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SR Technics (;

Basic Maintenance

Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

  • 138 In stru m ent Sys te m s (A T A 31)

13.8 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)

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SRTechnics I;

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 A i rcraft Structures

and Systems

  • 13. 8 In st ru me nt Sy s t e m s (A TA 3 1)

Position Transmitting

AC and DC Ratio Signals Introduction

An AC or DC ratio signal has a va ri able amp litude or level. A certain pa rameter controls t he amp l it ude or level of such a signal. A device wit h a va riab le outpu t lev- e l makes such a signal. The a m plit ude or level , changes under control of the pa- ra m eter , betwee n a high and a low level. These levels are di ff erent from device to device and depend o n t he design of t he device .

Potentiometers , sy

nchros , RV DTs/LVDTs and

rate generato r s are examples of

dev ices that make AC or DC rat io signa ls . Pa ra me ters w hi ch con t rol t he outpu t of

these dev ices are for example speed , a ngu lar dis pl acement , et c . Figure 1 : Amplitude depending of Parameter

,' -n-"" h - °n-- _~ -u.: "v _ _ _ .v Paramete r AC
,' -n-""
h
-
°n--
_~ -u.:
"v
_
_
_
.v
Paramete r
AC

Ampl i tude l

+

 

-

Parameter

DC

Ratio System

Moving co i l me ter , servo systems . AC converters etc . are all devices tha t use ra t io signals . A simple way to show the level or amplit ude of a ra t io signal is with a mov-

ing coi l mete r. This type

of in dica tor has a low to rque avai lable to dr i ve other sys-

tems . When othe r systems need more torque , a servo system is a better choice .

Figure 2 : DC Indi ca ting AC S y s t e m o r
Figure
2 :
DC
Indi ca ting
AC
S y
s t e m
o r AJD
C
on v e r te r
Figure
3 : Analog Meter
SRTechnics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 A i rcraft Structures and Systems 13. 8

'I" I,

'/

'/

SRTechnics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 A i rcraft Structures and Systems 13. 8

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Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

13 .8 Inst r um ent Sy s t em s (AlA 31)

Variable Resistance Signals

A variable res i st a n ce si gnal is m ade by a device of w h ich a certa in parameter con -

t ro ls t he res ista nce . T he res is ta nce va ries betwee n a h igh a nd a low value . T hese

l im its depend on t he ty pe and r a nge o f the res isto

r .

Parame ters w h ich contro l t he res i stance a re, for example , temperature , rotation o r pr ess ur e

Figure

4 : linear and non linear

R esis tanc e 1

Non-L i near

 

' .,.

,

 

>, "'

 
 

,

 

I

 

/

 

"

''''

Lin ea r

I---

Ra n g e--J

 

,

 

P ara m e ter

x

y

F igure

5 : Resistance Temperature Sensor in a Circuit

+ o ~--------------------; .- ~ -~ Br i dg e Circui t AID Conv e rt
+
o
~--------------------; .- ~ -~
Br i dg e Circui
t
AID Conv e rt e r
1---." Output
Etc .
T

F i gure 6: Potent i ometer Linear Potentiometer

SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8
SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8

Angu l ar Pote ntiom e te r

Figure 7 : Resistor , Rheostat and Potent i ometer

SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8

Variable Res i stor

SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8

Rheo s tat

SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8

Potentiometer

SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8

Potent i ometer

SRTechnics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3 . 8
Rheostat
Rheostat

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SR Technics t;

Basic Maintenance

Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

  • 13 .8 Ins tr u m e nt Sys tems (ATA 31)

Control Transformer

F i gur e 8 :

Stator Voltmeter 26VAC Excitation
Stator
Voltmeter
26VAC
Excitation

Rotor

A trans former consis t s of a primary and a secondary co i l. T he primary co il produ c - es a cont i nuo us ly changing magnetic fl ux in the iron core . In the se c ondary co i l the changing flux i nduces a alternat ing voltage .

a

)

T he p rimary co il exc ited by U 1 is a li gned wi t h t he secondary co il. Outp ut U 2 has t he same phase angle as t he in p ut vo lt age .

 

0

b )

The pr i mary coi

l is 90

 

clockwise rotated. No magnet ic fiux goes through

the secondary coil. Outpu t U 2 is nu ll.

 

c

)

The

primary co il i s 180 · in the

oppos ite o f the f irst position .

 

T he

phase ang l e

o f the output voltage is opposite of the i np ut voltage .

 

0

d

)

T

he

p rimary c o il i s 2 70

ro tated . The output is a lso nu ll .

 

No magne tic fl ux

g o es t hrough t he se c ondary

coi l .

Pos itions i n betwee n t he 4 shown card ina l pos it ions w il l change the amplitude of t he out put . not the phase ang le.

Figure 9 : Output of a Control Transformer

a)

SR Technics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

Inpu~

SR Technics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
SR Technics t; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

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SR Technics f;

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

  • 13. 8 Instrumen t Systems (ATA 3 1)

Synchros

Introduction

A typical synchro has a rotor an d three sta tor coils . The coils in the stator are a t 120 degrees wi th respect t o each ot her. T his unit ac t s like 3 control tra nsfo rmers contained in o ne unit.

Figure 10 :

s,.-------------~ Us, 1'----\------,. -
s,.-------------~
Us, 1'----\------,. -
SR Technics f; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 1 3. 8

Sy nchros use 26 V A C or 115 V AC f o r exc itation of the ro tor The excita tion m akes a mag ne ti c field in t he roto r co i l. T his magnetic fie ld in d uces a vol t age in the stato r coils . The vol tages in the sta tor coils a re in- pha se or 180 degrees out-of- pha se

w it h respec t to each other The

vo ltage in the stator coi ls depen d s

on the a ng le

between the rotor coil and each st ator co i l. Whe n we turn the rotor . the mag net ic fie ld in the stato r a lso turn s an d the volt age s in the stato r co i ls change .

Figure 11:.

r - - - - - --, .- __ 1'-- --0 X I ~~~n Y H
r - -
-
- -
--,
.-
__
1'-- --0 X
I
~~~n
Y
H 'VC
Z

R,

R,

5, 5 , 53 Symbol
5,
5 ,
53
Symbol
] c ' - 9 0 ' ]Cifl
] c ' - 9 0 ' ]Cifl
] c

] c

 

'

-

9 0 '

]Cifl

]Cifl

t

j

1 8 0 '

S yn c hr o P ri nc i pl e

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SRTechnics I;

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

13 .8 Instrument Systems (AlA 31)

Direct Torquer Systems

The output signal of a synchro is an AC signal which has angular informa tio n. The synchro's which make these signals are synchro tr ansmitters .

These tr ansm itters are of the

old multi-coil type or of the latest

sol id-state type . The

multi - coil type makes from a mechanica l input a synchro signa l , the second from

an e lectr ica l in put.

In a synchro system we connect the t hree ou tput signals of a synchro transm itter to the three inp uts of a synchro (rece iver) The field that is made by the rotor of the

synchro transm itter i s now repeated in the sta t or of the synchro

receiver.

Before the rotor of the rece iver takes the pos ition o f the field i n the sta tor we have

to make a field in the roto r of the rece iver This field must be 180· out the field made by the synchro t ransm i tter. The rotor of the synchro

of phase with rece iver now

goes to the same pos it ion as the rotor of the synchro transmitter . Any time we change the posi t ion of the ro tor of the synchro t ran smitter the rotor of the receiver

follows this turn.

Figure 12:

Synchro Receifer z
Synchro
Receifer
z

"~,~=====~'uE

"VJ'

"VJ'

TX = Torque Tran smitter = Synchro Transmitter

TR ~ Torque Aeceifer

= Synchro Receifer

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SRTechnics ()

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

  • 13.8 In strument Sys tems (A TA 31)

Servo Systems

The rotor of a synchro receiver gives a li m ited torque fo r other systems . When this torque is not high enough we have to use a servo system

In a synchro-servo system the rotor of the synchro rece iver gives a signa l to a ser- vo amplifier. In this system the rotor of the rece iver i s not connected to a supply

source but it makes a sig nal from the stator -field in the receiver synchro. The out -

put signa l of the servo amplifier drives a motor . The motor dr ives , v ia a reduction

gear, the rotor of the synch ro receiver and a load . When the output signal of the rotor of the synchro receiver is not zero , the servo

amplifier drives the motor . The motor adjusts the posit i on of the rotor of the syn-

chro rece iver and the load unti l the output signal of th is rotor is zero.

This output

signal is ze ro when the angle between the rotor and the stator field is 90 degrees .

The outpu t of the rotor of the synchro receive r is also zero when the transmitter supply fails or a rotor wire is broken . To make it possible to detect these fai l ures there are synchro rece ivers with two rotor w indings These two windings are at 90 degrees with respect to each other. VV'hen the rotor of the synchro rece iver is in the correct position. the output signal of one coil is zero and the output of the othe r coil is maximum. With these two signals it is possible to see if the system works prop- er ly. A continuity detector monitors the two output signals of the rotor coils and

when everyth ing is all righ t it enables a valid

signal 10 . for example. a f lag .

Figure 13: Servo System , _____ .J z I I Servo Amplifier Servomo t or
Figure 13: Servo System
,
_____
.J
z
I
I
Servo Amplifier
Servomo t or

Figure 14: Monitoring

x

~;~ (: C\ T,~~:~;;~e, (u~N C:;qVdt~ "v _r-::l ( \Jt~l1 ) \~ L::J Sy n ch
~;~ (: C\ T,~~:~;;~e, (u~N C:;qVdt~ "v _r-::l
(
\Jt~l1 )
\~
L::J
Sy n ch ro
I e
'-
.....1
./
"-
....
/
Receifer
l
~~------~~H~~c~:F~~~c~o~n~t;~n~o;~ty~ --~
Detector
~
Z
Excitation

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SR Technics Ii

Basic Maintenance

Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

  • 13.8 Instrum ent Systems (ATA 31)

Differential Synchros

With a different ial synchro it is poss i b le to add or subtract angles . Th is synchro has three co il s in the rotor and three coils in the stator at 120 degrees with respect to each other. When the ro tor of th i s synchro is turned toward left or right . it adds or subtracts this angle from the angle the stator field has in the stator .

Figure 15 : Symbol

x----------____ ~ x Input y Output z z----.J
x----------____
~
x
Input
y
Output
z
z----.J

y------------------~

The next diagram of a DG slaved compass system shows the usage of a differen - tial synchro .

The flux valve sends the direction of the earth magnetic field to the flu x va lve con- trol transformer .

If the mas t ers h aft is not in the position which represents the madlnetic heading , the slav in g amplifier torques the direct ional gyro with a rate of 5 per minute to the correct position .

The posi t ion of the d ire c t ional gyro is transmitted via differentia l synchro to the master shaft . If the master shaft corresponds to the f lux valve signal , the annunci - ator shows zero and the slaving i s correct.

If the difference of mastershaft and earth magnet ic field direction is to big , synchro- niz i ng takes to m uch time , so the pilot changes the DG output s ignal w ith the dif- ferential synchro to synchronize the compass manually , until the annunciator shows zero . In th is case the DG will then maintain its own direction .

Figure 16 : OS used to synchronize a Compass System

F lu. Valve CT Slaving Amp . ~---0 , flUX 'VALVE , , G M :,
F lu. Valve CT
Slaving
Amp .
~---0
,
flUX
'VALVE
,
,
G
M
:,
~,
J"
""
"---+--is:,;n@
!, :'
" ,
,
Torque M otOr
I
L- ---- r - - -
I
Instrument
Amplil i@r
11 S VAC
HOG Doto
"--___
~
}4.---
26 VA C
Out 1
y-
HOG
Trons ,
Oir . Gyro
HOG Data
)->f--'--
26 VAC
Out 2 ~---H-O~G4
Rndio Directio n
Indicotof ( RD 20 1)
Ann u nciator
"--- +-~.
HOG Data
)->f-
;'--
26 VAC
Ou'3 ~---H-O~G4
,
Remote
Mon
.
~HOG SEL
HOG SEL----_~-
,
\
HOG Data
H--'--
Out 4 r--~"'"
26 VAC
o
r: --
HOG
------ - -
r
--~
Trnns 4
,
---' Remo t e Mon Sy n c
-
HOG SEL .
"---------'

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SR Technics f;

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Modu l e 13 A i rcraft Structures and Systems

13 .8 In st r u m en t Syst ems (ATA 3 1)

Resolvers

The resolver has two stato r coils a nd a ro tor coil. The two roto r coils

and t he two

stato r coi ls a re at 90 degrees w ith res pec t to each other . A resolve r makes fro m t he si g nals in the st ator coils sine a nd cosine sig nals .

Figure 17 : Resolver (, ,, 11I~1I111 , I I : «( -",,_- .. ~,' ,
Figure
17 : Resolver
(, ,,
11I~1I111
,
I
I
: «(
-",,_-
..
~,'
,
"~",-+---)----0: ~
'\;
Cos i ne
Exc .
S in e
Figure
18 : Sinus and Cosinus S i gnal depending of existing Angle

Amplitude ( \) = 0 ' )

t

SR Technics f; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Modu l e 13 A i rcraft Structures and

-

Amplitude ( il = 180 ' )

u

Figure 19 : Resolver as Angular Transmitter

T hru s t I L e v e r Angl e C han ne l
T hru s t
I
L e v e r
Angl e
C han ne l A
H
,
Y ~ ~~~~~ __L~~~~~
C -
'IN
- A _~ ,:,F,:;:ill~e~r
-x
;==2
0->
Thr u s t
A
-cos
-
B
F ilte r
A ngle
Du a l
w
L
J=
,~_
-
Re sol
ver
L
E===C
8 =CO$= ~ =}
B -
H
G
~~~~ 8=
l
S I N =~ = C H B
Ele ctr o n ic
Engin e
r
:
~
Con t ro l
T hru s t C
on tro l M Od ul eJ
cL
.._______________
.J

Figure 20 : Resolver as Phase Angle Sh i fter 0 ·360 · Phase Angle Selection a

• .... 0 - 360 ' V , -iololo l Stator , i ~ _r_-<l: ~
....
0 - 360 '
V
,
-iololo l
Stator
,
i
~
_r_-<l: ~
Uo
U o
Roto
~
Phase Sh i fting
Network
D
'I~
~ • v Vv vv
gO '
*
'
U gO

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SR Technics Ii

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

  • 13.8 Instrument Sys t ems (ATA 31 )

Linear Variable Differential Transformer LVDTs

A transformer i nduces an output voltage i n t he secondary coil. According the d i- re c t ion of the wind i ngs , the phase angle is in ( zero degr. ) or oppos ite phase ( 180 degr .) The phase angle can be determined w ith dots .

Linear Variable Differential Transducers (LVDTs) change linear pOSit ion informa - tion i nto e lectrical signals .

An LVDT has :

one pr i mary co il , a li near moveable iron core and two i n seria l connected secondary co i ls

The mechan ic a l input changes the position of the iron core . The pos it ion of the core c hanges the magneti c coupling between the primary and the secondary coils . When the input moves the core in one direct io n , one of the secondary coils re - ce ives more magnetic flux . This induces a higher voltage in the co il.

The other secondary coil rece ives less magnet ic flux . This induces a lower voltage . The difference between vo ltages induced in the secondary sta tor co il s i s propor- t ional to the mechan ical pos it ion .

A. The position of the iron core is centred . The magnetic fie ld induced by pri mary c o i l is equally divided between the secondary coi l s .Therefore the ou t put vo ltage is zero .

8 . The iron core has moved upward . Now there is more coupling to the upper coil

and

less coup li ng to

the lower coil . The output vo ltage i ncreases and is in phase

with

the excitat ion .

C

The i ron core has turned downward . Now there is more coupling to the lower

co il and less coupl i ng to the upper coil. The output voltage increases and is i n op- posite phase with the excitat ion .

Figure 21 : LVDT

Po :JIC Po Po :JIC tp

p

s

p

s

SR Technics Ii Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13.8 Instrument Sys

Electrical Output

• ~seCOndary / Coils • Iron -Core
~seCOndary
/
Coils
Iron -Core
(moveable)
(moveable)
SR Technics Ii Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13.8 Instrument Sys

III

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Basic Maintenance

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Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 .8 In str ume nt Sys te m s (A T A 3 1)

Demodulation and Indication

TIle AC volt a ge from the LVDT i s propo rt ional of the deflection of the core and the

phase is depending of the core direc ti on modulated ( Synchron demodula tor)

T he signa l must be phase -dependant

de -

TI1e ampl ified

signa l goes via elec t ro

nic swi t ch . Th i s closes periodica ll y by the pos -

it ive phase of the re f e rence vo ltage . With n o in p u t sign a l the i ndicato r sho w s zero .

Figure 22 : Neutral

Position

SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
Refe re n c e Volt a g e LVOT Aplifi e r
Refe re n c e Volt a g e
LVOT
Aplifi e r

Di o d e

Electronic

-- --- ._ CT R

Ind ic ator

>----E~l;sw~itc~h ~o I'}--j.

&.

'

I

it-

I

--

°

SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

Figure 2 3: Defle c tion toward right

SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

-------

'h

SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

When the core moves to the r ight. the positive s i ne wave passes d uri ng trans it time

the electron i c sw i tch The pointer Figure 24 : Deflection toward left

of t h e in strument sh o ws to t h e r ight side .

----
----

I h

SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
•
SR Technics () Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

Vv'h e n the core moves to the left , t he negative si ne wave passes during t ransit time the electronic sw i tch The painte r of t h e instrument shows to t h e left s ide .

Figure 25 : Usage of lVDT

, ., LERO ' c AUU c TIJATOR "' I ,w, ~ITKlI (~~~H" . ' ~O
,
., LERO '
c
AUU c
TIJATOR
"'
I
,w,
~ITKlI
(~~~H" . ' ~O ~1 .0U ' O 8 " "U10 ~ "O"
D!i
" '. ' Of
,,~
11 ·'"
:=;]
r_
-
I
-
. --
cin
:2]1
LO / ';? Vz7';
.J 8
,
~_ C""IKII.
~"-,
Exam p le:
Ai le ron poS I\ ,o n fee dba c k \0 <Jvt o p il Qt w
1'"'°"'°'
L'o===~}HC"""'O~

AILERON

ith LVOT

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Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems

13 .8 Instrument Systems (AT A 31)

Rotary Variable Differential Transformer RVDT

Figure 26 :

RVDT

[

ANGLE ~'~----EEillo

:~C~;~TlON ~

I'

;J

  • 26 VA C

SR Technics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

Ro t ary Variab le D ifferent ia l Tr ansducers ( RVDTs) cha nge angular pos ition infor - mation i nto electrica l signa ls .

An RVDT has :

a pri mary stator coil an iron rotor co re two secondary stator coils .

The mechanical input changes the posit ion of the iron core . The position of the co re changes the magnetic coupling between the primary and the secondary sta-

tor coils . When the input

rotates . one of the secondary coils re ceives more mag -

ne tic flux . This induces a h igher voltage in the coil.

The ot he r secondary coil receives less magnet ic flux . Th is induces a lower voltage . The difference between vo lt ages i nduced in the secondary stato r coi ls is propor- tional to the rotated angle . This is an AC Ratio Signa l.

The difference between ro t ation directio n is that the ou tpu t -voltage

between Rand

T is of opposite phase . The output measured between Rand T is an AC-RATIO

signal which represents the rotated

angle of the RVD T .

SR Technics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
SR Technics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
SR Technics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

Figure 27 :

Zero Pos ition : The position of the iron co re i s zero . The magnet ic field induced by primary coil L 3 is equally div id- ed between L,and L 2 . Therefore the vo ltage R-T is zero .

Rotated c lockwise : The iro n co re has turned clockwise Now there i s more coupl i ng between L3 and L 2 . and less coup l in g between L3 and L, . T he vol tage between T and S i nc reases and the voltage between Rand S de c reases .

Rotated counter clockwise : The i ro n core has turned co unt er-clockwise . Now ther e is more coupling between L3 and L, and less coup li ng between L3 and L 2 . The volt- age between T and S decreases and the vo lt age be- tween Rand S in c reases .

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Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)

Servo Motors and Tacho Rate Generators

Servo Loops

The DC servo motor loop is called a loop because of the closed nature of the sys -

tem

operation . Th e DC source is connected to the variable control potentiometer

and

to the follow -up pote n tiomete r.

A servo amplifier amp li fies the ra tio s igna l and drives a motor with it. The motor drives a feedback device and a load . T he sig na l from the feedback dev ice also

 

go es to the servo between the ra t io

ampl if ier. T he load is i n the corre c t pos ition when the d ifference and the f eedbac k signal is zero .

Servo Loop with DC Motor

Any time there is a difference between the two s ignals , the motor drives the load and feedba c k unti l both signals are equa l. The po larity of the d ifference dete rm i ne s the di re c tion of rotation .

Servo Loop with AC Motor

W hen we must have even more torque, it is better to use an AC moto r. A chopper circu it makes AC from the DC signa l. To drive the AC motor with this signa l we need an extra ampl ifier. The rest of th is system works like the DC servo system .

Figure

28 : Servoloop with DC - Motor

SRTechnics Ii Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8 Instrument

Servo Amplifier

  • Motor M --;--8

, , I Feedback Device
,
,
I
Feedback Device

,

-

Fi gure

29: Servo Loop with AC - Motor

Source Servo Amplifier .------'-----, ~ In. Chopper ~ _____ _ _____ ____________ J Feedback Device
Source
Servo Amplifier .------'-----,
~
In.
Chopper
~
_____ _ _____ ____________
J
Feedback Device

SCp 0 4 / TH TT Copynght by SR TechniCS Switzerland

CorrespondIng With EAS A P art -66 For trammg purposes on ly

Cat: 82

13 . 8 - 13

SR Technics fi

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 .8 Instrument Systems (ATA 31 )

Two Phase Servo Motor

The AC two - phase inductance motor servo motor . It may be very sm all or it may be quite powerful. The construction of the stator has tw o fields . Th ese two fields are rep res en ted symbolica lly by two coils drawn at rig ht angles to each other.

Counter Clock Wise Rotation CCW If a 4 00 Hertz voltage with a phase ang le of 0 ° is connected to the variable field

and an oth er 400 Hertz volta ge with a phase angle of 90 ° The resu lting field ro-

tates at 400 revolutions

per second . A capaci tor i n series with the fixed fie ld sh ifts

the voltage 90 ° of the variable field .

Rotati on of the magnet ic field i n the motor tends to d rag t he rotor after it in the same d irect io n. How fast the moto r m oves depends upon its lo ad and the strength of t he magne tic field, which effective ly is dependent up o n the strength o f t he vari - ab le signa l.

Clock Wise Rotation CW

T he phase of th e var iable signal has been reve rse d . This reverse s the direction of rotation of the resul ta nt fie ld . T he direct ion of motor ro tation depends upon the phase of the variable sig nal, and t he speed of rotat ion depends upon its amplitude .

Braked

Often times it is desirable to apply an elect rical brake to a two-phase servo motor

This can be done by d isco nnect ing ei t her th e var iable f ie ld or

the fixed fie ld . If only

one field is left operative , the motor does not rotate because the fiel d d oes not ro- tat e . Th is tends to hold the rotor of the motor in a fi xed pos ition .

Servo motor loop USing a control synchro input

It is typ ical of many such loops used t hrougho ut aircraft sys tems . Whenever the amplifier sees a signa l of a particular phase , it drives the motor i n a parti c ular di - re c tion until th e synchro ro tor comes to a part ic ular null. A signa l of opposi te phase f rom the synchro rotor drives the se rvomotor i n th e opposite direction . The synchro

ro tor therefore always is dr iven to a

particu la r nu ll.

The operating s ignal will come from some remote sou rce whose mechanical posi -

tio n

we want to dupl ic ate in the operated item . For example , the re mote source

co uld be a direc tio nal gyro and the operated item could be a compass ind ica to r .

Figure 30: 2 Phase Motor

running CCW , CW and braked

Variable

L~0'

r:T) Fixed

L90 '

SR Technics fi Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8

Variable

8"

~8}

(""1 Fixed

[90 '

Figure 31 : 2 Phase Motor in a Servo-Loop with Control Transformer

Ope,aled Item

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r
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SR Technics fi Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8
  • - -----=5-1.-10-'-'

tlor

[:A~Plifier J ~

Control Transformer

I

I

Fix ed

L90 '

Sep041 THTT COPYflght by SR Techn ic s Switzerland

C()(respondlng WIII'I EASA Parl·56 For Iraming pv'poses on ly

Cat: 82

13.8 - 14

SR Technics ()

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Sy s tems

  • 138 In s t rumen t Sys te m s (A T A 31)

Tachometer / Rate Generator

Tachometer generato r and ra t e gene rato r a re the same de v ice _The output from a t achometer generator is in phase , or opposite phase ang le w ith the exc itat ion .

Tachometer not running

The powered fixed fie l d is perpendi c u la r to the variable field . The magneti c field is per pend ic ular to the va r iable fie ld the re i s n o transformer action and no signal out of t he variab le f ield winding .

Rotor turns in clockwise direction

The ro tor as te n ding to drag the magneti c fi eld along with it. A sl o w rate of move- ment of the rotor does nol bend t he magnetic field very much , whereas a greater raie of mo tio n moves the field farther . T h e gene rated voltages in c reases i n spee d

of the

ro t or .

A low

ro tor speed the small t ransfo rmer co u pling

results in a small ou t put voltage

At c lockwise

directi on

of rota t ion the output is a 400

H z w ith

a phase angle

18 0

deg rees w ith

a small voltage amp li tude .

Speeding up the ro tor displaces the magnetic fie ld farther away fro m perpendicu- lar. c aus i ng a large r voltage t o appear at the outpu t. The amplitude of the outpu t is a d i rect function of the rotor speed

Rotor turns in counter clockwise direction

T he field has been moved away from pe r pe n dic u lar

in the OPPOSite d irec ti on , a n d

therefore t he phase of the outp u t is o pposite. T he ou t p u t frequency is independent

of rotation speed 400 Hz.

O ne of the greates t uses of the rate ge n erator is to provide inverse feedback s ig - nals in servo motor systems f or speed l im iting a n d smoothing functions . Another use is t o prov ide rate signals .

Figure 32 : Const a nt Frequency , var i able Amplitude Output

Fi x ed

400 HZL9~

§

-------------G

~

~

r.'1

L

18 0 -

Variable

Output

Fixed

.,

..

400Hzt9~ @-----------G

r:'l Variable

Lo·

O utput

Example of a Servo Loop with Tacho Generator

The ai rcraft heading. represented

by

t h e angular pos it i on

o f the

mas t er sh aft , is

send as heading signal to the contro l transformer. If the /l ead ing d ia l o f the in d i ca-

tor does not co r respon d with the ai rcraft heading ,

an e r ror s igna l resu lt s to the in-

put o f t he amp l ifier T he command si gnal d rives t he molor . If the headi n g c a rd posit io n i s ident ica l with the a i rcraft head i ng , the e rr or outpu t of the c ontro l trans-

former goes to null , so the motor s tops.

The tacho gene rator produces a signa l proportio n al w it h the rolat in g speed o f the

mo t or wit n the heading d ia l . The rate f eedback is opposite

This reduces t he

rotat ing speed o f the in dicato r to preve nt

applied t o the amp li fie r. ove r s h oot in g and osci l-

lations when t he scale reaches its final pos it ion.

Figure 33 : Heading Dial Servo Loop with Rate Feedback

26V A C H e ad i n g Con t rol Tran s f or
26V A C
H e ad i n g
Con t rol
Tran s f or m e r
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_
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,
Headin g
Tra n s m itter
Err or
: H e ading C ard
P os it i on
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~ctual Hea d i ng
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Aircr aft
He a d i n
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A n !)l e
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In s trument
Amplifier
Compa ss Indi ca tor

Sep04/ TH ff

Copyrrgh / by SR Tech(>ic~ SWI/zer la nd

COfres pon (! mg WIth EAS A l'a rt·66 For trainmg purposes only

Cat : 82

13 .8·15

SRTechnics I;

Basic Maintenance Training Manual

Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 .8 Ins tr umen t Sys t ems (A T A 31)

Pressure Measuring Instruments

Pressu re is the amount of force acting on a given unit of area , and a ll p ressure must be measured fro m some know n reference . Absolu t e press ure is measured

from zero pressure , o r

a vacuum . Gage pr ess ure is meas ur ed f rom the e x ist ing at-

mosphe r ic pressure , and different ia l pressure is the difference between two pres - s ures .

Absolute Pressure Instruments

Th is su l e

instrument uses a sealed . evacuated , conce ntrically as its pressure-sens it ive mechanism . T he co ncentr ic

corrugated metal cap- corruga t io ns provide a

degree of spr inginess t ha t

opposes the pressure of the a i r. As the a ir press ure in -

creases , the t hick ness of t he capsule decreases , a nd as the pressure decrease s,

the capsule expands . A rocking shaft , sec tor ge a r,

a nd pini o n

m ulti pl y t he change

i n d ime nsion of t he capsu le and d ri ve a poi nter ac ross a ca l ib rated d ial.

F i gure 34 : Aneroid

u >.: .. .. .l! Q. ., a E ;{
u
>.: ..
..
.l!
Q.
.,
a
E
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An e ro id

Chamber

SRTechnics I; Basic Maintenance Training Manual Module 13 Aircraft Structures and Systems 13 . 8 I

Gage Pressure Instruments

Gage pressure is measured f rom the ex isti ng baromet ric pressure a nd is ac t ua l ly the pressu re t hat has been added to a fiuid.

Burdon Tube

A Bo urdon t ube is typ ica lly used to measure gage pressure . This tube is a fla t -

tened th in-wa ll bronze tube forme d into a curve . One end o f the tube is sea led a nd

attached through a linkage

to a sec tor gear . The ot her e nd is c onnec ted to the i n-

st rument case through a fi tting that al lows the fiu id t o be measured to en ter .

When the pressure o f the

f lu id in side the

tube

in creases , it tries

to change the

cross - sect ional sha pe

of t he t ube from fiat to round

. As the c ross sec t io n changes .

the curved tube t en d s

to stra ighten out. T his i n t urn moves the se c tor gear . w hich

rota tes t he pinion gear on which t he po