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Phase Shift Keying - PSK.

What is PSK
Phase shift keying (PSK) is a method of transmitting and receiving digital signals in which the phase of a transmitted signal is varied to convey information. The simplest from of PSK has only two phases, 0 and 1. It is therefore a type of ASK with with (t) taking the values -1 or 1, and its bandwidth is the same as that of ASK.The digital signal is broken up time wise into individual bits (binary digits). The state of each bit is determined according to the state of the preceding bit. If the phase of the wave does not change, then the signal state stays the same (low or high). If the phase of the wave changes by 180 degrees, that is, if the phase reverses, then the signal state changes (from low to high or from high to low) If the phase of the wave changes by 180 degrees, that is, if the phase reverses, then the signal state changes (from low to high or from high to low). Because there are two possible wave phases, this form of PSK is sometimes called bi-phase modulation. If two or more of the same logic level are received in secession the frequency will remain the same until the logic level changes. As illustrated below

Variants of PSK.
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK): Use alternative sine wave phase to encode bits Simple to implement, inefficient use of bandwidth

Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) demonstrates better performance than ASK and FSK. PSK can be expanded to a M-ary scheme, employing multiple phases and amplitudes as different states. Filtering can be employed to avoid spectral spreading.
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Variants of PSK. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK):


Multilevel modulation technique: 2 bits per symbol More spectrally efficient, more complex receiver

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is effectively two independent BPSK systems (I and Q), and therefore exhibits the same performance but twice the bandwidth efficiency. Output waveform is sum of modulated; Cosine and Sine wave.

Variants of QPSK

- Conventional QPSK has transitions through zero (i.e.. 180o phase transition). Highly linear amplifier required. - In Offset QPSK, the transitions on the I and Q channels are staggered. Phase transitions are therefore limited to 90o - /4-QPSK the set of constellation points are toggled each symbol, so transitions through zero cannot occur. This scheme produces the lowest envelope variations.
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Uses of PSK.
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) - BPSK is mainly used in deep space telemetry and also cable modems Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and it Variants - Satellites - CDMA, (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of several protocols used in so-called second-generation (2G) and thirdgeneration (3G) wireless communications. -TETRA, Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a set of standards developed by the European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute (ETSI) that describes a common mobile radio communications infrastructure throughout Europe This infrastructure is targeted primarily at the mobile radio needs of public safety groups (such as police and fire departments), utility companies, and other

enterprises that provide voice and data communications services. - PHS, (Personal Handy-phone System) Developed by the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, the Personal Handy-phone is a lightweight portable wireless telephone that functions as a cordless phone in the home and as a mobile phone elsewhere. The Personal Handy-phone also handles voice, fax, and video signals. The phone is now being marketed in other Asian countries. - LMDS, (Local Multipoint Distribution System) is a system for broadband microwave wireless transmission direct from a local antenna to homes and businesses within a line-of-sight radius, a solution to the so-called last-mile technology problem of economically bringing high-bandwidth services to users. LMDS is an alternative to installing optic-fibre all the way to the user or to adapting cable-TV for broadband Internet service