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THEORY of ARCHITECTURE

ESSENCE OF ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE & ARTS


Greek words ARCHI = first or original TECT = the ability to put things together

Sanskrit root
ARTS = everything in its right place

Analysis of a set of facts in relation to one another


Belief, policy or procedure proposed or followed as basis of action An ideal or hypothetical set of facts, principles or circumstances of a body of fact on science or art A plausible or scientifically accepted general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomenon

THEORY IN GENERAL

Forms/types of Theory

-Descriptive: Explains phenomenon or events; they re neutral and do not lean towards any ideology -Prescriptive: Prescribes bases or guidelines -Critical: Challenges relationships between architecture & society

THEORY IN GENERAL

Essence and Composition


A collection of thoughts, view, ideas Organized by theme or topic Evolution of thoughts There is not a grand theory or unified theory of architecture; it is a combination of various thoughts, speculations, concepts

ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

Form

In a conceptual form Needs to be translated From concepts to reality Discussed, tested, developed

ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

ESSENCE OF ARCHITECTURE
Architecture is the process that we instinctively recognize as the genius of

growth and creation


It gives form to the invisible pulses

and rhythm of life


The physical manifestation of the power is a consequence of the desire for the

invisible to be made visible

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS The Architecture of Space Structure Enclosure Movement in Space-time Organizational pattern, relationships,hierarchy Qualities of shape, color, texture,scale, proportion Qualities of surfaces, edges and openings Approach and entry Path configuration and access Sequence of spaces Light, view, touch, hearing and smell Structure and enclosure Environmental protection and comfort Health, safety and welfare Durability User requirements, needs, aspirations Socio-cultural factors Economic factors Legal restraints Historical tradition and precedents Site and environment Climate: sun, wind, temperature and precipitation Geography: soils, topography, vegetation and water Sensory and cultural characteristics of the place

Experienced through

Achieved by means of

Technology

Accommodating a

Program

Compatible with its

Context

SPATIAL SYSTEM

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

ENCLOSURE SYSTEM

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

CIRCULATION SYSTEM

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

CONTEXT

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

THE ARCHITECTURE OF: Space Structure Enclosure

Organizational pattern, relationships, hierarchy Qualities of shape, color, texture, scale, proportion Qualities of surfaces, edges and openings

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

EXPERIENCED THROUGH:
Movement in Spacetime

Approach and entry Path configuration and access


Sequence of spaces

Light, view, touch, hearing and smell

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

EXPERIENCED THROUGH:
Movement in Spacetime

Approach and entry Path configuration and access


Sequence of spaces

Light, view, touch, hearing and smell

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

ACHIEVED BY MEANS OF:


Technology

Structure and enclosure Environmental protection and comfort


Health, safety and welfare

Durability

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

User requirements, needs, aspirations ACCOMMODATING A: Program Socio-cultural factors


Economic factors

Legal restraints Historical tradition & precedents

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

Site and environment


COMPATIBLE WITH ITS:

Climate: sun, wind, temperature and precipitation Geography: soils, topography, vegetation and water
Sensory and cultural characteristics of the place

Context

ARCHITECTURAL SYSTEMS

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS Physical

Form and Space

Systems and Organizations of:

Solids and Voids Interior and Exterior

Perceptual

Sensory perception and recognition of the physical elements by experiencing them sequentially in time

Conceptual

Comprehension of the ordered and disordered relationships among a buildings elements and systems and responding to the meanings they evoke

Space Structure Enclosure Machines Approach and Departure Entry and Egress Movement through the order of spaces Functioning of and activities within spaces Qualities of light, color, texture, view and sound Images Patterns Signs Symbols Context (Space, Form, Function, Technics)

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

FORM & SPACE

SYSTEMS & ORGANIZATIONS OF

Solids &Voids

Space Structure Enclosure Machines

Physical

Interior & Exterior

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

FORM & SPACE

SYSTEMS & ORGANIZATIONS OF

Perceptual

Sensory perception & recognition of the physical elements by experiencing them sequentially in time

Approach & Departure Entry & Egress Movement through the order of spaces

Functioning of activities within spaces


Qualities of light, color, texture, view & sound

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

FORM & SPACE

SYSTEMS & ORGANIZATIONS OF

Perceptual

Sensory perception & recognition of the physical elements by experiencing them sequentially in time

Approach & Departure Entry & Egress Movement through the order of spaces

Functioning of activities within spaces


Qualities of light, color, texture, view & sound

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

FORM & SPACE Comprehension of the ordered and disordered relationships among a buildings elements and systems and responding to the meanings they evoke

SYSTEMS & ORGANIZATIONS OF

Images Patterns Signs Symbols

Conceptual

Context (space,form, function,techniques)

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

FORM & SPACE Comprehension of the ordered and disordered relationships among a buildings elements and systems and responding to the meanings they evoke

SYSTEMS & ORGANIZATIONS OF

Images Patterns Signs Symbols

Conceptual

Context (space,form, function,techniques)

ARCHITECTURAL ORDERS

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

POINT
The two ends of a line The intersection of two lines The meeting of lines at the corner of a plane or volume The center of a field

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

LINE
A point extended becomes a line with properties of: Length Direction Position

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

PLANE
A line extended becomes a plane with properties of: Length and width Shape Surface Orientation Position

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

VOLUME
A plane extended becomes a volume with properties of: Length, width, depth Form and space Surface Orientation Position

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN

ARCHITECTURAL FORM is the point of contact between mass and space


Properties of Form:
Shape Size Color Texture Position Orientation Visual Inertia

FORM

SPACE DEFINITION

SPACE DEFINITION

SPACE DEFINITION

SPACE DEFINITION

Dimensional Transformation
a form can be transformed by altering one or more of its dimensions and still retain its identity as a member of a family of forms. A cube, for example, can be transformed into similar prismatic forms through discrete changes in height, length or width.

FORM TRANSFORMTION

Subtractive Transformation:
a form can be transformed by subtracting a portion of its volume. Depending on the extent of the subtractive process, the form can still retain its initial identity or be transformed into a form of another family.

FORM TRANSFORMATION

Additive Transformation:
a form can be transformed by the addition of elements to its volume. The nature of the additive process and the number and relative sizes of the elements being attached determine whether the identity of the initial form is altered or retained.

FORM TRANSFORMATION

SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Space within a Space Interlocking Spaces Adjacent Spaces Spaces linked by a Common Space

FORM AND SPACE

SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Space within a Space Interlocking Spaces Adjacent Spaces Spaces linked by a Common Space

FORM AND SPACE

SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Space within a Space Interlocking Spaces Adjacent Spaces Spaces linked by a Common Space

FORM AND SPACE

Centralized Organization:
a number of secondary forms clustered about a dominant, central parent-form

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Linear Organization:

a series of forms arranged sequentially in a row

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Radial Organization:
a composition of linear forms extending outward from a central form in a radial manner

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Radial Organization:
a composition of linear forms extending outward from a central form in a radial manner

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Clustered Organization:
a collection of forms grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Clustered Organization:
a collection of forms grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait. SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Grid Organization:
a set of modular forms related and regulated by a three-dimensional grid

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION

Approach:
the distant view; the first phase of the circulation system during which we are prepared to see, experience and use the building

ELEMENTS OF CIRCULATION

Entrance:
from outside to inside; may be flushed, projected or recessed

ELEMENTS OF CIRCULATION

Configuration of Path:
the sequence of spaces ; can be linear, radial, spiral, grid, network or composite

ELEMENTS OF CIRCULATION

sm:

Anthropocentri

the human being is the most important entity in the universe. The world is perceived according to the values and experiences of the human being.

SPATIAL THEORIES

m:

Anthropomorphis

human qualities are associated with non-human entities/ events. Qualities such as form, values and emotions.

SPATIAL THEORIES

ics:

Anthropometr

study of measurements of the human body

SPATIAL THEORIES

Ergonomics:
an applied science concerned with the of characteristics of people that need to be considered in the design of devices and systems in order that people and things will interact effectively and safely.

SPATIAL THEORIES

Proxemics:
The study of the symbolic and communicative role of the spatial separation individuals maintain in various social and interpersonal situations, and how the nature and degree of this spatial arrangement relates to environmental and cultural factors.

SPATIAL THEORIES

Spatial illusions through:


Changes in levels Bringing outside in Borrowing views Use of glass and light materials Multiplicity of functions Two-dimensional treatments Use of color

SPATIAL THEORIES

Spatial illusions through:


Changes in levels Bringing outside in Borrowing views Use of glass and light materials Multiplicity of functions Two-dimensional treatments Use of color

SPATIAL THEORIES

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