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Chapter 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Test Item Table

Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Savvy Automakers Know Thy Custom(h)er (pp. 99-100) Consumer Purchase Decision Process (pp. 100-104) Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 104-111) Level of Learning Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1, 2 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 3

Sociocultural Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 112-117) Video Case: Ken Davis Products. Inc.: Barbecue Sauces for Nonimprovisers (pp. 118-119)

4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 37, 38, 41, 43, 46, 49, 51, 52, 179 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 112, 115, 119, 120, 125, 126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 183 139, 141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 157, 167, 173, 174, 186

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 178 62, 63, 67, 78, 83, 86, 90, 93, 96, 105, 106, 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 121, 127, 129, 130, 181, 182, 184

6, 14, 17, 26, 32, 39, 40, 44, 45, 47, 177, 180 61, 70, 71, 72, 77, 79, 82, 85, 88, 92, 97, 99, 102, 111, 113, 114, 122, 123, 124, 128, 136, 181, 183

137, 138, 142, 145, 153, 156, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171, 186, 187, 188 175, 176

140, 146, 150, 151, 152, 159, 164, 165, 166, 172, 185, 188, 189

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.

252

CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS


5-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is true? a. b. c. d. e. Women have no particular likes or dislikes which makes it very difficult to view them as a viable target market. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process. To accommodate women customers, automobile dealers have not changed the way they sell cars in the last three decades. Women are most likely to make their car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative. Women rely more heavily on promotional information to make their final car purchase decision than men do. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 99 Rationale: Choice d is a correct statement. Regarding the incorrect choices, recognition of women as purchasers and influencers in car and truck buying has altered the behavior of dealers, including doing away with negotiation. Women look at promotional material, but do not rely on it to make their final decision. 5-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Who buys 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks? a. b. c. d. e. Men Women Teens People representing ethnic minority groups None of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 99 Rationale: Women buy about 60 percent of new cars and light trucks. As a group, they spend over $81 billion on new cars and trucks for their personal use, and influence 80 percent of all new car sales.

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5-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER

APPLICATION

When General Motors started selling its Saturn cars, it announced that the cars would have a nonnegotiable price. A customer who wanted to buy a Saturn would pay the posted price. General Motors probably adopted this pricing policy because: a. b. c. d. e. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices. women have an intense dislike of the car-buying process, yet still want to buy a car. many recent immigrants into the United States were not accustomed to negotiation. research showed that price negotiation was socially irresponsible. a sluggish economy guaranteed that negotiations would produce a less than adequate return on investment.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: General Motors, like the other car manufacturers, was aware that women buy 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks. Additional research had shown them that 78 percent of women disliked the car-buying process and often refuse to negotiate the price. (Many of the recent immigrants to the U.S. come from countries where negotiations are expected for each purchase.) 5-4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DEFINITION

__________ describes the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services. a. b. c. d. e. Marketing Market research Consumer behavior Consumer management Purchase development

Answer: c Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definitionconsumer behavior 5-5 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS DEFINITION

The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the: a. b. c. d. e. situational analysis sequence. VALS inventory. purchase decision process. hierarchy of learning. routine response sequence.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Key term definitionpurchase decision process

254

5-6 PROBLEM RECOGNITION

APPLICATION

Nike has developed a new cushioning substance for use in the soles of athletic shoes. The new substance not only absorbs shock better, it rebounds more completely, thereby improving the wearer's speed and jumping ability. Nike believes this new characteristicpromoted as reflex responsewill make the new shoe a superior product. Due to increased costs of materials and production, the price will be about $150. Based on responses of people who have tried the new product, Nike is confident consumers will have a relatively favorable evaluation of the shoe. To have a favorable evaluation, consumers must first: a. b. c. d. e. experience problem recognition. consult a public source of information. consult a personal source of information. make a purchase decision. experience cognitive dissonance.

Answer: a Page: 100; Figure 5-1 Rationale: As Figure 5-1 illustrates, a buyer passes through five stages of the purchase decision process when making choices about which products and services to buy. The initial step in the process is problem recognition. 5-7 PROBLEM RECOGNITION DEFINITION

During the purchase decision process, a person at the __________ stage will realize that the difference between what he or she has and what he or she would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition alternative evaluation cognitive dissonance routine response behavior post purchase behavior

Answer: a Page: 100; Figure 5-1 Rationale: Text term definitionproblem recognition

255

5-8 PROBLEM RECOGNITION

CONCEPTUAL

When the marketing student said, It's really hard for me to get to class on time without a car, she was entering which stage of the consumer decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Purchase decision Alternative evaluation Information search Problem recognition Postpurchase behavior

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: During the purchase decision process, an individual at the problem recognition stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. The student perceives she would be unable to get to class on time without a car. 5-9 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL

When Marty attended his first statistics class, he realized that he ought to buy a calculator or else he would be unable to do his assignments. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Marty when he made this realization? a. b. c. d. e. Information search Problem recognition Purchase behavior Alternative evaluation Pre-purchase cognition

Answer: b Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: During the purchase decision process, an individual at the problem recognition will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. Marty realized that he was unable to do his assignments without a calculator. 5-10 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase, yields brand names that might meet the criteria, and develops consumer value perceptions? a. b. c. d. e. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need.

256

5-11 INFORMATION SEARCH

CONCEPTUAL

The question How long is the warranty for this CD player? would be asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process. a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition information search alternative evaluation purchase decision All of the above.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. 5-12 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask, "Is installation included in the price of this air conditioner?" a. b. c. d. e. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Evaluation

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem, a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. 5-13 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Eddie, an avid football fan, is glued to the television every Sunday afternoon as he watches his favorite teams. He thinks games would be more enjoyable on a big screen television. Eddie started talking with his friends to learn more about the various brands of big screen televisions. In which step of the purchase decision making process is Eddie engaged? a. b. c. d. e. Problem recognition Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Information search Post purchase evaluation

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: After a consumer has recognized a problem, the next step in the decision making process is to search for information. When past experience or personal knowledge does not provide adequate information upon which a consumer can make a decision, the risk of making a bad decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low, the consumer may seek information from external sources. Primary external sources of information for many consumers are family and friends.

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5-14 INFORMATION SEARCH

APPLICATION

When an elementary school teacher needed to buy poster board for her class, she remembered that she had found some poster board at three stores: her local 99 Cents Only store, Walgreens, and at her Family Dollar Store. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher? a. b. c. d. e. Personal external source Public external source Market-dominated external source Internal search Market-dominated internal source

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-15 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Thao's friend Mike turns 21 next week and will have a party. Thao decided to purchase a CD as a present. Because they like the same music, Thao scanned her memory for various CD options. This is an example of what action in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Memorization External search Evaluative criteria Antecedent states Internal search

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search such as Thao recalling various CD options. 5-16 INTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION

A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memory for previous experiences with products or brands. a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition internal search external search purchase task antecedent state

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: Text term definitioninternal search

258

5-17 INTERNAL SEARCH

APPLICATION

A mother of two toddlers would most likely use an internal search process exclusively when purchasing: a. b. c. d. e. a gift for a best friend. a DVD player. disposable diapers. perfume. a weekend getaway.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. Because diapers are frequently purchased items, the mother would likely recall from memory which brand she prefers. 5-18 INTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Amy is an avid mystery reader and has decided to purchase a mystery book for her best friend. Since the two friends enjoy the same types of mysteries, Amy will know exactly which book her friend would like. When Amy was scanning her memory for various mystery book options, she was engaged in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-19 EXTERNAL SEARCH An external search for product information is especially important when: a. b. c. d. e. the cost of gathering information is low. review of past experience provides adequate information. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low. the item is frequently purchased. any of the above conditions exist. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 100 Rationale: An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

259

5-20 EXTERNAL SEARCH

DEFINITION

In the consumer purchase decision process an external search for product information occurs when: a. b. c. d. e. the consumer gathers information from outside sources. the consumer gathers information from friends. the consumer gathers information from product-rating organizations. the consumer gathers information from advertising. any of the above conditions exist.

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: Text-term definitionexternal search 5-21 EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Christina wants to purchase a new computer. She is unsure about what hardware and software she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several computer salespeople and has looked at some websites. Christina is engaging in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Christina is externally searching for information about computers. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high. 5-22 PERSONAL SOURCES DEFINITION

Examples of personal sources of information for an external information search include: a. b. c. d. e. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. sales personnel. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definitionpersonal sources

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5-23 PUBLIC SOURCES

DEFINITION

An example of a public source of information for an external information search is: a. b. c. d. e. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. sales personnel. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: b Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definitionpublic sources 5-24 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES DEFINITION

An example of a marketer-dominated source of information for an external information search is: a. b. c. d. e. personal experience. Consumer Reports magazine. consumer programs on talk radio stations. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definitionmarketer-dominated sources 5-25 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES CONCEPTUAL

Marlon was hungry, but he couldn't decide what he wanted to eat. When Marlon saw the television ad for chocolate-stuffed Oreo cookies, he knew exactly what he wanted. Marlon's information search was shorted by the appearance of a __________ source. a. b. c. d. e. private information consumer-controlled public information family marketer-dominated

Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services, and include advertising, salespeople, and point-of-purchase displays in stores.

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5-26 ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION

APPLICATION

Keisha is in the process of buying a new car appropriate to her role as the newest vice president at her company. She was overheard telling a co-worker, "The Volvo has reclining bucket seats, but the Cadillac has front and back stereo speakers." In which stage of the purchase decision process is Keisha? a. b. c. d. e. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation

Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: The problem recognition stage was prompted by the need for appropriate transportation; the information search stage helped the consumer to collect needed information to use to seek value; the alternative evaluation stage provides evaluative criteria by which to make a decision. In this case the purchase will be a car, the bucket seats or an exceptional stereo represent the alternatives that need to be evaluated. 5-27 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION

The objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products are called: a. b. c. d. e. temporal states. antecedent states. information sources. evaluative criteria. the evoked set.

Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definitionevaluative criteria 5-28 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION

When you set out to buy a DVD player for yourself, factors you might consider before purchase are called __________, which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands. a. b. c. d. e. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes

Answer: c Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definitionevaluative criteria

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5-29 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA

CONCEPTUAL

When Judy decided to buy an electric can opener as a wedding present, she wanted to buy a brand name opener that attached under a cabinet and that had sleek styling. These are __________ Judy used during the alternative evaluation stage of the purchase decision process. a. b. c. d. e. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes

Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand (the ability to attach under a cabinet) and the subjective ones (sleek styling) a person uses to compare different products and brands. 5-30 EVOKED SET DEFINITION

The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is the: a. b. c. d. e. evaluative set. evolved set. evoked set. alternative selection group. aspiration group.

Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definitionevoked set 5-31 EVOKED SET CONCEPTUAL

You want to buy some dry breakfast cereal and you are in the mood for unsweetened flakes. You can think of three brands that you consider acceptable from among all the brands of which you are aware: Post Toasties, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, and Wheaties. Collectively, what is this group of cereal brands called? a. b. c. d. e. A value group An evoked set An evaluative criterion An impulse set A discriminative group

Answer: b Page: 101 Rationale: The evoked set is the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in a product class, such as the different unsweetened flake cereals.

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5-32 EVOKED SET

APPLICATION

BMW StreetCarver is a skateboard that features BMW's technology in its wheel suspension, which stabilizes the board's sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. BMW is concerned with making sure its skateboard is in the evoked sets of potential skateboard buyers. In this case, it most likely should focus on: a. b. c. d. e. reducing the post-purchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product. making sure its advertisements get on the air during sporting events, such as exhibition skateboarding. making appeals directed towards motivational ego needs. trying to determine the most important evaluative criteria skateboarders use when judging the product. creating personality profiles for skateboarders.

Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: The key influence in determining the products in the evoked set is to have a set of important attributes, which matches the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. The most important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers' evoked set. Therefore, by identifying the most important attributes a firm can design a product, which matches consumers' interests. 5-33 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL

Raul overheard one of his co-workers in a phone conversation say, Thank you for taking my call so quickly. I'd like to order number 1284H, the 12 inch covered omelet pan and use the easy pay plan. The co-worker was in which stage in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Problem recognition Alternative evaluation Information search Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation

Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives of the evoked set, the consumer makes a purchase decision, as illustrated in Figure 5-1.

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5-34 PURCHASE DECISION

CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process is true? a. b. c. d. e. The purchase stage requires choosing from whom to buy. The purchase stage includes deciding when to buy. The purchase stage follows the alternative evaluation stage in the consumer purchase decision process. The act of picking a brand is the result of the purchase decision. All of the above statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process are true.

Answer: e Page: 102; Figure 5-1 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives in the evoked set, consumers are almost ready to make a purchase decision. Two choices remain in this step: 1) from whom to buy and 2) when to buy. Figure 5-1 illustrates the consumer purchase decision process. 5-35 POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR CONCEPTUAL

Maria has just told her supervisor, I'm so glad I bought the Motorola P280 phone rather than those other models I was looking at. I have really enjoyed the fact that its stream service gives me an always-on connection to the Internet. I haven't seen another phone with that feature. Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is demonstrated by Maria's conversation? a. b. c. d. e. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior

Answer: e Page: 102 Rationale: During the postpurchase stage, a consumer compares the purchased product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Satisfied buyers tell three other people about their experience and dissatisfied buyers tell nine people about their experience. 5-36 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION

A consumer's __________ refers to the personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer. a. b. c. d. e. involvement aspiration acculturative response motivation selective perception

Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definitioninvolvement

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5-37 INVOLVEMENT

DEFINITION

The personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer is called: a. b. c. d. e. involvement. aspiration. culture. motivation. selective perception.

Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definitioninvolvement 5-38 INVOLVEMENT High-involvement purchases tend to: a. b. c. d. e. be expensive. have serious personal consequences. reflect ones social image. be characterized by all of the above. be characterized by none of the above. DEFINITION

Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definitioninvolvement 5-39 INVOLVEMENT APPLICATION

The purchase of a bottle of water is a low-involvement purchase. How can a marketer convince people to buy Dasani instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers' shelves? a. b. c. d. e. Make good use of Dasani stock-outs. Make the purchase decision high involvement. Offer coupons for Dasani bottled water. Convince retailers to only offer Dasani water. Do any or all of the above

Answer: c Page: 102 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options, avoiding stock-out decisions would benefit Dasani; making good use of Dasahi stock-outs does not make sense. The decision is and will remain a low-involvement one. Persuading retailers to stock only one brand is unlikely unless they are paid.

266

5-40 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING

APPLICATION

Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase such items as toothpaste, soda, or chewing gum? a. b. c. d. e. Routine problem solving Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving

Answer: a Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: For these types of products, consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving. 5-41 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION

Consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives in the purchase of soap and milk. The purchase process for such items, called __________, is virtually a habit, and typifies low-involvement decision-making. a. b. c. d. e. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving

Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced, frequently purchased products. 5-42 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL

Between classes, many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bar and soft drink. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings. The college students are involved in: a. b. c. d. e. limited problem solving situations. routine problem solving situations. extensive problem solving situations. intensive problem solving situations. unlimited problem solving situations.

Answer: b Page: 103; Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, routine problem solving uses minimal time spent searching. Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives.

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5-43 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING

DEFINITION

The purchase process used when consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives is called __________, is virtually a habit, and typifies low-involvement decision-making. a. b. c. d. e. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving

Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced, frequently purchased products. 5-44 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION

A typical consumer would most likely use __________ in choosing a blender, a restaurant for dinner, or a pair of sandals. a. b. c. d. e. routine response behavior limited problem solving extended problem solving simulated selection classical conditioning

Answer: b Page: 103; Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, in limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information, from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. 5-45 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION

Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing, sheets and towels, or electric can openers? a. b. c. d. e. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving

Answer: b Page: 103; Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, in limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information, from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations.

268

5-46 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING

DEFINITION

Consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives when they are engaged in a __________ process. a. b. c. d. e. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving

Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. 5-47 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION

Elizabeth has decided to purchase a radar detector and plans to call several friends for information about alternative brands. She is NOT concerned about where she buys it, as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. In making her decision Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving methods? a. b. c. d. e. Limited Extended Habitual Classical Routine

Answer: a Page: 103: Figure 5-3 Rationale: In this case the person seeks some information but has little interest in spending time or effort in searching out the right place to purchase the item. These are characteristics of limited problem solving, which are illustrated in Figure 5-3. 5-48 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL

Which problem solving variation would likely be used for real estate, automobiles, or personal computers? a. b. c. d. e. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving

Answer: c Page: 103; Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives.

269

5-49 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING

DEFINITION

When consumers use each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process in the purchase of a product, and considerable time and effort is spent on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives, they are using which of the following? a. b. c. d. e. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving

Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process. 5-50 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL

Robin wants to find the perfect gift for her grandparents' 50th wedding anniversary. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of months, if needed, to find a gift they both will like. Robin is engaging in: a. b. c. d. e. routine response behavior. limited problem solving. extended problem solving. simulated selection. integrated problem solving.

Answer: c Page: 103; Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3, extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. 5-51 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION

The purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and antecedent states are all examples of __________, which affect the purchase decision process. a. b. c. d. e. marketing mix influences psychological influences situational influences sociocultural influences evaluative criteria

Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definitionsituational influences

270

5-52 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES

DEFINITION

The five situational influences that have an impact on a consumer's purchase decision process are the purchase task, social surroundings, physical surroundings, temporal effects, and: a. b. c. d. e. frame of mind. antecedent states. dependent variables. independent variables. spatial surroundings.

Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definitionsituational influences 5-53 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK CONCEPTUAL

When a man picks up a teddy bear in a toy store and tells the clerk, "This is for my son's first birthday," which situational influence has he demonstrated? a. b. c. d. e. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states

Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: The reason for engaging in the decision process (the sons first birthday) is called the purchase task. 5-54 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL

Three teenaged girls spent hours at the store trying on various outfits, looking at possible combinations, and asking each other, How do you think this outfit looks?" This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences? a. b. c. d. e. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states

Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Social surroundings, including other people present when a purchase decision is made, may affect what is purchased.

271

5-55 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS

CONCEPTUAL

As he hunted for tomato juice, Carlos thought, "Nothing in this store is logically arranged. Then he banged his cart into the side of a display because the aisle was so crowded. As a result of __________, he has vowed never to shop at that store again. a. b. c. d. e. purchase task social surroundings physical surroundings temporal effects spatial surroundings

Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Physical surroundings such as decor, music in retail stores, and crowded aisles may alter how purchase decisions are made. 5-56 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES CONCEPTUAL

The ads for Visa debit cards show people who need to make a purchase quickly, but are unable to do so because the retailer won't accept a check without several forms of identification. Which situational influence is Visa using to show the benefits offered by its debit cards? a. b. c. d. e. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states

Answer: e Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: Antecedent states, which include the consumer's mood or amount of cash on hand, can influence purchase behavior and choice. 5-57 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS CONCEPTUAL

Two colleagues discuss where to go for lunch. One says to the other, Its noon, so most of the restaurants will be crowded. But the boss is out of town, so we could take an extra hour and relax a bit. Their conversation illustrates which situational influence? a. b. c. d. e. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states

Answer: d Page: 103 Rationale: Temporal effects, such as time of day or the amount of time available, will influence where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered

272

5-58 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological influence? a. b. c. d. e. motivation personality perception antecedent state lifestyle

DEFINITION

Answer: d Page: 104; Figure 5-4 Rationale: The five psychological influences are: motivation and personality; perception; learning; values, beliefs, and attitudes; and lifestyle. Antecedent states are a situational influence. 5-59 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION

The concepts useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts such as motivation and personality; perception; learning; values, beliefs, attitudes; and lifestyle are called: a. b. c. d. e. routine problem solving influences. psychological influences. social influences. situational influences. rational influences.

Answer: b Page: 104 Rationale: Psychological concepts such as motivation and personality, perception, learning, values, beliefs, attitudes, and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes. 5-60 MOTIVATION __________ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. a. b. c. d. e. Selective perception Antecedent state Motivation Cognitive dissonance Perception DEFINITION

Answer: c Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definitionmotivation

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5-61 MOTIVATION

APPLICATION

The U.S. Army former advertising theme, "Be all that you can be" relied on which of the psychological influences on behavior? a. b. c. d. e. Motivation Learning Perception Antecedent states Lifestyle

Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: The slogan suggested that the Army could satisfy an individual's need for selfactualization. 5-62 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following lists the hierarchy of needs in its correct order, beginning with the most basic? a. b. c. d. e. Personal, social, physiological, psychological, and safety Physiological, safety, social, personal, and self-actualization Safety, physiological, social, and self-actualization, and personal Self-actualization, social, personal, safety, and physiological Safety, personal, self-actualization, physiological, and social

Answer: b Page: 105; Figure 5-5 Other Location: web Rationale: People have both physiological needs and learned needs. Once the physiological needs are met, people seek to satisfy their learned needs. The hierarchy of needs pyramid is illustrated in Figure 5-5. 5-63 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL

The most basic of our needs are physiological, followed by safety, social, and personal type needs. According to the hierarchy of needs, what category of needs is of the highest order? a. b. c. d. e. Intellectual needs Emotional needs Self-actualization needs Domination needs Psychological needs

Answer: c Page: 105; Figure 5-5 Rationale: Figure 5-5 illustrates the hierarchy of needs, with self-actualization needs at the top.

274

5-64 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Those needs which are basic to survival and which must be satisfied first are: a. b. c. d. e. physiological needs. safety needs. social needs. personal needs. self actualization needs.

DEFINITION

Answer: a Page: 105; Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definitionphysiological needs 5-65 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION

In the hierarchy of needs water, food, and shelter would be considered __________ needs. a. b. c. d. e. physiological safety social personal psychological

Answer: a Page: 105; Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definitionphysiological needs 5-66 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION

In the hierarchy of needs, self-preservation and physical well-being would be examples of __________ needs. a. b. c. d. e. physiological safety social personal self actualization

Answer: b Page: 105; Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definitionsafety needs.

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5-67 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

CONCEPTUAL

A magazine ad shows a cherubic baby sitting inside an automobile tire. The ad copy touts the dramatically improved traction of Michelin radial tires in rain and snow and informs parents of the ways in which the tires will help them protect and ensure the well-being of their children. The marketers of Michelin tires are attempting to appeal to consumers' __________ needs. a. b. c. d. e. physiological safety social personal self-actualization

Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: The Michelin tire ad seeks to appeal to parents' needs to ensure the safety of their children. 5-68 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION

Those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are __________ needs. a. b. c. d. e. physiological safety social personal self actualization

Answer: c Page: 105; Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definitionsocial needs 5-69 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION

Those needs that are represented by the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect are __________ needs. a. b. c. d. e. physiological safety social personal self actualization

Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definitionpersonal needs

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5-70 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

APPLICATION

An ad for Acura is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau, Go in the Direction of Your Dreams. This ad is most likely to appeal to people's __________ need. a. b. c. d. e. physiological safety social personal psychological

Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Personal needs are needs that are represented by the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect. 5-71 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION

An ad for Conesco's life insurance asks the question, How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away? The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the needs in the hierarchy of needs? a. b. c. d. e. Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Personal needs Self actualization needs

Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: Safety needs involve self-preservation and physical well being. Providing security for one's family would help to satisfy that need. 5-72 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION

An ad for The King's Daughters' School, a private academy for children, has the headline, Living Up to Their Potential. This ad is appealing to the parents' desire to satisfy their children's: a. b. c. d. e. physiological needs. safety needs. social needs. personal needs. self actualization needs.

Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: The school wants the parents to know that the school will make sure that each student achieves as much as possible. Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment.

277

5-73 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Which of the following needs involves personal fulfillment? a. b. c. d. e. physiological needs safety needs social needs personal needs self actualization needs

DEFINITION

Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definitionself-actualization needs 5-74 PERSONALITY DEFINITION

Someones consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations refer to his or her: a. b. c. d. e. motivation. purchase process. culture. perception. personality.

Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definitionpersonality 5-75 PERSONALITY Personality is: a. b. c. d. e. someones consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations. not important to consumer behavior. essential to developing culture. based on perception. needed to achieve prestige. DEFINITION

Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definitionpersonality

278

5-76 PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT

DEFINITION

__________ is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. a. b. c. d. e. Self-evaluation Self-concept Aspirational concept Individualized perception Personal perception

Answer: b Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definitionself-concept 5-77 SELF-CONCEPT APPLICATION

The ad for Dove body wash asks the question, How old will you be when you stop feeling 29? The ad is using __________ to appeal to its target market. a. b. c. d. e. self-concept greed lust avarice hedonism

Answer: a Page: 106 Rationale: Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. Feeling young may be an important element of a persons self-concept. 5-78 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is true? a. b. c. d. e. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supports the usage of subliminal perception. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States. No organizations have used subliminal messages since the time people used to regularly go to drive-ins to watch movies. There is no substantive scientific support for the concept of subliminal perception. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options, the FCC has denounced subliminal messaging as deceitful. Subliminal messages are legal in the United States. The text gives an example of a current Times Warner CD game that uses subliminal messaging.

279

5-79 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT

APPLICATION

Suppose a soft drink company sponsored a made-for-television movie with the understanding that subliminal images of its product logo would be interspersed throughout the program. Which of the following is the strongest argument that such a marketing strategy would be unethical? a. b. c. d. e. Soft drinks can cause tooth decay. The images of the product logo might interfere with the plot and impact of the movie. The soft drink company would be attempting to influence the behavior of the consumers in a manner the consumers might object to if they were aware of what was occurring. The soft drink company may not have paid a fair price to have the images of its logo placed in the movie. Children might be watching the program.

Answer: c Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: The strongest ethical argument against subliminal advertising is that it exploits a psychological vulnerability in human perception to persuade consumers to act in a manner they might not if they were consciously making the choice. In other words, if it did have any effect on behavior, subliminal advertising might rob the consumer of the freedom to make a choice. 5-80 PERCEPTION DEFINITION

__________ is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world. a. b. c. d. e. Motivation Attitude formation Conformance Perception Illumination

Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Key term definitionperception 5-81 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION DEFINITION

Because the average consumer operates in a complex information-rich environment, the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called: a. b. c. d. e. selective retention. selective attention. selective exposure. selective perception. stimulus discrimination.

Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definitionselective perception

280

5-82 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION

APPLICATION

Many have described 2002 as the year of the palindromea word or phrase that reads the same whether read from right or left. While Marshall was unaware of the term, once he read an article about palindromes for his English class, he saw the term three more times that week. This is probably the result of: a. b. c. d. e. selective retention. selective attention. selective intuition. selective perception. stimulus discrimination.

Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment, and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood, remembered, or made available to the conscious mind. 5-83 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL

You watch a television commercial for a new automobile and you do not notice it has dual airbags, side impact bars, and antilock brakes. But you do notice that it has a high-performance engine that can take it to high speeds, as indicated in the film footage. This is an example of __________ perception. a. b. c. d. e. retentive interpretive reclusive selective subliminal

Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment, and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood, remembered, or made available to the conscious mind.

281

5-84 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE

DEFINITION

The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent is called: a. b. c. d. e. selective retention. selective comprehension. selective exposure. selective perception. stimulus discrimination.

Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definitionselective exposure 5-85 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE APPLICATION

Because Marla is so strongly committed to a fat-free diet, she did not see a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine that suggested that some fat in our diet is healthy. The report was contained in the newspaper that Marla reads daily, but the reason Marla did not see it is probably the result of: a. b. c. d. e. selective retention. selective comprehension. selective exposure. selective perception. stimulus discrimination.

Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent, such as information that some fat is healthy when Marla is so committed to a fat-free diet. 5-86 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE CONCEPTUAL

Charlie needs to purchase an automobile to drive to his new job in the city center. He begins to notice ads for many cars he wasn't aware of previously. This is an example of: a. b. c. d. e. subliminal perception. selective exposure. retention. tuning out. behavioral learning.

Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs, such as the need for a new car, and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with ones attitudes and beliefs.

282

5-87 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION

DEFINITION

Interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs is called: a. b. c. d. e. selective retention. selective comprehension. selective exposure. selective analysis. stimulus discrimination.

Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definitionselective comprehension 5-88 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION

Tyler was offended by the brand name of a new product for women. She believes that the name is demeaning to women and that its use means the manufacturer is unsympathetic to women. Due to __________, Tyler will not purchase this product. a. b. c. d. e. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective analysis stimulus discrimination

Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: A consumer using selective comprehension is interpreting information so that it is consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs. 5-89 SELECTIVE RETENTION DEFINITION

As a result of __________, consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear even minutes after exposure to it. a. b. c. d. e. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective perception subliminal discrimination

Answer: a Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definitionselective retention

283

5-90 SELECTIVE RETENTION Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by: a. b. c. d. e.

CONCEPTUAL

hiring well known celebrities to sponsor their products. using a more convoluted store layout. providing brochures for consumers to take home. adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and/or snappy background music. offering extended service warranties.

Answer: c Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see, hear, or read, even minutes after exposure to it. Furniture and automobile retailers often give consumers product brochures to take home after they leave the showroom to help them remember. 5-91 PERCEIVED RISK DEFINITION

The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase, but believes there may be a negative consequence is called: a. b. c. d. e. a negative antecedent. perceived risk. temporal uncertainty. spatial uncertainty. buyers' remorse.

Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Key term definitionperceived risk 5-92 PERCEIVED RISK APPLICATION

For which of the following products is perceived risk likely to be the greatest for a female who has just taken her first job after college graduation? a. b. c. d. e. A magazine subscription to Glamour A cell phone Flowers to decorate her new apartment A new outfit for her first day at work A pair of jeans to wear on weekends

Answer: d Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase, but believes there may be a negative consequence associated with making the wrong purchase decision. Wearing the new outfit represents a perceived risk as she does not know how she may be thought of at her new job based on how she looks in her new outfit.

284

5-93 PERCEIVED RISK

CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following is a method marketers can use to reduce perceived risk for consumers? a. b. c. d. e. Obtain seals of approval for products Secure endorsements from influential people Provide trial usage of the product Provide warranties and guarantees All of the above

Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Recognizing the importance of perceived risk, companies develop strategies to make consumers feel more at ease about their purchases. 5-94 LEARNING DEFINITION

__________ refers to those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning. a. b. c. d. e. Psychosocial perception Acculturation Attitudinal identification Dynamic growth Learning

Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Key term definitionlearning 5-95 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING DEFINITION

__________ learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a type of situation built up through repeated exposure to it. a. b. c. d. e. Perceptual Retentive Functional Motivated Behavioral

Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitionbehavioral learning

285

5-96 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING

CONCEPTUAL

The famous experiment wherein Dr. Pavlov presented dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell resulted in dogs that salivated when the bell was rung, even when food was not presented. This experiment is an example of: a. b. c. d. e. Changing antecedent states The scientific method Tone as a motivator Cognitive dissonance Behavioral learning

Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment proved. 5-97 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING APPLICATION

There are many perfumes on the market, but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt, Lobster, Dandelion, Sugar Cookie, Brownie, Woodsmoke, Leather, and Turpentine. Because repeated exposure to these scents have made people connect them with some important event or memory, the appeal of the scent is due to: a. b. c. d. e. cognitive learning. cognitive dissonance. behavioral learning. functional adaptation. selective learning.

Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. 5-98 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE A need that moves an individual to action is a(n): a. b. c. d. e. drive. cue. attitude. response. reinforcement. DEFINITION

Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitiondrive

286

5-99 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE

APPLICATION

There are many perfumes on the market, but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter, and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt, Lobster, Dandelion, Sugar Cookie, Brownie, Woodsmoke, Leather, and Turpentine. The maker of Demeter perfumes treats smells as if they were: a. b. c. d. e. drives. cues. attitudes. responses. reinforcements.

Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: A cue is a stimulus (in this case a smell) perceived by consumers. 5-100 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE A(n) __________ is a stimulus or symbol that one perceives. a. b. c. d. e. drive cue attitude response reinforcement DEFINITION

Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitioncue 5-101 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE A(n) __________ is the action taken to satisfy a drive. a. b. c. d. e. cue demotivator motivation response stimulus DEFINITION

Answer: d Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitionresponse

287

5-102 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT

APPLICATION

Joan is hungry (drive); she sees an advertisement (cue), goes to the store and buys the product (response). In terms of behavioral learning, the great taste of the food is a(n): a. b. c. d. e. achievement drive. reinforcement. prestige. preference.

Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: The reinforcement is the reward. 5-103 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT A(n) __________ is the reward for satisfying a drive. a. b. c. d. e. cue reinforcement motivation response stimulus DEFINITION

Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitionreinforcement 5-104 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION

___________ has occurred if what the consumer experiences upon responding to a stimulus is not pleasant. a. b. c. d. e. A negative cue A demotivator Negative reinforcement Negative response Negative stimulus

Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitionnegative reinforcement

288

5-105 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION

CONCEPTUAL

Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory? a. b. c. d. e. Selective comprehension Selective retention Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning

Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name to launch new products is one common application of this concept. 5-106 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL

When the television production company that produces the Law & Order series uses the Law & Order name on two other series (Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, and Law & Order: Criminal Intent), it relies on __________ to convince fans of the original show that the new shows will be equally well crafted. a. b. c. d. e. selective comprehension selective retention stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination routine response behavior

Answer: c Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. The consumer would have the same feelings toward one Law & Order series as for another, even before the new show was seen. 5-107 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DEFINITION

__________ occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. a. b. c. d. e. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention

Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitionstimulus generalization

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5-108 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION

DEFINITION

__________ refers to a persons ability to perceive differences among similar products. a. b. c. d. e. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention

Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definitionstimulus discrimination 5-109 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL

Consumers' ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of: a. b. c. d. e. cognitive dissonance. selective retention. selective comprehension. stimulus generalization. stimulus discrimination.

Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to ones ability to perceive differences among similar products, such as chocolate bar tastes. 5-110 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL

Betty contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheese and cheese with regular fat content. Tom says that he cannot tell a difference between the two products. If they are to be believed, Betty exhibits __________, while Tom does not. a. b. c. d. e. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination

Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to ones ability to perceive differences among similar products, such as fat-free and regular cheese.

290

5-111 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION

APPLICATION

Comparative advertising in which one brand is compared to another is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. Marketers who use comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that its product is better than the other one. a. b. c. d. e. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination

Answer: e Page: 111 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to a person's ability to perceive differences among similar products. 5-112 COGNITIVE LEARNING DEFINITION

Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting one's own behavior accordingly is what type of learning? a. b. c. d. e. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning

Answer: b Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definitioncognitive learning 5-113 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION

In the first chapter of this text, the authors describe how marketing is not something alien to you like Shakespeare or physicsit is something you are already very familiar with because you observe marketing throughout many different facets of life. The authors hoped you would use __________ to conclude marketing is an interesting subject and worthy of your time and effort. a. b. c. d. e. cognitive learning cognitive dissonance behavioral learning functional adaptation selective learning

Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others behavior and adjusting your own accordingly.

291

5-114 COGNITIVE LEARNING

APPLICATION

When Betty Crocker advertises that baking a cake from one of its mixes tastes just like homemade, it is influencing which type of learning? a. b. c. d. e. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning

Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Marketers attempt to influence cognitive learning by linking a brand with an idea. In this case, Betty Crocker is linking a box mix to home cooking. 5-115 BRAND LOYALTY DEFINITION

__________ is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. a. b. c. d. e. Brand bias Brand discrimination Brand loyalty Behavioral learning Selective perception

Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definitionbrand loyalty 5-116 BRAND LOYALTY Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is true? a. b. c. d. e. Learning is closely connected to brand loyalty because habits are learned. Brand loyalty can reduce the perceived risk associated with the buying of certain products. The incidence of brand loyalty is declining in North America. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions. Brand loyalty is accurately described by all of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: e Page: 109 Rationale: Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time.

292

5-117 BRAND LOYALTY

CONCEPTUAL

Considerable research has documented that in many product categories, consumers are unable to distinguish among brands when given blind tests (i.e. taste or use of the products without labels). Such products include cigarettes, beer, liquors, and cosmetics. Nonetheless, even when prices are similar, consumers have strong preferences for specific brands of these products. This strong brand preference is the result of: a. b. c. d. e. extended problem solving. limited problem solving. routine problem solving. high-involvement problem solving. personal problem solving.

Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving, and there is a close link between habits and brand loyalty. 5-118 ATTITUDE A learned predisposition to be thrifty or patriotic reflects a(n): a. b. c. d. e. belief. value. attitude. motivation. perception. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. 5-119 ATTITUDE DEFINITION

A(n) __________ is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. a. b. c. d. e. belief value attitude motivation perception

Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definitionattitude

293

5-120 BELIEFS

DEFINITION

__________ are ones perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes. a. b. c. d. e. Beliefs Values Attitudes Predispositions Opinions

Answer: a Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definitionbeliefs 5-121 ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following statements about changing consumer attitudes is true? a. b. c. d. e. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing the perceived importance of attributes. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by adding new attributes to a product. Marketers spend lots of money on activities to change attitudes, because it is so difficult to do. All of the above statements about changing consumer attitudes are true.

Answer: e Page: 110 Rationale: Marketers use all of the first three approaches in attempts to change consumer attitudes. Companies have spent millions of dollars in their attempts to change consumer attitudes. 5-122 ATTITUDE CHANGES APPLICATION

Cell phones have been available for quite awhile and Motorola is a recognized brand name of cell phones. Cell phones that can be connected to computer modems and used to upload or download information are commonplace, but slow. Motorola joined with VoiceStream to create a phone that has an always-on Internet connection. Promoting a new benefit of continuous Internet connection should lead to a favorable attitude toward the cell phone by: a. b. c. d. e. changing beliefs about a specific attribute. changing the importance of a specific attribute. adding a new important attribute. reducing perceived risk. stimulus generalization.

Answer: c Page: 110 Rationale: Adding a new attribute--always-on featureis one of three methods of attitude change available to marketers.

294

5-123 ATTITUDE CHANGE

APPLICATION

Tums antacid stresses the fact that it is a calcium supplement in its advertisements. It also stresses the health benefits of calcium. Most people already know Tums contains calcium. The new promotion is trying to change the attitude toward Tums by: a. b. c. d. e. changing the perceived importance of the attribute. adding a new attribute to the product. changing the basic product. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. lowering the price.

Answer: a Page: 110 Rationale: Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. By focusing on this attribute, it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude towards Tums. Since consumers know Tums already contains calcium, a new attribute had not been added. 5-124 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION

Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreeze was introduced, it was tagged as a pet killer. P&G had to spend lots of money debunking the false claim and request help from the ASPCA before consumers would purchase the product in the numbers expected. This promotion to debunk a false claim changed consumers' attitudes by: a. b. c. d. e. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. adding a new attribute to the product. changing the basic product. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. lowering the price.

Answer: a Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: P&G had to change consumers' beliefs that the spray was deadly to their pets before consumers could see the value of its odor controlling capabilities. 5-125 LIFESTYLE DEFINITION

A __________ is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them. a. b. c. d. e. culture subculture social class lifestyle reference group

Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definitionlifestyle

295

5-126 PSYCHOGRAPHICS Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyle is: a. b. c. d. e. demographics. psychographics. social statistics. physiological needs. sociographics.

DEFINITION

Answer: b Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definitionpsychographics 5-127 LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following is NOT a good measure of consumer lifestyle, or psychographics? a. b. c. d. e. Interests Activities Opinions Norms Hobbies

Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources (activities, including hobbies), what they consider important (interests), and what they think of themselves and the world (opinions). 5-128 LIFESTYLE APPLICATION

Ads depicting happy families in Red Lobster restaurants are segmenting the market based on: a. b. c. d. e. family life cycle. stage of the decision process. cognitive learning level. lifestyles. consumer socialization.

Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: One aspect of lifestyle is way of living, which is identified by how people spend their time, including eating out.

296

5-129 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM The SRI's VALS Program is one of the most prominent examples of: a. b. c. d. e. purchasing behavior studies. learning theories studies. studies on the hierarchy of effects. lifestyle analysis programs. language study programs.

CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: The most prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) analysis is the VALS program, developed by SRI International and currently run by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. 5-130 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM Which of the following statements about the VALS program is true? a. b. c. d. e. The acronym VALS stands for Value, Attitudes, and Learned Suppositions. The VALS program seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. Principle-oriented consumers are members of Generation X. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as status-oriented consumers. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as action-oriented consumers. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: VALS stands for Values and Lifestyles. Principle-oriented consumers are older consumers. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as action-oriented consumers. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as principle-oriented consumers. 5-131 LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION

According to the VALS program, which consumer group tries to match their behavior with their views of how the world is or should be? a. b. c. d. e. Principle-oriented Status-oriented Action-oriented Reward-oriented Achievement-oriented

Answer: a Page: 110; Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definitionprinciple-oriented consumers

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5-132 LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS Consumers who are motivated by the actions and opinions of others are: a. b. c. d. e. principle-oriented. status-oriented. action-oriented. reward-oriented. achievement-oriented.

DEFINITION

Answer: b Page: 110; Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definitionstatus-oriented consumers 5-133 LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION

Consumers who are intensely involved in social and physical activity, enjoy variety, and are risktakers are: a. b. c. d. e. principle-oriented. status-oriented. action-oriented. reward-oriented. achievement-oriented.

Answer: c Page: 110; Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definitionaction-oriented consumers 5-134 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS DEFINITION

According to the VALS profile, consumers who account for eight percent of the population and are successful, sophisticated, active, take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources are called: a. b. c. d. e. actualizers. fulfillers. achievers. believers. strugglers.

Answer: a Page: 111; Figure 5-6 Rationale: These are all characteristics of actualizers. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psychographic segmentation.

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5-135 LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS

DEFINITION

According to the VALS profile, consumers who are poor, often uneducated and frequently concerned about their well-being are called: a. b. c. d. e. actualizers. fulfillers. achievers. believers. strugglers.

Answer: e Page: 111; Figure 5-6 Rationale: Members of the strugglers segment have the least resources and are poor, often uneducated, and frequently concerned about their well-being. 5-136 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS APPLICATION

Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs, which will bloom in consumers' gardens just a few weeks after spring planting so people who didn't or couldn't plant bulbs in the fall will have spring flowers. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate finer things and will pay the premium. Which of the following VALS segments would be most suitable for their product? a. b. c. d. e. Strugglers Believers Makers Actualizers Experiencers

Answer: d Page: 111; Figure 5-6 Rationale: Actualizers enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. They also have the most resources to spend on things they value. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psyhchographic segmentation. 5-137 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL

A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behavior of others. Two important aspects of personal influence are: a. b. c. d. e. lifestyle and motivation. personality and lifestyle. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity. word-of-mouth activity and psychographics. psychographics and demographics.

Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation.

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5-138 PERSONAL INFLUENCE

CONCEPTUAL

A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views, opinions, or behaviors of others. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word of mouth activity. a. b. c. d. e. parental guidance peer pressure opinion leadership government regulation pricing levels

Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. 5-139 OPINION LEADERS Individuals who have social influence over others are called: a. b. c. d. e. decision makers. achievers. brand loyal consumers. a reference group. opinion leaders. DEFINITION

Answer: e Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definitionopinion leaders 5-140 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION

Your company is introducing a new line of activewear for teenagers and invites the members of the cheerleading squad to a private display of the line. This group consists of __________ for activewear clothing. a. b. c. d. e. syncratic decision makers aspirational opinion leaders autonomous leaders joint decision makers

Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others. They are more likely to be important for products that provide a form of self-expression.

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5-141 WORD OF MOUTH People influencing each other during conversations is called: a. b. c. d. e. opinion making. publicity. personal selling. word of mouth. action-oriented communication.

DEFINITION

Answer: d Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definitionword of mouth 5-142 WORD OF MOUTH CONCEPTUAL

Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. When Febreeze was introduced, it was tagged as a pet killer by people in a chat room and the rumor spread. If Procter & Gamble had not been so convinced it was a potentially very successful product, Febreeze could have been deleted from the P&G product line as a result of: a. b. c. d. e. negative word of mouth. a lack of back translation. cultural insensitivity. consumer ethnocentrism. misinformed business strategy.

Answer: a Page: 112 Rationale: The rumor is an example of negative word of mouth, which is people influencing each other in personal conversations. 5-143 REFERENCE GROUPS DEFINITION

__________ are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards. a. b. c. d. e. Action-oriented consumers Principle-oriented consumers Suncultures Social classes Reference groups

Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definitionreference groups

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5-144 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP

DEFINITION

A reference group to which a person actually belongs is called a(n) __________ group. a. b. c. d. e. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated

Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definitionmembership group 5-145 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP CONCEPTUAL

Students who wear sweatshirts displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in a(n) __________ group a. b. c. d. e. dissociative aspiration membership identification political

Answer: c Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Consumers have many reference groups, but three groups have clear marketing implications. A membership group is one to which a person actually belongs. An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. A dissociative group is one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. 5-146 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION

To attract new members, a golf club would focus its marketing efforts on people who view the current members as a (n) __________ group. a. b. c. d. e. achieving aspiration dissociative pressure involvement

Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. Besides wanting the chance to play, new members should view the golf club members as an aspiration group.

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5-147 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP

DEFINITION

A reference group to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be associated with is called a(n): __________ group. a. b. c. d. e. preference membership aspiration disassociative integrated

Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definitionaspiration group 5-148 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP An aspiration group is a group: a. b. c. d. e. to which a person belongs, including fraternities and social clubs. that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences. that a person feels is excessively high above him or her socioeconomically. DEFINITION

Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definitionaspiration group 5-149 REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP DEFINITION

A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is called a(n) __________ group. a. b. c. d. e. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated

Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definitiondisassociative group

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5-150 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP

APPLICATION

The American Express advertising claim that "membership has its privileges" creates which type of reference group? a. b. c. d. e. Aspiration group Dissociative group Secondary reference group Integrated group Membership group

Answer: a Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. 5-151 REFERENCE GROUPS APPLICATION

Frank Wright is a stereo buff who will go to great lengths when making stereo equipment purchases. He believes having the right equipment is important because many people will see the stereo when they visit his home. If you were the marketing VP for Quality Electronics, Inc., and your market was primarily made up of people just like Wright, which influence source would you most likely build into your promotional messages? a. b. c. d. e. Situational influences Perceptual risk influences Self-concept influences Reference group influences Cognitive dissonance influences

Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but not of necessitiesgroups exert a strong influence on the brand chosen when its use and consumption is highly visible to others. 5-152 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION

If a fraternity wanted to attract new members, it should focus on people who viewed the current members as a(n) __________ group. a. b. c. d. e. membership aspiration dissociative reference involvement

Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Since a fraternity is a membership group, potential new members should view the fraternity as an aspiration group.

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5-153 FAMILY INFLUENCE

CONCEPTUAL

__________ influences on consumer behavior result from consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision-making within the family or household. a. b. c. d. e. Functional Demographic Family Social Personal

Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Family influence on consumer behavior results from three sources: consumer socialization, passage through the family life cycle, and decision-making within the family. 5-154 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION

__________ is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. a. b. c. d. e. Consumer acclamation Consumer socialization Consumer enculturation Purchasing socialization Purchasing enculturation

Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definitionconsumer socialization 5-155 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION

Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes: a. b. c. d. e. required to get along with other consumers at the supermarket and in other retail outlets. important to being able to know the manager at the point of sale when they go shopping. necessary to earn the approval of their family. necessary to spot special sales and report them to other retailers. necessary to function as consumers.

Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definitionconsumer socialization

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5-156 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION

CONCEPTUAL

Beth gives Megan $2 allowance a week. Then she takes Megan shopping and allows her to select what she wants to buy. If the item desired costs more than $2, Megan's mother suggests she save her money until she has enough saved to pay for the desired item. When Megan purchases the item, she is allowed to make her own selection, pay for it herself, and engage in interaction necessary with the sales clerk. In this way, Megan's mother encourages the development of: a. b. c. d. e. consumer acclamation. consumer socialization. consumer enculturation. purchasing socialization. purchasing enculturation.

Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. 5-157 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEFINITION

The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through, from __________, each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. a. b. c. d. e. birth to death formation to retirement the birth of children to retirement the birth of children until children leave home marriage to retirement unless a divorce occurs

Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definitionfamily life cycle 5-158 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is true? a. b. c. d. e. The family life cycle concept describes a continuum along which developing families can be arbitrarily placed. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel, automobiles, and consumer electronics. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families. Young singles are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group. The most financially secure of any of the family groups is singles with children. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options, the family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement. Only 23.5 percent of all households today are composed of traditional families. Young marrieds with children are the most likely group to buy life insurance. Singles with children are the least financially secure of households with children.

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5-159 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE

APPLICATION

Cathy is the director of marketing for a manufacturer of laundry detergent. She has just received a research report using family life cycle related data. Which of the following is most likely to be present in this report? a. b. c. d. e. The firms customers have very active life-styles. Only introverts use competitors products. Middle class customers will be very receptive to the firms promotional campaigns. Her company sells products that are likely to produce cognitive dissonance. Young married couples with children are heavy users of her companys products.

Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: Since family life cycle concept describes the stages a family progresses through from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors, the information in answer e is most likely to be in the report. 5-160 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The two major styles of family decision making are: a. b. c. d. e. joint and judgmental. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive. joint and spouse-dominant. democratic and autocratic. joint and family-integrated. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Two decision-making styles exist: spouse dominant and joint decision-making. Spouse dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. With a joint decision-making style, both the husband and the wife make most decisions. 5-161 FAMILY DECISION MAKING Which of the following statements about family decision making is true? a. b. c. d. e. The use of joint decision making is related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses. Husbands tend to make all decisions about cars, vacation, and homes. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous. With autonomous decision making, the husband would make all the decisions about groceries, medicine, and car maintenance. With autonomous decision making, most decisions are made by the male. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: As a rule, joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses. Decisions about cars, vacation, and homes are typically made jointly. The two types of family decision making are joint and spouse-dominant. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine.

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5-162 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The five roles of individual family members in family decision making are: a. b. c. d. e.

CONCEPTUAL

membership group, aspiration group, opinion leader, decision-maker, and user. sustainer, experiential, belonger, emulator, achiever. opinion leader, influencer, decision-maker, purchaser, and user. information gatherer, influencer, decision-maker, purchaser, and user. need driven, inner directed, outer directed, opinion leader, and decision-maker.

Answer: d Page: 114 Rationale: The five roles are information gatherer, influencer, decision-maker, purchaser, and user. Family members assume different roles for different products and services and this knowledge is important to marketers. 5-163 FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL

Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint family decision making? a. b. c. d. e. Car tires Children's toys Family vacations Medicine All of the above

Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Family vacations are typically selected jointly. 5-164 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION

When Keith Monroe told his father the family needed a new computer, the father told Keith to determine what features were needed and some costs. Mrs. Monroe suggested the new computer needed an ergonomic keyboard, because she was having some problems with her wrists. Wendy Monroe asked that the new computer have a faster modem for her chat room visits. Mr. Monroe said what they bought would depend on what Keith learned. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. b. c. d. e. Mrs. Monroe and Wendy acted as information gatherers, users, and decision makers. Keith took on all the roles except that of purchaser. Mr. Monroe took on all of the roles. Wendy acted as a user and an influencer. Mrs. Monroe acted as an information gatherer, a user, an influencer, and a gatekeeper.

Answer: d Page: 114 Other Location: web Rationale: Mrs. Monroe and Wendy acted as users and influencers. Keith did not take on the role of decision maker, that role was taken by his father. Mr. Monroe did not engage in information gathering; he told Keith to do that. Gatekeeper is not one of the five roles listed in the text.

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5-165 FAMILY DECISION MAKING

APPLICATION

It is time for the Ramirez family to plan its annual vacation. The father wants to stay home this year and use the vacation money to work on the house. The paternal grandmother, who lives with them, wants to visit relatives in New York. The father asks his mother to determine how much a trip to New York would cost the family and if they could stay with relatives while they were there. The mother and the daughter, Mary, want to go to the beach. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. b. c. d. e. There is no family member serving as information gatherer. The only role played by the mother and the grandmother is influencer. The females in the family only play two rolesusers and influencers. Since the father will make the final vacation decision, he has taken on all of the roles. The grandmother plays the roles of user, influencer, and information gatherer.

Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: The grandmother is an influencer, given her choice to go to New York. Because the father asks her to find out the cost and accommodations for a trip to New York, she is also an information gatherer. 5-166 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION

The Lee family is composed of five children, a mother, a father, and one set of grandparents. The family has to decide to move the grandparents to an assisted living facility. In terms of the roles played by individual family members, the grandparents are the only family members who will have the role of: a. b. c. d. e. user. influencer. gatekeeper. decision maker. information gatherer.

Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: The grandparents are the only people who will be living in the assisted living facility. Therefore, they are the only ones to have the role of user.

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5-167 SUBCULTURE

DEFINITION

Subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes are referred to as: a. b. c. d. e. reference groups. family life-cycle stages. disassociative groups. subcultures. normative groups.

Answer: d Page: 115 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definitionsubculture 5-168 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. b. c. d. e. African-Americans spend more than whites on childrens apparel, footwear, and telephone services. African American women spend three times more on health and beauty products than while women. While African-Americans are price conscious, they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. African-Americans respond more to products that appeal to their heritage. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true.

Answer: e Page: 115 Rationale: Although similarities outweigh differences, all of the alternatives describe consumption patterns that differ between African-Americans and whites. 5-169 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. b. c. d. e. There are no differences between African-Americans buying patterns and white buying patterns. African-American men spend more on health and beauty products than white men. The typical African-American family is five years older than the typical white family. While price-conscious, African-Americans are strongly motivated by quality and choice. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true.

Answer: d Page: 115 Rationale: There are differing consumption patterns between African-Americans and whites. For example, African-American women spend more on health and beauty products than white women. The typical African-American family is five years younger than the typical white family. Recent research indicates that while African-Americans are price conscious, they are strongly motivated by quality and choice.

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5-170 HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is true? a. b. c. d. e.

CONCEPTUAL

Hispanics are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are brand loyal. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers. Hispanics consider advertising a credible product information source. Convenience of use is not an important product attribute to Hispanic homemakers, with respect to food preparation or consumption. All of the above statements about Hispanic buying patterns are true.

Answer: e Page: 116 Rationale: Research on Hispanic buying practices has uncovered each of the buying patterns described in a, b, c, and d. 5-171 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Asian buying patterns is true? a. b. c. d. e. Generalizations about buying patterns of Asian-Americans are difficult to make because there is great diversity among its members. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very different from the typical American consumer. Asian-Americans are the slowest growing racial/ethnic subculture. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groupsassimilated, non-assimilated, and recent immigrants. All of the above statements about Asian-American buying patterns are true. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing racial/ethnic subculture. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests that individuals and families divide into assimilated and non assimilated.

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5-172 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS

APPLICATION

An Asian family living in San Francisco for four generations has three children. The oldest son, George, is in medical school. Susan is a concert pianist at the age of 21. Fred is a second-year business student. The family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian buying patterns? a. b. c. d. e. Non-assimilated, clinging to their ancestral language and customs Assimilated, exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers Recent immigrants, requiring eight different varieties of California-grown rice, each with a different Asian label The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great the generalizations about the buying patterns are difficult to make All of the above

Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Assimilated Asian-Americans are conversant in English, highly educated, and exhibit buying patterns very like other typical American consumers. 5-173 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION

__________ Asian Americans are conversant in English, highly educated, hold professional and managerial positions, and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. a. b. c. d. e. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical

Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition--assimilated 5-174 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION

__________ Asian Americans are recent immigrants who still cling to their native languages and customs. a. b. c. d. e. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical

Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definitionnonassimilated

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5-175 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS, INC. Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products, Inc., to: a. b. c. d. e. its being a local company. the efficiency of its national distribution. the variety of its products. its entrance into electronic technologies. none of the above.

CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 118 Rationale: Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products, Inc., to its being a local company. 5-176 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS, INC. CONCEPTUAL

What is the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products, Inc.? a. b. c. d. e. Mail surveys Telephone surveys In-depth personal interviews Focus group studies The firm does not do market research

Answer: d Page: 119 Rationale: Although Barbara Davis solicits informal feedback from current and potential customers, the case indicates that the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products, Inc., is focus group studies.

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CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS


5-177 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS APPLICATION

You will be graduating soon and have been offered your dream job. The new position requires some traveling, so you will need a car. You currently do not have one. Using the five steps in the purchase decision process, describe the process you will go through to make this purchase. Answer: This purchase would require five purchase decision stages: 1) Problem recognition: the car is needed for the new job. 2) Information search: check internal and external sources for information about different car makes, models, and features. 3) Alternative evaluation: consider objective and subjective attributes from evoked set. 4) Purchase decision: decision made after judging the alternatives. 5) Post-purchase evaluation: evaluate car in terms of expectations. Page: 100-102 5-178 PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS CONCEPTUAL

Compare and contrast routine problem solving, limited problem solving, and extended problem solving. Give an example of when each might be used. Answer: Routine, limited, and extended problem solving are three general variations in the consumer purchase decision process. Routine problem solving is used for low-priced, frequently purchased products such as toothpaste or milk. Little effort is made to seek information or evaluate alternatives. In limited problem solving, consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help evaluate alternatives. This process may apply to the purchase of a toaster or a decision on a restaurant, or situations where little time or effort is possible. Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process because the item to be purchased is expensive, has social consequences, or could reflect on the consumer's image. Products such as stereo equipment, automobiles, and investments typically require extended problem solving. (Student examples will vary.) Page: 103

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5-179 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES

DEFINITION

Name and briefly describe the five situational influences that affect the purchase decision processes. Answer: Situational influences are: 1) the purchase task, the reason for engaging in the decision in the first place; 2) social surroundings, include the other people present when a purchase decision is made and may also affect what is purchased; 3) physical surroundings, include surroundings such as dcor, music, and crowding in retail stores that may alter how purchase decisions are made; 4) temporal effects, such as time of day or the amount of time available that may influence consumer purchase decisions; 5) antecedent states, include the consumers mood or the amount of cash on hand which influence purchase behavior and choice. Page: 103 5-180 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES APPLICATION

Ruth, who has no children, wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend's baby shower, which is this evening. Since she won't have any time between work and the shower, she must shop today during her lunch break. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby thing she sees because she wishes so much that she were pregnant, too. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this question. Which situational influence was not described? Answer: The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. The fact that she has limited shopping time is the temporal effect. Having her sister with her while she is shopping relates to the social surroundings. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. The only situational influence not mentioned is physical surroundings. Page: 103

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5-181 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION

CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION

How do selective perception, selective exposure, selective comprehension, and selective retention differ? Provide an example to illustrate each. Answer: The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret information. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. This might occur when a radio talk show had a caller whose political views were contrary to those of the listener; when the caller finished the listener might say that the caller made no sense at all, however logical the message had actually been. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. For example, a person who was trying to lose weight might interpret a "low fat" mayonnaise as "no fat," and therefore as having no effect on gaining weight. Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it. For example, a loud and intrusive television commercial for a used car lot might attract the attention of a viewer, but shortly after it was over, the viewer might be unable to name the advertiser. (Student examples will vary.) Page: 106-107 5-182 LEARNING Why is learning important to marketing? Answer: Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. Consumers learn which information sources to use, which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives, and, in general, how to make purchase decisions. Learning is also important because it relates to habit formation which is the basis of routine problem solving and brand loyalty. Page: 108 5-183 ATTITUDE CHANGE DEFINITION/APPLICATION CONCEPTUAL

What are the three approaches marketers use to change consumers attitudes? How might Ford Motor Company apply these three methods in its marketing activities? Answer: 1) Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attitudesFord may emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers concerns about reliability. 2) Changing the perceived importance of attributesFord might try to increase the perceived importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford's pollution control characteristics. 3) Adding new attributes to the productFord might add a new attribute, such as a video tape player for people in back seat, and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably. Page: 110

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5-184 LIFESTYLE What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers?

CONCEPTUAL

Answer: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time (activities); what they consider important in their environment (interests); and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions). The analysis of consumer life-styles (also called psychographics) has produced many insights into consumer's behavior. For example, lifestyle analysis has proven useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products. Page: 110 5-185 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION

Why would Dr Pepper select country music performer Garth Brooks to appear in an ad campaign? How would he be a sociocultural influence on consumer behavior? Answer: Garth Brooks is a famous country music performer and he would have a personal influence on consumers. In other words, the makers of Dr. Pepper hope that consumers are influenced to buy Dr. Pepper because of Brooks endorsement of the product. Because he is famous and many people regard him favorably, he was selected for the Dr Pepper ads with the hope he would act as an opinion leaderan individual with a social influence over other people. Page: 112 5-186 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL

What is consumer socialization? How do children learn how to purchase? Answer: Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. Children learn how to purchase by: 1) interacting with adults in purchase situations; 2) their own purchasing and product usage experiences. As early as age two, children may develop brand preferences which may last a lifetime. Page: 113

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5-187 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE How is the family life cycle related to marketing?

CONCEPTUAL

Answer: Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. From this observation comes the family life cycle concept, which holds that each family progresses through a number of distinct phases from point of formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. For example, young singles' buying preferences are for nondurable items, while young married couples without children typically purchase home furnishings and gifts for each other. Page: 113 5-188 SUBCULTURE CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION

What is a subculture? What are some examples of products targeted at American subcultures? Answer: Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values, ideas, and attitudes within the larger, or national, culture. When one recognizes that one in four Americans today is African American, Hispanic, or Asian American, the importance of subcultural differences becomes apparent. Companies recognize that the norms and values of subculture also affect purchasing behavior. Therefore, subculture is frequently used to target markets. Examples of some marketing efforts directed at American subcultures include McDonald's promotions in Spanish, ProLine beauty products for Blacks, and special Campbell's soups for the Southwest. (Student examples will vary.) Page: 115-117 5-189 SUBCULTURE APPLICATION

From your own experience, or from what you have heard from a friend or relative, describe how the values, ideas, and attitudes of a particular American subculture can affect the marketing of a product. Answer: Student example will vary, but may include the observation that a subculture made up of people of English ancestry may like creamed fish and minced beef in a cup of Yorkshire pudding, whereas people of Hungarian ancestry may prefer carp soup and lots of paprika in their stews. A Pennsylvania-Ohio subculture can favor scrapple for breakfast, whereas Texans may prefer chicken fried steak. These differences can be observed on the menus of restaurants and in the product inventories of grocery stores where such subcultures represent a significant portion of the local population. Variations in American subcultures also involve styles of dress, types of music enjoyed, and home decor, among many other factors, all of which affect consumer marketing significantly. Page: 115-117

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