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Research Report on

Research Conducted by: SHAFIQUE AHMED JUNEJO

INDUS INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND EDUCATION [IIRE] House No. 37, A-1, Phase 2, Near Ali Palace, Qasimabad, Hyderabad, Sindh, Tel: +92-22-2656736, Email: ind_net_hyd@yahoo.co.uk Web: www.indusngosnetwork.org.pk 0

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This Research Report was conducted by Indus Institute of Research and Education with financial support of ICCO-Netherlands for apprising rural people from quality of ground water in Sindh and its consequences so that people should be well informed to take local remedies for improved health. And second, to build pressure on government by disseminating its information to bring enduring measures on both at practice and policy level. Since last many years, ICCO is supporting IIRE to uplift civil society of Pakistan, particularly of Sindh to address crucial issues of socio-economic domains in the fields of capacity building, advocacy and lobbying on genuine issues of poor and deprived people of Sindh and conducting research studies on the most stricken issues of citizens of Pakistan. The idea of research study on Ground Water Quality in Sindh came from Board of Directors of IIRE while discussing the burning issues and problems of Sindh province. Board member agreed carrying out a research on Ground Water Quality in Sindh. They aimed to disseminate the information learnt from research study to local people who are directly suffering from water-related problems. The research study carried out by well-known researcher Mr Shafiq Ahmed Junejo who is Geochemist and Assistant Professor in Geography department of University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Currently, he is engaged into various researches with national and international organizations. The current research study is part of on going project Researching and Advocating Civil Society Organizations and Institutional Strengthening of IIRE which also contributes in fulfillment of the interest of ICCO towards prosperity of marginalized communities. Team of IIRE really deserves appreciation and thanks for their support and untiring efforts during conducting research. We are also thankful to Mr Shafiq Ahmed Junejo who accomplished the assigned task with an honest toil and commitment. We are also thankful to the communities of both, right and left banks of the River Indus through out Sindh who co-operated while testing ground water quality samples from various villages.

Abdul Jabbar Bhatti Coordinator, Indus Institute for Research and Education [IIRE] Hyderabad

CONTENTS
OVERVIEW AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF DIFFERENT DISTRICTS IN SINDH Determination of pH Determination of total dissolved solids (TDS) Electrical Conductivity (EC) Salinity (SAL) CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER IN SINDH Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Zinc (Zn) Disscussion and Conclusion References Annexure- 1 List of Table Table. 1. Physical parameters at various locations Table. 2. Chemical parameters in groundwater in Sindh province

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List of Figures
Fig1. Shows the Physiography of Sindh Province Fig.2. Shows the agro-ecological zones of Sindh Fig. 3. Shows the pH level at difefrent area of Sindh Fig.4.Shows the concentration of TDS in different waters of Sindh Fig. 5. Shows the distribution of Arsenic contents in groundwater of different areas in Sindh Fig.6. Contour map shows the Arial distribution of Arsenic in different areas of Sindh Provinc Fig. 7.Relief map shows the arial distribution of As in surveyed area in Sindh Fig. 8. Shows the distribution of Cd contents in groundwater of different areas in Sindh Province Fig. 9. Relief map shows the arial distribution of Cd in surveyed area in Sindh Province Fig.10. contour map shows the Arial distribution of Cadmium in different areas of Sindh Province Fig. 11. Shows the distribution of Pb contents in groundwater of different areas in Sindh Fig.12. Shows the Arial distribution of Pb in different areas of Sindh Province Fig.13. Relief map shows Pb in different areas of Sindh Province Fig.14. Shows the Concentration of Zn in Different Areas of Sindh Province Fig.15. Relief Map Shows Arial Distribution of Zn in Different Areas of Sindh Province Fig.16. Shows the Area Distribution of Zn in Different areas of Sindh Province Plate.1. Showing on the spot testing of Physical parameters of ground water during field

3 3 5 7 16 16 16 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 04

OVERVIEW AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Sindh province covers 17.7% of the total land area of Pakistan and has about 23 % of total the population of country, on globe it is located between 23o 35to 28o 30 North latitudes and 66o 42and 71o 1East longitudes. The entire region forms the southern part of Pakistan, physiographically called "Lower Indus Plain". The length of the region from North to South is about 508.55 kilometers and nearly 436 kms at east to west, covers 140,915 square kms (Fig.1). Sindh province is bounded by Punjab province at North, Balochistan province at West, India at East and Arabian Sea at South. Geographically Sindh has 241.395 kilometers of the coastal strip in the south-west along the Arabian Sea. In the extreme west of 436.13 Km Sindh is the mountainous region consisting of the Kohistan section of barren Kirthar Mountains. To the east is the sand belt stretching from Bhawalpur to the Run of Kutch/Kachh and between these Fig1. Shows the Physiography of Sindh Province tracts lies the Indus Valley terminating in the deltaic area in the south-west, except for a small hilly (Nagarparkar) tract in the South East corner of the Tharparkar District (Fig. 1). Geomorphologically lower Indus plain is formed by alluvial deposits carried by river Indus and its tributaries and is underlain by an unconfined aquifer. In Sindh about 28% of the area is underlain by fresh Supplemental irrigation. The quality of groundwater and surface-water is low and is further deteriorating because of unchecked disposal of untreated municipal and industrial wastewater and excessive use of fertilizers and insecticides. The estimated ground water resource in the province varies between 13 to 16.2 MAF with an estimates safe yield between 4.4 to 8.1 MAF (UNITAR, 2004). The groundwater resources are under the threat of seawater intrusion caused by groundwater overdraft. On the basis of agro-ecology Sindh province is divided into three main zones (Fig. 3), two of which are JACOBABAD 1 -A SHIKARPUR further divided into sub-zones as: ne Zone- B1 Zo SUKKUR LARKANA Zone-A: The Right Bank of river Indus (upper Sindh). KHAIRPUR - Sub-Zone A1 Main area - Sub-Zone A2 Piedmont soil region DADU Zone-B: The left bank of river Indus. SANGHAR - Sub-Zone B1 Guddu Barrage command area - Sub-Zone B2 Sukkur Barrage command area MIRPUR KHAS HYDERABAD Zone-C: Lower Sindh. UMARKOT In addition to the above three agricultural KARACHI THATTA BADIN zones, there are two more zones in Sindh i.e., zone-D Zone - C is a desert area in the east of Sindh, and zone-E is the western hilly zone. The fresh ground water is only available in zone- A and zone-B, however, in zone- C, zone- D and zone- B fresh ground water is very limited. Fig.2. Shows the agro-ecological zones of Sindh The climate of Sindh is arid and hot, mean annual precipitation is 140 mm. In the last eleven years the rainfall varied from a low of 23 mm to a high of 468 mm. Overall rainfall is scarce, erratic and unpredictable. The mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures are 35oC and 19oC, respectively. The maximum daily temperature commonly exceeds 45oC in April through June.
508.55 K m

Zo ne -

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INTRODUCTION
Water is a great gift of nature, there is a common saying No life without water it is universal solvent and is a major constituent of all living organisms. Ground water pollution is usually traced back to four main origins viz, Industrial, Domestic, Agricultural and over exploitation (Anil & Musadique, 2005). The quality of water whether it is used for drinking, irrigation or recreational purposes, is significant for health worldwide. Water quality can have a major impact on health, both through outbreaks of waterborne disease and by contributing to background rates of disease (Lorna & Jamie, 2002). Water for drinking purpose should have good smell, taste, and should be free from contaminants that are harmful to health. Thus the domestic water should be low in hardness and sediments; however industries require the water quality according to their nature. All water from natural sources contains dissolved substances and their presence in water can result from either natural processes or human activities. The water shortage and its increasing competition for various uses badly affected its quality. Most of the reported health problems are directly or indirectly related to water, the only way to know; its use for drinking and cooking contains potentially harmful substances is to have it tested. To determine safety, the contaminant concentrations in the water are compared to maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the world Health organization (WHO) for public drinking water supplies in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. In current study 245 water samples were collected from the hand pumps and Dug-wells at different localities i.e., Jamshoro, Dadu, Larkana, Shikarpur, Kamdar at Shahdakot, Jacobabad, Kashmore, Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur, Nawabshah, Sanghar, Umerkot, Mirpur Khas, Tharparkar, Badin, Thatta, Tando Mohammad Khan, Hyderabad, Mitiari and Tando Allahyar districts of the province in for the assessment of the ground water quality. It was observed during study that the hand pumps are mostly installed at the depth of about sixty feet, but information about the exact depth is not known, even to the owners. It is also observed that the quality of ground water is better in the samples collected near river Indus. During field it is notified that most of the cities and towns are using ground water rather than surface, however, almost all the rural communities are using ground water for domestic purpose except the areas where the ground water is brackish as: Mithi, Islam Kot, Thatta and Badin which are using surface water. Manghand town is also using surface water, no hand pump or well was seen during field, people informed that ground water is brackish, while the town is located near the bank of river Indus. Plate.1. Showing on the spot testing of Physical pH, electrical conductivity, salinity and total parameters of ground water during field dissolved solids were analyzed on the site during sample collection, while As, Cd, Pb, Zn were analyzed from the laboratory of NCE in inorganic chemistry university of Peshawar. The perceived data is compared with recommended drinking water quality standards of WHO and US environmental protection agency.

GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF DIFFERENT DISTRICTS IN SINDH


To asses the groundwater quality all the districts of Sindh province were surveyed except Karachi division. The process of drawing sample up from the aquifers makes variation in the chemistry of water, therefore, vigilant procedure was considered mandatory during the collection of water samples. To avoid any possibility of contamination the bottles used for the collection of water samples were treated with 5% HNO3 and then rinsed with deionized water. Two bottles of water were filled from the sample site, among these the water of one bottle was acidified by adding few drops of HNO3 and the other was kept un-acidified. The water of un-acidified bottle was analyzed for the determination of, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids (TDS) at the site and the water of the acidified bottles was kept for analysis heavy metals. The collection of groundwater samples was planned as follows: Selection of various representative spots in the field, where by the quality of water could possibly be affected. Collection of limited number of samples that could be representative about the contamination and other factors involved. b. Checking of accuracy and precision of the laboratory analyses by other techniques. The purpose of which is to assure that the analytical result reported by the laboratory accurately express the actual concentration of the solutes in the water, as it existed in the field. c. It was decided that total 245 water samples will be collected from the all the districts of Sindh except Karacki area. The detailed analysis groundwater account of all the districts is given below. The perceived data is compared with international standards for drinking water recommended WHO (2004) and US-EPA (2006). Arial distribution and concentration of elements is also given in both contour and relief map. The possible sources of contamination as well as remedial measures are also given in discussion. Determination of pH pH is one of the important abiotic factors that serves as an index for water pollution. No health based guideline value is proposed for pH, but it is one of the most important operational water quality parameters. An increased concentration of carbon dioxide will lower the pH and vice versa. The direct effects of exposure of humans and animals to extreme pH values (below 4 or above 10) for extended periods of time may result in irritation to the eye, skin and mucous membranes (Shastri, 2005).
Fig. 3. Shows the pH level at difefrent area of Sindh

a.

The instrument used for determination of pH level in ground water is WTW info-lab pH meter. The maximum contamination level of pH in normal drinking water is 6.5 - 8.5 (WHO, 2004) annexure (2). 86 water samples different localities of Kashmore, Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Larkana, Dadu, Jamshoro and Thatta districts at right bank of river Indus were collected; the samples were collected from hand pumps mostly and the water of these hand pumps is used for drinking purpose. Details of the sample collection area are given below: 07 water samples were collected and analyzed from Kashmore district for pH level; the samples were collected from Ghospur, Kandhkot, Kashmore city at south, Kashmore city at north, Guddu, Darkhan and Risaldar. 10 samples from Jacobabad district were collected at Ramzanpur, Abad, Mirpur, Maulabad, Dil Murad, Jacobabad city east, Jacobabad city center, Jacobabad city North, Thul and village Karim Bux. While from Shikarpur district 06 water samples were collected at Garhi Yaseen, Shikarpur city south,
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Shikarpur city center, Khanpur, Habibkot, Lakhi. From Larkana district 14 water samples were collected at Naseerabad, Wagan, Naseerabad, Shahdadkot, Larkana city west, Larkana city center, Larkana city north, Fateh Pur, Bungul Dero, Rato Dero, Miro Khan, Drakhan, Khanpur and Qambar. 15 water samples were collected for measurement of pH in Dadu district from Khudabad, Dadu city west, Dadu center, Dadu city east, Chandan Mori, Johi, Chini, Wahi Pandhi, Makhdom Bilawal, Chodagi, Dur Mohammad Abro, Kakkar, Boriri, K.N Shah, Mehar. 18 water samples from Jamshoro district were collected at different localities as: Jamshoro Phatak, Kotri city, Mangio Shoro, Lunikot, Thano Bula Khan, Thano Ahmad Khan, Petaro, Unerpur, Ali Abad, Manghand, Sunn , Aamri, Lacki, Sahwan, Jhangara, Bubak, Bhan Saeedabad, Bhan Saeedabad North. 16 water samples of Thatta District were analyzed for pH level measurement from Chuhar Jamali, Shah Karim, Mirpur Bathoro, Mirpur Bathoro- Sujawal road, Sujawal , Thatta city north, Thatta east, Thatta Bridge, Mohammad Ibrahim Baran, Pijari Mori, Jheruck, Jungshahi , Gharo, Mirpur Sakro, Ghullamullah and Jati location. The perceived data is compare with the maximum contamination level of WHO (2004) and all the water samples of above areas are found within the acceptable limits of WHO (2004). From left bank of Indus river 159 water samples were collected from Ghotki, Sukkur, Khairpur Mirs, Nousharo Feroz, Nawabshah, Sanghar, Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas, Umarkot, Tharparkar and Badin Districts. Details of the sample collection area are given below: 08 water samples from Ghotki district at Mureedki Shakh, Maripur, Obauro, Daharki, Ghotki, Mirpur Mathelo, Bakshal Ali Lashari and Khangrah. 15 water samples were collected from Sukkur district at Sukkur city east, Sukkur city center, Sukkur north, Rohri near bridge, Rohri south near road, Sukkur near barrage, Sukkur near railway station, Sukkur city west, Babar Loie, Sultanpur, Shahpur, Dubbar Wahan, Khandahu, Tando Mir Imam Talpur and from Pano Aqil were collected. 15 water samples from Khairpur Mirs district were collected at Tharehi, Hot Khan Magsi, Khairpur Mirs city center, Khairpur Mirs city North, Khairpur Mirs city south, Tando Masti, Sorvan, Kot Bunglo, Kot Deji, Kot Deji, Kumb Near MRDO office, Kumb, Ranipur, Thari and from Hingorga. While 15 water samples from Nousharo Feroz district were collected at Halani, Kandiaro, Bhirea Road, Bhelani, Nousharo Feroz (II), Tharu Shah, Moro North, Moro city, Mithiani, Phul, Shahpur Jahania, Darbelo, Khan Wahan, Dehat and Kotri Kabir. 14 water samples were collected from Nawabshah District at Sheer Mohd Jamali, Nawabshah city west, Nawabshah city center, Nawabshah city north, Nawabshah city south, Dahil Dero, Sakarand, Saabo Raho, New Saeedabad, Maroocha Magh, Lettar, Thul, Qazi Ahmed and Sukhpur. 17 water samples were collected from Sanghar District at Udaro Lal, Shahdadpur, G. Murtaza Junejo, Tando Adam, Tando Adam (II), Wali Dad Gaho, and Daloor mori, Village Bachayo, Jhole, Village Ghindin, Sanghar (I), Khadro, Mir Hussain Talpur, Shahpur Chakar, Khipro, Sindhri and Gujri. However, 18 water samples from Hyderabad district were collected from different areas as: Matiari, Satyani, Bhit Shah, Halla, Khybar, Tando Allahyar I, Tando Allahyar II, and Tandojam, Tandojam city, Gul Mohammad, Saeeri, Tando Saindad, Tando Mohmmad Khan (I), Tando Mohmmad Khan (II), Mula Katyar, Rahmatullah Jahejo, Tando Mohammad Khan (III) and Nau mile. 11 water samples were collected from Mirpurkhas district at Jhuluri, Mirpur Khas North, Mirpur Khas west, Mirpur south, Sultanabad, Noukot, Tharo Khan, Jhudo, Digri, Mirwah and Kot Ghullam Mohd. 10 water samples from Umarkot district were collected at Khno Rangar, Umarkot city, Sulmam Rajar, Baregi mori, Mehar Ali Lashari, Saat mori, Nauto, Thar Nabisar, Samaro and Kunri. 17 water samples from Tharparkar district were collected at Village Mithi, Saro, Village Bahadur, Diplo, Islamkot, Mithoro Chachar Meghwar para; Mithoro Chachar Bhel para, Nagarparkar I, Nagarparkar II, Nagarparkar III, Dano Dandal, Bhalwa, Marvi Jo Khuh, Bhalwa II, Mithi city, Mithi city II, and Khario were collected. However, 19 water samples were collected from Badin district at Tando Bago, Matli, Talhar, Golarchi (I), Golarchi (II), Guni, Tarai, Tarai (well), Nindo, Badin (I), Badin (II), Kadhan, Pangrio, Pir Fateh shah, Bhugra Memon, Ahmed Rajo, Lakho Pir, Khorwah, and from Khorwah Chouk. It is observed from the perceived data that all the water samples collected from hand pumps and dug wells of the districts at right bank of river Indus are found within the acceptable limits as compared with the maximum contamination level of WHO (2004).

Determination of total dissolved solids (TDS)


The inorganic salts (magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates) and small amounts of organic matter comprise total dissolved solids (TDS). Concentrations of TDS in water vary too much in extent due to the variability in the geographical locations (WHO, 2004). JENCO microcomputer based bench meter, model 9173, was used for the determination of TDS in water samples. WHO (2004) recommends 1000 mg/l TDS content in drinking water; perceived data is compared with given standards (Fig. 4). The concentration of TDS in the ground waters of Kashmore district is noticed. It is 141 mg/l at Guddu and is found fresh. However, it is noticed slightly saline at all sampling areas, it 1645 mg/l at Ghospur, 1510 mg/l at Kandhkot, 1280 mg/l at Kashmore-I, 1280 mg/l at Kashmore-II, 1170 mg/l at Darkhan and 1178 mg/l at Risalda (Table.1). TDS contents in waters of Jacobabad district is found in the range between 230 mg/l to 1500 mg/l. It is found within the acceptable limits at Mirpur 533 mg/l, at Maulabad 271 mg/l, at at Dil Murad 533 mg/l, at Abad 988 mg/l, Jacobabad city center 262 mg/l, Jacobabad city North 877 mg/l, Thul 230 mg/l and Karim Bux 943 mg/l. However, the concentration of total dissolved solids are found slightly higher at Ramzanpur 1354 mg/l and Jacobabad city east 1500 mg/l (Table.1). The concentration of TDS in groundwaters of Shikarpur district is found in the range between 329 mg/l to 1920 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at all the surveyed areas of district except one sample showed higher concentration than that of WHO (2004) recommended level, collected form Khanpur contents 1920 mg/l TDS. However, TDS contents in ground water is found at Garhi Yaseen 496 mg/l, Shikarpur Fig.4. Shows the concentration of TDS in different waters of Sindh 6000 city 553 mg/l, Shikarpur city-II 5000 329mg/l, Habibkot 886 mg/l and Lakhi 4000 270mg/l (Table.1). MCL of WHO (2004) for TDS TDS contents 3000 in ground waters of Larkana district is 2000 found in the range between 186 mg/l to 1000 3440 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh 0 groundwater is noticed at Naseerabad-I 851 mg/l, at Larkana city west 624 mg/l, at Larkana city center 432 mg/l, at Larkana city north 771 mg/l, at Larkana Fateh Pur 401 mg/l, at Rato Dero 771 mg/l, at Miro Khan 757 mg/l, at Drakhan 433 mg/l, at Qambar 851 mg/l. however, higher contents of TDS is noticed at Naseerabad-II 2470 mg/l, at Wagan 1300 mg/l, at Shahdadkot 1730 mg/l, at Bungul Dero 1230 mg/l, and at Khanpur 1233 mg/l (Table.1). TDS contents in the areas of Dadu district are in the range between 102 mg/l to 2210 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater in Dadu district is found in the Khudabad 765 mg/l, Dadu city east 633 mg/l, Chandan Mori 102 mg/l, Wahi Pandhi 867 mg/l, Chodagi 487 mg/l, Dur Mohammad Abro 859 mg/l, Boriri 332 mg/l, Mehar 512 mg/l areas. The fresh ground water is found in all the sampling areas of Jamshoro district except the samples collected from Thano Bulakhan, Petaro, Unnerpur, Jhangara and Lacki which showes 1525 mg/l, 1435 mg/l, 1485 mg/l, 1390 mg/l and 5150 mg/l. However, TDS concentration at Jamshoro Phatak is 877 mg/l, at Kotri city is 658 mg/l, at Mangio Shoro is 771 mg/l, at LuniKot is 661 mg/l, at Thano Ahmad Khan is 866 mg/l, at Ali Abad is 872 mg/l, at Manghand is 651 mg/l, at Sunn is 765 mg/l, at Aamri is 655 mg/l, at Shwan is 860 mg/l, at Bubak is 377 mg/l, at Bhan Saeedabad is 839 mg/l, at Bhan Saeedabad North is 839 mg/l (Table.1).
TDS m g/l 1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111 122 133 144 155 166 177 188 199 210 221 232 243

The concentration of TDS in ground waters of Thatta district is found in the range between 150 mg/l to 1360 mg/l. TDS contents are found within the permissible limits of WHO (2004) in all the samples of Thatta district it is 1020 mg/l at Chuhar Jamali, 729 mg/l at Shah Karim, 1190 mg/l at Mirpur Bathoro, 707 mg/l at Bathoro- Sujawal road, 1290 mg/l at Sujawal, 233 mg/l at Thatta-I, 610 mg/l at Thatta-II, 1060 mg/l at Thatta Bridge, 526 mg/l at M. Ibrahim Baran, 943 mg/l at Pijari Mori, 807 mg/l at Jheruck, 150 mg/l Jungshahi, 513 mg/l at Gharo, 230 mg/l at Mirpur Sakro, 1360 mg/l at Ghullamullah and 1320 mg/l at Jati (Table.1). The groundwater of Ghotki district contents TDS in the range between 199 mg/l to 886 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at all the sampling areas. Its concentration is at Mureedki Shakh 199 mg/l, at Maripur 324 mg/l, at Obauro 886 mg/l, at Daharki 707 mg/l, at Ghotki 409 mg/l, at Mirpur Mathelo 877 mg/l, at Bakshal Ali Lashari 381 mg/l and at Khangrah 573 mg/l. The concentration of TDS in groundwater of Sukkur district is found in the range between 186 mg/l to 3440 mg/l. On the basis of data obtained it is noticed that all the water sample collected from Sukkur district are within the acceptable limits of WHO (2004) and is found fresh water, however, Samples collected from Sukkur city west, Sukkur (II) and Sukkur (III), 2110 mg/l and 3440 mg/l showed higher concentration of TDS. While at Sukkur (I) 881 mg/l, at Rohri (I) 280 mg/l, at Rohri (II) 270 mg/l, at Sukkur (IV) 186 mg/l, at Sukkur (V) 926 mg/l, at Sukkur (VI) 206 mg/l, at Babar Loie 825 mg/l, at Sultanpur 434 mg/l, at Shahpur 818 mg/l, at Dubbar Wahan 177 mg/l, at Khandahu 414 mg/l, at Tando Mir Imam Talpur 284 mg/l, at Pano Aqil 523 mg/l pH level is measured. The TDS in groundwater of Khairpur Mirs district is found in the range between 348 mg/l to 1380 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at all the sampling areas except the sample collected from Khairpur Mirs city south and Kumb which showed slightly higher concentration of Total Dissolved Solids 1170mg/l and 1740 mg/l respectively. TDS concentration is noticed at Tharehi 827 mg/l, at Hot Khan Magsi 845 mg/l, at Khairpur Mirs city center 396 mg/l, at Khairpur Mirs city north 269 mg/l, at Tando Masti 790 mg/l, at Sorvan 1850 mg/l, at Kot Bunglo 787 mg/l, at Kot Deji 887 mg/l, at Kot Deji-II 231 mg/l, at Kumb Near MRDO office 702 mg/l, at Ranipur 173 mg/l, at Thari 395 mg/l, and at Hingorga 285 mg/l (Table.1). The TDS contents in different groundwater of Nousharo Feroz district is found in the range between 307 mg/l to 2870 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at all the sampling areas except the sample collected from Tharu Shah which has 2870 mg/l TDS. However, the sample collected from Halani has 515 mg/l, Kandiaro has 345 mg/l, Bhirea Road has 557 mg/l, Bhelani has 540 mg/l, Nousharo Feroz (II) has 605 mg/l , Moro North has 921 mg/l, Moro City has 845 mg/l, Mithiani has 472 mg/l, Phul has 557 mg/l, Shahpur Jahania has 2870 mg/l, Darbelo has 431 mg/l, Khan Wahan has 307 mg/l, Dehat has 433 mg/l and Kotri Kabir has 284 mg/l (Table.1). The concentration of TDS in ground waters of Nawabshah district is found in the range between 348 mg/l to 1380 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at all the sampling areas except the sample collected from Nawabshah west Nawabshah city north and Thul which has 1120 mg/l, 1380 mg/l and 1194 mg/l respectively, slightly higher than that of recommended by WHO (2004). However, the fresh ground water is found at Sheer Mohd Jamali with 362 mg/l, Nawabshah city center 194 mg/l, Nawabshah city south 437 mg/l, Dahil Dero 536 mg/l, Sakarand 558 mg/l, Saabo Raho 425 mg/l, New Saeedabad 348 mg/l, Maroocha Magh 435 mg/l, Lettar 351 mg/l, Qazi Ahmed 810 mg/l, Sukhpur 437 mg/l TDS concentration (Table.1). The concentration of TDS in different ground waters of Sanghar district is found in the range between 266 mg/l to 2650 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at areas of Udaro Lal 384 mg/l, Shahdadpur 372 mg/l, G. Murtaza Junejo 830 mg/l, Tando Adam 325 mg/l, Daloor mori 266 mg/l, Vilage Ghindin 484 mg/l, Sanghar (I) 438 mg/l, Mir Hussain Talpur 774 mg/l, Shahpur Chakar 753 mg/l, Khipro 518 mg/l, Gujri 494 mg/l within the permissible limits of WHO (2004). However, higher concentration of Total Dissolved Solids is noticed at Tando Adam (II) 2650 mg/l, Wali Dad Gaho 1320 mg/l, Village Bachayo 2120 mg/l, Jhole 1460 mg/l, Khadro 1260 mg/l and Sindhri 1468 mg/l. On the basis of TDS the fresh groundwater is noticed in Hyderabad district at Satyani 286 mg/l, Khybar-I 679 mg/l, Halla 801 mg/l, Khybar-II 863 mg/l, Tandojam 203 mg/l, Tandojam city 366 mg/l, Gul

Mohammad 567 mg/l,Tando Saeeri 230 mg/l, Tando Saindad 314 mg/l, Tando Mohmmad Khan (I) 503 mg/l, Mula Katyar 398 mg/l, Rahmatullah Jahejo 622 mg/l, Tando Mohammad Khan (IV) 208 mg/l, Nau maile 809 mg/l. TDS contents in different water samples of Mirpur Khas district are noticed slightly saline, it is at Jhuluri 1410 mg/l, Mirpur Khas north 1350mg/l, Sultanabad 1350mg/l, Digri 1243mg/l. However the fresh ground water is observed at Mirpur Khas west, Mirpur south, Noukot, Tharo Khan, Jhudo, Mirwah and Kot Ghullam Mohd with 416mg/l, 431mg/l, 603mg/l, 877mg/l, 824mg/l, 311mg/l and 669 mg/l TDS concentration respectively (Table.1). The concentration of TDS in different ground waters of Umerkot district is found in the range between 159 mg/l to 4260 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at all the sampling areas except Khno Rangar, Umarkot , Samaro and Saat mori, it is 2370 mg/l, 2350 mg/l, 4260 mg/l and 1290 mg/l, respectively, which has the higher concentration than that of WHO (2004). However the fresh ground water is found at Sulmam Rajar, Bare ji mori, Mehar Ali Lashari, Nauto, Thar Nabisar and Kunri here the TDS concentration is found 479 mg/l, 159 mg/l, 366 mg/l, 479 mg/l, 950 mg/l and 603 mg/l respectively (Table.1). The concentration of TDS in different ground waters of Tharparkar district is found in the range between 807 mg/l to 5580 mg/l. On the basis of TDS fresh groundwater is noticed at Nagarparkar area only the rest of the sample contents high concentration of TDS than that of WHO recommended level. It is found at Village Mithi 1539 mg/l, Saro 2211 mg/l, Village Bahadur 1626 mg/l, Diplo 1620 mg/l, Islamkot 2880 mg/l, Mithoro Chachar Meghwar para 5580 mg/l, Mithoro Chachar Bhel para 4260 mg/l, Nagarparkar 807 mg/l, Nagarparkar 845 mg/l, Nagarparkar 1540 mg/l, Dano Dandal 1540 mg/l, Bhalwa 1540 mg/l, Marvi jo Khuh 2210 mg/l, Bhalwa II 860 mg/l, Mithi city 2880 mg/l, Mithi city II 2890 mg/l, Nau Kot 1590 mg/l and Khario 1653 mg/l (Table.1). The concentration of TDS in different ground waters of Badin district is found in the range between 301 mg/l to 4170 mg/l. It is found within the acceptable limits at Matli 607 mg/l, Khorwah Chouk 319 mg/l, Golarchi (II) 494 mg/l, Guni 842 mg/l, Nindo 875 mg/l, Badin (I) 820 mg/l, Kadhan 301 mg/l, Pangrio 664 mg/l, Bhugra Memon 899 mg/l and is found fresh. However, it is found slightly saline at Tando Bago 1880 mg/l, Golarchi (I) 1460 mg/l, Tarai 1240 mg/l, Tarai (well) 1325 mg/l, Badin (II) 1240 mg/l, Pir Fateh shah 1120 mg/l, Ahmed Rajo 2680 mg/l, Lakho Pir 1120 mg/l and Khorwah 1120 mg/l, while the one sample collected from Talhar showed higher concentration of TDS 4170 mg/l and is found moderately saline (Table.1). During field it was observed that most of the hand pumps are installed near irrigation canals in southern part of Badin district, according to owners the depth of the hand Pumps in this part of the Badin district is 40 feet to 50 feet below this the water is saline. This may be the interference of sea intrusion in the area.

Electrical Conductivity (EC)


The electrical conductivity (EC) is the measure of TDS (Rajwadia and Markhady, 2005). The electrical conductivity level of different water samples collected from different localities of all the districts at left bank and right bank is discussed below. Electrical conductivity measured in different groundwater samples of Kashmore district is ranging from 311Sm/cm to 3365Sm/cm. It is noticed 3365Sm/cm at Ghospur, 3020Sm/cm at Kandhkot, 2970Sm/cm at Kashmore I, 2550Sm/cm at Kashmore II, 311Sm/cm at Guddu, 2360 Sm/cm at Darkhan and 2376Sm/cm at Risaldar. Electrical conductivity measured in groundwater samples of Jacobabad district is ranging from 461Sm/cm to 2990 Sm/cm. It is measured at Ramzanpur 2708 Sm/cm, Abad 1976 Sm/cm, Mirpur 1069 Sm/cm, Maulabad 545 Sm/cm, at Dil Murad 1069 Sm/cm, Jacobabad city east 2990 Sm/cm. EC measured in groundwater samples of Shikarpur district is ranging from 540Sm/cm to 3830 Sm/cm. It is measured at Garhi Yaseen 990 Sm/cm, at Shikarpur city-I 1105 Sm/cm, at Shikarpur city-II 659 Sm/cm, at Khanpur 3830 Sm/cm, at Habibkot 1772 Sm/cm and at Lakhi 540 Sm/cm. Electrical conductivity measured in groundwater samples of Larkana district is ranging from 799Sm/cm to 6870 Sm/cm. It is measured 4940 Sm/cm, 2590 Sm/cm, 1707 Sm/cm, 3450 Sm/cm , 1250 Sm/cm, 864 Sm/cm, 1544 Sm/cm, 799 Sm/cm , 2470 Sm/cm , 1541 Sm/cm , 1513 Sm/cm, 867 Sm/cm, 2476 Sm/cm and 1707 Sm/cm at Naseerabad-II, Wagan, Naseerabad-I, Shahdadkot, Larkana city west, Larkana city center, Larkana city north, Fateh Pur, Bungul Dero , Rato Dero, Miro Khan, Drakhan , Khanpur and Qambar respectivily. The concentration of Electrical Conductivity measured in ground water of Dadu district is given in (Table. 1). It found in the range between 215 Sm/cm to 4510 Sm/cm. It is 1545 Sm/cm at Khudabad, 2310 Sm/cm at Dadu city west, 2395 Sm/cm at Dadu center, 1276 Sm/cm at Dadu city east, 212 Sm/cm at Chandan Mori, 2711 Sm/cm at Johi, 2228 Sm/cm at Chini, 1721 Sm/cm at Wahi Pandhi, 2248 Sm/cm at Makhdom Bilawal, 1075 Sm/cm at Chodagi, 1723 Sm/cm at Dur Mohammad Abro, 2012 Sm/cm at Kakkar, 668 Sm/cm at Boriri, 4428 Sm/cm at K.N Shah, 1028 Sm/cm at Mehar (Table.1). The concentration of EC in different areas of Jamshoro district is in the range between 735 Sm/cm to 10280 Sm/cm. EC level at Jamshoro Phatak is 1777Sm/cm, at Kotri city is 1418 Sm/cm, at Mangio Shoro is 1485Sm/cm, at LuniKot is 1425 Sm/cm, at Thano Bula Khan is 3065Sm/cm, at Thano Ahmad Khan is 1840 Sm/cm, at Petaro is 3040 Sm/cm, at Unerpur is 1485 Sm/cm, at Ali Abad is 1777 Sm/cm, at Manghand is 1418 Sm/cm, at Sunn is 1485 Sm/cm, at Aamri is 1425 Sm/cm, at Lacki is 10280 Sm/cm, at Shwan is 1840 Sm/cm, at Jhangara is 3040 Sm/cm, at Bubak is 735 Sm/cm, at Bhan Saeedabad is 1679 Sm/cm and at Bhan Saeedabad North is 1679 Sm/cm. The ground water of Thatta district has EC level at different areas of in the range between 301 Sm/cm to 2720 Sm/cm. It is measured at Chuhar Jamali 2650 Sm/cm, at Shah Karim 1461 Sm/cm, at Mirpur Bathoro 2390 Sm/cm, at Bathoro- Sujawal road 1417 Sm/cm, at Sujawal 2580 Sm/cm, at Thatta 463 Sm/cm, at Thatta 1224 Sm/cm, at Thatta Bridge 2720 Sm/cm, at M. Ibrahim Baran 1052 Sm/cm, at Pijari Mori 1891 Sm/cm, at Jheruck 1612 Sm/cm, at Jungshahi 301 Sm/cm, at Gharo 1179 Sm/cm, at Mirpur Sakro 381 Sm/cm, at Ghullamullah 2720 Sm/cm and at Jati 2650 Sm/cm. The concentration of EC in different areas of Ghotki district is in the range between 480 Sm/cm to 1772 Sm/cm. It is measured at Mureedki Shakh 480 Sm/cm, at Maripur 715 Sm/cm, at Obauro 1772 Sm/cm, at Daharki 1431 Sm/cm, at Ghotki 818 Sm/cm, at Mirpur Mathelo 1765 Sm/cm, at Bakshal Ali Lashari 732 Sm/cm and at Khangrah 1045 Sm/cm. Electrical conductivity measured in groundwater samples of Sukkur district is ranging from 353Sm/cm to 6870 Sm/cm. It is at Sukkur (I) 1760 Sm/cm, at Sukkur (II) 4210 Sm/cm, at Sukkur (III) 6870 Sm/cm, at Rohri (I) 559 Sm/cm, at Rohri (II) 540 Sm/cm, at Sukkur (IV) 370 Sm/cm, at Sukkur (V) 1852 Sm/cm, at Sukkur (VI) 414 Sm/cm, at Babar Loie 1647 Sm/cm, at Sultanpur 871 Sm/cm, at

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Shahpur 1635 Sm/cm, at Dubbar Wahan 353 Sm/cm, at Khandahu 831 Sm/cm, at Tando Mir Imam Talpur 569 Sm/cm and at Pano Aqil 104 Sm/cm (Table.1). While concentration of EC in different areas of Khairpur Mirs district is in the range between 345Sm/cm to 3750 Sm/cm. It is measured at Tharehi 1650 Sm/cm, at Hot Khan Magsi, 1725 Sm/cm, at Khairpur Mirs city center 792 Sm/cm, at Khairpur Mirs city north 538 Sm/cm, at Khairpur Mirs city south 3470 Sm/cm, at Tando Masti 1578 Sm/cm, at Sorvan 3750 Sm/cm, at Kot Bunglo 1576 Sm/cm, at Kot Deji 1774 Sm/cm, at Kot Deji 463 Sm/cm, at Kumb Near MRDO office 1405 Sm/cm, at Kumb 2360 Sm/cm, at Ranipur 345 Sm/cm, at Thari 788 Sm/cm and at Hingorga 568 Sm/cm. Its level in different areas of Nousharo Feroz district is in the range between 516 Sm/cm to 5740 Sm/cm. It is measured at Halani 1078 Sm/cm, at Kandiaro 692 Sm/cm, at Bhirea Road 1117 Sm/cm, at Bhelani 1079 Sm/cm, at Nousharo Feroz (II) 1214 Sm/cm, at Tharu Shah 5740 Sm/cm, at Moro North 1842 Sm/cm, at Moro City 1690 Sm/cm, at Mithiani 947 Sm/cm, at Phul 1117 Sm/cm, at Shahpur Jahania 5740 Sm/cm, at Darbelo 863 Sm/cm, at Khan Wahan 617 Sm/cm, at Dehat 865 Sm/cm and at Kotri Kabir 516 Sm/cm. At Nawabshah district it ranges 386 Sm/cm to 2760 Sm/cm. It is measured at Sheer Mohd Jamali 724 Sm/cm, at Nawabshah west 2280 Sm/cm, at Nawabshahcity center 386 Sm/cm, at Nawabshah city north 2760 Sm/cm, at Nawabshah city south 876 Sm/cm, at Dahil Dero 1074 Sm/cm, at Sakarand 1116 Sm/cm, at Saabo Raho 851 Sm/cm, at New Saeedabad 694 Sm/cm, at Maroocha Magh 871 Sm/cm, at Lettar 701 Sm/cm, at Thul 2412 Sm/cm, at Qazi Ahmed 1623 Sm/cm and Sukhpur 876 Sm/cm. The EC level in different areas of Sanghar district is in the range between 532 Sm/cm to 4240 Sm/cm. It is measured at Udaro Lal 782 Sm/cm, at Shahdadpur 741 Sm/cm, at G. Murtaza Junejo 1647 Sm/cm, at Tando Adam 655 Sm/cm, at Tando Adam (II) 2650 Sm/cm, at Wali Dad Gaho 1320 Sm/cm, at Daloor mori 532 Sm/cm, at Village Bachayo 4240 Sm/cm, at Jhole 2930 Sm/cm, at Village Ghindin 971 Sm/cm, at Sanghar (I) 874 Sm/cm, at Khadro 2530 Sm/cm, at Mir Hussain Talpur 1551 Sm/cm, at Shahpur Chakar 1506 Sm/cm, at Khipro 1035 Sm/cm, at Sindhri 2941 Sm/cm and at Gujri 981 Sm/cm. At Hyderabad district in different samples it ranges 735 Sm/cm to 10280 Sm/cm. It is measured at Matiari 3830 Sm/cm, at Satyani 575 Sm/cm, at Khybar 1360 Sm/cm, at Bhit Shah 2620 Sm/cm, at Bhit Shah (II) 3040 Sm/cm, at Halla 1623 Sm/cm, at Khybar 1731 Sm/cm, at Tando Allahyar 2890 Sm/cm, at Tando Allahyar 2810 Sm/cm, at Tandojam 408 Sm/cm, at Tandojam city 731 Sm/cm, at Gul Mohammad 1132 Sm/cm, at Saeeri 465 Sm/cm, at Tando Saindad 627 Sm/cm, at Tando Mohmmad Khan (I) 1008 Sm/cm, at Tando Mohmmad Khan (II) 2070 Sm/cm, at Mula Katyar 801 Sm/cm, at Rahmatullah Jahejo 1251 Sm/cm, at Tando Mohammad Khan (IV) 417 Sm/cm and Nau maile 1614 Sm/cm. The concentration of EC in different areas of Mirpur Khas district is in the range between 611 Sm/cm to 2810 Sm/cm. It is measured at Jhuluri 2810 Sm/cm, at Mirpur Khas North 2710Sm/cm, at Mirpur Khas west 826Sm/cm, at Mirpur south 864Sm/cm, at Sultanabad 1350Sm/cm, at Noukot 1207Sm/, at Tharo Khan 1756Sm/cm, at Jhudo 1653Sm/cm, at Digri 2489Sm/cm and at Mirwah 611Sm/cm , at Kot Ghullam Mohd 1544Sm/cm . Umarkot district has EC level in different areas in the range of 731 Sm/cm to 8430 Sm/cm. It is measured at Khno Rangar 4760 Sm/cm, at Umarkot 4710 Sm/cm, at Sulmam Rajar 791 Sm/cm, at Bare ji mori 315 Sm/cm, at Mehar Ali Lashari 731 Sm/cm, at Saat mori 1290 Sm/cm, at Nauto 479 Sm/cm, at Thar Nabisar 1935 Sm/cm, at Samaro 8430 Sm/cm and at Kunri 1207 Sm/cm. The Tharparkar district has EC level in the range of 532 Sm/cm to 4240 Sm/cm. It is measured at Village Mithi 3079 Sm/cm, Saro 4428 Sm/cm, Village Bahadur 3230 Sm/cm, Diplo 5770 Sm/cm, Islamkot 6335 Sm/cm, Mithoro Chachar Meghwar para 11110 Sm/cm, Mithoro Chachar Bhel para 8430 Sm/cm, Nagarparkar 1693 Sm/cm, Nagarparkar 3080 Sm/cm, Nagarparkar 3080 Sm/cm, Dano Dandal 3080 Sm/cm, Bhalwa 4425 Sm/cm, Marvi jo Khuh 4425 Sm/cm, Bhalwa II 5770 Sm/cm, Mithi city 5788 Sm/cm, Mithi city II 3180 Sm/cm, Nau Kot 1307 Sm/cm and Khario 3242 Sm/cm.

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However, electrical conductivity measured in different groundwater samples of Badin area is ranging 600Sm/cm to 8370Sm/cm. It is noticed 3750Sm/cm, 1213Sm/cm, 8370Sm/cm, 636Sm/cm, 2930Sm/cm, 992Sm/cm, 1683Sm/cm, 2630Sm/cm, 2724Sm/cm, 1746Sm/cm, 1643Sm/cm, 2480Sm/cm, 600Sm/cm, 1534Sm/cm, 2252Sm/cm, 1798Sm/cm, 5360Sm/cm, 2252Sm/cm and 2240Sm/cm at Tando Bago, Matli ,Talhar, Khorwah Chouk , Golarchi (I), Golarchi (II), Guni , Tarai, Tarai (well), Nindo, Badin (I), Badin (II), Kadhan, Pangrio, Pir Fateh shah, Bhugra Memon, Ahmed Rajo, Lakho Pir and Khorwah respectively (Table.1).

Salinity (SAL)
Salinity is a measurement of the mass of dissolved solids present in water. It is measured in grams of salt per kilogram of solution (g/kg), which can also be expressed as parts per thousand (ppt). Seawater contains a mixture of salts, the most abundant being sodium chloride (NaCl), or table salt. The oceans contain an average of 35 grams of salts per kilogram of seawater (35 ppt). The salinity level in the groundwater of Kashmore district is in the range of 0.1 ppt to 1.7 ppt. It is noticed at Ghospur 1.7 ppt, at Kandhkot 1.6 ppt, at Kashmore-I 1.3 ppt, at Kashmore-II 1.3 ppt, at Guddu 0.1 ppt, at Darkhan 1.2 ppt and at Risaldar 1.2 ppt (Table.1). The salinity level in the groundwater of Jacobabad district is in the range of 0.1 ppt to 1.6 ppt. It is noticed 1.6 ppt at Ramzanpur , 0.9 ppt at Abad, 0.5 ppt at Mirpur, 0.3 ppt at Maulabad, 0.5 ppt at Dil Murad, 1.5 ppt at Jacobabad city east, 0.3 ppt at Jacobabad city center, 0.9 ppt at Jacobabad city North, 0.4 ppt at Thul and 0.4 ppt at Karim Bux . SAL level in different groundwater of district Shikarpur is in the range of 0.3 ppt to 2.0 ppt. It is observed at Garhi Yaseen 0.5 ppt, at Shikarpur city-I 0.5 ppt, at Shikarpur city-II 0.3 ppt, at Khanpur 2.0 ppt, at Habibkot 0.9 ppt and Lakhi 0.3 ppt (Table.1). The concentration of salinity in different groundwater of district Larkana is in the range of 0.4 ppt to 1.8 ppt. It is observed at Naseerabad 2.6 ppt, at Wagan 1.3 ppt, at Naseerabad, 0.9 ppt, at Shahdadkot 1.8 ppt, at Larkana city west 0.6 ppt, at Larkana city center 0.4 ppt, at Larkana city north 0.8 ppt, at Fateh Pur 0.4 ppt, at Bungul Dero 1.3 ppt, at Rato Dero 0.8 ppt, at Miro Khan 0.8 ppt, at Drakhan 0.4 ppt, at Khanpur 1.3 ppt and at Qambar 0.9 ppt (Table.1). The concentration of salinity observed in ground water of Dadu district is given in Table.1. The concentration of salinity in different areas of the district is in the range of 0.3 ppt to 2.3 ppt. It is 0.5 ppt at Khudabad, 0.8 ppt Dadu city west, 1.3 ppt at Dadu center, 1.3 ppt at Dadu city east, 0.8 ppt at Chandan Mori, 1.4 ppt at Johi, 1.0 ppt at Chini, 0.7 ppt at Wahi Pandhi, 0.8 ppt Makhdom Bilawal, 0.5 ppt at Chodagi, 0.4 ppt at Dur Mohammad Abro, 0.4 ppt at Kakkar, 0.3 ppt at Boriri, 2.3 ppt at K.N Shah, 0.5 ppt at Mehar (Table.1). The concentration of salinity in different ground waters of Jamshoro district is found in the range of 0.8 ppt to 5.8 ppt. It is measured at Jamshoro Phatak 0.9 ppt, at Kotri city 0.7 ppt, at Mangio Shoro 0.8 ppt, at LuniKot 0.7 ppt, at Thano Bula Khan 1.6 ppt, at Thano Ahmad Khan 0.8 ppt, at Petaro 1.4 ppt , at Unerpur 0.8 ppt, at Ali Abad 0.9 ppt, at Manghand 0.7 ppt, at Sunn 0.8 ppt, at Aamri 0.7 ppt, at Lacki 5.8 ppt, at Shwan 0.8 ppt, at Jhangara 1.4 ppt, at Bubak 0.5 ppt, at Bhan Saeedabad 0.8 ppt and at Bhan Saeedabad North 0.8 ppt (Table.1). SAL is measured in ground water of the district ranges from 0.2 ppt to 1.4 ppt. it is recorded at Chuhar Jamali 1.4 ppt, at Shah Karim 0.7 ppt, at Mirpur Bathoro 1.2 ppt, at Bathoro- Sujawal road 0.7 ppt, at Sujawal 1.3 ppt, at Thatta 0.2 ppt, at Thatta 0.6 ppt, at Thatta Bridge 1.4 ppt, at M. Ibrahim Baran 0.5 ppt, at Pijari Mori 0.1 ppt, at Jheruck 0.8 ppt, at Jungshahi 0.1 ppt, at Gharo 0.5 ppt, at Mirpur Sakro 0.2 ppt, at Ghullamullah 1.4 ppt and at Jati 1.4 ppt (Table.1). The concentration of salinity is measured at district Ghotki is in the range of 0.2 ppt to .9 ppt. SAL level in ground water is measured 0.2 ppt at Mureedki Shakh, 0.3 ppt at Maripur, 0.9 ppt at Obauro, 0.7 ppt

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at Daharki, 0.4 ppt at Ghotki, 0.5 ppt at Mirpur Mathelo, 0.3 ppt at Bakshal Ali Lashari and 0.3 ppt at Khangrah (Table.1). Sukkur district SAL level in the range of 0.2 ppt to 2.2 ppt. Sukkur (I) 0.9 ppt, Sukkur (II) 2.2 ppt, Sukkur (III) 3.8 ppt, Rohri (I) 0.3 ppt, Rohri (II) 0.3 ppt, Sukkur (IV) 0.2 ppt, Sukkur (V) 0.9 ppt, Sukkur (VI) 0.2 ppt, Babar Loie 0.8 ppt, Sultanpur 0.4 ppt, Shahpur 0.8 ppt, Dubbar Wahan 0.2 ppt, Khandahu 0.4 ppt, Tando Mir Imam Talpur 0.3 ppt and Pano Aqil 0.5 ppt (Table.1). The concentration of salinity is measured in ground water of Khairpur Mirs district ranges from 0.2 ppt to 1.9 ppt. it is noted at Tharehi 0.8 ppt, at Hot Khan Magsi 0.9 ppt, at Khairpur Mirs city center 0.4 ppt, at Khairpur Mirs noth 0.3 ppt, at Khairpur Mirs city center 1.8 ppt, at Tando Masti 0.8 ppt, at Sorvan 1.9 ppt, at Kot Bunglo 0.8 ppt, at Kot Deji 0.9 ppt, at Kot Deji 0.2 ppt, at Kumb Near MRDO office 0.7 ppt, at Kumb 1.2 ppt, at Ranipur 0.2 ppt, at Thari 0.3 ppt and at Hingorga 0.3 ppt(Table.1). The concentration of salinity is measured in ground water of Nousharo Feroz district is in the range of 0.3 ppt to 3.1 ppt. SAL level in ground water is measured at 0.5 ppt at Halani, 0.2 ppt at Kandiaro, 0.6 ppt at Bhirea Road, 0.5 ppt at Bhelani, 0.6 ppt at Nousharo Feroz (II), 3.1 ppt at Tharu Shah, 0.9 ppt at Moro North, 0.8 ppt at Moro City , 0.5 ppt at Mithiani, 0.6 ppt at Phul, 3.1 ppt at Shahpur Jahania, 0.4 ppt at Darbelo, 0.4 ppt at Khan Wahan, 0.4 ppt at Dehat and 0.3 ppt at Kotri Kabir (Table.1). The Nawabshah district has SAL level in the range of 0.2 ppt to 1.4 ppt. SAL level in ground water is measured at Sheer Mohd Jaqmali 0.4 ppt, at Nawabshah city west 1.2 ppt, at Nawabshah city center 0.2 ppt, at Nawabshah city north 1.4 ppt, at Nawabshah city south 0.4 ppt, at Dahil Dero 0.5 ppt, at Sakarand 0.5 ppt, at Saabo Raho 0.4 ppt, at New Saeedabad 0.3 ppt, at Maroocha Magh 0.4 ppt, at Lettar 0.3 ppt, at Thul 1.4 ppt, at Qazi Ahmed 0.4 ppt and Sukhpur 0.4 ppt(Table.1). The concentration of salinity is measured in ground water of Sanghar district ranges from 0.3 ppt to 2.8 ppt. it is noted at Udaro Lal 0.4 ppt, at Shahdadpur 0.4 ppt, at G. Murtaza Junejo 0.7 ppt, at Tando Adam 0.3 ppt, at Tando Adam (II) 2.8 ppt, at Wali Dad Gaho 1.4 ppt, at Daloor mori 0.3 ppt, at Village Bachayo 2.2 ppt, at Jhole 1.5 ppt, at Village Ghindin 0.5 ppt, at Sanghar (I) 0.4 ppt, at Khadro 1.3 ppt, at Mir Hussain Talpur 0.8 ppt, at Shahpur Chakar 0.8 ppt, at Khipro 0.5 ppt, at Sindhri 1.5 ppt and at Gujri 0.5 ppt. Salinity is measured at Hyderabad district in ground water levels at Matiari 1.7 ppt, Satyani 0.3 ppt, Khybar 0.7 ppt, Bhit Shah 1.3 ppt, Bhit Shah (II) 1.6 ppt, Halla 0.8 ppt, Khybar 0.9 ppt. At Tando Allahyar 1.5 ppt, Tando Allahyar 1.5 ppt, Tandojam 0.2 ppt, Tandojam city 0.4 ppt, Gul Mohammad 0.6 ppt, Saeeri 0.2 ppt, Tando Saindad 0.3 ppt, Tando Mohmmad Khan (I) 0.5 ppt, Tando Mohmmad Khan (II) 1.1 ppt, Mula Katyar 0.4 ppt, Rahmatullah Jahejo 0.6 ppt, Tando Mohammad Khan (IV) 0.2 ppt and Nau maile 0.8 ppt (Table.1). The salinity level is measured at district Mirpur Khas is in the range of 0.3 ppt to 1.4 ppt. SAL level in ground water at Jhuluri is 1.5ppt, at Mirpur Khas North is 1.4ppt, at Mirpur Khas west is 0.4ppt, at Mirpur south is 0.4ppt, at Sultanabad is 1.4ppt, at Noukot is 0.6ppt, at Tharo Khan is 0.9ppt, at Jhudo is 0.8ppt, at Digri is 1.3ppt, at Mirwah is 0.3ppt, at Kot Ghullam Mohd 0.7ppt (Table.1). Umarkot district has SAL level in the range of 0.4 ppt to 4.7 ppt. SAL level in ground water is measured at Khno Rangar 2.5 ppt, at Umarkot 2.5 ppt, at Sulmam Rajar 0.5 ppt, at Bare ji mori 0.2 ppt, at Mehar Ali Lashari 0.4 ppt, at Saat mori 1.3 ppt, at Nauto 0.5 ppt, at Thar Nabisar 1.0 ppt, at Samaro 4.7 ppt and atKunri 0.6 ppt (Table.1). The ground water of Tharparkar district ranges is found in the range of 0.9 ppt to 6.3 ppt. it is noted at Village Mithi 1.6 ppt, at Saro 1.9 ppt, at Village Bahadur 1.7 ppt, at Diplo city 3.1 ppt, at Islamkot 5.1 ppt, at Mithoro Chachar Meghwar para 6.3 ppt, at Mithoro Chachar Bhel para 4.7 ppt, at Nagarparkar 0.8, at Nagarparkar-II 0.9 ppt, at Nagarparkar-III 1.6 ppt, at Dano Dandal 1.6 ppt, at Bhalwa 1.6 ppt, at Marvi jo Khuh 1.9 ppt, at Bhalwa -II 0.9 ppt, at Mithi city 3.1 ppt, at Mithi city-II 3.1 ppt, at Nau Kot 1.7 ppt and at Khario 1.7 ppt (Table.1). However, salinity level in the groundwater of Badin district is in the range of 0.3 ppt to 4.6 ppt. It is 2.0 ppt at Tando Bago, 0.6 ppt at Matli, 4.6 ppt at Talhar , 0.3 ppt at Khorwah Chouk, 1.5 ppt at Golarchi (I), 0.5 ppt at Golarchi (II) , 0.9 ppt at Guni , 1.3 ppt at Tarai, , 1.4 ppt at Tarai (well) , 0.9 ppt at Nindo, 0.8 ppt at Badin (I), 1.3 ppt at Badin (II), 0.3 ppt at Kadhan , 0.7 ppt at Pangrio, 0.9 ppt at Pir Fateh shah, 0.9 ppt at Bhugra Memon, 2.9 ppt at Ahmed Rajo, 0.9 ppt at Lakho Pir and 1.1 ppt at Khorwah.

13

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER IN SINDH


The detail geochemical study of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Aresnic (As) and Zinc (Zn) in groundwater is determined. Nowadys heavy metal pollution is a great problem to environment. The groundwater contamination particularly by the industrial effluents (hevymetals) and their persistence in food chain has been major concern. As these are bio-accumulative and relatively stable as well as toxic/ carcinogenic and there four require close monitering. To asses the Pb, Cd, As, and Zn in groundwater samples were collected from different locations of Sindh province, due to limited resources three to four representative samples from every district were collected totling 82 samples. Mr. Muhammad Waseem PhD., Schlor carriedout analytical work at NCE in Inorganic Chemistry, university of Peshwar on the instrument Electro thermal Atomic Absorption. The obtained data is discussed below, while the healthaffects are given in Annexue 1. Arsenic (As): Arsenic occurs naturally in rocks and soil, water, air, and plants and animals. It can be further released into the environment through natural activities such as volcanic action, erosion of rocks and forest fires, or through human actions. Higher levels of arsenic tend to be found more in ground water sources than in surface water sources. The demand on ground water from municipal systems and private drinking water wells may cause water levels to drop and release arsenic from rock formations. Human exposure to arsenic can cause both short and long term health effects. Short or acute effects can occur within hours or days of exposure. Long or chronic effects occur over many years. Long term exposure to arsenic has been linked to cancer of the bladder, lungs, skin, kidneys, and nasal passages, liver and prostate. The maximum allowable limit of As in drinking water is 10 g/l. The concentration of Arsenic is found high above the permissible limits at Maripur Mathelo 24.53 g/l, at Rohri city 66.11 g/l, at Sukkur city 46.93 g/l, at Dadu city east 216 g/l, at Tando Mohmmad Khan II 74.04 g/l, at Mirpur Bathoro 73.34 g/l, at Diplo 137.8 g/l, at Nagarparkar 20.67 g/l, at Bhalwa 20.42 g/l, at Tandojam 20.31 g/l, at Nawabshah I 17.29 g/l and at Sanghar I 20.19 g/l, and it is alaraming condition in above areas. However, rest of the groungwater sample showed Arsenic contents within the permissible limit. The data would be different if the number of sample could be collected more than three or four from every district. The obtained data is presented graphicall (Table.2; Fig. 5). The aerial distribution of Arsenic is shown through contour map and relief map in Figure. 6 & 7. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium occurs naturally in Zn, Pb, Cu and other ores which can serve as source to ground and surface water. Cd can be relesed in drinking water fron corrosion of some galvanize plumbing and water main pipe material. Average concentration of cadmium in dinking water is (10 g/l) 0.005mg/l (WHO, 2004). It can cause the health hazards such as nausea, vomitimg, diarrhea, muscle cramps, salivation, semsry disturbances and renal failure. The long term Cadmium exposure can cause certain effects such as kidney, liver, bone and blood damage problems. The concentration of cadmium in ground water is found higher in all the parts of Sindh province. In district Jamshoro: it is found at Ali Abad 0.03mg/l, at Sunn 0.037 mg/l, at Shwan 0.037 mg/l, at Bubak 0.079 mg/l, at Bhan Saeedabad II 0.095 mg/l. in Dadu district areas: at Boriri 0.093 mg/l, at Dadu east 0.368 mg/l, at Dadu City center 0.383 mg/l, at Johi 0.371 mg/l, at Kakar 0.383 mg/l, at K.N shah 0.127 mg/l, at Mehar 0.144 mg/l. In district Larkana: at Naseerabad-I -0.107 mg/l, at Larkana city west 0.119 mg/l, at Larkana city center 0.122 mg/l, at Larkana city north 0.13 mg/l, at Fateh Pur 0.149 mg/l, at Bungul Dero 0.166 mg/l. In district Shikarpur: at Garhi Yaseen 0.165 mg/l, at Shikarpur I 0.169 mg/l, at Khanpur 0.62 mg/l. in Kashmore district: at Ghospur 0.204 mg/l, at Kandh kot 0.19 mg/l, at Kashmore 0.21 mg/l, at Guddu 0.197 mg/l. In district Ghotki: at Maripur Mathelo 0.207 mg/l, at Obauro 0.223 mg/l, at Daharki 0.203 mg/l, and at Ghotki

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0.238 mg/l. In district Sukkur: at Pano Aqil 0.255 mg/l, at Sukkur 0.247 mg/l, at Rohri I 0.249 mg/l, at Sukkur II 0.275 mg/l, at Sukkur III, 0.314 mg/l , at Sukkur IV -00.248 mg/l, at Sukkur VI 0.284 mg/l. In district Khairpur: at Babar loi 0.304 mg/l, at Khairpur Mirs II 0.314 mg/l, at Kot Deji 0.33 mg/l, at Kumb 0.344 mg/l, at Ranipur 0.341 mg/l, at mg/l. In Jacobabad district: at Ramzanpur 0.299 mg/l, at Abad 0.301 mg/l, at Jacobabad city east 0.324 mg/l, at Jacobabad city center 0.294 mg/l. In district Nousharo Feroz: at Nousharo Feroz citry-II 0.352 mg/l, at Bhehlani 0.361 mg/l. In Badin district: at Matli 0.377 mg/l, Talhar 0.388 mg/l, at Badin city-I 0.416 mg/l, at Kadhan 0.418 mg/l, at Lakho pir 0.445 mg/l, Tari III 0.413 mg/l. in Hyderabad district: it found at Tando Mohmmad Khan city-II 0.389 mg/l, Tando Allahyar 0.488 mg/l, Matiari 0.503 mg/l, Halla 0.602 mg/l, Tandojam 0.524 mg/l. In Tharparkar district: it is found in Diplo 0.425 mg/l, at Mithoro Chachar (Meghwar para) 0.459 mg/l, at Mithoro Chachar (Bhel para) 0.481 mg/l, at Nagarparkar 0.444 mg/l, at Nagarparkar 0.456 mg/l, at Bhalwa 0.49 mg/l, at Mithi 0.49 mg/l.

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Fig. 7.Relief map shows the arial distribution of As in survyed area in Sindh

Fig.6 Contour map shows the Arial distribution of Arsenic in different areas of Sindh Province
250

200

150 g/l 100 50


W HO MC L l i mi t

0 GW -1 S GW -4 S GW -7 S G S -10 W G S -13 W G S -16 W G S -19 W G S -22 W G S -25 W G S -28 W G S -31 W G S -34 W G S -37 W G S -40 W G S -43 W G S -46 W G S -49 W G S -52 W G S -55 W G S -58 W G S -61 W G S -64 W G S -67 W G S -70 W G S -73 W G S -76 W G S -79 W G S -82 W

Fig. 5 Shows the distribution of Arsenic contents in groungwater of different areas in Sindh

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In Mirpurkhas district: it is found at Naukot 0.495 mg/l, at Mirpurkhas North 0.596 mg/l, Sultanabad 0.324 mg/l. In Umarkot district: Umarkot city 0.496 mg/l, Thar Nabisar 0.578 mg/l, Samaro 0.586 mg/l. In Sanghar district: Tando Adam 0.529 mg/l, Khadro 0.619 mg/l, at Sanghar I 0.615 mg/l, at Shahpur Chakar 0.633 mg/l. in Nawabshah district: at Nawabshah city-I 0.515 mg/l, at New Saeedabad 0.541 mg/l, at Sakarand 0.563 mg/l, at Qazi Ahmed 0.301 mg/l is above the permissible limits of WHO (2004). However, the Cd concentration is found within the allowable limits at Mirpur Bathoro -0.392 mg/l (Thatta district), Tharehi -0.279 mg/l (Khairpur district) Vilage Ghindin -0.294 mg/l. The obtained data is presented graphicall (Table.3; Fig.8). The aerial distribution of Cadmium is shown through contour map and relief map in Figure 9 & 10. Lead (Pb): Lead is used in lead-acid batteries and alloys. The organolead compounds tetraethyl and tetramethyl lead have also been used as anti knock and lubricating agents in petrol. This use is now in a decline and the exposure from the air is declining but source from drinking water constitutes the major proportion. Lead is a general toxicant and accumulates in the skeleton. It is toxic to both central and peripheral nervous systems (Gomara et al., 2007). Most of the lead in drinking water arises from the plumbing systems in the buildings. The measures to control the corrosion may reduce the amount of lead in drinking water. Allowable limit of Pb concentration in water by WHO (1975) is 0.01mg/l - 0.05 mg/l. Lead concentration in groundwater is found high in at Nousharo Feroz II 0.087 mg/l, Badin I 0.076 mg/l, Lakho pir 0.092 mg/l, Mithoro Chachar (Meghwar para) 0.068 mg/l, Mithoro Chachar (Bhel para) 0.078 mg/l, Nagarparkar 0.08 mg/l, Nagarparkar 0.062 mg/l, Bhalwa 0.071 mg/l, Mithi 0.065 mg/l, Tando Allahyar 0.074 mg/l, Umarkot, 0.084 mg/l, Sakarand 0.07 mg/l, Samaro 0.064 mg/l, Mirpur Khas North 0.069 mg/l (Table. 3), this concentration of Pb can be attributed to the Lithology of land and percolation of agricultural and municipal waste. However, Pb concentration at Ali Abad, Sunn, Shwan, Bubak, Bhan Saeedabad II, Boriri, Naseerabad-I, K.N shah, Mehar, Larkana city west, Larkana city center , Larkana city north, Fateh Pur, Bungul Dero, Garhi Yaseen, Shikarpur, Khanpur, Ghospur, Kandh kot, Kashmore, Guddu, Maripur, Obauro, Daharki, Pano Aqil, Ghotki, Sukkur I, Rohri I, Sukkur II, Sukkur III, Sukkur IV, Sukkur VI, Babar loi,Tharehi, Ramzanpur, Abad, Jacobabad city east, Jacobabad city center, Khairpur Mirs II, Kot Deji, Kumb, Ranipur, Bhehlani, Dadu east, Dadu City center, Johi, Kakar, Matli, Talhar, Tando Mohmmad Khan II, Mirpur Bathoro, Tari III, Kadhan, Diplo, Tandojam, Matiari, Tando Adam, Nawabshah I, New Saeedabad, Thar Nabisar, Khadro, Halla, Sanghar I, Shahpu Chakar, Qazi Ahmed, Sultanabad and at Village Ghindinm is found within the permissible limits of WHO. The obtained data is presented graphicall (Table.1; Fig. 12). The aerial distribution of Lead is shown through contour map and relief map in Figure.13 & 14. Zinc (Zn): Zinc, like magnesium and selenium, is also an essential trace element. It is found in all foods and potable water. The levels of zinc in surface and ground water normally do not exceed 0.01 mg/l and 0.05mg/l respectively (WHO, 1996). Concentration in tap water may increase due to dissolution from the pipes (WHO, 2004). For any water to qualify as potable, these constituents must be below the specified limits. According to WHO (1975), the permissible limit of zinc in all the water samples is 5 mg/l or 500 g/l. Zinc concentration in the water samples collected from different district in Sindh province is given in Table 3 and graphically presented in Figure 15 and the data is also plotted on contour and relief map(Fig.16 & 17). The concentration of Znic in all the groundwater samples is found within the permissible limit (Table.1).However, the higher concentration is noticed in the sample collected from hand pump at Sakarand it contents 10.95 mg/l ZnHigher than that of recommended by WHO for Normal drinking water.

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Fig.10. contour map shows the Arial distribution of Cadmium in different areas of Sindh Province

Fig. 9. Relief map shows the arial distribution of Cd in surveyed area in Sindh Province
0.7 0.6 0.5 mg/l 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 GWS -1 GWS -5 GWS -9 GWS -13 GWS -17 GWS -21 GWS -25 GWS -29 GWS -33 GWS -37 GWS -41 GWS -45 GWS -49 GWS -53 GWS -57 GWS -61 GWS -65 GWS -69 GWS -73 GWS -77 GWS -81

Fig. 8. Shows the distribution of Cd contents in groundwater of different areas in Sindh Province

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Fig.12. Shows the Arial distribution of Pb in different areas of Sindh Province

Fig.13. Relief map shows Pb in different areas of Sindh Province


0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 mg/l 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 GW -1 S GW -4 S GW -7 S GW -10 S GW -13 S GW -16 S GW -19 S GW -22 S GW -25 S GW -28 S GW -31 S GW -34 S GW -37 S GW -40 S GW -43 S GW -46 S GW -49 S GW -52 S GW -55 S GW -58 S GW -61 S GW -64 S GW -67 S GW -70 S GW -73 S GW -76 S GW -79 S GW -82 S

Fig. 11. Shows the distribution of Pb contents in groundwater of different areas in Sindh

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Fig.16. Shows the Arial Distribution of Zn in Different Areas of Sindh Province

Fig.15. Relief Map Shows Arial Distribution of Zn in Different Areas of Sindh Province
12 10 8
mg/l

6 4 2 0
G W S -1 G W S -5 G W S G W 9 S -1 3 G W S -1 7 G W S -2 1 G W S -2 5 G W S -2 G 9 W S -3 3 G W S -3 7 G W S -4 1 G W S -4 G 5 W S -4 9 G W S -5 3 G W S -5 7 G W S -6 1 G W S -6 G 5 W S -6 9 G W S -7 3 G W S -7 7 G W S -8 1

Fig.14. Shows the cocentartion of Zn in different areas of Sindh Province

20

Disscussion and Conclusion


Lower Indus plain formed by the alluvial deposits of the I n d u s Riv er a s w ell as of H a kra Riv er (Lambrick, 1964; Pithawala, 1976; Kalyanaraman, 2003; Panhawar, 2002). The entire surface is furrowed and cross-furrowed by beds of older river channels, which have left their fertile meanders in many pieces. Hydrologically the entire province is irrigated by water originating from Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri barrages; however, the groundwater is 28% fresh. According to pipper (1944) water classification scheme the groundwaters of Sindh provence are generally prevailing (hydrogen) Carbonatic type and prevailing sulfatic There is a greater variation in the pH of the waters of all the area. It is Fig 9. Map shows the distribution of ground water and its ranging from neutral (pH = 7.2) to slightly quality in Sindh Province. (after Panwhar, 1964). alkaline (pH = 8.5). however it is found within the pemissible limits of WHO (2004). The total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductance (EC) in the ground waters of the study area are genrally within the permissible limits of US-EPA (1978) and WHO (2004) and considered as fresh water in Dadu, Jamshoro, Larkana, Nawabshah, Sukkur, Ghotki, Kashmore, Jacobabad, Thatta, Badin Mirpur Khas, sanghar, Umarkot and Hyderabad district. However, all the sample collected from Tharparkar district showed very high concentration of TDS and EC in groundwater (Table.1). The heavy and trace elements (i.e., As, Cd) in the subsurface waters of Sindh area are generally above the permissible limits of US-EPA (1978); WHO (2004). The Arsenic contents are found higher at Maripur Mathelo, Rohri, Sukkur VI, and Dadu east, Tando Mohmmad Khan II, Mirpur Bathoro, Diplo, Nagarparkar, Bhalwa, Tandojam, Nawabshah I, Sanghar I. The Lead concentration in groundwater is found high at Nousharo Feroz II 0.087 mg/l, Badin I 0.076 mg/l, Lakho pir 0.092 mg/l, Mithoro Chachar (Meghwar para) 0.068 mg/l, Mithoro Chachar (Bhel para) 0.078 mg/l, Nagarparkar 0.08 mg/l, Nagarparkar 0.062 mg/l, Bhalwa 0.071 mg/l, Mithi 0.065 mg/l, Tando Allahyar 0.074 mg/l, Umarkot, 0.084 mg/l, Sakarand 0.07 mg/l, Samaro 0.064 mg/l, Mirpur Khas North 0.069 mg/l. This may be due to Lithology, agricultural waste, municipal waste water percolation. The lack of proper outlet to rain water to its natural courses can not be ignored, because due to this water table raises which it brings soluble minerals with it, which never goes back after the water table fall down. However, Cadmium is within the permissible limit in groundwater. The concentration of Zinc is also found within the allowable limits of WHO (2004) except the sample collected from Sakrand which showed higher contents of Zn. During this study, it has been noticed that the LBOD, KPOD and DPOD and the sea intrusion are the main cause of disturbing ground water in lower Sindh. Specific measures should be taken before it turns into any kind of disaster. The following necessary remedial measures are suggested to minimize the affects of natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution in the area: To save groundwater in the area, the alternative/ safe ways shall be adopted to dispose the wastewaters.

21

During monsoon proper arrangements shall be taken to dispose off water rather than making it stagnant. Operation and maintenance of irrigation canals is essential. Efforts should be made to carry out for their proper operation and maintenance because Sindh has mainly arid climate and the ultimate source for the recharge of aquifer is river water, otherwise remaining 28% fresh groundwater will turn into brackish. The treated effluents shall be discharged into surface water system to abide by minimum dilution factor. The industrial wastewater and sugar mill waste effluents are mainly disposed in surface waters as untreated (i.e., in Badin). The owners of the industries should be penalized for discharging, untreated effluents in the drainage system. In order minimize the effects of pollution on the in habitants; the people should be educated about hazards of the polluted water and its impacts on the environment. In this regard, workshops for the awareness of local communities shall be convened. NGOs can also play their role in the advocacy and awareness among the people on water quality and its health issues. It is strongly suggested that Sindh government should routinely monitor the quality groundwater.

22

Table 1. Physical parameters at various locations


District Sample No GWS-4 GWS-1 GWS-2 GWS-3 GWS-8 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-8 GWS-10 GWS-10 GWS-16 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 Dadu Area Khudabad Dadu City Dadu east Dadu City center Johi Chini Wahi pandhi ChandanMori Makhdoom Bilawal Dur Mohd Abro Chodagi Kakar Boriri K.N shah Kolachi Mehar pH 7.5 7.4 8.2 7.3 8.1 8.3 7.7 8.3 7.7 7.4 7.5 8.2 7.5 7.8 8.1 7.5 TDS mg/l 765 1250 633 1290 1020 1360 867 1315 1120 859 487 412 332 2210 264 512 EC Sm/cm 1545 2500 1266 2580 2030 2700 1721 2638 2248 1723 1075 821 659 4440 531 1110 SAL ppt 0.5 1.3 0.6 1.3 1.4 1.4 8.0 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 2.3 0.3 0.5 Temp oC 24.4 29.6 29.5 30.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8 27.4 28.4

Distric Jamshoro Sample Area No GWS-1 Jamshoro Phatak GWS-2 Kotri city GWS-3 Mangio Shoro GWS-4 Luni Kot GWS-5 Thano Bula Khan GWS-6 Thano Ahmad Khan GWS-7 Petaro GWS-8 Unerpur GWS-9 Ali Abad GWS-10 Manghand GWS-11 Sunn GWS-12 Aamri GWS-13 Lucky GWS-14 Shwan GWS-15 Jhangara GWS-16 Bubak GWS-17 Bhan Saeedabad GWS-18 Bhan Saeedabad II District Larkana Sample Area No GWS-1 Naseerabad

pH 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.9 7.7 7.8 7.5 7.5 7.8 7.5 7.5 7.5 8.2 8.1 7.6 7.5 7.0 7.0

TDS mg/l 877 658 771 661 1525 866 1435 765 872 651 765 655 5150 860 1390 377 839 839

EC Sm/cm 1777 1418 1485 1425 3065 1840 3040 1485 1777 1418 1485 1425 10280 1840 3040 735 1679 1679

SAL ppt 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.6 0.8 1.4 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 5.8 0.8 1.4 0.5 0.8 0.8

Temp oC 24.4 29.6 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8 27.4 28.4 27.9 27.8

pH 7.9

TDS mg/l 2470

EC Sm/cm 5400

SAL ppt 2.6

Temp oC 24.4

23

GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-2 GWS-3 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8

Wagan Naseerabad-I Shahdadkot Larkana city west Larkana city center Larkana city north Fateh Pur Bungul Dero Rato Dero Miro Khan Drakhan Khanpur Qambar Shikarpur Area Garhi Yaseen Shikarpur I Shikarpur II Khanpur Habibkot Lakhi Kashmore Area Ghospur Kandh kot Kashmore Kashmore Guddu Darkhan Risaldar Ghotki Area Mureedki Shakh Maripur Obauro Daharki Ghotki Mirpur Mathelo Bakshal Ali Lashari Khangrah

7.9 7.6 8.3 8.1 8.1 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.2 7.9 7.9 8.2

1300 851 1730 624 432 771 401 1230 771 757 433 1233 851

2590 1707 3450 1250 864 1544 799 2470 1541 1513 867 2476 1707

1.3 0.9 1.8 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.4 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.4 1.3 0.9

29.6 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8

pH 7.8 8.0 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.9

TDS mg/l 496 553 329 1920 886 270

EC Sm/cm 990 1105 659 3830 1772 540

SAL ppt 0.5 0.5 0.3 2.0 0.9 0.3

Temp oC 27.4 28.4 27.9 27.8 28.1 27.9

pH 8.2 8.1 8.3 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.8

TDS mg/l 1645 1510 1280 1280 141 1170 1178

EC Sm/cm 3365 3020 2970 2550 311 2360 2376

SAL ppt 1.7 1.6 1.3 1.3 0.1 1.2 1.2

Temp oC 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4

pH 7.6 7.8 7.8 8.2 8.3 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.5

TDS mg/l 199 324 886 707 409 877 381 573 486

EC Sm/cm 480 715 1772 1431 818 1765 732 1045 969

SAL ppt 0.2 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2

Temp oC 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8

24

District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7

Sukkur Area Sukkur I Sukkur II Sukkur III Rohri I Rohri II Sukkur IV Sukkur V Sukkur VI Babar Loie Sultanpur Shahpur Dubbar Wahan Khandahu Tando Mir Imam Talpur Pano Aqil Khairpur Area Tharehi Hot Khan Magsi Khairpur Mirs I Khairpur Mirs II Khairpur Mirs III Tando Masti Sorvan Kot Bunglo Kot Deji Kot Deji Kumb Near MRDO office Kumb Ranipur Thari Hingorga Nosharo Feroz Area Halani Kandiaro Bhirea Road Bhehlani Nousharo Feroz II Tharu Shah Moro North pH 8.1 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.5 8.3 8.0 TDS mg/l 515 345 557 540 605 2870 921 EC Sm/cm 1078 692 1117 1079 1214 5740 1842 SAL ppt 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.6 3.1 0.9 Temp oC 24.4 29.6 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 pH 8.2 8.2 7.7 7.8 8.3 8.1 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.6 7.8 8.2 TDS mg/l 827 845 396 269 1740 790 1850 787 887 231 702 1170 173 395 285 EC Sm/cm 1650 1725 792 538 3470 1578 3750 1576 1774 463 1405 2360 345 788 568 SAL ppt 0.8 0.9 0.4 0.3 1.8 0.8 1.9 0.8 0.9 0.2 0.7 1.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 Temp oC 24.4 29.6 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8 27.4 pH 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.8 8.2 8.3 7.2 7.9 7.2 8.2 8.1 8.2 TDS mg/l 881 2110 3440 280 270 186 926 206 825 434 818 177 414 284 523 EC Sm/cm 1760 4210 6870 559 540 370 1852 414 1647 871 1635 353 831 569 1042 SAL ppt 0.9 2.2 3.8 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 Temp oC 24.4 29.6 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8 27.4

25

GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 GWS-16 GWS-17 GWS-18 GWS-19 GWS-20

Moro City Mithiani Phul Shahpur Jahania Darbelo Khan Wahan Dehat Kotri Kabir Jacobabad Area Ramzanpur Abad Mirpur Maulabad Jacobabad city east Jacobabad city center Jacobabad city North Thul Karim Bux Hyderabad Area Saeeri Tando Saindad Tando Mohmmad Khan I Tando Mohmmad Khan II Mulla Katyar Rahmatullah Jokhio Tando Mohammad Khan IV Nau maile Tando Allahyar Tando Allahyar Tandojam Tandojam city Gul Mohammad Matiari Satyani Khybar Bhit Shah Bhit Shah II Halla Khybar

8.2 7.8 7.9 8.3 8.1 8.2 7.9 8.1

845 472 557 2870 431 307 433 284

1690 947 1117 5740 863 317 865 516

0.8 0.5 0.6 3.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3

26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 28.8 28.5 27.8 27.4

pH 7.5 7.6 8.1 8.4 8.0 8.6 8.2 7.4 7.9

TDS mg/l 1354 988 533 271 1500 262 877 230 269

EC Sm/cm 2708 1976 1069 545 2990 525 1754 461 479

SAL ppt 1.6 0.9 0.5 0.3 1.5 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.4

Temp oC 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9

pH 8.2 7.8 7.8 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.8 8.1 7.6 7.8 7.9 7.8 7.7 7.4 7.6 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 7.8

TDS mg/l 230 314 503 1030 398 622 208 809 1450 1420 203 366 567 1650 286 679 1310 1520 801 863

EC Sm/cm 465 627 1008 2070 801 1251 417 1614 2890 2810 408 731 1132 3830 575 1360 2620 3040 1623 1731

SAL ppt 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.1 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.5 1.5 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.7 0.3 0.7 1.3 1.6 0.8 0.9

Temp oC 27.4 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4

District Thatta Sample

Area

pH

TDS

EC

SAL

Temp

26

No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 GWS-16 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 GWS-16 GWS-17 GWS-18 GWS-19 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4

Chuhar Jamali Shah Karim Mirpur Bathoro Mirpur Bathoro- Sujawal road Sujawal Thatta Thatta Thatta Bridge M. Ibrahim Baran Pijari Mori Jheruck Jungshahi Gharo Mirpur Sakro Ghullamullah Jati Badin Area Khorwah Tando Bago Matli Talhar Khorwah Chouk Golarchi I Golarchi II Guni Tarai Tarai II Tari III Badin I Badin II Kadhan Pangrio Pir Fateh shah Bhugra Memon Ahmed Rajo Lakho Pir Tharparkar Area Village Mithi Saro Village Bahadur Diplo

7.8 8.0 7.8 7.9 7.8 8.2 7.7 8.2 8.2 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.9 8.2 7.8

mg/l 1320 729 1190 707 1290 233 610 1360 526 943 807 150 513 230 1360 1320

Sm/cm 2650 1461 2390 1417 2580 463 1224 2720 1052 1891 1612 301 1179 381 2720 2650

ppt 1.4 0.7 1.2 0.7 1.3 0.2 0.6 1.4 0.5 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.2 1.4 1.4

oC

26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4

pH 7.8 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.5 7.2 7.2 8.2 8.1 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.8 8.1 8.1 7.8

TDS mg/l 1120 1880 607 4170 319 1460 494 842 1240 1325 875 820 1240 301 664 1120 899 2680 1120

EC Sm/cm 2240 3750 1213 8370 636 2930 992 1683 2630 2724 1746 1643 2480 600 1534 2252 1798 5360 2252

SAL ppt 1.1 2.0 0.6 4.6 0.3 1.5 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.4 0.9 0.8 1.3 0.3 0.7 0.9 0.9 2.9 0.9

Temp oC 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4

pH 7.3 7.6 7.8 7.2

TDS mg/l 1539 2211 1626 1620

EC Sm/cm 3079 4428 3230 5770

SAL ppt 1.6 1.9 1.7 3.1

Temp oC 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1

27

GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 GWS-16 GWS-17 GWS-18 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11

Islamkot Mithoro Chachar Meghwar para Mithoro Chachar Bhel para Nagarparkar Nagarparkar Nagarparkar Dano Dandal Bhalwa Marvi jo Khuh Bhalwa II Mithi Mithi II Nau Kot Khario Umarkot Area Khno Rangar Umarkot Sulmam Rajar Bare ji mori Mehar Ali Lashari Saat mori Nauto Thar Nabisar Samaro Kunri Mirpur Khas Area Jhuluri Mirpur Khas North Mirpur Khas west Mirpur south Sultanabad Noukot Tharo Khan Jhudo Digri Mirwah Kot Ghullam Mohd

7.3 7.6 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.3 8.1 8.1 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.3 7.4

2880 5580 4260 807 845 1540 1540 1540 2210 860 2880 2890 1590 1653

6335 8430 1613 1693 3080 3080 3080 4425 1722 5770 5788 3180 1307 3242

5.1 6.3 4.7 0.8 0.9 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.9 0.9 3.1 3.1 1.7 1.7

27.9 29.4 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1

pH 7.8 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.2 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.6 7.5

TDS mg/l 2370 2350 479 159 366 1290 479 950 4260 603

EC Sm/cm 4760 4710 791 315 731 2590 791 1935 8430 1207

SAL ppt 2.5 2.5 0.5 0.2 0.4 1.3 0.5 1.0 4.7 0.6

Temp oC 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8

pH 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.5 8.1 7.5 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.6 7.9

TDS mg/l 1410 1350 416 431 1350 603 877 824 1243 311 669

EC Sm/cm 2810 2710 826 864 2700 1207 1756 1653 2489 611 1544

SAL ppt 1.5 1.4 0.4 0.4 1.4 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.3 0.3 0.7

Temp oC 29.4 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8

District Sanghar Sample Area No GWS-1 Udaro Lal

pH 7.9

TDS mg/l 384

EC Sm/cm 782

SAL ppt 0.4

Temp oC 26.7

28

GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14 GWS-15 GWS-16 GWS-17 District Sample No GWS-1 GWS-3 GWS-2 GWS-4 GWS-5 GWS-6 GWS-7 GWS-8 GWS-9 GWS-10 GWS-11 GWS-12 GWS-13 GWS-14

Shahdadpur G. Murtaza Junejo Tando Adam Tando Adam II Wali Dad Gaho Daloor mori Village Bachayo Jhole Vilage Ghindin Sanghar I Khadro Mir Hussain Talpur Shahpur Chakar Khipro Sindhri Gujri Nawabshah Area Sheer Mohd Jamali Nawabshah I Nawabshah II Nawabshah III Nawabshah IV Dahil Dero Sakarand Saabo Raho New Saeedabad Maroocha Magh Lettar Thul Qazi Ahmed Sukhpur

7.4 8.3 7.8 8.1 8.1 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.5 7.7 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.5

372 830 325 2650 1320 266 2120 1460 484 438 1260 774 753 518 1468 494

741 1647 655 5320 2650 532 4240 2930 971 874 2530 1551 1506 1035 2941 981

0.4 0.7 0.3 2.8 1.4 0.3 2.2 1.5 0.5 0.4 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.5 1.5 0.5

26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.1 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4

pH 7.7 7.8 7.8 8.1 7.7 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.8 7.7 7.8 7.8 8.1 7.7

TDS mg/l 362 1120 194 1380 437 536 558 425 348 435 351 1194 810 437

EC Sm/cm 724 2280 386 2760 876 1074 1116 851 694 871 701 2412 1623 876

SAL ppt 0.4 1.2 0.2 1.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 1.4 0.4 0.4

Temp oC 28.2 25.8 26.7 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 26.8 28.4 28.1 27.9 29.4 28.4

Table 2. Chemical parameters in groundwater in Sindh province S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sample No GWS -1 GWS -2 GWS -3 GWS -4 GWS -5 GWS -6 GWS -7 GWS -8 Area Ali Abad Sunn Shwan Bubak Bhan Saeedabad II Boriri Naseerabad-I K.N shah Pb mg/l 0.001 -0.004 -0.027 0.024 -0.009 -0.023 -0.033 0.007 As g/l 7.189 2.03 0.262 1.141 0.321 -1.61 -0.972 1.021 Cd mg/l 0.03 0.037 0.037 0.079 0.095 0.093 0.107 0.127 Zn mg/l 0.01 0.006 0.081 0.004 0.094 0.009 0.003 0.118

29

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

GWS -9 GWS -10 GWS -11 GWS -12 GWS -13 GWS -14 GWS -15 GWS -16 GWS -17 GWS -18 GWS -19 GWS -20 GWS -21 GWS -22 GWS -23 GWS -24 GWS -25 GWS -26 GWS -27 GWS -28 GWS -29 GWS -30 GWS -31 GWS -32 GWS -33 GWS -34 GWS -35 GWS -36 GWS -37 GWS -38 GWS -39 GWS -40 GWS -41 GWS -42 GWS -43 GWS -44 GWS -45 GWS -46 GWS -47 GWS -48 GWS -49 GWS -50 GWS -51 GWS -52 GWS -53 GWS -54 GWS -55 GWS -56 GWS -57

Mehar Larkana city west Larkana city center Larkana city north Fateh Pur Bungul Dero Garhi Yaseen Shikarpur I Khanpur Ghospur Kandh kot Kashmore Guddu Maripur Mathelo Obauro Daharki Pano Aqil Ghotki Sukkur I Rohri I Sukkur II Sukkur III Sukkur IV Sukkur VI Babar loi Tharehi Ramzanpur Abad Jacobabad city east Jacobabad city center Khairpur Mirs II Kot Deji Kumb Ranipur Nousharo Feroz II Bhehlani Dadu east Dadu City center Johi Kakar Matli Talhar Tando Mohmmad Khan II Mirpur Bathoro Tari III Badin I Kadhan Lakho pir Diplo

-0.009 -0.041 -0.031 -0.029 -0.035 -0.012 -0.007 -0.037 -0.038 -0.016 0.039 0.004 -0.045 -0.013 -0.011 -0.046 0.011 -0.047 0.029 -0.019 0.044 0.051 -0.016 0.043 0.016 -0.001 0.446 -0.004 -0.01 0.005 -0.006 0.031 0.021 0.033 0.087 0.011 0.024 0.027 0.105 0.041 0.036 0.025 0.048 -0.002 0.021 0.076 0.042 0.092 0.045

-2.894 0.547 -1.174 -0.973 -0.945 0.338 0.925 0.573 1.467 3.468 2.192 0.15 3.764 24.53 9.538 5.066 -1.906 2.251 -0.951 66.11 -1.336 -1.998 2.918 46.93 -1.894 2.723 0.137 1.804 1.209 32.74 1.41 1.432 3.295 0.66 3.083 0.066 216.0 1.463 4.501 -0.663 3.953 0.495 74.04 73.34 1.638 1.173 -2.234 0.204 137.8

0.144 0.119 0.122 0.13 0.149 0.166 0.165 0.169 0.62 0.204 0.19 0.21 0.197 0.207 0.223 0.203 0.255 0.238 0.247 0.249 0.275 0.314 0.248 0.284 0.304 0.279 0.299 0.301 0.324 0.294 0.314 0.33 0.344 0.341 0.352 0.361 0.368 0.383 0.371 0.383 0.377 0.388 0.389 0.392 0.413 0.416 0.418 0.445 0.425

0.423 0.017 0.028 0.013 0.004 0.015 0.012 0.274 0.006 0.005 0.008 0.091 0.005 0.012 0.007 0.009 0.009 0.003 0.444 0.022 2.491 0.762 0.002 0.003 0.034 0.001 0.008 0.001 0.055 0.128 0.016 0.008 0.010 0.076 0.023 0.019 0.008 0.232 0.096 0.019 0.018 0.014 0.010 0.024 0.018 0.014 0.010 0.024 0.009

30

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

GWS -58 GWS -59 GWS -60 GWS -61 GWS -62 GWS -63 GWS -64 GWS -65 GWS -66 GWS -67 GWS -68 GWS -69 GWS -70 GWS -71 GWS -72 GWS -73 GWS -74 GWS -75 GWS -76 GWS -77 GWS -78 GWS -79 GWS -80 GWS -81 GWS -82

Mithoro Chachar Meghwar para Mithoro Chachar Bhel para Nagarparkar Nagarparkar Bhalwa Mithi Naukot Tando Allahyar Tandojam Umarkot Matiari Tando Adam Nawabshah I New Saeedabad Sakarand Samaro Mirpur Khas North Thar Nabisar Khadro Halla Sanghar I Shahpu Chakar Qazi Ahmed Sultanabad Vilage Ghindin

0.068 0.078 0.08 0.062 0.071 0.065 0.016 0.074 0.045 0.084 0.111 0.035 0.054 0.044 0.07 0.064 0.069 0.043 0.051 0.05 0.003 0.001 -0.042 -0.009 -0.046

0.621 -0.736 -0.078 20.67 20.42 3.008 8.017 -3.64 20.31 0.976 -0.269 1.539 17.29 9.212 -1.272 -0.738 -1.012 0.339 0.705 -0.897 20.19 3.91 -0.416 0.339 0.705

0.459 0.481 0.444 0.456 0.49 0.49 0.495 0.488 0.524 0.496 0.503 0.529 0.515 0.541 0.563 0.586 0.596 0.578 0.619 0.602 0.615 0.633 0.301 0.324 0.294

0.014 0.054 1.423 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.012 0.004 0.009 0.588 0.045 0.050 0.200 10.95 0.060 0.135 0.096 0.620 0.057 0.130 0.006 0.747 2.677 0.053

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REFERENCES
Anil, K.F. and Musaddiq, M., 2005. Surface water Pollution in and around AKola, Disst. Maharashtra, India. Advances in Limnology by Mishra. Daya Publ. house Delhi. Gomara, B., G. Gomez, C. Daz-Paniagua, A. Marco, M.J. Gonzalez, 2007. PCB, DDT, arsenic, and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn): concentrations in chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) eggs from Southwest Spain. Chemosphere. 68, 2531. Kalyanaraman, S., 2003. Sarasvati Civilization. Publ. Baba Saheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti, Bangalore, India. Lorna and Jamie, 2002. Water quality: Guidelines, Standards and Health. Assessment of risk and risk management for water related infections. A.I.T.B.S. Publ., Delhi. Lambrick, H.T., 1964. Sindh before the Muslim Conquest. History of Sindh Series Vol-II. Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan, 218 p. Pithawala, M. B., 1976. A Physical and Economic Geography of Sindh, The lower Indus Basin. Sec. Impr., Sindhi Adabi Board Hyderabad, Sind, Pakistan. Rajvaidya, N. and Markandey, D.K., 2005. Environmental analysis and instrumentation. Publ. A.P.H. Corp. New Delhi. US. Environmental Protection Agency., 1978. Manual Treatment Techniques from Meeting the Interim Primary Drinking Water Requlations. Office of Research Laboratory, Water Supply Research Division, EPA. 600/ 8-77-005, Cincinnati, OH:73. and other supporting information. Vol. 1, 2nd Ed. World Health Organization, Geneva. World Health Organization (WHO), 2004. Guidelines for drinking water, recommendations, World Health Organization, Geneva.

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Annexure 1 Contaminants, their maximum admissible limit and health effects


Contaminant Arsenic (As) Cadmium (Cd) MCL (mg/L)2 10 g/l Potential Health Effects from Ingestion of Water Skin damage or problems with circulatory systems, and may have increased risk of getting cancer Kidney damage Infants and children: Delays in physical or mental development; children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities Adults: Kidney problems; high blood pressure Zinc 0.1 - 5 Zinc deficiencies are tastelessness and loss of appetite. Children's immune systems and enzyme systems may be affected Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Erosion of natural deposits; runoff from orchards, runoff from glass & electronics production wastes Corrosion of galvanized pipes; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from metal refineries; runoff from waste batteries and paints

0.005

Lead (Pb)

0.015

Corrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits

Characteristics Total dissolved solids (TDS) pH

MCL OF US-EPA 1000 mg/l 7.0 - 8.0

MCL OF WHO 1000 mg/l 6.5 - 8.5

Note:
1 2

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. Units are in milligrams per liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. Milligrams per liter are equivalent to parts per million.

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