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Builefin 504

BUI~EAU OF MINES

"'(•i"

FLUID FLOW THROUGH PACKED AND FLUIDIZED SYSTEMS

By M. Leva, M. Weinfraub,

M. ~rummer, M. Pollchik, and H. H. Sforch

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UNITED STATES QOVERNMENT PRINTINQ OFFICE,

WASHINQTON : 1951

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Oscar L. Chapman, Secrefary

BUREAU OF MINES

James Boyd, Director

/

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office

Washington 25,

D.

C.

--

Price $1.00

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CONTENTS

.(i

Page

Page

Introducl iou ............................... .~.cklloWh.dgl~t,~it s ..........................

Literature ~lu'vey

..........................

 

FluMizal ion ..............................

Pressure

drop

flm_mgh packed

tubes,

turbulent;

flow .................................. General corr,.lat loll ........................ Varial des .............................. Derivation ,,f a working equation .......... Exl~erimem al work ...................... Di~e~ls~ion -f res~llts ..................... .Nolrm~ral dl of pres-ure-drop equat ion ......

]~ffeet of s~lrfacv rollb~llltess .................

Mawrial~ and data ...................... Cc, rrelat ion .......................... D]~eu<qolt of re~llts ..................... Pre, lieliou of v,,i,ls in packed tubes .......... .M~,I h,.ls t,f ehar~in~ vessels .............. Varlal des ............................ Exlwrimemal detain ....................

1

Pressure

drop

through

packed

tubes,

viscous

  • 2 flow--Continued

  • 3 estimations ...................

Shape-factor

  • 3 Fhfidization of solids ........................

  • 7 General .................................. Vesicular and nonvesieular particles ..........

8

8

8

8

9

14

Fluidization of nonporous

particles ..........

Description

of fluidization ................

Experimental

details ....................

Data

and correlations ...................

Illustrations ............................

Minimum

fluid voidage ..................

  • 15 Correlation ............................

  • 17 Fluidization efficiency ...................

  • 17 Equations .............................

  • 19 Discussion .............................

  • 20 Illustration ............................

51

57

57

57

57

57

58

59

59

60

61

63

64

64

66

  • 22 Fluidization of an iron Fischer-Tropsch cata-

  • 22 lyst .................................

  • 22 Material and operation ..................

22

Data

and correlations ....................

67

67

69

i

t

i*

7 :d~

• ;, ii!i

Collll I1 el l{ ~ ............................

General e,fimation of voids for rings .......

Wall, qt't'('t .............................

  • 26 Application to process design .............

  • 27 Sample calculations and comments

........

71

75

  • 28 Abridged equations for estimating onset of

G~L

Lhnits of void fmmti,m ...................

  • 28 fiuidization ...........................

 

76

Sad,lle~ ...............................

  • 28 Fluidizatiou of mixed materials ..............

78

Sam 1de c'dm flat ion ......................

  • 29 Stratification ...........................

 

78

C,-mq~arison I .,t ween 1 ower packings .........

  • 29 Correlation ............................

79

Bed-vharael tq'iz:tt i~ ~11 factor ...............

  • 29 Solid-liquid systems .......................

 

79

V,:,lmue and ,-urfact,-area characteristics ....

  • 31 Experimental

...........................

79

t

!:!i

 

lt.lal ix',, l,at.king

..............

  • 31 Conclusions ............................

 

80

S[ U' ' v q.vit

........................

  • 32 interpretation

Data

on

the

basis

of

the

Cylinders, q3hores, and ~ranules ..........

  • 33 flocculation theory ....................

 

80

8111n|ll/lrv

................................

  • 35 Fluidization of porous material ..............

83

il

"]

Pressure d~:op tim m~h packed tubes, viscous flow_

  • 37 General ................................

83

 

Golieral

e.rrelal

itlll ........................

  • 37 data ......................

Experimental

 

85

Data and ~,q~lipltlelff ....................

.....................

  • 37 and comments ................

Correlation

86

C.rrelali.u .f reslllls ....................

  • 42 fhfid voidage ..................

Minimum

87

Nom,,r~raph ............................

  • 46 Channeling in fluidized beds ................

87

(~el ii q'al izt,t I I a'~'.sure-, trop equat ion ..........

  • 49 Summary ................................

90

Tran.it hmal range

  • 49 Summary of design equations .................

 

92

 

Dith,renl ill equation ....................

  • 50 Nomeneiature ..............................

 

93

-Nolnograph ............................

  • 51 Appendix ..................................

95

i ~

. ,7'3

 

ILLUSTRATIONS

.

l[

t

Fig.

Page

,

:

i

  • I. Diagram of apparatus

for pressure-drop

studies .................................................

 

9

'ii

2.

I'r~,-~ure dr,q, eorreeu,

d

to 40 percent

voids vs. modified Reynolds

number

(2-inch standard

packed tube)_

10

3.

Pre.-sure drop corrected to 40 percent voids vs. modified Reynolds number (/~-ineh standard packed

 

:

l're,~,-ur~ drop

corri,eted to 40 percent voids vs. modified Reynolds

number

(1-inch standard

packed l;ube)_

12

ft.

Pr,,ssure drop

of nitrogen at various total gas

pressures

(I-inch

st.and~rd packed

tube) ...............

 

12

7.

Pre;-ure

drop

vs. gas density

(1-inch standard

packed

tube,

nitrogen

data) .........................

12

8.

e2q,~, vs.

cas vi,~eo.ity for

CO: and

air

(2-inch standard

packed

tube) ...............................

 

13

,

1 ~

1

9.

l:,'la~i,m,-hip I.,tweeu

pressure

drop

and

particle

diameter ........................................

13

  • 10. modified

Frit,~i,m factor

vs.

tteynolds number ...................................................

 

14

,

2"

,~

  • 11. for ~tases in turbulent flow through packed beds .....................................

Pr,,~-.ure

dr.p

15

 
  • 12. Pressure

,lrnp

thr~,u~h commercial

packing

materials .............................................

17

  • 13. Watson ...................................................................

Data

of Oman

and

 

17

  • 14. f.wtors for various materials ............................................................

Frielion

 

19

t

III

IV

CO~TENTS

15.

16.

Variation,~

of friction, factor with Reynolds. number for

..

rou~hne.~.~ (according to Nikuradse) ...............

flow through empty pipes of different degrees of

"

r

.~

~, oid,~ in

packed

tubes

vs.

D~

-~,

for

smooth,

...........................................

uuiform spheres ........................................

17.

Voids

in

packed

tubes

D~

vs. D-t

for

smooth,

mixed spheres ..........................................

18.

19.

Voids

in

packed

tubes

vs.

D~

~

for

clay balls .....................................................

Voids in packed tubes

vs.

Dp

D--t for

smooth cylinders ...............................................

20.

Voids in packed tubes vs.

D~

D-t

for Alundum cylinders .............................................

21.

Voids

in

packed tubes

vs.

D~

~

for

Aloxite granules ...............................................

22.

23.

24.

25.

Voids

in packed tubes vs.

D~

~

for

Fe30~ (iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst)

granules .....................

Voids in packed

tubes

vs.

D~

~

for fused Ahmdum granules_

.......................................

Voids in packed

tubes

vs.

D,

-~

for

Raschig rings ..................................................

Voids in packed tubes vs.

D~

~

for a variety of materials ...........................................

  • 26. Shape factor in relation to height: diameter

ratio for cylindrical bodies .............................

  • 27. Surface areas and solid volumes for various tower packings in pipe of Dr=3

inches __

28.

29.

30.

Vohune and area characteristics for various tower packings subject to turbulent flow_-[[:::

Do~ul flow of gases through sand beds .........................................................

Dowu flow

gases through various

materials .............................

..........

..........

31.

32.

33.

3L

:]5.

Pressure drop through round sand

(counter-gravity flow) in 2~.'-inch tube

......................

*fessure qrop

through sharp sands in 2~-inch tube

(counter-gravity flow)_---:::

...................

* ressure

arop

through round and sharp sands in 4-inch tube

(couuter-gravitv flow):::---:

...........

I ressure drop through mixtures of sands (counter-grawtv flow) ................................

Modified friction factors vs. modified Reynolds number_"............................

---

:]6.

Data

on flow of water through sands, observed by Hatch and correlated by means of equation 4-6_-_-.-_--

......

37,

Volume and area characteristics for various tower packings subjee~ to laminar

correlated according to equation 41 .............................

friction factors vs. modified Reynolds number ................................

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

................. ............. _ : ................. ............................... [_:[: :~:-_- : : ___ -_:_: : __ ................................. -
.................
.............
_ :
.................
...............................
[_:[:
:~:-_-
:
:
___
-_:_:
: __
.................................
-
- ................
..........
":-22
:
___
:_:.: __
..................................
.......
::
-
...........
-:-_- ...........................
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::
:
....
- ...................
:---:
:
__
:
:
:
i
___

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

  • 38. Flow through moving beds; data and correlation of Happel ........................

  • 39. }tappel's data

  • 40. Pressure drop through packed beds for fluids in streamline flow

.. 41

Modified

__

  • 42. l're~sure drop for lamfilar, transitional, and turbulent flow of air ~hrough packings ......

  • 43. Graphical representation of the void function ...................................................

  • 44. ('orrection factor for transition range

___

  • 45. Uniform round sands ........................

.......................................................

  • 46. t:,,iform

round

sands .......................

  • 47. Mixtures of round sands ........................................................

  • 48. sands .......

Uuiform

sharp

  • 49. sands ....

Uniform

sharp

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

  • 50. sta~es of fluidized beds .............................................................

Operath~

Fluidization

  • 51. apparatus ......................................................................

  • 52. round sands in 2~-inch unit ..........

Fluidization

of

  • 53. in 2a~-inch unit ..........................

I']u!d!zat!on

of

sharp sands

.54. l'hudlzatmn of sharp sands in 2~'

..

;-ineh

unit ..................

  • 55. Fluidization of mixtures of round and sharp sands ............

  • 56. Mi~,imum fluid voidage, ~y,

for round and sharp sands in relation ~o particle diameter ....

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

  • 57. Fluidization of large, uniform, round sands in 2~-inch unit ......

  • 58. Flu~dizaUon of small, uniform, round sands in 2~-inch unit

  • 59. sharp sands in 21~-inch unit .......

Fluidization

of

uniform

  • 60. round and sharp sands in 4-inch unit ......

Fluidization

of

uniform

t;1.

Fhfidization

of mixtures of sands in 21fi-inch and 4-inch units .....

  • 62. Values of n, in relation to D, for sands ........................

round and sharp sands ...................................

  • 63. Fluidization and expansion lines of a typical small sand .................................

  • 64. points i~, 2!~.-ineh unit ......

Slu~in~

  • 65. Fluidization effieiencies for

~;6. Weight-size distribution

of

_".....................................

iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst beds investigated_- .......

  • 67. Uniform azJd nfixcd iron

catalysts .............................................................

68.

69.

70.

71.

72.

73.

Minimum fluid voidage ~-

for sand and iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst in relation to particle diameter

___

Friction-factor plot for various materials

....................................................

__

Pressure drop in relatiou to mass velocity for fluidization of iron Fischer-Tropseh catalyst

Fhfidization of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst ....................................................

............

V-dues of n, in relation to Dv for sands an'd iron Fischer-Tropsch catah'st ...........................

Fluidization

and

1.25

efficiencies in relation to particle diameter

___

-

__

_

calculated

fo~: bed-expansion

ratios

_

_

1.05.

1.1'5,

____

Page

21

24

24

24

24

25

25

25

25

25

26

32

34

34

37

38

38

39 39

39

44 43

44

47

47

49

48

50

50

51

52

53

~4

  • 56 57 55 58 59 ~9 59 59 61 62 62

62

62

63

63

63

65

66

67

68

69

69

70

70

70

70

.

.j

CONTENTS

V

76.

particle diameter D~ vs. reactor.diameter Dt for a. space velocity" of 3.00 and ~rious recycle rat!os:7---

"

7~. Fl~idizatiot~ efficiency, E~b, ana

oect-expansmn farm, t,, vs. reactor ommeter, D~, ~or a space veloc.]tv oI

300

and various ~ecycle ratios ...............................................................

77.

D,.o.r

~ vs. D~ for the iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. (Shape factor >,=1.73) ........................

78.

79.

80

..

Graphical

solution for expansion of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed ..............................

Constant C in relation to particle diameter

Mi~Jimum

D.

fluidization mass velocities observed and

..................................................

calculated by

Logwinuk and

compared with

equa-

tion 56 .....................................................................

~ ...........

81.

82.

93.

84.

85.

$6.

$7.

88.

89.

90.

91.

92.

93.

94.

95.

96.

97.

08.

99.

Fluidization

Fluidization

of

of

mixed

mixed

beds ....................................................................

beds ....................................................................

E.~pansion in liquid mediums ..................................................................

Correlation of literature data .................................................................

Calculated fluidization efficiencies and fluidization work for various mass velocities ..................

Data of Wilhelm

and I~:wauk and L. P. Hatch ..................................................

Modified friction factor vs. modified Reynolds number for data of Wilhehn and ]~:wauk ..............

Close cuts and mixtures of anthracite ..........................................................

Weight-size distributions of beds investigated ...................................................

Anthracite-fluidization data ..............................

=

...................

Effective voidage in anthracite beds ...........................................................

Correlation of anthracite data

Values of m in relation to D~

......

=.....................................................

for varmus materials ...............................................

.....

Minimum fluid voidage, ~,~r, for various materials in relation to effective particle diameter D~ .........

Types of channeling in fluidized beds ..........................................................

P~essure-drop curves for channeling

Typical pressure drop vs. mass flow

beds .......................................................

relations in channeling solids ..................................

Ci~anneling factors in relation to effective particle diameter for a variety of ~.naterials ................

Cham~elin~

factor

:~4 vs.

~ L

for various materials ................................................

:Pagg

74

74

75

77 76

77

79

79

80

81

81

82

83

84

85

85

86

87 87

87

88

89

89

89

9O

.....I!'i

• )i

!

-,; J(

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:.,. ~/,

i

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F.

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::)},

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FLUID

FLOW

THROUGH

PACKED

SYSTEMS

AND

FLUIDIZED

by

M.

Leva, ~ M.

Weintraub,

~ M.

Grummer,

e M.

Pollchil~, ~ and

H.

t-I. Storch

s

,il,

I,

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Introduction

II '} "

~'

W ITH the development of new processes for

extensive literature search was undertaken

~~:ork on manuscript completed .November 28, 5950:.

....

100 percent,. Because new processes, espe-

 

,,I

?

FI,

h',

the production of s}mthetic liquid fuels, an

to uncover fundamental relationships between fluid and heat flows and the operating variables of new types of converters. Examination of published correlations revealed that consider-

cially more recent modifications of the original Fischer-Tropsch process, must compete with old, firmly established processes on the basis of unit, product cost, the pressure-drop correlations in the literature were considered to be too in- accurate for use in calculating the energy re-

T E~

able uncertaintv existed in the correlation of the operating variables of such equipment with the pressure ~lrops which could be expected tlu'ough pack¢ d and fluidized systems; correla- tions proposed ill the literature differed from

quired to pass fluids tlu'ough packed beds. The following study was begun in 1946 to develop correlations that ~ ould be suitable for the design of new equipment in which fluids are brought into contact with granular ma-

 
  • I • L

each other frequently by as much as 75 to

terials. To arrive at general relationships, systems were chosen that did not involve

 

~fli~ ¸¸,

chemical reactions, and a particular effort was

 

l'llomi(.:ll engine,ft.

R~,search and Developmen~ ~ranen, umee oi

~}'nthc|ic Liquid Fm,ls. U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of

~llrlos, ~ru('t'IOll, I~l.

Cifief

Rese rot

a ~4

Development

Branch,

Office of Synethetio

quantities

made to give the correlations only in terms of

that

ordinarily

available

from

 

are

Lfqut4 Fuels, U. S. Department ton, Pa.

of the Tnterior, Bureau of 5fines, Bruce-

general

process and design specifications.

 

1

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

.

The authors are grateful to their associates

in the Bureau of Mines fo," indispensable help during the investigations and construction and

[lssembly of the equipment

..

They take Darticu-

ar

pleasure

cooperation,

in

and

M. A. Elliott,

E.

It.

E.

Amick, Jr.

acknowledging

constructive

the

interest.

suo'~estions

"

L.

Clark,

J.

It.

Crowell, an°c~

Editorial assistance was rendered bv Xorma

C. Grass.

Golumbic and R.

Construction details pertaining to the various

by W.

E.

Miller, W. H.

units were supervised

n~;~l~a~s,~nd WiL e ~auth, •

~

reproductions

.

by

G.

na L.

Graphic bervices Section.

o. j.

Tt}e graphs were

Vidosh, and the

of

the

I-Ienneman

2

assistance The authors given are by grateful W. T. :Rood also .,,,1 for the -r ~ge.neral. ot the Coal Research Section-."a~]~',°2 r. ~lcLa,

°~lt~aeoGmaeS.S~mthes~s Sechon., for making ~.~di

powders,

ctata, on no~

of oils through catMysi"

The authors want

to

thank

A. O. 0man and

K. M. Watson, of the University of Wisconsin, for having supplied typical pieces of packing materials for examination of surface roughness; Chemical Engineering Progress for permissidn

to

copy various figures and

parts

of the

text

published previously; and Inez G. BOOher,

typing Myrtle the R. manuscript. Lee, and Sophie Radosevich for

ri: I

.,i

LITERATURE SURVEY

",

i?

FLUID FLOW THROUGH PACKED BEDS

Studies of fluid flow through beds of solids

Muskat

and

Botset s obtained data

on

the

:1!

flow of air through glass beads, sands, sandstones which they correlated as

and

,

',

7~

have been rt'l)orted in such diversified journals

AP

=

K

(pu)

a/4.

Schoenborn and Dougherty g

added

us those in lhe fiehls of petroleum product!on,

to

the

s:initary engineering, chemical engineering,

literature by presenting in graphical form their

 

physics, hydrodynamics, mechanical engineer- hi,g, physi/'al (.h~,mistry, and geophysics. The

data

beds

on

of

the

flow of air,

water, and oil through

various

commercial

ring

and

packings.

that

the

wide variety of scientific interests involved

saddle

has frequenily,~,~:(.~used an investigator to study

White ~° recognized

inconsistent

the dt'cct of one variable with Complete dis- regard for the constancy of another condition

exponents in the relation between AP and u or

G, expressed in the above references, were due

which an investigator in another field had slto~ql to t)e important.

to

the

fact

that

the

exponent

varied

with

In

1S56,

D'Arcy ~ reported

the

proportion-

Reynolds number,

nluch

as

it

does

for

flow

th~:ough empty pipes. He attempted to

 

I'

  • I ,.j .:': d'!

ality between pressure drop per unit length of a ~ orous bed and ihe flow of water tln'ough it.

n 1863, Dupuit ~ suggested that

the apparent

correlate

data

of other investigators

and

saddle-packed beds by

plotting J

for ring-

 

vs.

Re,

liquid wloeity based on the cross section of the

where/is

defned by the equation

.' :.'i.z!

empty tube nmst be Jess than

the

actual

AP

2 f pu°'F,

velocity in the pores. If the pore space in the

bed is considered to be evenly distributed,

the

L

gDv

porosity of a layer of infinitesimal thickness

F~ is an empirical correction factor dependent

 

normal to the direction of flow will be equal to

on particle size. The curves indicated fairly

 

,

:i '5

the porosity.

& of

the

bed.

Dupuit, therefore,

revised the D'Arcy equation to read

u=~KAP/L.

good

correlation

for

individual

packings,

but

the values of f for saddles were two to tlu-ee

times the values for rings at the same Reynolds numb ers.

Fancher andLewis n also evaiuatedfi

Their

  • I ,J,'-

Subsequent investigators ignored this porosity concept for a number of years. Von Emersleben ~ derived the D'Arcy equa- tion from fundamental hydrodynamic prin-

data for flow of air, water, and crude petroleum through beds of sands, sandstones, and lead shot were principally in the viscous range, as shown by the linearity of their log-log curves

 

)L

ciples.

for:

t''

I

Arnould's ; data

on air flow through beds

of

f

__

APD~g~=C.

 

",.--

q

rings, spirals, and triangles led to the following

   

--

2pLu ~-

Re

correlation :

q=O.O2$g'~ AP/v,

 

U varied with the nature of the paeldng.

The

  • I :~'~i

value of D~, used by Faneher

and

Lewis, was a

 

where q=air flow, m?/sec.

weight-mean diameter

 

*)~

AP=pressure drop, ram. of H.,O

Dv=[Zw~(D~)a] ~/~.

p = air density, kg./m)

Allen xo_ obtained similar relationships for the

 

p~ .D'Arey, H. P. G. Les Fontaines Publique de la Ville de Dijon:

flow of

air,

naphtha,

and mineral oil through

. tlt~$ ~lllX: Paris. 1S6:L

~uit. A. J

..

~:tu,les Theoretiques et Practiques sur le Mouvement

Schoenborn, E. M., and Dougherty, W. 3"., Pressure Drop and Flooding Velocity in Pocked Towers with Viscous Liquids: Trans. Am.

..

p •

.~)1%

X?)n Emersl,.ben

Otto, Das Dare.vsehc Filtergesetz:

se~trlfl, vol. 2tl. 192,5. pp. ¢g]1-610.

Phys~kal. Ze~t-

Inst. Chem. En~

l0 White,

A.

..

M.,

vol. 40, 1944, pp. 31-77. Pressure Drop and Loading Velocities in Packed

 

r,~Arll~uld.

J.,

Corps de Remplissage et de Garnissage et

Perte de

Towers: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 31, 1935, pp. 3~-408.

•-,arge Cre~r~ pir Lt.ur Emldh-e~"

PP. 47,~-4So -

Jour

Chinfie Ind

vol

21

1929,

n Fancher, O. H., and Lewis, 5. A., Flow of SimpleFluids Through

 

Porous Materials:

Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 25, 1933, pp.

ll~-il~7.

, p~ .M.usk~a',M., and Botset, If. G., Flow of Gas Through Porous Media:

,

., ....

,

~-" Allen, It. V., Pressure Drop for Flow Through Beds of Granular

 

ayslcs, vol. 1, 1931, pp. 27--34.

Absorbents: Petroh Refiner, vol. 23, 1944, pp. 247-252.

 
  • 3 ', ¢

 
  • 4 FLUID

FLOW

TI-IROUGI-I

PACKED

AND

FLUIDIZED

SYSTE,AIS

beds of granu/ar absorbents (bauxite and fuller's

I !

 

although he used a reciprocal-volume

&P

./

u ~- \~

/Dx,,

   

where 1 and n are functions of the packing

a~id~

 

D -F

1

7~

A

and

m are functions

of both

Packing aiid:

 

~-L~J

"

Reynolds number. Theft" experimental limits:

 

The limits of Allen's data were:

 

and constants are given in table A.

 

0.05<Re<500

 

Gamson, Thodos, and Hougen ~ plotted theh, observed values of / vs. Re for air flow OVer-we(

 

fined and dt3- spheres and cylinders, where they deci

 

7</<10~

 
 

f

"~PD~,g¢p

 

0.0008

ft.<D~

(bauxite)<0.0091

ft.

2LG~

0.0011

ft. <~ D~

(failer's

earth) <0.0096

ft.

Re= D~,G/t~.

"

 

For cylinders,

 

beF:jjiaand Uc.hida '~ " passed gases through oro~en nmestone, lead shot, and Ras-

D,=~/doho+ U2d/-.

,

of chig the rin~s equation: and expressed theft" results in the form

packings. They obtained separate curves for wet and dry

TABLE A.--Constants of Uchida and Fujita ~a 14

 

Packing

:

 

Flow.

 

Broken lime-

stone

5 ram.

Lead

shot

1.8

mm.<D,<4.4

Raschig

rings

5 mm.<Dp~10~.

 

I: ! I

 

<D,<10

mm.

him.

mm.

10<Re<30

..............................................

 
 

A----10,600

A=2,400

 

A=350

 
 

m

l

 

=

--

----1.15

0.87

m=0.86

m=

--0.64

l

=1.05

1 =0.94

n --0.0

A =

145

 
 

30< R~.< I 0G ..............................................

n ---- --0.30

n

=0.0

 

,

 

A---- 10,600

A=520

   

m

l

 

=

-- 0.87

----1.15

 

m=

--0.47

m

=

-- 0.38

   
  • l =

1.05

 

l

=0.94

 
 

t00<Re<

1,0O~_

n =--0.30

n --0.0

n =0.0

 

.........................................

     
 

A=3,670

A----520

 

A---51

i

m

l

=

--

0.64

  • m =

-- 0.47

m=

--0.16

=1.15

  • l =1.05

 

l

-----0.94

 

n

-- --0.30

n

=0.0

n =0.0

 

In 1932, Chalmers, Taliaferro, and Rawlins ~6

introduced the porosity concept into their defi-

In

1934, Ohilton and Oolburn ~9 had corre-.

 

I,

nition of friction factorfi

lated

their data for gas flow thcough packed

 

tubes with a so-called "wall-effect factor, A/',

 

f

APD~go~.

which, however, implicitly compensated to a

 

plu s

certain degree for porosity as well as the effect

aP

2fa2At.

 

['his concept, which had been developed by

of the D~/D, ratio,

.DupuitY had also been used by Boussinesq ~s

 
  • L --go D~p

 

m a theoretical derivation of formulas similar to those of D'Arcy.

f is expressed graphically as a function of Re,

 

:b

T la Uchida,

S.: and Fujita, S., Pressure Drop Through Dr

(Japan)

vol

37

1934 rm

owt,rs: ~oc. cnem. lnd

vo4I~ -.o~ y P

a

-

eked

Tmv,r~.t~, S;4,:md Uehlda, S., Pressure Drop Through Dr-

-~(,;--

."

~,oc. ~aem. ma. (Japan) vol

..

It'.

Thodos O'and

,-,amson

37 1934

791B

H'Ou~e~pp" .t

~9.4B. -

:~

Pa

-

eked -

.~tomontum Transfer m the Flow of Oases Through Granu|ar Solids:

Tr~m~: .~m. Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 39, 1943, Pl). 1-35

el, '" t. n$almers, ,l., Tafiaferro, D. B, and Rawlins, E. L.

~a:~ TiEqugh Porous 3fedia: Trims

A.m Inst

Flow of.

"

re, rrr{!, l)iv., vol. 98, 1932, pp. 375--40{i." .............

lt{in 'nna xr~+iirand

ng.,

;", ~'oOrkienit~'fd irJ footnote 5, p. 3.

-

Across Porous -XIedla: Compt. Rend., vol. 159, 1914, pp. 390, 519.

s

e.I.

,~l.

a

..

On the Theory of the Transmission of Oa

ses

D/D. and A~ is expressed graphicalh- as a flmction of

Bakhmeteff

and

Feodoroff ~0 defined /

the earlier convention

by

f _=2g~PD~

pLu °-

Ind. zg Chikon, Eng. Chem., T. ]:r., vol. and 23, Colburn, 19.31, pp. A. 913-931. P,, Pressure Drop in Packed Tubes:

:o Bakhmeteff, B. A., and Feodoroff, N. V.

Flow Through Gramflar

.'t[edia: .,Tour. Appl. ~[eeh., vol. 4, 1937, pp. A97-A104.

[

'~,

I

LITERATURE

SURVEY

but ,.,-,rrelated the values off they obtained for

the ratio of the surface of a sphere having the

~ as ttow tllrough beds of lead shot by plotting

same volume of the particle to the actual sur-

I

T,

~.

against

tained

Re and ~. For laminar flow, they ob-

face of the particle.

Zeisberg. ~ had published

pressure-drop data for varmus commerciM

.f=710/Re~ ~n

types

of pacldng.

Chilton ~

converted these

.)

 

i

data,

as

well as

the daa t

of White, •

~s

to values

 

and for turbulent flow

of friction factors for the various shapes for use

in

his previously published ~0 equation.

f=

24.2/( Re ) o.2 ~3.

Blake ~0 correlated dat~ on glass cylinders,

!

,

t

Raschig

rings, and crushed pumice by a~ linear

For viscous flow of gases and liquids through

plot on log-log coordh~ates of

2

J"

 

porous earbon, Hatfield ~1 found that. his friction

factors in the ilow range 10-~<Re<10 ~ could be

linearly cor,'elated with the Reynolds number

A p p(~3

LGsS

vs.

G

;,-~,

'

iti:

by detining

where S is the value of surfP, ce area of pacldng

f

APDvg~ ~

per unit volume of packed tube.

=

ff-d-£u

Kozeny ~1 showed that this value of S repre-

.

L.~,

sented a function of diameter and shape of

It

can be

seen

that

this definition is identical

the channel. He derived Blake's equation by

with that proposed by Chalmers et

a l? ~

.Meyer and Work .23 related the bed voidage

for a given packing to some value ~= repre-

senting the loosest packing possible for the

specitied material. They defined

assuming that the granular bed was equivalent

to a group of similar channels whose tota.1

internal surface and vohune were equal to the

particle surface and pore volume; that is, the

mean hyd[a.ulic radius of the channel was ~/S.

,

i i:{

d!i

D~=ZwiDi

Furnas ~" ~3 reported on the effect of a large

number of variables. However, he expressed

.

J

•,i'

 

J

and reported

his da~ta in the form

l

~P

K~t(67-8)

-=

A G ~,

where A and B were complex functions of par-

where K-----47.5 for crushed rock and

33.3

for

ticle size, bed porosity, and the gas properties

lead shot.

Happel '~ correlated f vs.

Re, where

~ was

a

function of the rdative',,1 solids volmne (i--~):

temperature, viscosity, density, and molecular

weight.

From their studies of spherical lead shot of

various sizes in various-diameter tubes, Burke

)

 

,,

f=

AP D~gep

LG~(1--8)

~

and Phnmner 3~ concluded that pressure drop

is u function of ~ modified Reynolds number

 

D~ wo~ defined as

Up ~-~, which is equivalent to

  • 1 GAy

GAy(I--8).

Ap

Kpu~S ['uS'h~-,,

i

j

.

:'

D~

{appe! )reported

that

for the laminar range

-103//e

(Re) r).<~.

and for the turbulent range.I=207/

where ~, is a, function of the Reynolds number.

Carman 3~ 3~ correlated the pressure-drop

data of other authors by the following dimen-

siona.lly homogeneous formula:

, ** i)., I

Just as porosity has been handled by various

n~ estlgators m various ways--including periods

Zc~sberg, F. C., The Resistance of Absorption Tower Packing to

 

-l'

 

i

 

of complete neglect--so ~{:as the shape of the

Pa~tit fl ' : h,

OW.

treated

,

-

as a factor hffluencing fluid

• In

1934, Wadell ~ defined a. shape factor for

Gas Flow: Trans, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 12, pt. II, 1919 pp. 231-237.

~; Chilton, T. H., The Scence of Petroleum: Oxford University Press,

London, 1938, pp. 2211-2222.

See work cited in footnote 10, p. 3.

s

~ See

work cited in footnote 19, p. 4.

~0 Blake, F. C., The Resistance of Packing to Fluid Flow: Trans. Am.

Inst. Chem. Eng

..

vol. 14. 1922, pp. 415-421.

,

 

i

i

"[!i

|t

,

 

'i% )

 

J

~eles falling freely through fluids as

st Kozeny, Y., Ber. WiSh. Akad., vol, 13.~a, 1927, pp. 271-278.

~

Furnas, C.

C., Grading Aggregates: Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. o.3, 1931,

Che.Ialfi"!'lo AI. R.,

Plum

Flow Tlm,ugh Porous Carbon: Ind.

Eng.

-a)":''-,- ')~et'llnfo,,)not~l().

,

',p. 4.

tac~'¢!~'-x,'r:.}% . G., and Work, L. T., Flow of Fluids Through Beds of

,. ~"~ ~')t~,~: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem

IleU.ll~.la~l~'l,J.,

Eng,

vol. 33, 1937

.13-33.

Pressure Drop Due to Vapor Flow ThrouPg~ -Afoving

pp~ 1052-1058.

Furnas, C. C., The Flow of Gases Through Beds of Broken Solids:

Through

Packed

Bureau of -Arines Tech. Paper 307, 1929, 144 pp.

~ Burke,

S.

P.,

and

Plummer,

W.

B.,

Gas Flow

Columns: Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 20, 1925, pp. 119g-1200.

~ Carman, P. C., The Determination of the Specific Surface of Pow-

ders.

I

and

II: Your• See. Chem.

Ind.

(London), vol. 57, 1938, pp. 225-

*.4'1,

 

:~ :%~-~:~';: 5!*g. Ch~sn., vol. 41, 1949, pp. 1161-1174.

lear

i~(J~;l).,3 "he t:oelllcient ofResistancefor SolidsofVariousShapes:

-.m~,mi *nst., vo]. 217, 1.~34, pp. 459-470.

234; vol. 58, 1939, pp.

1-7.

~ Carman, P. C., Fluid Flow Through Granular Beds: Trans. Inst.

Chem. Eng. (London), vol. 15, 1937, pp. 150-166.

,>t i

'" ~'i ]~

i

1

,

i

i

!

"o

i i

I ~

i

i

,

?,

FLUID

FLOW

TI-IROUGI-I PACKED

A_N'D FLUIDIZED

SYSTE3IS

--Zp---~'~l ~b

\p

l~/'

where SI=S+4/D, C-----a constant dependent

on particle shape.

For solid spheres and saddles, 0=0.4.

For ring packings

C= 1.0.

Hatch 37 developed a dimensionally homoge-

neous equation for pressure drop in pacl<ed

tubes which also applies to expanded beds of

sands (200-mesh to 20-mesh) undeF counter-

gravity flow of water.

T=E:

where

u-

t.~';,)

~

h

[=resistance/length of bed (no dimension)

k-----a coefficient

n=state

of flow

factor.

For laminar

flow, n=

1.

For

turbulent

/lo~%

Groan and Watson ~s correlated their pres-

sure-drop data in the turbulent flow range of

air flow through (dense and loose-packed) beds

of 0.267-inch celite c~linders, 0.385-inch clay

Raschig

rings,

0.5-inch

clay

Bed

saddles,

0.2166-inch

celite

spheres,

and

0.1875-inch

5[gO granules, in a 4-inch standard pipe, with

the following equation:

The

exponents,

n

and

m,

are

dependent oa

particle shape and bed porosity and are pre.

sented as experimentally derived curves.

Other references pertinent to the subject of

~ ""

....

fluid flow through packed beds may be f

the work of other

investigat(]rs.4~-~

~u

~a

Columns: Trans. Am. Inst

~Bartcll •

F

E

The

p"

4z Bath,

W.

k.,

and Hougen,

O.

Chem

.'.

Eng, vol

k.,

Flooding Velocities in Packed

40 , 1944

Pp. 29-49.

cyamde 5Iembranes: J'our ermcabihtv Ph~'s of Porcclam and Copper Pe

,

.,

Ca'era

vn!

1.x

,r~,,

.......

ITS.

42 Bartcll

F

E,

Pore Diameters ~¢7~':2.'Y

..

':

~'~' 1~;~. uP. oo~'-~74.

Chem., voi: 16, 1912, pp. 318-335.

~, ~amo~,v .,Lemoranes: J'our. Phys.

44 Bartell, p.

E., and

Ostcrhof, H. J'

The Pore Size of Compressed

..

Phys

"

Chem

",

vol

3"

~,~o

-, -~o, pp

1553-1558. Carbon and Silica hlembrancs. " J'our

"

PP. Reactor~ 713-730. , ofa Commerclal - " Hydroformer: " Chem •

45 Berg, C

Fawcett, p

N,

and Dhondt, R

O., Channehn

E

Eng. Prog, " ~gl ff3e.el~la

.

947,

B46 Cape ll, (]., Amero,.R

C., and ~[oore, 5. W., ,-\-e~ Data on Activated

vol

50 J'ul

1943

auxltc Jgesiccants: Chem. hIet. Eng

. ^~7^Donat, 5, The Porositv of Sand: ~V~ser'-kra'f~- ~'~'~'~_,~'PP:107-110.

~vz% pp. 225-2_'29.

-

.....

~ov~ tten, voI. 24,

'

4s Egolf, G. B., and hlcCabe, W. L., Rate of Sedimentation of Ploeeu.

lated Particles: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem

¢' Fair

~

"lnrough

1557.

, _ (3- •

1~I ~

and

~and: Jour

Hatch,

L.

P.,

.... Eng

The

vol

33 .,

19 37, pp 620-642

Am. Water Works Assoe, ' vol

.-

Streamhne Flow of Water

"5 , 1933, pp

~,

.....

.

.

Feuerungsteehnik, vol. 27 1939, pp. 33-4,].

6°Pehling,

R.,

Der

Striimtmgswiderstand Ruhender Sohiittangen.

;)'our. Geol., vol. 43, 1935, pp. 785-909.

s~ (]raton, L.

C., and Fraser, H. J'., Systematic Packing of Spheres:

~2 (]ivan, C. V., Flow of Water Through Granular *~Iaterials: Trans.

Am. (]eophys. "Union vol. 15, 1934, p. 57".

18~3. tlaneock, R

T., ]"nterstitial Plow: .'Xlin brag, vol

67

194°

pp

179-

'

u Heywood, H., Numerical Definitions of Particle Size and Shape:

Ap=2fLG~'_

S.

gcp~! .7

Their data covered a flo~r region of 20<Re~

1,200, where Re is defined as

G

S~

Bro~rnell

and

Katz ~9 correlated

pressure-

drop data of other investigators with their own

data on air flow through 65- to 80-mesh salt

beds by means of the following dimensionally

homogeneous equation:

 

~,p=

f Lu2p

.

2g~D,~'*

The

factor

'if"

may be obtained from

the

curves

of

5{oody 40 for

flow through

empty

pipes when the Reynolds number is defined as

*

7, 1934, pp. 339-354.

~4 Newton, R. H., Dunham,

O. S., and Simpson, T.

P., The T.

C. C.

:Process for blotor Gasoline Production: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng.,

vol. 41, 1945, DD. 215-232

~ Rose, H:E.,

The

"~'.aws of the Flow of Fluids Through

and (]ranular 154. ~raterials: Proc. Inst. 1W:eeh. Eng., vol. 153, 1945, pp.

:Beds of

141, 148,

•a Sau~ders, D. A., and Ford,

H.,

Heat Transfer in the Flow of Gas

Through 1940, up. 138-144. a :Bed of Solid Particles: Jour. Iron and Steel Inst., voL 141,

~ S~crwood, T. ~., Pressure Drop Through Packings. In Absorphon

pp. and 138-144. Extraction: ~IeOraw Hill Publ shing Go, ' Inc, "

~ew York, 1937,

~ 8chrievcr, W.,

:Passage of a

(]as-Free Liquid Through Spherical-

vol. 86, 1930, pP.

329-336. (]rained Sand: Trans. Am. Inst. hIin. and 5Iet. Eng.

._.__G.

Re=D~, ,uy'

ar Hatch, L. P., Flow of Fluids Through Granular ~aterials: Trans.

Am. Geophys. Union, vol. 24, 1943, pp. 537-547

.J~ Groan, O.A., and Watson, K. hi., Pressure Drop in Granular B

~.at:. I-'etrol. brews, vol. 36, 1944, pp. R795-802.

eds

:

Oso~:*,

:'

.'"

..

-

..

'

:

-,--'_~

"-- '

_~Tr_~m~er, p.~., ~d Dodge, B. F., Designof mbbou-Pa~kedEx-

augers: u;nem. Y.;ug. i'rog., voL 43 1947. pp. 75-84.

e'Size: Physics, vol. 7, 193¢,,'pp. 9-14

~Tr ~'ee~dman, J'. A., and Dodge, B.'F., Rectification of Liquid Air in a

x-~c~e~ ~o~umn: J.a~. ~ng

..

Chem., vol. 39, 1947, pp. 732-744.

.trans. Am. Lust. Chem• Eng., vol. 36, 1940. pp. 701-719.

~;a~Za

..

k-'h-ar.°v'~R"

~,a~

m

-- or~, ~. 'z., ann Konler, A. S., The Sedimentation of SuspensionS:

4- and Frost, .:.~. y., Pressure Drop Through GranUlar

kcad

ScI,

U

S

S.

14.,

~onrac~ ~'ac~:cu Tuoes" ~ull

Classc, Sci. Teeh., 1946, pp. 421-441.

"

1

~ I~

 

.

! ~:~t

~

 

LITE RATURE

SURVEY

7

 

FLUIDIZATION

 

Logwinuk ~s carried out an exienslve study

 
 

of fluid

and

heat flow in which air, carbon

Despite a numlwr of years of commercial ap-

dioxide,

and

helium were used to fluidize a

plication of fluidizatio~( techniques, no quanti-

variety of solids•

The

basic similarity be-

tative data appeared in the literature prior to

tween flow through fixed and fluidized beds was

 

.|

  • 1947. A nulnlwr of articles have appeared in which

stressed by Ergun and Orning, ~9 and ~ 2-term

 

dat~ correlation was proposed.

Lewis

et

al. 1

.~,.ious elualitative aspects of fluidizatiou are

investigated

both batch

and

continuous fluid-

 

i'~'~:l~s~ed: part ieularly as applicable to catalytic

ization

of glass spheres of various

sizes•

 

The

c-.~t.kin¢~ so-~,s and other functions in the pe-

Stormer viscosity of aerated beds was measured

 

troh, lnn industry .~

and analyzed by 5[atheson

.oet al.,

 

t

iii,

Kite and Roberts .7 discuss the application of

reported

on

the

use of stirrers

and

and Beck 3 baffles as

 

I

fluitlizlttion

to the process of calchmtion of lime-

aids to fluidization.

 

tit

stone.

By means of temperature lneasurements and

 
 

A

number

of

articles

have

appeared

on

tracer gas, Gillilaud and 5[ason ~ studied the

roeesses similar to fluidization,

such

as

the

mixinu and back mixing of both the solids and

~

ackwashing

of

water

filtration

sand

beds *s

gases ~n small-diametel: fluidized beds. 5[eiss-

and solids elutriation with liquids or gases, s9-93

ner and h[icldey ~ revealed that fluidized beds

 

Parent,

Yagol,

and

Steiner 94

discussed

 

possess ~ definite cap~city for filtering fine

 

?~

number of qualitative

aspects

of fluidization

mists and dusts.

 

desiun and reported that

)

the pressure drop

across a fluldlzed led was approximately equal to the weight of the solids per unit cross section

.

.

of the bed. Wilhehn

and Kwauk 9~ presented some fun-

danlental data that were subsequently discussed by 5terse? ~ The two papers are treated in

more detail in a subsequent sectionY

In

1948 and

1949, a number of papers ap-

peared on various restricted bu~ important

topics•

~ Thc,ma.% C. L., Auderson, N. K., Beeker, ~l'. A., and 5IcAfee, I.,

Crack ~ ~ with

t"P; :.',-~,2.

Wk.kham.

C lt:lvsts

Proe

Am. Petr~)l Inst.

vol.

24, see. 3

1943

It.

P

...

Xteehanism

of Flow in Fluid-Catalyst Cracking:

Pert,1. Rvfin, r v,d. 24. July 19t5, pp. 2:3-2;tL

tt Carlemith 'L

E

an 1 :[¢huson,

F.

B,

Pilot-Plant Development of

Fluid C~uahlic Cra(,k-ing: Ind. Eng. Chenl., eel. 37. 1945, pp. 451-455.

t~ .Murphr~,e E.V

..

,.t al

..

Improved Fluid Process for Catalytic Crack-

Ing:Tr;in¢

~m In~t

Chem. En%

v,,l. 41, 1945, pp. ]9-33.

a Tht,ni;~.~. C: I.J. :.n 1 Itr,ekst~a', J., Fluid zcd Fixed Bed: Ind

Eng.

CIlt,~t,. "col. :~7. 1:~3. lq*. 3;42-:-:34.

~t Murphre,,.

E.

V

..

G,dir. E. ft., and ]Caulakis.

A.

F.,

The

Fluids-

.olids Technique-- ~,l,l,]ieat~on~ in the Petroleum In,austry: Jour

..

tnsL

Petr,l., vol. 33, 1:,47. l, '. v~,:;-~:21).

t~ E~Io L G

..

Le 6• "uek uff Catalytique: Chimie

.

.

et Industrm, eel. 09,

194S, I)P. 121-127.

t' Kiw,

R.

P

..

and R(,bt,rts, E. ft.: Chem. Eng.,

vol. 54, .-'X'o.12, Dee.

1947, pp. 112-115.

~Slh~tch, L. P

..

Fh,w Tlmmgh Granular 51:edia: Trans. Am.

~oc.

Xfech. [.:n~:

..

vul. c2. lOl,.

pp

..

killS-All2.

t~.M:aHn, I'L, I{v~varehes ,)I1 the Theory of Free

.

.

Grinding: Trans.

Cera~iiie Foe

..

eel. 2,;. lq2d-7, pp. 21-33.

v Cr~mtl,. W., Pn,.mn;div Transport of Plants: Chem. Ind. (London),

eel. tt, 1,~25. pp. 2~ff'l'-xl3T.

*! B t'k ~. S. P. an 1 Plumnwr. "iX'. B, Suspension of-AIae~ooseopomPar-

tides i*t a Turbulent (.las ,~tl'eam: In,t. Eng. Chem., eel

..

0,

19_8, pp.

I "-O0-12~]4.

~Wadell,

~I-2,1.

lI.,

'

~

Se,linwntatmn Formula.:

Ph.vsic., re.

~

1

5,

1934

,

pp.

.~ C:~nq~. T. R., S,~,linwntation and Design of Settling Tanks: Prec.

Civil Fng

.,tln

..

%e.

~l l'~,,,llt,

.T.D

..

..

vol. 71, 1':45, pp. 445-45tL

Ya~:.l.N., and S~einer, C. S., Fluldlzulg Process:

Ch,.h~. Eu~. Pl,v

..

q',.~!:

eel. t3, 1947 I'P. 429-43tL

~s Wilh,.in~. R~ tI., :rod ICwauk.

hi

..

The Fluidiz~t on of Solid Par-

tleh.s: Ch,,m, Ettg. Pr-u

..

v~l. 44, 194~. pp. 201-218.

~ .M,,r~o. R

11

..

Fluidizadon of Granular Solids: Ind. Eng. Chem.,

~'o~. !1. I!,I!L I' ~. 1117-1121.

A

number

of additional papers ~-1~ have

appeared describing the application of fiuidiza-

tion to more processes, papers 1~-1~ have added

and ~ few other recen~

to the literature

on the

associated subjects of ~ttrition, erosion, and

solids flow.

9B Logwinuk, A. I~., Ph. ]9. Thesis: Case Institute of Teehnolo.~',

August 1945.

~SErgun,

S.,

and

Orning, k.

A., Fluid Flow Through Randomly

Packed Columns and Fluidized Beds: Ind. Eng. Chem., eel. il, 1949,

pp. 1179-1184.

1 Lewis, \V. K., Giniland, E. R., and Bauer, W. C., Characteristics of

:Fluidized Particles: Ind. Eng. Chem., eel. 41, 1949, pp. 1104-1117.

2 5fatheson, G. L

..

Herbst

W. A., and Holt, P. H., Charaete'istics of

:Fluid-Solid Systems Ind Eng. Chem., eel. 41, 1949, pp. 1099-1104.

Beck. R.

A

..

Evaluation of Fluid Catalyst.

Laboratory Scale: Ind.

:Eng. Chem., eel. 41, 1949. pp. 1242-1243.

Gilliland, E. R., and .Alison, E. A., Gas and Solid .AIixing in

Fluid-

ized Beds: Ind. Eng. Chem., eel. 41, 1949, pp. 1191-1196.

.AIeissner, H. P., and .-Xfwkley, H• S., Removal of .-XIists and Dusts

from Air b.v Beds of Fluidized Solids: Ind. Eng. Chem., eel. 41. 19-19,

pp. 1238-1242.

Nieholson

E. VV., .Afoise, Y. E., and ttardv, R. L., Fluidized-Solids

Pilot Plants: 'Ind. Eng. Chem.,

eel. 40, 194~, liP. 2033-.'2039

Lewis W. If., Gilliland, E. R., and Reed, W. A., Reaction of 5[eth-

ane with'Copper Oxide in a Fluidized Bed: Ind. Eng. Chem., eel. 41,

1949, pp• 1227-1~7.

Lewis W

K., Gilliland, E. R., and McBride, O. T., J'r., Gasification

of Carbon by Carbon Dioxide in a Fluidized Bed Ind. Eng. cncm.,

eel. 41, 1949, pp. 1213-1226.

Singh

&. D.

and I.:ane, L. $., Fluid Devolatilization of

Coal

for

Power-Pi'ant Pr:aetiee:

Trans. Am.

Soc

..

Xfech.

Eng.,

eel. 70, 1948, pp.

957-964.

~o Parry, V. F.,*Ooodman,

I.

B., and Wa-.ner, E.

0.,

i)ryiug Low-

Rank Coals in the Entrained and Fluidized State: .Alining Eng., eel. 1,

see. 3, April 1949,~)p. 95-95.

u Dimitri

5[

S

..

Tongedyk,

R.

P.

md

Low s

H. C., Distillation of

Fluidized Hftrd `iVo,d: Chem. Eu,.'., eel. 55, No. 12, 1948, pp. 124-125.

~o Wall,

C

..

1.,

and Ash, `iV. J., Fluid-Solid Air Sizer and

Dryer: Ind.

Eng. Chem., eel. 41, 1949. pp. 1247-1249.

~ Canadian Cl~cmieal Process Industries, Oil Recovery by Fluidi~a-

tion:

Vol.

33, No.

2. February 1919, p. 123.

~ Stoker, R. L., Erosion Due to Dust Particles in a Gas Stream: Ind.

Eng. Chem., eel.

41, 1949, pp. 1196-1199.

~ Forsvthe, W. L., Jr., and Hertwig, W. R., Attrition of Fluid Crack-

ing Catalysts: Ind. Eng. Chem., eel

41, 1949, pp. 1200-1206.

~ ~lbri;,ht, C. W., Holden, J. H., Simons, H. P., and Sehmidt, D. L.,

Pneumatic Feeder for Finely Divided Solids: Chem. Eng., eel. 56, No.

6, 1949, PI). 10S-lll.

n SchnaekY, .1. F., New Wa.v to Pressure-Seal Solids Flowing Through

a Continuous Process: Chem. Eng., eel. 55. No. S, 1948, pp. 124-126.

~i

t i~

i

I.'

• I%

(

Ib

°

.

',i ~

.:

°.

i"

i:i

,

ILL

I';.

t"

!.

[

:~,

PRESSURE DROP THROUGH PACKED TUBES, TURBULENT FLOW

1

!/, "ii '

b ~

!

qL

I

I

I

GENERAL CORRELATION

VARIABLES

Orienting experimental runs and a survey of the literature indicated that the nature of the pressure drop obtained in a packed tube is rather complex. The variables upon which the pressure drop depends may be considered under two general classifications, as follows:

A. Variables

the bed:

related

to

the

fluid

flowing

through

B.

1.

2.

3.

Weight rate of flow.

Density of fluid.

Viscosity of fluid.

Variables related to the nature of the bed:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Diameter of tube.

Diameter of packing.

Fraction of effective voids.

Shape of particle.

Surface roughness of particle.

Orientation of particles.

This study is concerned with the effect of all of the above variables with the exception of the orientation of the particles. Because, in most industrial applications, the beds are prepared simply by dumping the packing material into the tubes, little or no control can be exercised over arrangement of the particles; however, it

is believed that

the

configurations that

arise

from dumping are not sufflcientlv different fl'om ea('h other to affect results significantly.

The general plan followed in order "to arrive at a workable correlation was:

a.

Derivation of a working equation.

b.

particles.

Procurement

or experimental data

e.

Correlation of data.

with smooth

d.

Comparison

equation.

of

correlation

with

the

working

e.

Investigation of the

upon pressure drop.

effect of particle roughness

DERIVATION OF A WORKING EQUATION

packed

columns

and

fluidization

of

so;

particles suggested that equation (1) be modi~d

accorcha.g to the assumption of Fair and Hatcl~;

~tnus,

tile velocity through the voids can i)!

expressed by

"t~

..

where u is the average velocity of the fluidi

approaching the bed;

voids in the bed that

k~,

are

the "proportion of;' effective as far as!~

fluid flow through them is concerned; and 8, the

porosity ratio expressed as void volume p6r"

unit of packed tube volume.

Furthermore, assuming that the dimensions!

of the voids are of the same order of magnitude!,

as the particle diameter, then D~-~4r, where ~.~

By is a definition, modified hydraulic let radius of the interstieesl.

or

r~e

__

ffective

volume of the packing interstices

effective surface'~

of particles

]

ffpartiele shape'S-'

k

factor

)

":

,

-~

- ~) koxA'

(3i::

.:c

.

where A is the surface;

I~,

the volume of one ./

packing particle;

£.~, the

proportion

X, an

of the:

area:

'

effective area of the packing; and

volume shape factor to be defined later.

obtains By substituting

(2)

and

(3)

into

(1), one '.:

\p~-./

Substituting

AX/

(4)

'

i

: ..