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CHAPTER 4 : BASIC AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 1 CLIMATE, WATER, SOIL, and HUMAN RESOURCES 1.

1 : Climate Tropics -by high temperature & a lot of rainfall -allowing plants to grow -possible water + suitable temperatures = agriculture activities -Example : rubber, oil palm, cocoa, coconuts & sugercane Temperate -neither too warm or too cold -neither too wet nor too dry -the weather not extreme is very changeable -4 seasons :- warm summer/a cool winter/mild spring/autumn in between -usually planted in spring & harvested in summer (eg : maize & wheat) -vegetables can be grown continuously during the winter season under shelter (glass-houses) Tundra Deserts -very low temperatures & short growing season with little -landscape forms that receive very little precipitation of less water & sunshine than 250mm. -3 types of tundra :-arctic / Antarctic / alpine -vegetation :-exceedingly sparce -dominant vegetation :- grasses / mosses and litchens / crops -usually have an extreme diurnal temperature range / very high can hardly be grown in the day / extremely low at night - crops & livestocks :-if raised con only be done in -only with sufficient irrigation. restricted enclosure adequate water supply 1.2 Water -agricultural activity :- need water rain-fed / irrigated -water required seed germination & subsequent growth 1.3 Soil -important agriculture resource -soil plants obtain water + nutrients -rain water falls to the ground + soak up by the soil -nutrient dissolved in the water are taken up by plants -water moves from the roots to be distributed throughout the plant & then lost through the process of evapo-transpiration -plant growsleaves becomes senescent & drop to the ground become part of the soil to be available againcompleting the nutrient cycle. -soilsclassified into 12 orders based on their physical & chemical composition 1.4 Human Resource -agriculture cannot operate without workforce

-human labour is required for land preparation, planting, and harvesting -labour can be replaced with machines CHAPTER 4 : BASIC AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT TOPIC 2 ENVIRONMENT 2.1 Global Agroecological Zones -not all agricultural commodities can be produced in all regions in the world -due to varying soils and climatic conditions / specific sites suitable for only certain commodities/crops/animals 2.1.1 Tundra 2.1.2 Grasslands 2.1.3 Deserts 2.1.4 Tropics -very cold climate -American Prairies -very little precipitation -rain & sunshine all year round -low biotic diversity -Russian Steppes -extreme diurnal -rainforest -simple vegetation of mosses -African Savannah temperatures & grasses -Argentinian Pampas -barren -rubber/oil -dwarf trees -plants palm/cocoa/coconut & -low fertile land/mild breadfruit climate/field crops -African Sahara & Kalahari -China Gobi -such as : -Arabian soybean/wheat/maize/livestoc k 2.2 Impact of Climatic Changes 2.2.1 Global Warming 2.2.2 Desertification -extensive use :-fossil fuels power to industries & transportation release greenhouse gas carbon dioxide/nitrous oxide/methane Increased the world temperature & caused climatic instability Led to calamities like hurricanes/floods & droughts Melting of the polar ice caps causes inundation in the coastal regions & lowlands The rise of sea water level causes flooding & inundates & -expansion of desert areas due to climatic changescausing drought Agricultural mismanagement has resulted in less arable land available for agriculture

renders coastal agricultural lands less productive

2.3 Impact of Pollution 2.3.2 Heavy Metal -deleterious to human, animal, and plant health -industrialised countries polluting gasses sulphur dioxide & nitrogen oxides Intensive in industry & with automobiles acid rains Zinc / copper / lead most heavy metals It is defined as any type of precipitation with unusually low pH Could be bound to negative charges of some soil particles rendering them less soluble in water Acid rain has adverse impact on forest, fresh water & soil, killing off life forms & affecting crops and animal production Less particles rendering them less soluble in water This is less dangerous than the unbound soluble form which is easily transported and available to plants and animals Continuous use of fertilizer + contain heavy metals + such as cadmium + contained in phosphate rocks will pollute the soil and render the crops toxic. 2.4 Pesticides - use on vegetables as detected on Cameron Highlands causes undesirable health effects & reduces biodiversity 2.5 Nitrates -increase in use of chemical fertilizer & solid wastes from livestock industry results in higher levels of nitrates being washed from the soil into the water ecosystem -causes :- an excessive enrichment of the water (eutrophication) leading to rapid algal growth which in turn creates an oxygen deficit & killing off aquatic life. 2.3.1 Acid Rain