure consists of salaries and wages of store personnel, maintenance cost, stationary cost, communication expenses, and inventory carrying cost. Functions of Stores The following are the principal functions of a store; 1. To receive raw materials, components, tools, spares, supplies, equipments and other items and account for them.

2. To provide adequate, proper and efficient storage and preservation for all the items. 3. Physical checking of all incoming materials as per the delivery challan / invoice and proper maintenance of daily goods receipt register or records. 4. Arrange for inspection of incoming materials. 5. Ensure that goods inward notes (gin) are raised and distributed without delay 6. Issue materials to the consuming departments against authorised requisitions and account for the same. 7. Maintain accurate and up to date records of material received, issued, rejected, disposed, and quantity on hand of all the items. 8. Ensure that all documents relating to receipts and issue are sent to stock control, accounts and other concerned departments. 9. Undertake stock verification as per approved procedure. 10. To highlight stock accumulation, discrepancies and abnormal consumption and initiate appropriate control action, wherever necessary. 11. To minimise obsolescence, surplus and scrap through proper codification, standardization, preservation and handling. 12. To ensure good housekeeping so as to minimise the need for material handling. 13. To make available a balanced flow of materials so as to economise on capital tied up in inventory. 14. To accept and store scrap and other discarded materials. STORES ORGANIZATION Organization is a vehicle to achieve the predetermined objectives. It is a framework of tasks, responsibilities, authorities, and assciated personnel. The type of organization must be geared to achieve the desired objectives efficiently and economically. Organization is based on commonality of certain tasks and specialization of work. It is an indispensible means to good management. STEPS IN ORGANIZATION  Identify the entire gamut of tasks to be performed.  Group and re group the tasks according to certain well defined common characteristics.  Define and delegate responsibility and commensurate authority.  Establish reporting and structural relationships between all positions.

Stores Organization Must Comprise of The Following: Outline and communicate to all concerned, the primary and other objectives of the store functions.  Define clear - cut responsibilities.  Bestow appropriate authority and practice delegation of power to enable fulfilling the given responsibilities.  Establish proper communication channels  Allocate tasks to qualified personnel.  In short, stores organization can be defined as the systematic coordination and combination of efforts in a fashion that results in an optimum efficiency and minimum expenditure.  Traditionally stores function has been visualised as a part of production department and was never given the attention and importance it rightfully deserved.  The conventional practice is to locate the stores near user departments so as to minimize material handling cost and ensure timely supplies so as to allow smooth production.  The materials department is seldom consulted in aspects such as stores location and layout.  There are both advantages and disadvantages associated with a centralized or decentralized stores.  A very big organization having a portfolio of numerous products may have a huge main store along with number of smaller decentralized store sections.  This arrangement does away with duplication of efforts in common activities.  All items of common usage may be stocked in a central store to keep the inventory at optimum levels.  Also receiving can be done centrally so as to have effective communication links with the purchase department and various suppliers.  The problem of centralization or decentralization is a vexed issue and one cannot look for thumb rules to deal with the same.  It is more a matter of convenience and suitability to the operating environment than a question of choice of one structure over another.  However the guiding principle has to be that the overall stores control has to be unified in the hands of a chief stores officer for effective coordination with other interfacing departments and proper internal control of stores.

The Stores Function Deals With Three Major Activities 1. Receipt 2. Stocking 3. Issues Stores department have the capacity of storing fifty lakh value of materials. The rooms separated as two partitions. y y Packaging materials room Spares room Packaging materials room consists of materials such as box, papers, tapes, etc., Spares room consists of various spare parts for different machines and stationeries. Stores department is working under the control of Store Keeper and Purchase incharge officer. ERP IMPLEMENTATION Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is the latest high end software solution, Information Technology has lent to the world of business application. An ERP software solution seeks to streamline and integrate operations, processes and information flows in an enterprise, to synergize the resources of an organization namely men, material, money and machine. In other words, ERP systems integrate all data and processes of an organization into a unified system. A typical ERP will use multiple components of computer software and hardware to achieve the integration. A key ingredient of most ERP systems is the use of a unified database to store data for the various system modules. Most organizations across the world have realized that in a rapidly changing business environment, it is impossible to create and maintain a custom designed software package which will cater to all their requirements and also be up-to-date. Realizing these requirements of organizations, companies have designed and developed ERP software, which offer an integrated software solution to all the functional processes in an organization. Although, in the initial stage ERP originated in the manufacturing environment, now ERP software solutions typically cover all basic business process/functions of any organization, regardless of the organization's business or charter. A typical ERP module include: Manufacturing, Supply Chain, Financials, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Human Resources, Warehouse Management and Decision Support System. These solutions are often incorrectly quoted as back office solutions indicating that customers and the general public are not directly involved. This is contrasted with front office systems like Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems that directly deal

with customers, or ebusiness systems such as eCommerce, eGovernment, eTelecom, and eFinance, or Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) systems. In reality, ERP modules are cross-functional and enterprise wide software solutions. All functional departments that are involved in operations or production can be integrated in one system using it. In addition to manufacturing, warehousing, logistics, and Information Technology, it also includes; accounting, human resources, marketing, and strategic management. There are many different flavors of ERP that serve businesses' varying procedure types. An ERP solution has numerous benefits depending on the type of business that it serves; these are business solutions and industry solutions. The industry solutions are designed for people who are working in specific industries, like finance, communications, education, healthcare to name a few. Importance of ERP software for businesses ERP softwares business solutions are designed for companies that work in a wide variety of areas. IT combines a large number of different elements into a single unit. Three of the most important ERP tools available today are manufacturing, human resources, and finance. The finance tools allow companies to successfully maintain their financial information like that of the assets, accounts, budgets and cash. ERP can also assist a company in managing internal as well as external factors affecting it. A company that uses ERP financial products can save a great deal of money over the long term, the reason being, the productivity of the organization will be improved. Enterprise Resource Planning is instrumental in getting rid of time consuming activities as paper management. A company is able to study their processes, earnings, and performance by merging their operational information with their financial information. Once this information is connected together, a company can become more competitive and productive. Synergy is an important part of ERP solutions. The concept of combining multiple processes into a single whole will allow the company to become successful in the long term. In addition to finance and business processes, it is also important to look at materials maintenance. Enterprise Resource Planning will allow a company to successfully automate the process of buying materials and maintaining them. There are modules that track the supplies that are purchased and can also make calculations about how these materials should be distributed. It also becomes possible for a company to predict the demand of the market based on history, economic statistics, and data from their employees. They can even decide when a product should be produced, and they can do this based on the raw material that is available. Implementation Business Process Reengineering is a pre-requisite for going ahead with a powerful planning tool, ERP. An in depth BPR study has to be done before taking up ERP. Business Process Reengineering brings out deficiencies of the existing system and

attempts to maximize productivity through restructuring and re-organizing the human resources as well as divisions and departments in the organization. Implementing an ERP module in an enterprise is never a cake-walk. Most ERP experts estimate that the total time required for a successful implementation can take from 18 to 24 months. The long time frame accounts for a necessary phasing of the software across the enterprise because an immediate switch in all levels of the organization has the potential to yield disastrous results. Also, as ERP software depends heavily on its end users, it is advisable, that a company gradually introduces the software, department by department. This will allow for kinks in the system to be worked out in small chunks rather than opening the business up for organization-wide failures as users acclimate to a new way of doing business. Gradually stepping the business into the system also provides the opportunity for the first sets of end users to gain expertise and help train new users, thereby reducing the strain on IT professionals and consultants during the latter stages of implementation. Training is undeniably the most important part of a successful ERP implementation. ERP software solutions have the ability to make a business more profitable as it allows automation of most of the functional business processes across the enterprise. Knowing this fact, more and more companies across the globe are offering customized ERP software solutions to their clients that are helping them to streamline their business and be more productive. Recently, Avaneetha Textiles (P) Ltd implemented new ERP software inorder to integrate all the process going in different departments. This software helps to view all the processes in required department. The software can be worked and do manipulations only by authorized persons with their login id and password provided to each. ERP software is created and designed by a external concern named Vaahini Software Solutions in a system criteria basis. This software provides authorization and reduces the power of authorizations from higher to lower officials. And it increases the accuracy, coordination among different department line employees. It reduces the errors, timeliness and confusions. PURCHASE Objectives  To maintain uninterrupted flow of materials to support the development schedules.  To procure materials economically at a cost consistent with the quality and service required. However, generally all purchases may be attempted at the lowest cost.  To provide the necessary expertise, advice, information to the Curators and Education Officers with regard to the best quality of material available in the market, suppliers capability and performance etc.

 To develop and maintain good buyer-seller relationship.  To promote source development.  To maintain NCSMs reputation and credibility in the market by fair dealings and prompt payments. Purchase department comprises of two categories of purchases. They are y y Import Purchase Local Purchase

Import Purchase Machines required for production process are imported from different countries like China, Switz, and German. Major categories machines are from Rieter, Trutzchler and Schlafhorst. EPCG license is most important for importing machines from other nations inorder to get high loan facilities in a long span of time. Local Purchase Local Purchase is mainly for machinery spares and it is indent by the production manager and the purchase order is placed by purchase incharge officer after the approval of higher official. It includes all type of spare parts. Cash Purchase is mainly adoptable for HR materials such as stationeries and other regular basis materials for the employees After the delivery of ordered and goods have to check with GRN. And the delivering items should be noted in QC Entry for Factory Manager and all department HODs. The main functions of the Purchase Department are defined as follows:  Procurement of stores through indigenous and foreign sources as required in accordance with the rules in force.  Checking of requisitions/purchase indents.  Selection of suppliers for issue of enquiries.  Issuing enquiries/tenders and obtaining quotations.  Analysing quotations and bids etc., and preparation of comparative statement (quotation charts).  Consultation with the Indentor for selection and approval of quotations and with Accounts Officer for pre-audit.  Negotiating contracts.

 Checking legal conditions of contracts. Consulting Administrative Officer or Secretary, NCSM where necessary.  Issue of Purchase Orders.  Follow-up of purchase orders for delivery in due time  Verification and passing of suppliers bills to see that payments are made promptly.  Correspondence and dealing with suppliers, carriers etc., regarding shortages, rejections etc., reported by the Stores Department.  Maintenance of purchase records.  Maintenance of progressive expenditure statement, sub-head wise.  Maintenance of vendor performance records/data.  Arrangement for Insurance Surveys, as and when necessary. MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT Objectives  Direct and coordinate the operations and activities of the physical plant maintenance, including but not limited to: facilities engineering administration, layout, design, and construction; equipment maintenance; utilities operations and maintenance; building and grounds maintenance; facilities protection and security departmental safety; and environmental compliance.  Provide engineering consulting services, surveys, and recommendations to all departments; to outside architect/engineer firms performing services for the facility and to Public Utilities.  Ensure compliance wit applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, statutes, and  Codes; securing required permit and coordinating wit appropriate local authorities.  Contract with and oversee the activities of various contractors and consultants for the Fulfillment of facility engineering responsibilities. Management Responsibility  The Maintenance Manager should set goals, plan, organize, and control the activities under his jurisdiction.  All goals should be specific, well defined, and quantifiable, with an estimated time of achievement given for each goal.  Each goal should be communicated freely and clearly to all those involved.  Goals should be reviewed regularly by the Maintenance Manager, Maintenance Supervisor, and operations representatives.

Functions Following are the major functions of a maintenance department:  Maintenance of installed equipment and facilities  Installations of new equipment and facilities  PM tasks Inspection and lubrication of existing equipment  CM tasks monitoring of faults and failures using appropriate techniques  Modifications of already installed equipment and facilities  Management of inventory  Supervision of manpower  Keeping records ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT An effective maintenance system includes the following elements:          Maintenance Policy Control of materials Preventive Maintenance Condition Monitoring Work Order Job planning Priority and backlog control Data recording system Performance measurement measures or indices

Maintenance performance for a plant or an organization can be assessed through analysis of Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) plant data. Relevant parameters, measures or indices for specific plants can be identified. The performance over a period of time will show if it is improving, going down or being sustained. This will also help in knowing how well the objectives are being met. In addition, it will guide the areas which are strong and which need to be strengthened. Use of computers and dedicated software will certainly help in implementing this and the maintenance management system in general.

CONCLUSION Thus the departments of spinning mill are analyzed. The company serves its all resources in order to get the new position in market. It implements new technologies and innovative ideas to boom in the current trend.

Then it can be said that the overall financial performance of the company is not reasonably satisfactory. So the company has to focus on certain areas like inventory management and debtors. Customer satisfaction is very important for every firm to stand in the long run. Though the company has implemented several management techniques like ERP software, Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, etc, still it has to implement some more measures for getting international attention.

Ref http://articles.fibre2fashion.com/