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GPON/FTTH

PTCL Training & Development

Content Development Team


Muhammad Usman Muhammad Pervaz Ahmad Muhammad Zeeshan Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Pervez, Jamil Ahmed, Jamil-ud-din, Muhammad Zaheer, Muhammad Umer Farooq, Ahmad Ali Shah, Ghulam Mustafa,
Senior Instructor, PTC Lahore Senior Instructor, PTC Faisalabad Senior Instructor, PTCL Staff College, Haripur Lecturer, PTCL Academy, Islamabad Lecturer, PTCL Staff College, Haripur Lecturer, PTC Peshawar Instructor, PTC Multan Instructor, PTC Quetta Junior Instructor, PTC Karachi Junior Instructor, PTC Peshawar Junior Instructor, PTC Sukkur

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Objectives
After completion of this course, the participants will be able to:
List the limitations of traditional copper based access network and explain how GPON addresses these limitations Describe the Architecture of an optical access network Identify the components and operation of GPON Describe Key GPON technology.

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Contents
1. Overview of Optical Access Network 2. Basic Concepts of PON 3. GPON Standards 4. GPON Reference Model 5. GPON Key Technologies 6. GPON Management and Service Provisioning 7. Basic Services over GPON Network

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Overview of Access Network

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Definition (AN)
It is access of customer to the telecommunication services or vice versa. Traditionally it was called OSP (Outside Plant) or LN (Local Network) or Local Loop. Access Network is a network that connects a user to the telecommunication services.

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Access Network

EX

Access Network
LE END USER

EX

AN is called the last mile of Telecom Netw

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Role of AN in the Operators Business


Final tool for service delivery to the end users
Quality & flexibility of AN determine the speed and quality of service to the end users Major cost factor for the

operator

a competitive environment End user oriented, generates revenue for operators


Services node

Accounts for about 40~50% of total telecom network investment Very important in

Services
Access Network End user

Motive: revenue

Good AN, Better Services, More Revenue !


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Types of Access Networks


Wired Access Networks
Copper wired Access Networks

2 W-Loop for POTS, ISDN,XDSL

Fiber optic based access Networks


FTTB FTTC FTTH
For POTS, ISDN,XDSL, VOIP, TV, MSAN.

Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial Cable Systems


Access network for the cable TV networks, Internet, VOIP.

Wireless Access System (WLL)


CDMA Wi-MAx

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Characteristics of Traditional Access Mode


Feeder layer 3~5 km Distribution layer Drop layer 500m~1 10~300 m km CC D.P
Connection Cabinet Distribution Box

LE
Central office

USER

Copper Cables Based


Point to point/star architecture Tailored to voice/low speed data passive

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Limitation of Traditional Access Mode


Feeder layer 3~5 km Distribution layer Drop layer 500m~1 10~300 m km CC D.P
Connection Cabinet Distribution Box

LE
Central office

USER

Copper Cables Based


Small coverage Limited bandwidth Maintenance complexity Reliability cut down Traditional access mode has become the Enormous bottleneck of modern telecom network! investment
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How to Overcome the bottleneck

Optical Integrated Services Access Network


Advantages: Wide Coverage Broad Bandwidth Easy Maintenance High Reliability Low Investment
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Access Network Status


During the current period of transition, global telecom carriers need to: 1. Enhance service competitiveness and provide more services. 2. Increase ARPU (Average Revenue Per User) value and reduce the maintenance cost by binding multiple services. 3. Improve customers satisfaction on the network and reduce the customer churn rate. To make a success in the transition, increasing the bandwidth is the prerequisite.
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Introduction-Broadband Services
Voice services revenue is getting flat On a world wide basis, the market is calling out for broadband which allows for the wide range of applications and products e.g.,

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High speed internet access Sophisticated telephony services High definition TV Video on demand Network based gaming Music and moving down load Education and business based video conferencing Telemedicine.
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Narrowband and Broadband Services


Internet connection speed 56K dial-up modem 256K broadband 512K broadband 1Mb broadband 2Mb broadband 4Mb broadband 6Mb broadband 8Mb broadband 15 Time to down load a Time to down load a Streaming video typical web page typical 5 min song quality 14 sec 3 sec 1.6 sec 0.8 sec 0.4 sec 0.1 sec Instantaneous Instantaneous
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12 min 30 sec 3 min 1 min 30 sec 41 sec 20 sec 5 sec Instantaneous Instantaneous

Low Quality

Medium Quality

TV Quality

How to provide Broadband services through Access Network


Digital Subscriber Line Cable Modem Fiber in The Loop Wireless Satellite Broadband over Power Lines

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Development Trend of the Access Network - All over IP


Wireless Voice Online Gaming Wireless Data High Speed Internet Streaming Location & Presence

Servic e

Message

Directory

Message

Dial-up

Storage

Video

Voice

Voice

VoIP X.25

Data

FR IP

Eth/IP/MPLS Aggregation Network

Core

ON

ATM PSTN SDH Cable

es r el Wi

GP FT TH

PDH

Access

ADSL Ethernet GSM/GPRS CDMA

DSL

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What is FTTH?
// CO/HE

Copper Fiber

CO/HE //

Old networks, optimized for voice

2 Mbps

CO/HE

//

Optical networks, optimized for voice, video and data


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1 Gbps +

Note: network may be aerial or underground


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What is FTTH?
An OAN in which the ONU is on or within the customers premise. Although the first installed capacity of a FTTH network varies, the upgrade capacity of a FTTH network exceeds all other transmission media. OAN: Optical Access Network ONU: Optical Network Unit OLT: Optical Line Termination

OAN
CO/HE //

OLT
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ONU

FEATURES OF OPTICAL FIBER


High Transmission Capacity Low Attenuation Long Repeater Spacing No Cross talk and Signal Leakage Small size and Light weight Security of service

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DISADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBER


Small bending causes radiation loss Optical Fiber connections need to align the fiber core with fine precision A very small flaw (hole) at the fiber surface weaken the strength of fiber Optical Fiber is very Fragile

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Why FTTH? - fiber versus copper


A single copper pair is capable of carrying 6 phone calls A single fiber pair is capable of carrying over 2.5 million simultaneous phone calls 64 channels at 2.5 Gb/s) A fiber optic cable with the same information-carrying capacity (bandwidth) as a comparable copper cable is less than 1% of both the size and weight

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Why FTTH? - fiber versus copper

Glass
Uses light Transparent Dielectric materialnonconductive EMI immune Low thermal expansion Brittle, rigid material Chemically stable

Copper
Uses electricity Opaque Electrically conductive material Susceptible to EMI High thermal expansion Ductile material Subject to corrosion and galvanic reactions Fortunately, its recyclable

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What is a Fiber Optic Cable?


An optical fiber (or fiber) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length

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History of Optical Communication


Hand signals, Flags and Smoke Signals Light Transmission through bent water jet 1000 1880 1962 1966 1970 1973 Nature of light was defined and laws of reflection given Photo Phone by A.G. Bell Laser diode Idea of optical fiber for communication by Kao & Hock ham Chemical vapor deposition(VCD) < 20 db/ Km by Corning MCVD <1 db/Km by Bell Systems

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INTRODUCTION

LIGHT
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To

Law of Reflection

This law states that when a ray of light is reflected from a surface, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.

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Law of Reflection
Normal Normal

i2 r2 i= r
2

i= r
1

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Refraction
It is the bending of light rays due to changes in the speed of propagation when light enters from one medium to another.

The angle at which the light bends is a function of the mediums index of refraction.

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Angle of Incidence B Glass Air Angle of Refraction Glass Air

Critical Angle Glass Air

Angle of Incidence Angle of = Reflection Glass Air D

900

The critical angle of incidence.


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Refraction

n n 2> n n

Refraction of a light ray passing through an optically denser medium .


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Index of Refraction

It is the ratio of the speed of light through a medium to the speed of light through vacuum.
Index of refraction
=n =

Vc Vg

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Index of Refraction

It is equal to the sine of the angle of incidence divided by the sine of the angle of refraction.
Index of refraction
=n =

sin sin

i r

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Refractive Indices
MATERIAL
VACCUM AIR MERCURY VAPOUR WATER GLASS DIAMOND

INDEX OF REFRACTION
1.0000 1.0003 1.0009 1.3 1.6 2.4

Selected indices of refraction


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Propagation Principles in Optical Fiber


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Fiber Optic Principles


Optical fiber is basically a glass waveguide. Different wavelengths of light are directed through the fiber core by refraction & reflection. Different wavelengths relate to different colors.

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Wavelength
Invisible = Visible = Invisible = Infrared (high band) 400 - 750 nm Ultra-violet (low-band)

850 nm and 1300 nm / Multi-mode LED 1310 nm and 1550 nm / Single-mode LED

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Light Propagation in Optical Fiber


Propagation of light in an optical fiber requires that the light be totally confined within the fiber. The above object can be obtained in two different ways Total Internal Reflection

Continuous Refraction

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Total Internal Reflection


Most widely used method for the propagation of light through optical fiber is the total internal reflection. The amount and direction of deflection is determined by the amount of difference in refractive indices as well as the angle at which the rays strike the boundary.

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Total Internal Reflection

(Continued)

For incidence angles equal to or greater than the critical angle, the glass air boundary will act as a mirror and no light escape from the glass. Example:
n2 (Glass) Sin c 1 = n (Air) = 1.5 Sin 90 1 Sin c = 0.6667 c = 41.8

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Total Internal Reflection

(Continued)

For incidence angles equal to or greater than the critical angle, the glass air boundary will act as a mirror and no light escape from the glass. Example:
n2 (Glass) Sin c 1 = n (Air) = 1.5 Sin 90 1 Sin c = 0.6667 c = 41.8

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Total Internal Reflection

(Continued)

Out Going Ray

Incoming Ray

Light propagation within a flexible glass fiber.


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Continuous Refraction
Very complex core structure

(Continued)

High refractive index (n ) at the center decreases gradually to a lower refractive index (n ) at the circumference.
1 2

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Continuous Refraction

(Continued)

In step index fiber, the index profile for a constant index fiber displays a sharp step at the fibers perimeter. The variable index fiber shows an index profile that has its highest value in the center and slops away gradually. This is referred to as a graded-index fiber.

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Continuous Refraction
STEP INDEX FIBER

(Continued)

GRADED INDEX FIBER

n1 n2
A comparison of index profiles for step-index and graded-index fibers.
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Continuous Refraction
n1 n2 n3 n4

(Continued)

How light rays react to a gradually changing index ?

n1 n2 n3 n4

Hypothetical Multilayer Fiber


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Continuous Refraction
4 3 2 1

(Continued)

n4 n n n n n n
3

5 6 7

2 1

2 3

Light propagation with in a hypothetical multi layer fiber.


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Core Profile
1.490

(Continued)

Refractive Index Difference

1.485 1.480 1.475 1.470 1.465

Cladding
60 40 20

62.5 micron core


0 20 40

Cladding
60

Fiber Radius (microns)


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Continuous Refraction

(Continued)

The effects of increasing the number of refractive layers while maintaining the same n

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Continuous Refraction
CENTER

(Continued)

OUTSIDE

FOUR LAYERS
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Continuous Refraction
CENTER

(Continued)

OUTSIDE

EIGHT
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LAYERS

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Continuous Refraction
CENTER

(Continued)

OUTSIDE

INFINITE LAYERS
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Graded index Fiber


Graded-index fiber becoming very popular for specialized applications. It is relatively expensive to manufacture, due to its complex core structure. It is also more difficult to workwith.

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Two Methods of Optical Confinement


A
Continuous Refraction (Graded Index Fiber)

B
Total Internal Refraction (Step Index Fiber)

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Classification of Optical Fiber


on the basis of

Areas of Application

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FIBER OPTIC CABLES

Internal
Duct Cable Simplex Cord Duplex Cord Breakout Cable
Distribution Cable
Direct Burial Cable

External
Underground Cables

Underwater Cable

Short Span Cable Long Span Cable OPGW Cable Aerial Cables

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Classification on Application

Indoor cable Direct buried cable Duct cable Aerial cable Underwater cable

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Classification on Application

Indoor cable Direct buried cable Duct cable Aerial cable Underwater cable

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Breakout Cable

Simplex Cord

Duplex figure 8 / Zip Cord


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Breakout Cable

Continued

PVC sheath PVC jacket Centre member Buffered Optical Fiber Aramid yarn
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Distribution Cable

Aramid yarn Optical Fiber Tight buffer Flame retardant PVC & zero halogen sheath

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Classification on Application

Indoor cable Direct buried cable Duct cable Aerial cable Underwater cable

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Direct Burried Cable


Central strength member Jelly filled loose tube PE inner sheath
Corrugated coated steel tape armour

Moisture barrier sheath PE outer sheath

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Classification on Application

Indoor cable Direct buried cable Duct cable Aerial cable Underwater cable

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DUCT CABLE

Polyethylene outer sheath Polyester tapes Jelly strength member Small Loose tube Optical fiber
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Classification on Application

Indoor cable Direct buried cable Duct cable Aerial cable Underwater cable

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Aerial Fiber Optic Cable

Several variations of Aerial cables are available for fiber optic, depending on the placement, application and environment.

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AERIAL CABLE Tight Buffer

Supporting strength member PE sheath Central strength member Tight buffer

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AERIAL CABLE Loose Tube


Optical fiber Central strength member Jelly filed Loose tube Supporting strength member

High density PE sheath

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AERIAL CABLE - Short Span


Central strength member Moister resistant jelly Loose tube PE sheath Aramid yarn

High density PE sheath

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AERIAL CABLE Long Span


Optical Fiber Jelly Filled Slotted core PE Inner sheath Rods Reinforcing

PE outer sheath

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Classification on Application

Indoor cable Direct buried cable Duct cable Aerial cable Underwater cable

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Under Water Cable


Central strength member Optical fibers in loose tube Heat sealable tape PE inner sheath Moisture barrier sheath Bitumen layer Armoring wires PE outer sheath

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Connector

Insertion loss Repeatability

Fiber type

Application

0.06-1.00 dB

0.20dB

SM,MM

Telecommunication

0.20-0.50dB

0.20dB

SM,MM

Telecommunication

0.20-0.70dB

0.20dB

MM

Fiber Optic Networks

0.50-1.00dB

0.20dB

SM,MM

Datacom,Telecommunicat ion

0.20-0.70dB

0.20dB

SM,MM

Fiber Optic Networks

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Connector

Insertion loss

Repeatability

Fiber type

Application

0.30-1.00dB

0.25dB

SM,MM

Highdensity Interconnects

0.20-0.45dB

0.10dB

SM,MM

Telecommunication

0.2-0.45dB

0.10dB

SM,MM

Datacom

0.40-0.80dB

0.30dB

MM

Military

Typ.0.40dB (SM) Typ.0.50dB (MM)

Typ.0.40dB (SM) Typ.0.20dB (MM)

SM,MM

Inner-/intra-building Security, Navy

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ADAPTERS

ST Adapter

SMA Adapter

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ADAPTERS

Continued

D4 Adapter

DIN Adapter

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ADAPTERS

Continued

Biconic Adapter

FC Adapter

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ADAPTERS

Continued

SC Adapter

Mini- BNC Adapter

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Core

Optical Fiber Structure

Thin glass centre of the fiber where the light travels

Cladding Outer optical material surrounding the core that reflects the light back into the
core

Coating Plastic coating that protects the fiber from damage and moisture Glass Glass core glass cladding
Lowest attenuation

Plastic Plastic core plastic cladding


Highest attenuation

Plastic-clad silica Glass core plastic cladding


Intermediate attenuation

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TYPES OF FIBRES
1. SINGLE-MODE SINGLE-MODE In single-mode fibre only one ray, or mode, of light propagates down the core at a time. It is used primarily for telephony and cable television applications, and is used increasingly for campus backbones.
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2.

MULTI-MODE

MULTI-MODE

Multi-mode fibre was the first type of fibre to be commercialized and is commonly used for data communications. In multi-mode fibre many rays, or modes, of light propagate down the core simultaneously. Multi-mode fibre typically is used in private premises networks, where signals are transmitted less than two kilometers.
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WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE


SINGLE-MODE
1. Diameter of core is less 2. Only one mode is propagated 3. Used for Short Haul & Long Haul Transmission

MULTI-MODE
1. 2. 3. Diameter of core is more More than one mode are propagated Used for Short Haul transmission

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Fiber Optic ITU Standards


G.651 MMF Large core: 50-62.5 microns in diameter Transmit infrared light (wavelength=850 to 1300 nm) Light Emitting Diode G.652 SMF Small core: 8-10 microns in diameter Transmit laser light (wavelength= 1200 to 1600 nm) Laser Diode

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OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE


Slotted Core Inner Steel Armoring Polly-ethylene Middle sheet Polly-ethylene Polly-ethylene sheet sheet

Fibres

Strengthening member Corrugated steel tape


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Fiber Optic Cable Construction

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Why Total Internal Reflection


Concept
Light travels through the core constantly bouncing from the cladding

Distance
A light wave can travel great distances because the cladding does not absorb light from the core

Signal degradation
Mostly due to impurities in the glass
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REASON OF ABSORPTION LOSSES IN FIBER


Atomic Defects in Glass composition Impurities of metal ions Electronic absorption bands in the ultra-violet region Atomic vibration bands in the near infrared region Intrinsic absorption

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Attenuation Vs. Wavelength

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O-band E-band S-band C-band L-band U-band

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Optical Fiber Transmission System


Optical Transmitter: Produces and encodes the light signal. Optical Amplifier: May be necessary to boost the light signal (for long distance) Optical Receiver: Receives and decodes the light signal Optical Fiber: Conducts the light signal over a distance

Tx
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Amp

Rx

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Optical Transmitter
Function: Electrical to optical converter Types:
Light Emitting Diode (LED) Laser Diode (LD)

Comparison: Item Data rate Mode Distance Temp sensitivity cost


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LED Low Multimode short minor low


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LD High Multimode/Single mode long substantial expensive

Optical Amplifier
Definition: amplifier An optical fiber with a doped coating How it works: Most atoms in excited state rather then in ground state When perturbed by a photon, matter loses energy resulting in the creation of another photon Second photon is created with the same phase, frequency, polarization and direction of travel as the original. The perturbing photon is not destroying in the process Elements: Erbium-rare, so expensive Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)

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Optical Receiver
Function:
Optical to electrical conversion.
R x

Types photo detector:


APD - (avalanche Photo Diode) PIN (Positive Intrinsic Negative Photo Diode)

How it works:
Gives an electrical pulse when struck by light

Error:
Thermal noise is an issue. To make pulse powerful enough, the error rate can be made arbitrarily small
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Optical Transceiver
Definition: A transmitter and a receiver in a single housing Practical Implementation: Transceivers typically comes as SFP Small-form-factor pluggable unit
TX

R x

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Joining Fibers - connectors


Properties: Good alignment/correct orientation. Presentation at the termination point of the fiber Always introduce some loss Connector types: Amount of mating cycles LC, FC, SC, Color code APC green PC - blue
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Optical Power Splitter


Optical Splitter: Typically divide an optical signal from a single input into multiple (e.g two) output signal Generally provide a small optical loss to the signal passed through it

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Optical Power Splitter

Power of 2 split 3.5 dBm loss every split 1x8 has on average 3.5x3=10.5 dBm of loss 1x32 has on average 3.5x5=17.5 dBm of loss Optical budget 28 dBm = 20 km
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Fiber Cable loose tube


Ideal for long distance
Easy drop-off Standard buffer tubes for excess fiber length Anti-bucking central strength member Termination and splicing requires cleaning Gel may weaken fiber Inflexible stress buildup, cracks, water penetration
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Loose Tube Cable in FTTH


Advantages: Proven technology
Lower cost for fibers below 144 fibers Ease of access to individual fibers

Disadvantages: Available in size only up to 432 fibers


Cable becomes very large for size over 288 fibers Restoration can take longer for large count cable Need to pay attention to buffer tube storage in cold weather
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Tight Buffer
Usually indoor

Single fiber for patch-cords, pig-tails, jumpers, linking devices. Multi fiber in riser application

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Advantages:

Ribbon Cable in FTTH

Proven technology Lower cost for 144 fibers and large Ease of access to individual fiber Large count cables will fit in a smaller duct than the same sized loose tube Higher fiber count in a splice tray

Disadvantages:
More difficult to store pass-through fiber in a ped or splice case Ribbon is less tolerant to physical damage than loose tube
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HOW FIBRE WORKS

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Types of Windows used


Wavelengths used for Single Mode Fiber (long distances) communications 1310 nm Usually lowest cost lasers Used for shorter broadcast runs and short to moderate data runs 1550 nm Can be amplified with relatively low-cost erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) Lasers are fabricated on a number of different wavelengths (about 1535 1600 nm) for wave division multiplexing (WDM) applications Slightly lower fiber loss at 1550 nm 1490 nm Increasingly popular for downstream data in 3l systems. Cannot be amplified as easily Somewhat higher device cost

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Single and Dual Fiber Systems


Single Fiber Downstream broadcast* on 1550 nm Upstream data on 1310 nm Downstream data on either 1310 or 1490 nm* depending on system Advantages Less fiber deployed Fewer optical passives (taps or splitters) Fewer labor-intensive connections

* Downstream data can be carried at 1550 nm if not used for broadcast

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Single and Dual Fiber Systems


Dual Fiber Various plans, usually one fiber will be used for downstream and one for upstream, or one will be used for broadcast and one for data. Sometimes one will be used for specialized services, such as returning RF-modulated data from set top terminals Advantages Simplifies terminal passive components Somewhat lower signal loss

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SAFETY MEASURES REGARDING OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE HANDLING

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Optical Fiber and LASER Light Safety


Safety issues relevant to operation and maintenance staff involved in optical fiber systems fall into one of three categories: - Laser light Sources - Handling of bare optical fiber ends - Hazardous Chemicals

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LASER LIGHT SOURCES


This includes both optical line transmission equipment and Optical test equipment. A laser can cause damage to human tissue either on the surface of the skin or in and around the eyes. - The Eyes - Laser Safety Requirements - Laser safety Procedures - Some General Rules on Laser Safety

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The Eyes
The eyes, being a very sensitive part of the human body, can Be very susceptible to the hazards of laser light.

Laser Safety Requirements


Only staff who have attended an optical fiber training course And had their eyes tested may install, test and optical fiber cables.

Laser Safety Procedure


-Ensure that the power is turned off at both ends of the section while the optical fiber cable is being worked on. -Under no circumstances should an optical fiber or connector

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Vision Hazard

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Vision Hazard

Continued

LASER

WARNING

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Fiber
Dont add fiber to your food !

Ingestion
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Fiber

Continued

Bare fiber

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OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE


That is connected to an optical source, be viewed directly with the eye or be directed at the skin. - In some circumstances it may be necessary to test fusion slices in conjunction with jointing operations. Under no circumstance Must a light signal from an OTDR) be transmitted through a fiber Until jointing staff have completed splicing operations on the fiber And have notified the testing Officer that it is safe to do so.

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Some General Rules on Laser Safety

Never look into the beam of a transmitting laser, either via the output port of equipment or the end of a connected fiber Initially assume that all fiber and equipment is active in transmitting light. Optical connectors should always be held at least 300mm from the eye, etc.
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HANDLING OF THE BARE FIBERS


Bare fibers should be treated with more care than handling a piece of broken glass in the home If optical fiber glass accidentally penetrates the skin, it probably remain there and eventually infect the area around it However in extreme cases it could potentially end up in the blood stream, which would be extremely dangerous.
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HANDLING OF THE BARE FIBERS


Always dispose of broken fibers or fiber. Off cuts in receptacle designated for this purpose i.e. fiber bin. Do not throw bare fiber in a waste disposal bin or on the floor. Always wash hands thoroughly after handling optical fiber, especially when eating food. Never touch the end of a bare fiber

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FITL -Fiber in the loop


FTTB
Fiber to the Building/Basement

FTTC
Fiber to the Curb/Cabinet

FTTH
Fiber to the Home

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Architecture of Optical Access Network


CO
3.5-5km Remote Business

Customer Premise
xDSL 2~20Mbps

BA

DSLAM

ODN
2.5Gbps Down /1.25Gbps Up

Curb

m 250-700 ge era ov Urban C

FTTC

OLT MDU Multi-Dwelling Unit


2.5Gbps Down /1.25Gbps Up

FTTB

OLT ONU Optical Networks Unit


2.5Gbps Down /1.25Gbps Up

FTTH

OLT ONT Optical Networks Termination

Optical Line Termination

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What is Optical Access Network?


From the architecture diagram, the optical access network comprises the following scenarios:

1. FTTB scenario
SBU : Single business unit ; providing a comparatively small number of ports such as POTS, 10/100/1000BASE-T and DS1/T1/E1 ports MTU :Business Multi-tenant unit ; providing a comparatively larger number of ports, including POTS, 10/100/1000BASE-T and DS1/T1/E1 ports.

FTTb ~ Fiber to the Building , is the deployment of fiber (optical) cable to a specific location within a building, then connected to the buildings existing copper, cable facilities. This deployment is also referred to as FTTB (Fiber to the Basement) & FTTB (Fiber to the Business). This deployment will be the typical for MDUs & MTUs also known as ** FTT mdu ~ Fiber to the MDU **

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2. FTTC & FTTCab scenario


. FTTC & FTTCab scenario MDU : Multi-dwelling unit ;providing a comparatively larger number of ports, including 10/100/1000BASE-T, VDSL2, and so on.

FTTc ~ Fiber to the Curb , is the deployment of fiber close to the customer but not fully to the customers residence. In this deployment the existing copper plant is still used to deliver service to the actual customer. FTTN (Fiber to the Neighborhood) & FTTC (Fiber to the Cabinet) generally fall under the FTTC category. Both services are in deployment and in use, a perfect example is a DLC/NGDLC (Digital Loop Carrier) which some of us get our phone service from. A direct fiber from the CO (Central Office) is terminated at the DLC/NGDLC and then service is delivered to the customers residence via the copper plant.

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3. FTTH scenario
FTTH scenario SFU : Single family unit , providing a comparatively small number of ports, including following types: POTS, 10/100/1000BASE-T, and RF. FTTh ~ Fiber to the Home , is the complete deployment of fiber to the customers home, with replacement of there existing NID (Network Interface Device). This replacement device is called an ONT (Optical Network Terminator).

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Strategic Drivers for FTTH


Multi Service Network - Service Convergence Each Long distance (20 Km) Only active components ate OLT and ONT splitter Passive Remote service provisioning Future proof (almost infinite bandwidth) Reduce operational costs Fiber cost decreasing compared to copper

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Basic Concepts of PON

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PON concept
Passive Optical Network
Optical Network Termination

PSTN
Passive Optical Splitter

Internet
Optical Line Terminal

. . . . .

. .
Optical Network Unit

IPTV
PON is short for Passive Optical Network ;

. .

GPON architecture: Passive optical network featuring one-to-multiple-point;

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Optical Line Terminal (OLT) Optical Network Unit (ONU) Optical Distribution Network (ODN).
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Why GPON?
<1Mbps Access Technology Coverage diameter Service requirement s 2002 3M
ADSL/ADSL2+ Copper Based

8M

25M
VDSL / ADSL2+ Copper Based

2.5G
PON Fiber Based

<3km

<2km VoD HDTV Game 2003

<1km

~20km Live TV VoD HDTV


2006 2010 Time

Internet Video conference Remote control

GPON supports :

Triple-play service
HDTV: 16-20M/program; Data: 10M; Video Conference: 4.5M

High-bandwidth up to 1.25Gbps/2.5Gbps Long-reach up to 20km

GPON is the choice of large carriers in the international market.

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Why PON?
Enormous information carrying capacity Easily upgradeable Ease of installation Reduced O&M costs Long distance reach Secure Immune to electromagnetic noise Best suited for triple play services

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GPON Services
Business Services
E1/PRI BRI 2G/3G SIP/POTS etc VPN & Ethernet Leased Lines/Internet Leased line

Residential Services
HSI (High Speed Internet) (Al Shamil) IPTV POTS

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Philosophy
Two types of FTTH networks exist today Retail Vast majority of FTTH builds today Network owner sells services directly to subscribers Follows traditional telecommunications and cable television models Wholesale Market created by a few state laws Network owner sells capacity to multiple providers who in turn sells services to subscribers Only examples in US today are some municipal FTTH networks

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Technical considerations
Data How much per home? How well can you share the channel? Security how do you protect the subscribers data? What kind of QoS parameters do you specify? Compatible business services?
SLAs T1

Support for voice? Support for video? Broadcast IPTV

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Technical considerations
Data How much per home? How well can you share the channel? Security how do you protect the subscribers data? What kind of QoS parameters do you specify?

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Technical considerations - Speed


Data requirements Competition: ADSL, cable modem ~0.5 to ~1.5 Mb/s shared, asymmetrical FTTH ~10 to 30 Mb/s non-shared or several 100 Mb/s shared, symmetrical SDTV video takes 2-4 Mb/s today at IP level HDTV takes maybe 5 times STDV requirement Pictures can run 1 MB compressed 5.1 channel streaming audio would run ~380 kb/s

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Technical considerations - Speed


Required Data Rate

FTTH

HDTV DSL or cable Streaming Picture in modem audio 15 seconds VoIP


Service
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SDTV

Technical considerations Speed (IPTV Reference)


August 17, 2001: MGM, Paramount Pictures, Sony Pictures, Warner Brothers, and Universal Studios unveiled plans for a joint venture that would allow computer users to download rental copies of feature films over the Internet. December 9, 2002: Hollywood's Latest Flop Fortune Magazine The files are huge. At 952 Megabytes, Braveheart took just less than five hours to download using our DSL Line at home in the same time we could have made 20 round trips to our neighborhood Blockbuster
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Estimated minimum time to acquire Braveheart

Technology Modem 56 kb/s ISDN 128 kb/s

Minutes

Hours

Days 2

20 12

DSL 1 Mb/s Cable 2.5 Mb/s 45 FTTH 0.4

2.5 1

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Standards

PTCL Training & Development

STANDARDS
ITU-T G.983
APON (ATM Passive Optical Network). This was the first Passive optical network standard. It was used primarily for business applications, and was based on ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) 53-byte cell to transfer data. Initial offering 155.52 Mbps Downstream, 155.52 Mbps
upstream.

BPON (Broadband PON) is a standard based on APON architecture. It adds support for WDM, dynamic and higher upstream bandwidth allocation, and survivability. It also created a standard management interface, called OMCI, between the OLT and ONU/ONT, enabling mixed-vendor networks.

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BPON - PON FSAN / ITU-T G.983


* BPON standard of APON (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) Fiber Cable Span no more than 20Km (12Miles) of Single-mode fiber Asymmetrical 622 (STM-4) / 155 (STM-I) Mbs bandwidth per OLT path of 32 ONT's. OLT - WDM (Wave Division Multiplexing) 1550nm downstream bandwidth for (Analog / Digital / HDTV) 1490nm downstream data rate of 622Mbps for Voice / Data 1310nm upstream data rate of 155Mbps for Voice / Data TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) of ATM packets 1:32 Passive Splitter OSP Topology

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STANDARDS (contd)
IEEE 802.3ah
EPON or GEPON (Ethernet PON) is an IEEE/EFM standard for using Ethernet for packet data. 802.3ah is now part of the IEEE 802.3 standard. -There are currently over 15 million installed EPON ports. -With China's 2008 EPON deployments total installed base is expected to reach nearly 20 million subscribers by year end 2008. -EPON uses IP-based protocol to transfer data. - 100 Mbps Symmetrical. - 1.25 Gbps Symmetrical.

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STANDARDS (contd)
ITU-T G.984
GPON (Gigabit PON) is an evolution of the BPON standard. It supports higher rates, enhanced security, and choice of Layer 2 protocol (ATM, GEM, Ethernet). In early 2008, Verizon began installing GPON equipment, having installed over 800 thousand lines by mid year. British Telecom, and AT&T are in advanced trials. GPON uses IP-based protocols to transfer data.

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GPON - PON FSAN / ITU-T G.984


Fiber Cable Span no more than 20Km (12Miles) of Singlemode fiber Asymmetrical 1.244 Gbps or 2.444 Gbps / 155 or 622 Mbs bandwidth per OLT path of 32 ONT's OLT - WDM (Wave Division Multiplexing) 1550nm downstream bandwidth for (Analog / Digital / HDTV) 1490nm downstream data rate of 2.4 Gbps for Voice / Data 1310nm upstream data rate of 1.2 Gbps for Voice / Data TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) of ATM packets 1:32 Passive Splitter OSP Topology

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GPON Standards
ITU-T G.984.1
Parameter description of GPON network Requirements of protection switch-over networking

ITU-T G.984.2
Specifications of ODN parameters Specifications of 2.488Gbps downstream optical port Specifications of 1.244Gbps upstream optical port Overhead allocation at physical layer

Simple development process Powerful compatibility

ITU-T G-984.1/2/3/4 ITU-T G.984.3


Specifications of TC layer in the GPON system GTC multiplexing architecture and protocol stack GTC frame ONU registration and activation DBA specifications Alarms and performance

ITU-T G.984.4
OMCI message format OMCI device management frame OMCI working principle

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xPON Protocols

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Basic Performance Parameters of GPON


GPON identifies 7 transmission speed combination as follows:

Upstream Downstream Rate(Gbps) Rate(Gbps) 0.15552 0.62208 1.24416 0.15552 0.62208 1.24416 2.48832
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1.24416 1.24416 1.24416 2.48832 2.48832 2.48832 2.48832


PTCL Training & Development

1.24416 Gbit/s up, 2.48832 Gbit/s down is the mainstream speed combination supported at current time.

Basic Performance Parameters of GPON


Maximum logical reach Maximum physical reach 60 km 20 km

Maximum differential 20 km fibre distance Split ratio 1 64/up to1 128


The distance between nearest and farthest ONTs

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ITU Full Service Access Network-FSAN Standards.


The following standards apply for APON and GPON. - Fiber loop length limited to 20 Km between OLT and ONT. - System will support from 2 to 64 splits within the 20 Km in any increments or combinations (1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64). Most designs are based on a 32-way split. Total optical budget is 30 db. Note. ITU G.984.2 Amendment 1 limits this to 28 db. Maximum difference in optical budget between the first ONT and the last ONT is 20 db, although many manufacturers can now support a higher optical budget difference. - Video is an analog overlay to the digital voice and data. - Voice and Data downstream transmission is 1480 to 1500nm. - Voice and Data upstream is 1260 to 1360nm. - Analog Video overlay on a single fiber system for downstream is 1550nm.
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PON Architecture Choices

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Architectural Choices
Selecting the Best of Multiple Choices
Active Sometimes called Point-to-Point or P2P Dedicated fiber and optics for each subscriber PON Uses passive optical splitters to serve many subscribers from one optical unit Comes in several formats: GPON BPON EPON
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Active Architecture

Connectors (NID)

Central Switch

Drops

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Active Architecture
Benefits Dedicated bandwidth per subscriber Simple, point-to-point topology Challenges Cost: each subscriber requires a separate pair of optical transmitters/receivers Limited deployment options

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PON Architecture
Connectors (NID)

Central Switch

Passive Optical Splitter Drops Feeder

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PON Architecture
Benefits Low-cost for high total bandwidth: matches video broadcast traffic patterns Flexibility in outside plant topology Challenges More complex outside plant topology Choices: APON, BPON, GPON, EPON?

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Considerations
A recent study found:
Top 5% of users consume 56% of total bandwidth Top 20% of users consume 97% of total bandwidth

The study also reported bandwidth by application:


Peer-to-peer - 66% Web surfing - 27% E-Mail - 7%

Potential Conclusion:
Most users arent so bandwidth hungry or applicationsophisticated as pundits think
Source: Ellocoya Networks study, as reported by telephony.com

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The Answer is

The best choice for now and the future is:

GPON

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Types Of Splitting

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Types of Splitting
Centralized Splitting Partially Distributed Splitting Fully Distributed Splitting

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Architectural Models
Centralized Splitting
Splitters are here Local Convergence Point (Splice) Central Switch Feeder NAP (Splice) Drops Distribution Connectors (NID)

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Centralized Splitting
Target Applications:
High customer churn Requirement for highly flexible connectivity

Homerun Consolidates all Splitting to the CO Most Flexible Due to Central Splitting
Highest headend flexibility/scalability

Requires the Most Amount of Fiber Most Expensive, Most Flexible


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Architectural Models
Partially Distributed Splitting
Local Convergence Point (Splitter) Central Switch Feeder Distribution Connectors (NID)

NAP (Splice) Drops

Splitters are here

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Partially Distributed Splitting


Target Application:
Overbuild with anticipated customer churn, slower build out, or lower-to-mid-level take rates

Consolidates Local Subscribers to Central Splitter Cabinet for Adds & Drops Reduces Feeder Fiber Needs Heavy Fiber Usage in Distribution Second Most Expensive Design

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Architectural Models
Fully Distributed Splitting
Splitters are here NAP (1xn Split)

Connectors (NID)

Central Switch

Local Convergence Point (1xn Split) Feeder Distribution Drops

(100% Take Rate)

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Fully Distributed Splitting


Target Application:
Higher Take Rates Low Anticipated Customer Churn Fiber Lean Distribution and Feeder Least Expensive Up Front Cost

Headend Does Not Scale as Well as Previous Architectures


Requires higher take rates to offset investment

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PON Architecture Summary


Architecture Type Fully Distributed Splitting Cost Flexibility Application Higher Take Rates Low Customer Turnover

Least

Partially Distributed Splitting

Mid

Low to Mid Take Rates/Slow Build High Customer Turnover

Centralized Splitting

Most

High Customer Turnover Need for High Flexibility Cash to Burn

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The Optimum Optical/Copper Solution


The Ideal Platform Supports GPON and Copper
Provides triple-play service delivery over both Allows for a managed migration This combined GPON and copper platform would:
Offer all the choices of different split architectures Also add Really Fully Distributed option of putting the OLT in the remote loop carrier

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Architectural Models
Really Fully Distributed Splitting
NAPs Splitters are here (1xn Split) Connectors (NID)

Central Switch

Copper and Fiber loop carrier (1xn Split) Feeder Distribution

Fiber Drops

Copper Drops Many OLTs share common feeder transport fibers

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Operational Considerations.
Advantages of a Copper and Fiber Platform Common Administration
Reduced Training Cost Reduced Cost for Flow-through Provisioning Reduced Sparing

Common Customer Service Experience


Triple play regardless of serving infrastructure

Orderly Network Migration


Paced by your depreciation schedules and recovery issues, not service offerings
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PON Topologies
ONU1 ONU1 ONU2 ONU3 OLT ONU5 ONU4 ONU5 OLT ONU4 ONU2 ONU3

(a) Tree topology (using 1:N splitter)

(c) Ring topology (using 2x2 tap couplers)

ONU1 ONU1 ONU2 ONU3 OLT ONU5 ONU3 ONU4 OLT ONU5 ONU4 ONU2

(b) Bus topology (using 1:2 tap couplers)

(d) Tree with redundant trunk (using 2:N splitter)

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System Architecture

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GPON ARCHITECTURE
OLT (Optical line Terminal) Access Media Optical Splitter ONU (Optical Network Unit) / Residential Gateway ODN (Optical Distribution Network)

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Components of PON

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COMPONENTS
A PON consists of an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at the service provider's central office and a number of Optical Network Units (ONUs) near end users. A PON configuration reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point to point architectures.

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OLT
The OLT provides the interface between the PON and the service providers network services. These typically include: Internet Protocol (IP) traffic over Gigabit, 10G, or 100 Mbit/s Ethernet Standard time division multiplexed (TDM) interfaces such as SONET or SDH ATM UNI at 155-622 Mbit/s

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OLT ~ Optical Line Terminal


OLT is the networks control card. This card resides in the local CO (Central Office) cross connected to the video and data networks that will be delivered to your home, it consists of a special DFB (Distributed Feedback) calibrated laser that is always on. This control card acts as a traffic signal to the remote ONT's for complete data / video throughput upstream and downstream.
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ONU
ONT is an ITU-T term, whereas ONU is an IEEE term. In Multiple Tenant Units, the ONT may be bridged to a customer premise device within the individual dwelling unit using legacy technologies such as Ethernet over twisted pair, Ethernet over Coax, or DSL.

An ONT is a device that terminates the PON and presents customer service interfaces to the user.
Some ONUs implement a separate subscriber unit to provide services such as telephony, Ethernet data, or video.
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ONU ~ Optical Network Unit


ONU ~ Optical Network Unit , this is similar to the SFU-ONT but for a MDU / MTU, or small business. It contains 12 - 24 POTS Lines, multiple "Ethernet" or "VDSL" connections, and one / two high-powered RG video outputs. These ONT's come in two forms, a wall mountable or rack-mountable unit, they are typically installed in a stairwell area, or basement next to the existing SAI for that floor
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ONT
The ONT terminates the PON and presents the native service interfaces to the user. These services can include voice plain old telephone service (POTS) or voice over IP (VoIP)), data (typically Ethernet), video.

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ONT

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Functions of ONT

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Functions of ONT
Often, the ONT functions are separated into two parts:
The ONU, which terminates the PON and presents a converged interface such as xDSL, coax, or multiservice Ethernet toward the user. Network termination equipment (NTE), which provides the separate, native service interfaces directly to the user.

Note: This is the CPE (Customer Premise Equipment) endpoint of the ODN. The ONT is an Optical to Electrical to Optical device , that delivers your triple play services. It will replace your existing copper NID (Network Interface Device) , and coax connections. The existing POTS / Coax inside wiring will be cross connected to the ONT. Since we understand that a PON is completely passive the endpoint must contain an AC voltage connection to perform the Optical to Electrical conversions for your services.

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Fusion Splitter
1 x 4 Fusion Splitter

1310 nm 1490 nm 1550 nm

Fiber

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Fusion Splitter
2 x 4 Fusion Splitter

Fiber
1310 nm 1490 nm 1550 nm

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Planar Splitter
1 x 8 Planar Splitter

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Planar Splitter

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BEAM SPLITTER
A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.

Schematic representation of a beam splitter cube


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BEAM SPLITTER - Design 1


In its most common form, a cube, it is made from two triangular glass prisms which are glued together at their base using Canada balsam. The thickness of the resin layer is adjusted such that (for a certain wavelength) half of the light incident through one "port" (i.e. face of the cube) is reflected and the other half is transmitted.

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BEAM SPLITTER - Design 2


Another design is the use of a half-silvered mirror. This is a plate of glass with a thin coating of aluminum (usually deposited from aluminum vapor) with the thickness of the aluminum coating such that, of light incident at a 45 degree angle, one half is transmitted and one half is reflected. Instead of a metallic coating, a dielectric optical coating may be used. Such mirrors are commonly used as output couplers in laser construction. Similarly, a very thin pellicle film may also be used as a beam splitter.

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BEAM SPLITTER - Design 3


A third version of the beam splitter is a dichroic mirrored prism assembly which uses dichroic optical coatings to split the incoming light into three beams, one each of red, green, and blue. Such a device was used in multi-tube color television cameras and also in the three-film Technicolor movie cameras. It is also used in the 3 LCD projectors to separate colors and in ellipsoidal reflector spotlights to eliminate heat radiation.

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FDH ~ Fiber Distribution Hub


FDH ~ Fiber Distribution Hub , is the cross connection splice-point for the Central Office Fiber and Distribution Fiber to the FDT's servicing the customers community. This hub can come in various configurations (Aerial Pole mount / Ground Pedestal), the providers configuration will typically be the 144 / 216 user count, designed to be a plug and play system for the FDT / Drop Cable connections.
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(ADC) FDH Rear Panel

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FDH Splitter Cabinet


Core Component: Splitter Cabinet for 432 subscribers (13 Splitters), available also for 144 and 288 subscribers (pre-stubbed and pre-connectorized)

OptiTect Cabinet CouplerModules | Photo CCO108

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Splitter Module

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1xN FTTH Splitters

1x16 slot

1x8 slot

1x2 slot

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FDH

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Corning OptiTect FDH Gen III - 432 & 288 Field Installation

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PON Splitter Cabinet Sizing


Sizes available: 32 Fiber (1 Splitter) to 864 Fiber (Home Run and Centralized Local Distribution Cabinet) Sizing will be dependent on rural or urban applications. Specific cabinet sizing is trade off between size of the distribution area and number of cabinets. Rural areas: Serving areas tend to get too large well before the ideal cabinet size is reached. Urban areas: Due to the density, the number of fibers can exceed the available cabinet sizes before the serving areas become unmanageable.
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Outdoor Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH).


The outdoor (FDH) provides for connections between fiber optic cables and passive optical splitters in the OSP environment. The outdoor (FDH) utilize standard SC/APC to interconnect feeder and distribution cables via 1:32 optical splitters and connectors.

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Indoor Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH)


The indoor FDH is designed to organize and administer fiber optic cables and passive optical splitters in an indoor environment typically suitable for high rise buildings and is placed in the telecom room. These FDH are used to interconnect main cable (Feeder) and drop cable (2F) via optical splitters in a FTTH network application. No splices are allowed between the Telecom Room and Flats. Where the building has less than 32 customers, a wall mounted splitter FDH (indoor type) is more suitable. The unit will serves as a Mini ODF with splitter assembly and facility to terminate drop cables.

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Distribution Cables & Drop Cables


From Outdoor FDH Cabinet location, distribution cable (loose tube) sizes 24F, 16F and 8F combinations may be considered, depending upon the grouping of villas/homes, number and locations. The drop closures to be installed inside joint boxes, close to group of villas/homes or as per site requirements. These have single entry on one side and 24+ outlets for drop cables. The drop cables are 2F construction, it is recommended that both the 2F are spliced through in the drop closure, so that the fibers are through to the splitter location. In the FDH Cabinet, only one fiber of 2F drop cable is required to be terminated. In the case of single villas, company shall extend and terminate the drop cable in the micro ODF (Low Homes Areas).

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DROP CABLE
DROP CABLE ~ This cable is the final connection to the customers ONT. This cable can be spliced from an aerial / underground FDT. Most providers have moved to a pre-terminated drop cable system, this saves cost and installation time. Drop Cable ~ This cable will enter the customers apartment from the FDT that's usually located in a closet, or stairwell in a high-rise building. In a small garden-style MDU deployment your drop cable may come from an FDT located on the outside of your building, and routed through the roof breezeway into your apartments designated closet.

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SFH (Single Family Home) - Corning OptiFit Drop Cable.

Corning OptiFit Drop Cable

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Corning SST-Drop Cable

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Corning OptiSheath Multi-Port Terminal FDT

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Pre-terminated drop cable system

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FDT ~ Fiber Distribution Terminal


FDT ~ Fiber Distribution Terminal , is the cross connection splice-point between the community serving FDH Distributing Cable, and the Drop Cable to the customers ONT.

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SFU (Single Family Unit)


The SFU ONT is primarily used in single dwelling homes. This ONT will replace your existing demarc that currently delivers your home service. This same unit (The 611i is the preferred model for this deployment) can also be used in MDU Garden Style installations. In these MDU installations the SFU is preferred so that the ONT can be placed directly in the unit, with the responsibility and electric cost passed to the customer.
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Tellabs 612 SFU ONT

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Motorola 1000v SFU ONT (Scroll over pic)

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GPON Principle----Data Multiplexing


GPON adopts Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology, facilitating bi-direction communication over a single fiber.
1490nm

1310nm

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Data Multiplexing
To separate upstream/downstream signals of multiple users over a single fiber, GPON adopts two multiplexing mechanisms:

In downstream direction, data packets are transmitted in a broadcast manner; In upstream direction, data packets are transmitted in a TDMA manner.

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GPON Principle----Downstream Data


Data for specified ONU

1
Data for specified ONU

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Broadcast mode
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GPON Principle----Downstream Data


Line rate.
Downstream : 2.488 Gb/s. Upstream : 1.244 Gb/s.

Broadcast mode. . continous mode operation. . traffic in the downstream is sent to/received by every ONU. Issue. Data confidentiality . AES-Advanced Encryption Standard used for link layer encryption.

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GPON Principle----Upstream Data


Data from specified user

1
Data from specified ONU

TDMA (Time Division Multiplex Access) mode

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GPON Principle----Upstream Data


TDMA- Time Division Multiple Access.
burst mode operation. the OLT controls which ONU gets access to the upstream at a particular moment in time.

Issues: potential collision. . access granting. . distance ranging.

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Upstream Bandwidth Allocation


The OLT is responsible for allocating upstream bandwidth to the ONTs. Because the optical distribution network (ODN) is shared, ONT upstream transmissions could collide if they were transmitted at random times. ONTs can lie at varying distances from the OLT, meaning that the transmission delay from each ONT is unique. The OLT measures delay and sets a register in each ONT via PLOAM (physical layer operations and maintenance) messages to equalize its delay with respect to all of the other ONTs on the PON.
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Upstream Bandwidth Allocation


Once the delay of all ONTs has been set, the OLT transmits so-called grants to the individual ONTs. A grant is permission to use a defined interval of time for upstream transmission. The grant map is dynamically re-calculated every few milliseconds. The map allocates bandwidth to all ONTs, such that each ONT receives timely bandwidth for its service needs.
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Upstream Bandwidth Allocation


Some services POTS, for example require essentially constant upstream bandwidth, and the OLT may provide a fixed bandwidth allocation to each such service that has been provisioned.

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AES Encryption in GPON


1 3 2 1 3 1

ONT

1 End User

Decryption
1 3 1

OLT Encryption

1 3 2

1 3 1

1 3 2

ONT

End User 2

Decryption
3 2 1 3

AES: Advanced Encrypt Standard A globally-used encryption algorithm

ONT

End User 3

Decryption

OLT applies Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) 128 encryption. GPON supports encrypted transmission in downstream direction, such as AES128 encryption. In the case of GEM fragments, only the payload will be encrypted. GPON system initiates AES key exchange and switch-over periodically, improving the reliability

of the line.

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GPON reference Model

PTCL Training & Development

GPON Network Model Reference


UNI R/S ODN S/R SNI

ONU/ONT
T reference point IFpon

OLT WDM
Optical splitter

Service node

WDM

IFpon

V reference point

NE

NE

ONU ONT ODN OLT WDM NE SNI UNI

Optical Network Unit Optical Network Terminal Optical Distribution Network Optical Line Terminal Wavelength Division Multiplex Module Network Element Service Node Interface User Network Interface
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GPON Multiplexing Architecture


O N U
Port T-CONT Port Port T-CONT Port Port

GEM Port: the minimum unit for carrying services. T-CONT: Transmission Containers is a kind of buffer that carries services. It is mainly used to transmit upstream data units. T-CONT is introduced to realize the dynamic bandwidth assignment of the upstream bandwidth, so as to enhance the utilization of the line. IF pon: GPON interface. Based on the mapping scheme, service traffic is carried to different GEM ports and then to different T-CONTs. The mapping between the GEM port and the T-CONT is flexible. A GEM port can correspond to a T-CONT; or multiple GEM Ports can correspond to the same TCONT. A GPON interface of an ONU contains one or multiple T-CONTs.

IFpon

O N U O N U

Port T-CONT Port


T-CONT Port

ONU-ID identifies ONUs

Alloc-IDs identifies T-CONTs

Port-ID identifies GEM ports

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GPON Multiplexing Architecture


OLT
GEM Port GEM Port

ONT
T-CONT

T-CONT

I F- PO N SN I
C assi l f i cati on

I F- PO N UI N

G por t EM O cal Fi ber pti

Q oS/ For w d ar

T- CO T N

G por t EM Cl assi V rtual f i cati on i UI N

f l ow

O LT

OU N

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GPON Frame Structure


Downstream Framing 125us Physical Control Block Downstream (PCBd) Upstream Bandwidth Map

Payload
ONT 0
Start End

AllocID

Start

End

AllocID

100

200

300

500

OLT
T-CONT0 (ONT 1) Slot 100 Slot 200 Slot 300 T-CONT 0 (ONT 2) Slot 500

ONT 63
PLOu PLOAMu PLSu DBRu XPayload x DBRu Y Payload y Upstream Framing

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GPON Upstream Frame Structure


Upstream Framing
PLI Port ID PTI HEC

GEM Frame GEM header fragment header

Full frame

GEM header

Frame fragment

DBA Report Pad if needed

PLOu PLOAMu PLSu DBRu x Payload x DBRu y Payload y ONT A

PLOu DBRu z Payload z ONT B


DBA 1,2,4bytes CRC 1byte

PreambleDelimiter BIP ONU-ID Ind ONU ID A bytes B bytes 1 bytes 1 bytes 1 bytes

Msg ID 1 bytes

Message 10 bytes

CRC 1 bytes

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Downstream Framing 125us PCBd n Payload n

GPON Downstream Frame Structure


PCBd n+1 Payload n Ident 4 bytes PLOAMd BIP Plend 13 bytes 1 bytes 4 bytes Plend 4 bytes US BW Map N*8 bytes

Psync 4 bytes

Coverage of this BIP FEC Ind Reserved Super-frame 1 bit 1 bit Counter 30 bits

Coverage of next BIP Blen BW Map Alen ATM Partition CRC Length 12 bits Length 12 bits 8 bits

Access 1 Access 2 8 bytes 8 bytes

..

Access n 8 bytes

Alloc ID 12 bits

Flags 12 bits

SStart 2 bytes

SStop 2 bytes

CRC 1 byte

Send PLS Send PLOAMn Use FEC Send DBRu Reserved 1 bit 1 bit 1 bit 2 bits 7 bits

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Mapping of TDM Service in GPON


TDM Buffer Ingress buffer GEM Frame PLI Port ID PTI HEC

TDM

TDM data

Payload TDM fragment

TDM frames are buffered and queued as they arrive, then TDM data is multiplexed

in to fixed-length GEM frames for transmission.


This scheme does not vary TDM services but transmit TDM services transparently. Featuring fixed length, GEM frames benefits the transmission of TDM services .

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Mapping of Ethernet Service in GPON


Ethernet Packet Inter packet gap Preamble SFD DA SA Length\Type MAC client data FEC EOF GEM Payload GEM Frame PLI Port ID PTI CRC 5 bytes

GPON system resolves Ethernet frames and then directly maps the data of frames

into the GEM Payload.


GEM frames automatically encapsulate header information. Mapping format is clear and it is easy for devices to support this mapping. It also

boasts good compatibility.

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GPON Key Technologies Ranging DBA T-CONT AES Attenuation

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Ranging
OLT obtains the Round Trip Delay (RTD) through ranging process, then specifies suitable Equalization Delay (EqD) so as to avoid occurrence of collision on optical splitters. To acquire the serial number and ranging, OLT needs open a window, that is, Quiet Zone, and pauses upstream transmitting channels on other ONUs.

OLT ONU1 ONU2 ONU3

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DBA
What is DBA? DBA, Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment Why DBA? It enhances the uplink bandwidth utilization of PON ports. More users can be added on a PON port. Users can enjoy higher-bandwidth services, especially those requiring comparatively greater change in terms of the bandwidth. DBA operation modes SR-DBA: status report-DBA NSR-DBA: non status report-DBA

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SR-DBA Operation
OLT

DBA report

ONU

DBA algorithm logic


BW Map

Control platform

Data platform
T-CONT

Time slot Scheduler

T-CONT

T-CONT

DBA block in the OLT constantly collects information from DBA reports, and sends the

algorithm result in the form of BW Map to ONUs .


Based on the BW Map, each ONU sends upstream burst data on time slots specified to

themselves and utilizes the upstream bandwidth.

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SR-DBA Operation
OLT
D/S Direction

PCBd

ONT
Payload

Based on the algorithm result of last time, OLT delivers BW

US BW Map

U/S Direction Data


Report

Maps in the header of downstream frames.

Based on the bandwidth allocation information, ONU sends the status report of data currently waiting in T-CONTs in the specified time slots. OLT receives the status report from the ONU, updates BW Map through DBA algorithm and then delivers the new BW Map in the next frame. ONU receives the BW Map from the OLT and sends data in the specified time slots.

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NSR-DBA Operation
NSR-DBA NSR is an algorithm scheme that realizes DBA. It helps to predict the bandwidth allocated to each ONU based on the traffic from ONUs. Procedure: Step1: Monitor the number of data packets received by OLT within the specified interval. Step2: Use the result of real time monitoring in step 1 to calculate the utilization rate. Step3: Recognize the congestion status by comparing the utilization rate with the specified limits.

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DBA Working Principle

Based on service priorities, the system sets SLA for each ONU, restricting service bandwidth. The maximum bandwidth and the minimum bandwidth pose limits to the bandwidth of each ONU, ensuring various bandwidth for services of different priorities. In general, voice service enjoys the highest, then video service and data service the lowest in terms of service priority. OLT grants bandwidth based on services, SLA and the actual condition of the ONU. Services of higher priority enjoy higher bandwidth. PTCL Training & Development

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T-CONT Bandwidth Terms


Transmission Containers (T-CONTs): it dynamically receives grants delivered by OLT. T-CONTs are used for the management of upstream bandwidth allocation in the PON section of the Transmission Convergence layer. T-CONTs are primarily used to improve the upstream bandwidth use on the PON. T-CONT BW type falls into FB, AB, NAB, and BE. Five T-CONT types: Type1, Type2, Type3, Type4, and Type5.

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T-CONT Type and Bandwidth Type

Type1 T-CONT is of the fixed bandwidth type and mainly used for services sensitive to delay and services of higher priorities, such as voice services. Type2 and type3 T-CONT is of the guaranteed bandwidth type and mainly used for video services and data services of higher priorities. Type4 is of the best-effort type and mainly used for data services (such as Internet and email), and services of lower priorities. These services do not require high bandwidth. Type5 is of the mixed T-CONT type, involving all bandwidth types and bearing all services.

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QoS Mechanism of ONU in GPON


VOIP VOD DATA TDM

Traffic-flow

Service differentia based on 802.1p

GPON

Scheduling And buffer control

Service traffic based on

OLT Splitter

GEM Port-id

VOIP VOD

Traffic-flow

Service differentia based on 802.1p

GPON

Scheduling And buffer control

TDM

Traffic classification of services based on LAN/802.1p. Service scheduling based on the combination of strict priority (SP) and Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithms. Service transmission based on service mapping with different T-CONTs, enhancing line utilization and reliability. PTCL Training & Development

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QoS Mechanism of OLT in GPON


Ethernet
VOIP BTV DATA

802.1p COS Queuing & scheduling DBA


GPON

bridging GE/10GE Nonblocking switching

BSR
OLT

TDM

GPON

Upstream service traffic based on different VLANs PSTN TDM Gateway

Traffic classification based on VLAN/802.1p. Service scheduling based on combination of strict priority (SP) and Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithms. DBA algorithm, enhancing uplink bandwidth utilization. Access control list (ACL)-based access control on layers above layer-2.

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(ADC) - FTTP Infrastructure

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(ADC) - FTTx Architecture

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(ADC) - FTTx MDU Architecture

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Corning PON Overview

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Tellabs PON Overview

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Ring Protection

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Verizon MDU - Garden Style Installation

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Verizon MDU - Garden Style Installation

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Verizon MDU - Garden Style Installation

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Property Buried Distribution - FDH feed to FDT Installation


Pic1- Each property will have a main buried drop splice-point from the main FDH servicing the property.

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Pic 2 - Each individual building will have a buried fiber pig-tail spliced into the main fiber back to the FDH.

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Pic 3 - This fiber pig-tail is already pre-terminated to that new FDT, which will usually be located next to existing OSP facilities.

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FDT - Exterior Molding Apartment Pathway

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Each building FDT is capable of providing service to 24 apartments. As service is activated each jumper is then connected to that unit.

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Aerial Feed / Distribution Splice Enclosures

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Aerial Premise Drop Enclosure / Aerial to Buried Distribution Pedestal Enclosure

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Pic 1 - Open view of Aerial FDH 216 Pic 2 - Scroll over the enlarged pic ~ Pole Mount ADC FDH 216 w/ Aerial Feed & Distribution enclosure above.

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FTTH Planning-Outgoing FO Cable from CO.


The OSP fiber counts from the Central Office should be of suitable size, to ensure meeting the future capacity requirements. The number of fibers in the OSP cable would more likely end up being closer to 1 Fiber per 16 tenants. Requirements of direct fibers for business establishment should also to be considered, while sizing the main cables. Where the diversity is required for an important office, Airport, Police, Hospital etc the fiber can be routed in two different routes. Fibers already laid for local network & CATV Network can be considered while developing the GPON Network.
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The Number of Splitters per (FDH) Cabinet & Sizing of (Feeder) Cable.
Every splitter requires a single fiber from OLT. The total number of splitter requirement per cabinet shall be based on 5th year tenants forecasted. 25% spare fibers should be considered in the FO cable size, for future requirements, maintenance, etc. Number of Splitter per Cabinet=No of Tenants / Split Ratio (1:32). The provision of the number of fibers may equal to at least 20 year tenants forecasted. Feeder cable to be loose tube 8F/16F/24F.

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Optical Power Attenuation


Calculating optical splitter attenuation : Insertion loss of the optical splitter (<1dB): (Power_input) - (Power_output of all branches)

Input

1:2 optical splitter

Output

2:N optical splitter

10 log(0.5) = - 3.01 Attenuation of a 1:2 optical splitter: 3.01 dB Attenuation of a 1:16 optical splitter: 12.04 dB Attenuation of a 1:64 optical splitter: 18.06 dB

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Fibre Attenuation and Power Budget


Fibre attenuation relates to the fibre length The attenuation of fibre splicing point is generally less than 0.2dB Other factors may cause attenuation, such
Table G.984.2 Classes for optical path loss Class A 5 dB 20 dB Class B 10 dB 25 dB Class B 13 dB 28 dB Class C 15 dB 30 dB

About 0.35 dB per km for 1310,1490nm

Huaweis OLT and ONU 28 dB (Class B+)

as fibre bending

Minimum loss Maximum loss

NOTE The requirements of a particular class may be more stringent for one system type than for another, e.g. the class C attenuation range is inherently more stringent for TCM systems due to the use of a 1:2 splitter/combiner at each side of the ODN, each having a loss of about 3 dB.

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Parameters of GPON (Class B+)


Items OLT:
Mean launched power MIN Mean launched power MAX Minimum sensitivity Minimum overload ONU: Mean launched power MIN Mean launched power MAX Minimum sensitivity Minimum overload
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Unit

Single fibre OLT


+1.5 +5 -28 -8 ONU 0.5 +5 -27 -8

dBm dBm dBm dBm dBm dBm dBm dBm

GPON Management and Service Provisioning

PTCL Training & Development

GPON Service Provisioning


Carriers nightmare

Initial configurations (such as service system information configuration, data configuration) are required on terminals and then they can be put into use. To finish these configurations, it is not cost-effective to carriers. Application scenario
1

Flexible Configuration plan of GPON GPON supports zero configuration on terminals and plug-and-play of terminals, which is cost-effective.

Subscribe for services

CRM

Order Management

Service Provisioning

Billing

Configure service network

NMS 2000 3 Send terminals to users 1 Finish the auto-configuration of OLT

Use OMCI to finishing data configuration on ONT 3

Access Network

User

STB

2 ONT ONT Start up ONT and make registration with serial number

ONT

ONT

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Basic Services over GPON Network

PTCL Training & Development

Triple Play Solution in GPON


BB service platform
PC TL1/CORBA /API SFU Carriers OSS NMS Notification

IPTV

VoD Server Middle ware

Phone V C D PEL M S D U Splitter PC Phone OLT

Ethernet

IP Core
Firewall

Intern et

SBU

BRAS AAA Server

Softswitch
Base station
IP Voice

CBU
FE E1

CPE

ODN PTCL Training & Development

NSP

ASP/ISP

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Summary
In this presentation, we introduced GPON basic concept , architecture , and principle. We also discussed about GPON service provisioning and application.

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THANK YOU

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