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Organizational Behavior Theoretical Frameworks

Organizational Behavior Article Series Cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill aspects of human behavior and uses concepts such as expectancy, demand, and intention. Behaviorist approach is environmentally based. Social cognitive theory recognizes the importance of behaviorisms contingent environmental consequences, but also includes cognitive processes of self regulation. Contents     
Theoretical Frameworks or Perspectives in Psychology Cognitive Framework Behavioristic Framework Social Cognitive Framework Knol Directory - Main Categories LinkCitationEmailPrint FavoriteCollect this page

Theoretical Frameworks or Perspectives in Psychology


Initially psychology was developed using the mental thinking expressed by persons interested in developing the subject of psychology. But John B. Watson differed from that approach and he pioneered the approach in which visible behavior and visible environmental stimulus became the subject of study. B.F. Skinner developed this behavioristic framework further by bringing in the contingent environmental consequences. Behavior is not the outcome of stimulus alone, but it is an outcome determined by the stimulus as well as the contingent environmental consequences of a behavior. This means, there are alternative behaviors for the same stimulus and which behavior is exhibited by a person depends on expected environmental consequences.

Cognitive perspective on psychology have developed by arguing that human beings are capable of thinking and concepts related to thinking must be brought into the subject of psychology whose objective is to explain behavior. Even though, one cannot see or observe thinking, still developing concepts related to thinking and using the concepts to explain behavior is required in psychology. Even though one cannot see or observe gravitation, the concept of gravitation is a useful concept in physics. Similarly, concepts related to thinking or cognition are to be developed and used in psychology was the argument of propopents of congitive approach to psychology.

The perspectives in psychology have influenced the development of organizational behavior.

Cognitive Framework
Cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill aspects of human behavior and uses concepts such as expectancy, demand, and intention. Cognition can be simply defined as the act of knowing an item of information. In cognitive framework, cognitions precede behavior and constitute input into the persons thinking, perception, problem solving, and information processing. The work of Edward Tolman can be used to represent the cognitive theoretical approach. According to Tolman, learning consists of the expectancy that a particular event will lead to a particular consequence. This cognitive concept of expectancy implies that organism is thinking about, or is conscious or aware of the goal and result of a behavior exhibited by it. It means that a person desires a goal and also knows the behavior that will lead to achievement of the goals. In the subject of organizational behavior, cognitive approach dominates the units of analysis such as perception, personality and attitudes, motivation, behavioral decision making and goal setting.

Behavioristic Framework
Pioneer behaviorists Ivan Pavlov and Jon B. Watson stressed the importance of studying observable behaviors instead of the elusive mind. They advocated that behavior could be best understood in terms of stimulus and response (S-R). They examined the impact of stimulus and felt that learning occurred when the S-R connection was made. Modern behaviorism, that marks its beginning with B.F. Skinner, advocates that behavior in response to a stimulus is contingent on environmental consequences. Thus, it is important to note that behaviortistic approach is based on observable behavior and environmental variables (which are also observable).

Social Cognitive Framework


Social learning theory takes the position that behavior can best be explained in terms of a continuous reciprocal interaction among cognitive, behavioral, and environmental determinants. The person and the environmental situation do not function as independent units but, in conjunction with behavior itself, reciprocally interact to determine behavior. It means that cognitive variables and environmental variables are relevant, but the experiences generated by previous behavior also partly determine what a person

becomes and can do, which, in turn, affects subsequently behavior. A persons cognition or understanding changes according to the experience of consequences of past behavior.

Bandura developed social learning theory into the more comprehensive social cognitive theory (SCT). Stajkovic and Luthans have translated this SCT into the theoretical framework for organizational behavior. Social cognitive theory recognizes the importance of behaviorisms contingent environmental consequences, but also includes cognitive processes of self regulation. The social part acknowledges the social origins of much of human thought and action (what individual learns from society), whereas the cognitive portion recognizes the influential contribution of thought processes to human motivation, attitudes, and action. In social cognitive theoretical framework, organizational participants are at the same time both products and producers of their personality, respective environments, and behaviors. The participants as a group of produce the environment, every individual is a product of the enironment and through his behavior changes the environment for others as well as for himself, every individual is a product of his personality, but also influences his personality as consequence of results of his behavior.

Bandura identified five basic human capabilities as a part of SCT.

1. 2. 3.

Symbolizing: People process visual experiences into cognitive models. They help in future action. Forethought: Employees plan their actions. Observational: Employees learn by observing the performance of the referent group (peers, supervisors

and high performers) and the consequences of their actions. 4. Self-regulatory: Employees self regulate their actions by setting internal standards (aspired level of

performance). 5. Self-reflective: Employees reflect back on their actions (how did I do?) and perceptually determine how

they believe then can successfully accomplish the task in the future given the context (probability of success between 0 to 100% is estimated)

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The cognitive approach to human behavior has many sources of input. However, than the other said simply that the cognitive approach gives people more credit than the other approaches. The cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill aspect of human behavior and uses concepts such as expectancy, demand, and intention. Cognitive, which is the basic unit of the cognitive framework, can be defined as the act of knowing an item of information. Under this framework, cognitions precede behavior and constitute input into the person's thinking,

perception, problem solving, and information processing. Concepts such as cognitive maps can be used as pictures or visual aids in comprehending a person understands of particular, and selective, elements of the thoughts of an individual, group or organization. Although dolman believed behavior to be the appropriate unit of analysis, he felt that behavior is purposive, that it is directed toward a goal. In his laboratory experiments, he found that animals learned to expect that certain events follow one another. For example, animals learned to behave as if they expect food when a certain cue appeared. Thus, dolman believed that learning consists of the expectancy that a particular event will lead to a particular consequence. This cognitive concept of expectancy implies that the organism is thinking about, or is conscious or aware of, the goal. Anonymous

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Give Examples Of How Cognitive-social Approaches To Learning Have Modified Or Could Modify Curricula Or Teaching Methods In Schools?
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Full Syllabus Coverage on Video Study Anywhere, Anytime. Apply! Observational learning is defined as learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model. (Feldman, 2009 p. 201) Observational learning is most commonly known as a social cognitive approach to learning. (Feldman, 2009 p. 201) Social cognitive approaches have influenced schools and the learning process by allowing students to imitate what theyve observed in their learning environment and by their educators. An example of how social cognitive approaches have modified a schools curricula is technical schools. While students attend a technical school they are taught by both classroom and hands-on learning settings. During the hands-on learning process, students first observe their instructor perform the task(s) and afterwards they perform the task(s), imitating what they observed. Another example of how social cognitive approaches are present in school curricula is the awarding of rewards for good behavior and academic achievements. In kindergarten, children are rewarded with gold stars (or something similar) when they share, listen to the teacher, or help another classmate. When a child observes another child being rewarded for a certain behavior the child will imitate the behavior. When students are in high school and college theyre rewarded for academic achievements. Certificates of recognition, trophies forscience projects are just some examples of how young adults and adults are

rewarded. The observation and imitation of this behavior by the peers of those receiving the rewards is how social cognitive approaches are present in schools curricula and teaching methods.Anonymous
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Work
Edward Tolman proposed a consideration of behavior that was "molar," as opposed to "molecular." Tolman viewed molar behavior as an act defining the proper level for psychological study, without regard to underlying molecular elements of neural, muscular, or glandular levels of study. For Tolman, the molar level of behavior is more than the sum of the molecular elements. By adhering to the molar level of humanbehavior, Tolman argued that reductionism results in the loss of the purely psychological level, and explanations based on molecular components were not adequate.

Cognitive Behaviorism
Although Edward Tolman was a firm behaviorist in his methodology, he was not a radical behaviorist like B. F. Skinner. On the one hand, Edward Tolmans theory helped the scheme of Watsonian behaviorism evolve further. On the other hand, Tolman used Gestalt to describe the nature of holistic, insightful learning experiences, i.e., Tolmans view of psychology heavily relies on premises of Gestalt psychologists. As the title of his major book (Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men) indicated, Edward Tolman wanted to use behavioral methods to gain an understanding of the mental processes of humans and other animals. In his studies of learning in rats, Tolman sought to demonstrate that animals could learn facts about the world that they could subsequently use in a flexible manner, rather than simply learning automatic responses that were triggered off by environmental stimuli. In the language of the time, Tolman was an "S-S" (stimulus-stimulus), non-reinforcement theorist: he drew on Gestalt psychology to argue that animals could learn the connections between stimuli and did not need any explicit biologically significant event to make learning occur. The rival theory, the much more mechanistic "S-R" (stimulus-response) reinforcement-driven view, was taken up by Clark L. Hull. Tolmans theoretical orientation was not as systematic in approach as that of Hull. However, his criticism of the reduction of psychological events to the mechanical elements of stimulus and response, he caused many researchers of the Hullian orientation to pause and modify their views. Tolmans laws of acquisition essentially focused on practice that builds up sign gestalts, or experiences, consistent with the goal object of learning.

A key paper by Tolman, Ritchie and Kalish in 1946 demonstrated that rats that had explored a maze that contained food while they were not hungry were able to run it correctly on the first trial when they entered it having now been made hungry, supporting Tolman's view that learning did not require reward. However, Hull and his followers were able to produce alternative explanations of Tolman's findings, and the debate between S-S and S-R learning theories became increasingly convoluted and sterile. Skinner's iconoclastic paper of 1950, entitled "Are theories of learning necessary?" persuaded many psychologists interested in animal learning that it was more productive to focus on the behavior itself rather than using it to make hypotheses about mental states. The influence of Tolman's ideas declined rapidly in the later 1950s and 1960s. However, his achievements had been considerable. His 1938 and 1955 papers, produced to answer Hull's charge that he left the rat "buried in thought" in the maze, unable to respond, anticipated and prepared the ground for much later work in cognitive psychology, as psychologists began to discover and apply decision theory a stream of work that was recognized by the award of a Nobel prize to Daniel Kahneman in 2002. And his 1948 paper introduced the concept of the cognitive map, which has found extensive application in almost every field of psychology, frequently among scientists who have no idea that they are using ideas first formulated to explain the behavior of rats in mazes.

Cognitive Maps
"Cognitive maps," mental maps, mind maps, cognitive models, or mental models are a type of mental processing, or cognition, composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. Tolman (1948) is generally credited with the introduction of the term "cognitive map." Here, cognition can be used to refer to the mental models, or belief systems, that people use to perceive, contextualize, simplify, and make sense of otherwise complex problems. Cognitive maps have been studied in various fields of science, such as psychology, planning, geography, and management. As a consequence, these mental models are often referred to, variously, as cognitive maps, scripts, schemata, and frames of reference. Put more simply, according to Tolman, cognitive maps are a way we use to structure and store spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, and enhance recall and learning of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for nonspatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving memory and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task.

Criticism
Tolman was often criticized for lack of specific explanations of the central mediation of cognitive learning. Howerver, he assimilated into behaviorism a new perspective that departed from the

sterile reductionism of the molecular Watsonian approach. Moreover, his repeated demonstration of performance versus learning differences clearly showed that the latter intervening variable was not reducible simply to stimulus-response-reinforcement elements. If he failed to offer a more comprehensive explanation, he nevertheless succeeded in justifying the integrity of the molar behavioral level and stimulated inquiry. Ccccccccccccccccccccccc

Organizational studies, sometimes known as organizational science, encompass the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. Organizational studies sometimes is considered a sister field for, or overarching designation that includes, the following disciplines: industrial and organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, and management. However, there is no universally accepted classification system for such subfields.
Contents
[hide]

1 Overview 2 History

2.1 Current state of the field

3 Methods used in organizational studies 4 Systems framework 5 Theories and models 6 Managerial roles[5]

6.1 Theories of decision making can be subdivided into three categories

7 Organization-focused journals 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

[edit]Overview Organizational studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods, and levels of analysis. For instance, one textbook[1] divides these multiple viewpoints into three perspectives: modern, symbolic, and postmodern. Another traditional distinction, present especially in American academia, is between the study of "micro" organizational behaviour which refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting and "macro" strategic management and organizational

theory which studies whole organizations and industries, how they adapt, and the strategies, structures and contingencies that guide them. To this distinction, some scholars have added an interest in "meso" scale structures - power, culture, and the networks of individuals and units in organizations and "field" level analysis which study how whole populations of organizations interact. Whenever people interact in organizations, many factors come into play. Modern organizational studies attempt to understand and model these factors. Like all modernist social sciences, organizational studies seek to control, predict, and explain. There is some controversy over the ethics of controlling workers' behavior, as well as the manner in which workers are treated (see Taylor's scientific management approach compared to the human relations movement of the 1940s). As such, organizational behaviour or OB (and its cousin, Industrial psychology) have at times been accused of being the scientific tool of the powerful.[citation
needed]

Those accusations notwithstanding, OB can play a major role in organizational

development, enhancing organizational performance, as well as individual and group performance/satisfaction/commitment. One of the main goals of organizational theorists is, according to Simms (1994) "to revitalize organizational theory and develop a better conceptualization of organizational life."[2] An organizational theorist should carefully consider levels assumptions being made in theory,[3] and is concerned to help managers and administrators.[4] [edit]History

Kurt Lewin attended theMacy conferences and is commonly identified as the founder of the movement to study groups scientifically.

The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership. Aristotle addressed the topic of persuasive communication. The writings of 16th century Italian philosopher Niccol Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary work on organizational power and politics. In 1776, Adam Smithadvocated a new form of organizational structure based on the division of labour. One hundred years later, German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership. Soon after, Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees. In the 1920s, Australian-born Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant in the United States. Though it traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier, organizational studies is generally considered to have begun as an academic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890s, with Taylorism representing the peak of this movement. Proponents of scientific management held that rationalizing the organization with precise sets of instructions and time-motion studies would lead to increased productivity. Studies of differentcompensation systems were carried out. After the First World War, the focus of organizational studies shifted to analysis of how human factors and psychology affected organizations, a transformation propelled by the identification of the Hawthorne Effect. This Human Relations Movement focused on teams, motivation, and the actualization of the goals of individuals within organizations. Prominent early scholars included Chester Barnard, Henri Fayol, Frederick Herzberg, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, and Victor Vroom. The Second World War further shifted the field, as the invention of large-scale logistics and operations research led to a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study of organizations. Interest grew in theory and methods native to the sciences, including systems theory, the study of organizations with a complexity theory perspective and complexity strategy. Influential work was done by Herbert Alexander Simon and James G. March and the so-called "Carnegie School" of organizational behavior. In the 1960s and 1970s, the field was strongly influenced by social psychology and the emphasis in academic study was on quantitative research. An explosion of theorizing, much of it at Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon, produced Bounded Rationality, Informal Organization, Contingency Theory, Resource Dependence, Institutional Theory, and Organizational Ecology theories, among many others. Starting in the 1980s, cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable, informed byanthropology, psychology and sociology. A leading scholar was Karl Weick.

Elton Mayo Elton Mayo, an Australian national, headed the Hawthorne Studies at Harvard. In his classic writing in 1931, Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, he advised managers to deal with emotional needs of employees at work. Mary Parker Follett Mary Parker Follett was a pioneer management consultant in the industrial world. As a writer, she provided analyses on workers as having complex combinations of attitude, beliefs, and needs. She told managers to motivate employees on their job performance, a "pull" rather than a "push" strategy. Douglas McGregor Douglas McGregor proposed two theories/assumptions, which are very nearly the opposite of each other, about human nature based on his experience as a management consultant. His first theory was "Theory X", which is pessimistic and negative; and according to McGregor it is how managers traditionally perceive their workers. Then, in order to help managers replace that theory/assumption, he gave "Theory Y" which takes a more modern and positive approach. He believed that managers could achieve more if they start perceiving their employees as self-energized, committed, responsible and creative beings. By means of his Theory Y, he in fact challenged the traditional theorists to adopt a developmental approach to their employees. He also wrote a book, The Human Side of Enterprise, in 1960; this book has become a foundation for the modern view of employees at work. [edit]Current

state of the field

Organizational behaviour is currently a growing field. Organizational studies departments generally form part of business schools, although many universities also have industrial psychology and industrial economics programs. The field is highly influential in the business world with practitioners like Peter Drucker and Peter Senge, who turned the academic research into business practices. Organizational behaviour is becoming more important in the global economy as people with diverse backgrounds and cultural values have to work together effectively and efficiently. It is also under increasing criticism as a field for its ethnocentric and pro-capitalist assumptions (see Critical Management Studies). During the last 20 years organizational behavior study and practice has developed and expanded through creating integrations with other domains:  Anthropology became an interesting prism to understanding firms as communities, by introducing concepts like Organizational culture, 'organizational rituals' and 'symbolic acts' enabling new ways to understand organizations as communities.

Leadership Understanding: the crucial role of leadership at various level of an organization in the process of change management.

Ethics and their importance as pillars of any vision and one of the most important driving forces in an organization.

[edit]Methods

used in organizational studies

A variety of methods are used in organizational studies. They include quantitative methods found in other social sciences such as multiple regression, non-parametric statistics, time series analysis, Metaanalysis and ANOVA. In addition, computer simulation in organizational studies has a long history in organizational studies. Qualitative methods are also used, such as ethnography, which involves direct participant observation, single and multiple case analysis, grounded theory approaches, and other historical methods. [edit]Systems

framework

The systems framework is also fundamental to organizational theory as organizations are complex dynamic goal-oriented processes. One of the early thinkers in the field was Alexander Bogdanov, who developed his Tectology, a theory widely considered a precursor of Bertalanffy's General Systems Theory, aiming to model and design human organizations. Kurt Lewinwas particularly influential in developing the systems perspective within organizational theory and coined the term "systems of ideology", from his frustration with behavioural psychologies that became an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology (see Ash 1992: 198-207). The complexity theory perspective on organizations is another systems view of organizations. The systems approach to organizations relies heavily upon achieving negative entropy through openness and feedback. A systemic view on organizations is transdisciplinary and integrative. In other words, it transcends the perspectives of individual disciplines, integrating them on the basis of a common "code", or more exactly, on the basis of the formal apparatus provided by systems theory. The systems approach gives primacy to the interrelationships, not to the elements of the system. It is from these dynamic interrelationships that new properties of the system emerge. In recent years, systems thinking has been developed to provide techniques for studying systems in holistic ways to supplement traditionalreductionistic methods. In this more recent tradition, systems theory in organizational studies is considered by some as a humanistic extension of the natural sciences. [edit]Theories Decision making

and models

Mintzberg's managerial roles [5] [edit]Managerial roles  In the late 1960's Henry Mintzberg, a graduate student at MIT undertook a careful study of five executives to determice what those managers did on their jobs.. On the basis of his observations, Mintzberg classifies managerial roles into 3 categories 1. Interpersonal Roles 2. Decisional Roles 3. Informational Roles

  

Rational Decision-Making Model Scientific management Garbage can model

[edit]Theories of decision making can be subdivided into three categories


   Normative (concentrates on how decision should be made) Descriptive (concerned with how the thinker came up with their judgement) Prescripted (aim to improve decision making)

Organization structures and dynamics  Incentive theory is a concept of human resources or management theory. In the corporate sense, it states that firm owners should structure employee compensation in such a way that the employees' goals are aligned with owners' goals. As it applies to the operations of firms, it is more accurately called the principal-agent problem.             Bureaucracy Complexity theory and organizations Contingency theory Evolutionary Theory and organizations Hybrid organisation Informal Organization Institutional theory Merger integration Organizational ecology Model of Organizational Citizenship behaviour Model of organizational justice Model of Organizational Misbehaviour
[citation needed]

   

Resource dependence theory Transaction cost Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Cultures Mintzberg's Organigraph

Personality traits theories     Big Five personality traits Holland's Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument

organizational behavior
Definition
Actions and attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and toward the organization as a whole, and itseffect on the organization's functioning and performance.

What is the Definition of Organizational Behavior? Organizational behavior includes a very wide selection of topics. It deals with human behavior in the organization. This includes the study of people and how they behave within the organization. Topics such as change, leadership, teams and behavior are just a few. It is a systematic study of the behavior of individuals and groups within an organization.

Definition of organizational behavior: It deals with all aspects of human behavior that occur within the context of an organization. It entails the study of how individuals behave as individuals and in groups within an organization. The definition of organizational behavior also states that it is the study and

application of sociology, psychology, communication and management of the individuals in an organization. Organizational behavior and employee behavior modification encompasses four models that most organizations work out of.
1. Custodial is based on the economic resources with orientation of money. All employees are aimed at security, benefits and dependency upon the organization. Passive cooperation is the intended result. 2. Supportive models are based upon leadership with orientation towards management of support. Status and employee recognition are the basic needs that are met with the supportive model. 3. Autocratic model is power. It is a managerial orientation of authority. This tends to have the employee lean towards dependence on the manager and obedience. The result of this model is minimal. The need that is met is subsistence. 4. Collegial modes is partnership with the orientation towards teamwork. Selfdiscipline and behavior are the goals of this type of model. It will usually result in some moderate enthusiasm.

It is unlikely that any organization will operate entirely in just one of these models. In most cases there is a predominant model with some areas overlapping. Some of these contexts are public and mass communication, two person and small group communication. The needs of the company will usually determine the model they choose to use. See employee retention tips. By applying the psychological principles of experimental analysis behavior and applied behavior analysis to organizations, it is hoped to achieve worker benefits and safety and employee retention. Some areas of this application include management, training, systems analysis and performance improvement. The goal is to establish broad scale performance improvement and organizational change in order to increase productivity and contentment which hopefully will gain a more effective and efficient operation. Performance management and behavioral systems management are two of the technologies used in organizational behavioral management. Behavior based safety is also used. With the nature of the field involved in business it is related to both industrial engineering and psychology.

Organizational communication

There is an overlap between organizational communication and other contexts such as two person, small group, public and mass communication. All of these four types of communication are used in communication within an organization. Click on these links for more information related to the definition of organizational behavior:
y y y y y y y y y y

Grapevine communication Types workplace communication Types communication medium Definition of communication Definition of interpersonal communication Social marketing definition Transformational and transactional leadership Examples non verbal communication Nonverbal communication articles Definition of organizational behavior

Management of organizational behavior


There are many interesting organizational behavior books that give detailed information on this topic. They give detailed research on concepts of organizational behavior, models of organizational behavior, organizational behavior theory, organizational behavior terminology and concepts, organizational behavior trends. The essentials of organizational behavior are outlined in various articles on organizational behavior. Each organizational behavior article offers different ideas and techniques that can be used. Organizational behavior studies use the study of organizations from various viewpoints, levels and methods of analysis. Individual and group dynamics are taken into consideration to obtain adequate analysis of conditions within the corporation. Achieving a smooth, well oiled organization may well be achieved by a thorough study of the organizational behavior. It can assist management in

the fine tuning job performance on an individual or team level. Without a knowledge of the high points and shortcomings of an organization it is extremely difficult to make change.

Read

more: http://www.workplace-communication.com/definition-organizational-

behavior.html#ixzz1JheWVnF3

What is the Definition of Organizational Behavior? Organizational behavior includes a very wide selection of topics. It deals with human behavior in the organization. This includes the study of people and how they behave within the organization. Topics such as change, leadership, teams and behavior are just a few. It is a systematic study of the behavior of individuals and groups within an organization.

Definition of organizational behavior: It deals with all aspects of human behavior that occur within the context of an organization. It entails the study of how individuals behave as individuals and in groups within an organization. The definition of organizational behavior also states that it is the study and application of sociology, psychology, communication and management of the individuals in an organization. Organizational behavior and employee behavior modification encompasses four models that most organizations work out of.
1. Custodial is based on the economic resources with orientation of money. All employees are aimed at security, benefits and dependency upon the organization. Passive cooperation is the intended result. 2. Supportive models are based upon leadership with orientation towards management of support. Status and employee recognition are the basic needs that are met with the supportive model. 3. Autocratic model is power. It is a managerial orientation of authority. This tends to have the employee lean towards dependence on the manager and obedience. The result of this model is minimal. The need that is met is subsistence.

4. Collegial modes is partnership with the orientation towards teamwork. Selfdiscipline and behavior are the goals of this type of model. It will usually result in some moderate enthusiasm.

It is unlikely that any organization will operate entirely in just one of these models. In most cases there is a predominant model with some areas overlapping. Some of these contexts are public and mass communication, two person and small group communication. The needs of the company will usually determine the model they choose to use. See employee retention tips. By applying the psychological principles of experimental analysis behavior and applied behavior analysis to organizations, it is hoped to achieve worker benefits and safety and employee retention. Some areas of this application include management, training, systems analysis and performance improvement. The goal is to establish broad scale performance improvement and organizational change in order to increase productivity and contentment which hopefully will gain a more effective and efficient operation. Performance management and behavioral systems management are two of the technologies used in organizational behavioral management. Behavior based safety is also used. With the nature of the field involved in business it is related to both industrial engineering and psychology.

Organizational communication
There is an overlap between organizational communication and other contexts such as two person, small group, public and mass communication. All of these four types of communication are used in communication within an organization. Click on these links for more information related to the definition of organizational behavior:
y y y y y y y

Grapevine communication Types workplace communication Types communication medium Definition of communication Definition of interpersonal communication Social marketing definition Transformational and transactional leadership

y y y

Examples non verbal communication Nonverbal communication articles Definition of organizational behavior

Management of organizational behavior


There are many interesting organizational behavior books that give detailed information on this topic. They give detailed research on concepts of organizational behavior, models of organizational behavior, organizational behavior theory, organizational behavior terminology and concepts, organizational behavior trends. The essentials of organizational behavior are outlined in various articles on organizational behavior. Each organizational behavior article offers different ideas and techniques that can be used. Organizational behavior studies use the study of organizations from various viewpoints, levels and methods of analysis. Individual and group dynamics are taken into consideration to obtain adequate analysis of conditions within the corporation. Achieving a smooth, well oiled organization may well be achieved by a thorough study of the organizational behavior. It can assist management in the fine tuning job performance on an individual or team level. Without a knowledge of the high points and shortcomings of an organization it is extremely difficult to make change.

Read

more: http://www.workplace-communication.com/definition-organizational-

behavior.html#ixzz1JheWVnF3