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ï‹ ñó«ð
CÁî£Qò àí¾‹, ªêŒº¬ø»‹

DHAN Foundation
º¡Â¬ó
ܼ‰î£Qòƒè«÷ CÁî£Qòƒèœ!

àôèˆF½œ÷ ܬùˆ¶ Þù‚°¿ ñ‚èÀ‹ îƒèÀ‚ªèù ð‡ð£´, èô£„ê£óƒè¬÷‚


ªè£‡´ õ£›‰¶ õ¼A¡øù˜. Ü«î «ð£¡Á, îƒèœ õ£›MìƒèO¡ GôMò™
Åö½‚«èŸð õ÷¼‹ î£õóƒèœ, ðJ˜èœ, ðöƒèœ, 裌èPèœ ÝAò¬õ ꣘‰«î îƒè÷¶
àí¾Š ðö‚è õö‚èƒè¬÷»‹ ܬñˆ¶‚ ªè£‡ìù˜. ܶ«ð£¡øªî£¼ ð‡ð£´,
èô£„ê£óŠ ªð¼¬ñ‚°Kò îIö˜èœ, îƒèÀ‚è£ù àí¾ º¬ø¬ò»‹ îƒèœ ñ‡ ꣘‰«î
ï¬ìº¬øò£‚A‚ ªè£‡ìù˜.

îIöè GôŠð°F, ñ¬ö ñ¬ø¾Š Hó«îêñ£°‹. ݇®¡ ðô ñ£îƒèœ õø‡«ì è£íŠð´‹


¹MJò™ Åö™ è£óíñ£è, àJ˜Š¹ì¡ 殄 ªê™½‹ ÝÁèÀ‹ Üšõ÷õ£è Þ™¬ô. Þîù£™,
ï‹ º¡«ù£˜èœ è‡ñ£Œ, ãK, °÷‹ «ð£¡ø c˜G¬ôè¬÷ ܬñˆ¶, ñó¹ õNò£è«õ ñ¬ö
c˜ «êIŠH¬ù è¬ìŠH®ˆ¶ õ£›‰F¼‚A¡øù˜. î‡aK¡ ܼ¬ñ¬ò»‹, ªð¼¬ñ¬ò»‹
ÜP‰¶ õ£›‰î è£óíˆî£™î£¡, c˜G¬ôèœ °Pˆî ðô ÜKò ªî£N™¸†ðƒèœ Þƒ«è
꣈Fòñ£Jù.

1.ÝŸÁŠð´¬è, 2.è‡ñ£Œ, ãKèœ, 3.ñ£ù£õ£K âù Í¡Á Mîñ£ù «õ÷£‡ º¬øèœ


îIöèˆF™ ï¬ìº¬øJ™ Þ¼‰îù. ÞF™ ñ£ù£õ£K GôƒèO™ CÁî£Qò M¬÷MŠ¹,
ðóõô£è è£íŠð†ì¶. Þî¡ è£óíñ£è«õ, ªï™ôKC àí¾è¬÷‚ 裆®½‹ õó°,
°F¬óõ£L, ꣬ñ, F¬ù, ðQõó°, «è›õó° «ð£¡ø ð™«õÁ CÁî£Qò ÜKCèœ
ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñò£ù ñ‚èO¡ àí¾Š ðö‚èˆF™ Üƒè‹ õAˆîù.

«ñ†´‚°® ñ‚èO¡ àíõ£è Þ¼‰î ªï™ôKC»‹, âOò ñ‚èœ õ£ƒAŠ ðò¡ð´ˆî


º®ò£î M¬ôJ™ Þ¼‰î è£óíˆî£™, Ü®ˆî†´, âOò ñ‚èO¡ àíõ£è CÁî£Qòƒèœ
ñ£PŠ«ð£Jù. àíM½‹ Ãì, Þƒ° G蛉î ãŸøˆî£›¾èO¡ è£óíñ£è, ªï™ôKC¬ò
à‡«ð£˜ «ñô£«ù£ó£è¾‹, CÁî£Qò àí¾è¬÷ à†ªè£œ«õ£˜ Wö£«ù£ó£è¾‹
F†ìI†´ CˆîK‚èŠð†ìù˜. îƒè¬÷ êÍè «ñ™G¬ôŠð´ˆF‚ ªè£œÀ‹ ªð£¶Š¹ˆFJ¡
è£óíñ£Œ, ªð¼‹ð£¡¬ñ ñ‚èÀ‹ CÁî£Qòƒè¬÷Š ¹ø‚èE‚èˆ ªî£ìƒAù˜.
Þîù£™ ªï™ôKC ï‹ àí¾ º¬øJ™, ð™«õÁ õ®õƒèO™ Ý‚AóI‚èˆ ªî£ìƒAò¶.
ð²¬ñŠ¹ó†C ãŸð´ˆFò 躋, CÁî£QòŠ ðò¡ð£†¬ì ºŸÁñ£è Mô‚A, ªï™ôKC
ñ†´«ñ ºî¡¬ñ àíõ£è ñ£øˆ ªî£ìƒAò¶.

åŠd†ì÷M™ CÁî£Qòƒèœ, ªï™ôKC¬ò‚ 裆®½‹ á†ì„ꈶ‚èœ G¬ø‰î¬õ.


à콂°ˆ «î¬õò£ù ꈶ‚èœ ÞõŸP™ ÜFèñ£è Þ¼‰î, ï‹ º¡«ù£˜èœ
CÁî£Qòƒè¬÷ ÜFè‹ ðò¡ð´ˆFù˜. Þîù£™ «ï£òŸø õ£›¬õ»‹, ñ¼ˆ¶õ
ªêô¾è÷Ÿø õ£›Mò¬ô»‹ ¬è‚ªè£‡´ õ£›‰îù˜. Þ‰î õ£›Mò«ô Þ¡¬øò ï‹
î¬ôº¬øJùKì‹ î£‚èˆ¬î ãŸð´ˆîˆ ªî£ìƒAJ¼‚Aø¶ â¡ð¶î£¡ ñA›„C‚°Kò
à‡¬ñ. Þîù£™ CÁî£Qòƒèœ °Pˆî ðóõô£ù MNŠ¹í˜¾ ñ‚èOì‹ ãŸðìˆ
ªî£ìƒAJ¼‚Aø¶. Ü´ˆî´ˆî î¬ôº¬øJù¼‚°‹ Þ„ªêŒF ðóõô£è ªê™õ
àKò ºòŸCèœ «î¬õŠð´A¡øù.

Ü¡ø£ì‹ ã«î‹ å¼ õ¬èJ™ CÁî£Qò àí¾èœ ï¬ìº¬øò£‚èŠðì «õ‡´‹ â¡Á


M¼‹¹‹ °´‹ðƒèœ 𣶠ªð¼èˆ ªî£ìƒAJ¼‚A¡øù. Þ¶ õó«õŸèˆî‚è ñ£Ÿø‹
â¡ø«ð£¶‹, Üî¬ù„ ê¬ñ‚A¡ø º¬øJ™ ñ‚èÀ‚° Þ¼‚°‹ äòŠð£´‹, îò‚躋
ªð£¶ˆî÷ˆF™ CÁî£Qò àí¾èœ ªð¼‹ i„C¬ùŠ ªðø£î‚ è£óíñ£è„
ªê£™ôô£‹. îIöèˆF¡ ªð¼‹ð£ô£ù ï蘊¹øƒèO™ ê‚èó õ‡®èO™, «èŠ¬ð‚Û,
è‹ñƒÃ› â¡Á MŸA¡ø Åö¬ôˆ 𣶠𣘂A¡«ø£‹. ªð£¶ñ‚èO¡ õó«õŸ¹‹
ªð¼ñ÷¾ A¬ìˆ¶‚ ªè£‡®¼‚Aø¶ â¡ð¬î»‹  ÜP«õ£‹.

Ýù£™ Þ‰î àí¾èœ ï‹ i´èÀ‚°œ ¸¬öò «õ‡´‹. ð£Lb¡ ¬ðèO™ õ¼‹ 'ªñ£Á,
ªñ£Á' CŸÁ‡®èœ, ï‹ °ö‰¬îèO¡ èõùˆFL¼‰¶ ¹ø‚èEŠ¹Š ªðø «õ‡´‹.
á†ì„ꈶœ÷ î¬ôº¬ø à¼õ£è «õ‡´ªñQ™, '°Š¬ð àí¾è¬÷' ¹ø‰îœO,
e‡´‹ CÁî£Qò àí¾èœ º¿ Ü÷M™, 嚪õ£¼õK¡ i†´„ ê¬ñòô¬øJ™ Þì‹
ªðø «õ‡´‹. Ü‰î «ï£‚èˆ¬î Ü®Šð¬ìò£è‚ ªè£‡«ì މ˙ Ý‚è‹ ªðŸÁœ÷¶.

ñ‚èœ Ü¬ùõ¼‹ CÁî£Qò àí¾è¬÷ à‡µõˆ îò£˜. Ýù£™ Üî¬ù à‡µ‹


õ¬èJ™ CøŠ¹ì¡ ê¬ñ‚è ªê£™L‚ ªè£´‚è ò£˜ îò£˜..? â¡ø «èœM‚°Š ðFô£è
CÁî£Qòƒè¬÷‚ ªè£‡´ àí¾è¬÷„ ªêŒ»‹ º¬ø °Pˆî M÷‚èñ£ù ¬è«òì£è,
މ˙ îƒèœ ¬èèO™ îõ›Aø¶.

'èŸè èêìø‚ èŸø¬õ èŸøH¡


GŸè Üˆ îè' â¡ø õœÀõŠ «ðó£ê£¡ õ£‚¬è ªð£Œò£‚°î™ î°«ñ£..?
àœ÷ì‚è‹
°F¬óõ£L Þ®ò£Šð‹.................. 4 ꣬ñ ÞQŠ¹ ¹†´......................18

°F¬óõ£L «èêK........................ 5 ꣬ñ õ¬ì................................19

ð„¬ê ªñ£„¬ê °ö‹¹.................. 6 CÁî£Qò áˆî£Šð‹................. 20

«è›õó° Ü™õ£..........................7 CÁî£Qò «î£¬ê.......................21

«è›õó° Þ†L............................ 8 CÁî£Qò ðEò£ó‹.................. 22

«è›õó° è…C............................ 9 F¬ù ÞQŠ¹ ªð£ƒè™............... 23

«è›õó° ñ£™†...........................10 F¬ù ð£ò£ê‹........................... 24

«è›õó° ªó£†®......................... 11 õó° ÜFóê‹............................ 25

꣬ñ HKò£E..........................12 õó° I÷° ê£î‹....................... 26

꣬ñ îJ˜ ê£î‹........................13 õó° ºÁ‚°............................. 27

꣬ñ Š¬ó´ ¬óv......................14 õó° ¹O«ò£î¬ó....................... 28

꣬ñ è£ó ¹†´..........................15 õó° àŠ¹ñ£.............................. 29

꣬ñ A„ê®..............................16 ªè£œÀ ô†´........................... 30

꣬ñ I÷° ªð£ƒè™..................17 ªè£œÀ ÅŠ..............................31

Standard Measurements (ðò¡ð£†´ Ü÷¾èœ)


one tea spoon - 5 ml one table spoon - 10 ml one cup - 250 grams
å¼ «î‚èó‡® - 5 IL å¼ «ñ¬ê‚èó‡®- 10 IL å¼ °õ¬÷ - 250 Aó£‹
Fjpiuthyp ,bahg;gk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Fjpiuthyp mhprp 1 fg;
Njq;fha; JUtpaJ 1 fg;
Vyf;fha; 2 vz;zpf;if
cg;G rpwpjsT
nty;yk; ¼ fg;

nra;Kiw
yy Fjpiuthyp mhprpia 2 kzp Neuk; Cw itj;J cg;G Nrh;j;J kpUJthf> nfl;bahf
miuj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
yy nfl;bahf cs;s khit ,l;yp jl;by; ,l;yp Nghy Ntfitj;J vLf;fTk;. gpd;
mjid ,bahg;g mr;rpy; itj;J gpope;J vLf;fTk;.
yy JUtpa Njq;fhia miuj;J ghnyLj;J mjpy; rpwpjsT Vyf;fha; nghbiaj;Jhtp
mjpy; Njitahd msT ePh; Nrh;j;J kpjkhd #l;by; nty;yj;ijr; Nrh;j;J ,wf;fp
,bahg;gj;Jld; rhg;gpl;lhy; Ritahf ,Uf;Fk;.
yy fhuk; Ntz;Lnkd;why; ,bahg;gj;ij cjph;j;J tpl;L vz;nza;> fLF> kpsF> rPufk;>
tukpsfha; jhspj;J rhg;gplyhk;.

4 rpWjhdpa czT
Fjpiuthyp Nfrhp
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Fjpiuthyp uth 250 fpuhk;
nty;yk; 300 fpuhk;
nea; 50 fpuhk;
Ke;jphp 20 fpuhk;
jpuhl;ir 20 fpuhk;
Vyf;fha;j;Jhs; rpwpjsT
Rf;Fj;Jhs; rpwpjsT
gd;dPh; 3 Njf;fuz;b

nra;Kiw
yy Fjpiuthyp uthit rpwpJ nea; tpl;L nghd;dpwkhf tWj;njLf;fTk;.
yy nty;yj;Jld; rpWJ ePh; Nrh;;j;J ghF fha;r;rp tbfl;b itj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
yy xU thzypapy; 400 kp.yp ePiu nfhjpf;f itj;J gpd; tWj;j Fjpiuthyp uthit
mjDld; Nrh;j;J fpswTk;. ,ilapilNa rpwpJ nea; Nrh;j;J mbgpbf;fhky; fpswTk;
yy mjDld; nty;yg;ghF Nrh;j;J fpswp ed;whf RUz;L tUk;NghJ nea;apy; tWj;j
Ke;jphp> jpuhl;ir> kw;Wk; Vyf;fha; Jhs;> Rf;Fj;Jhs;> gd;dPh; Nrh;j;J ,wf;fTk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 5
gr;ir nkhr;ir Fok;G
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
gr;ir nkhr;ir 1 fg;
nte;jak; ½ Njf;fuz;b
ngUq;fhak; 1 rpwpjsT
fLF ½ Njf;fuz;b
fUNtg;gpiy xU nfhj;J
nfhj;jky;ypj;jio xU nfhj;J
rpd;d ntq;fhak; 5 (KO msT)
g+z;L 3 gy;
tukpsfha; 5 vz;zpf;if
ey;nyz;nza; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b
Gsp rpwpjsT (fiuj;jJ)
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy xU thzypapy; ey;nyz;nzia Cw;wp #lhf;fp rpwpjsT fLF> nte;jak;> g+z;L>
ntq;fhak;> tukpsfha;> fUNtg;gpiy kw;Wk; gr;ir nkhr;ir Nrh;j;J ed;whf tjf;fTk;.
yy ed;F tjq;fpaJk; fiuj;J itj;j Gspia fye;J cg;G> kQ;rs;Jhs; Nrh;j;J ed;whf
nfhjpf;f itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
yy nfhj;jky;ypj;jio Nrh;j;J ,wf;fTk;.

6 rpWjhdpa czT
Nfo;tuF my;th
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Nfo;tuF khT 1 fg;
nty;yk; 1 fg; (JWtpaJ)
nea; 200 kp.yp
Ke;jphp 1 Njf;fuz;b
jpuhl;ir 1 Njf;fuz;b
Vyf;fha;j;Jhs; rpwpjsT
Rf;Fj;Jhs; rpwpjsT
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy nty;yj;Jld; miu fg; ePh; Nrh;j;J Nfo;tuFkhitf; fl;bapy;yhky; fiuj;Jf;nfhs;sTk;.
yy rpW jPapy; nea;ia #lhf;fp Nfo;tuF khT fyitia Nrh;j;J ed;F fyf;fTk;.
yy Nfo;tuF khT fyit ghj;jpuj;jpy; xl;lhky; tUk; tiu rpwpJ rpwpjhf nea;ia
Nrh;j;J> if tplhky; fpswTk;.
yy gpd;G Vyk;> Rf;Fj;Jhs; Nrh;j;J nea;ia nfhjpf;Fk; tiu RUsf; fpswTk;. mjd;gpwF
nea;apy; tWj;j Ke;jphp> jpuhl;ir Nrh;j;J #lhf ghpkhwTk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 7
Nfo;tuF ,l;yp
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Nfo;tuF 1 fg;
cSe;J ¼ fg;
nte;jak; 2 Njf;fuz;b
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy Nfo;tuF> cSe;J> nte;jak; 6 kzp Neuk; Cwtpl;L ,l;yp khT gjj;jpw;F
miuj;njLf;fTk;.
yy khT fyitia cg;G Nrh;j;J> 6 Kjy; 8 kzp Neuk; Gspf;f tpl;L ,l;ypahf Mtpapy;
NtftplTk;.
yy Ntz;Lkhdhy; ,l;ypia rpW Jz;Lfshf Nghl;L flhapy; vz;nza; fUNtg;gpiy>
nfhj;Jky;yp> rPufk;> fLF cSe;jk;gUg;G> tukpsfha; Nghl;L jhspj;J #lhf
ghpkhwyhk;.

8 rpWjhdpa czT
Nfo;tuF fQ;rp
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Nfo;tuF 250 fpuhk;
ghrp gUg;G 100 fpuhk;
nte;jak; 50 fpuhk;
g+z;L xU ifg;gpb (chpj;jJ)
Njq;fha; ghy; 2 fg;
cg;G rpwpjsT

nra;Kiw
yy Nfo;tuF> ghrpg;gUg;G> nte;jak; ,it %d;iwAk; ed;whf fOtp> KO g+z;L
Nrh;j;J jhuhskhf jz;zPh;> cg;G Nrh;j;J ed;F Fioa Ntftpl Ntz;Lk;.
yy ed;F nte;j fQ;rpAld; Njq;fha; ghy; Nrh;j;J ghpkhwTk;.
yy Ritf;Nfw;g nty;yk;> gdq;fw;fz;L> cg;G Nrh;j;J nfhs;syhk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 9
Nfo;tuF khy;l;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Nfo;tuF khT 1 fg;
nty;yk; ¼ fg;
Vyf;fha;; 2 vz;zpf;if
(nghb)
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy thzypapy; Nfo;tuF khit kpjkhd #l;by; ed;whf thrk; tUk; tiu tWf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh; tWj;j khTld; jz;zPh; fye;J fl;bapy;yhky; fiuf;fTk;.
yy xU fg; khtpw;F 5 fg; jz;zPh; tPjk; jz;zPiu kl;Lk; ed;F nfhjpf;f itf;fTk;.
fiuj;j khit nfhjpf;Fk; jz;zPhpy; Nghl;L ed;F fpswTk;.
yy Vyf;fha; nghb> nty;yk; Nrh;j;J fl;bapy;yhky; fpswTk;. ed;F nfhjpj;jgpd; ,wf;fp
tplTk;.

Fwpg;G: xUehs; fhiyapNyNa Nfo;tuif Cw itj;J %l;il fl;b itj;J gpd; Kisg;G fl;ba
Nfo;tuif ghjp ntapy;> ghjp epoy; cs;s ,lj;jpy; fha itj;J miuj;J khthf itj;J ,jw;F
gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.

10 rpWjhdpa czT
Nfo;tuF nuhl;b
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Nfo;tuF khT>
Fg;igNkdp. 1 fg;
KUq;if fPiu
Fg;ig fPiu 1 fg;
(nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
nfhj;jky;yp 1 nfhj;J
fUNtg;gpiy 1 nfhj;J
cg;G Njitahd msT
,Q;rp rpwpjsT (JUtpaJ)
rPufk; rpwpjsT
rpd;d ntq;fhak; 3 vz;zpf;if (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
gr;ir kpsfha; 2 vz;zpf;if (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
vz;nza; Njitahd msT
nra;Kiw
yy Nfo;tuF khTld; nghbahf eWf;fpa midj;J fPiufisAk; Nrh;f;fTk;.
yy mjDld; nghbahf eWf;fpa gr;ir kpsfha;> ntq;fhak;> JUtpa ,Q;rp> rPufk; Nrh;j;J
jz;zPh; tpl;L gpiraTk;
yy gpire;j khit fha;e;j Njhir rl;bapy; vz;nza; tpl;L nuhl;bahf jl;b Ntf
tpl;L vLj;J #lhf Njq;fha; rl;dpAld; ghpkhwTk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 11
rhik gphpahzp
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp 1 fg;
gPd;];> Nful;>
gr;ir gl;lhzp 1 fg;
ntq;fhak; ½ fg;(nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
jf;fhsp ½ fg;(nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
gr;ir kpsfha; rpwpjsT
jf;fhsp 2 rpwpaJ
kpsfha;Jhs; ½ Nkirf;fuz;b
cg;G Njitahd msT
,Q;rp 1 Jz;L
g+z;L 3 gy;
nea; Njitahd msT
nfhj;jky;yp ,iy rpwpjsT
Gjpdh xU nfhj;J
fuk; krhyh jahhpf;f (Nrhk;G> gl;il> fpuhk;G> md;dhrpG+> fly;ghrp> gphpahzp ,iy> Vyf;fha;)
nra;Kiw
yy Nrhk;G kw;Wk; gl;ilia nghb nra;J nfhs;sTk;. ,Q;rp> g+z;ilAk; tpOjhf
miuj;J nfhs;sTk;.
yy mLg;gpy; Ff;fiu itj;J nea;ia Cw;wp fha;e;jTld; fpuhk;G> md;dhrpG+> fly;ghrp>
gphpahzp ,iy> Vyf;fha; Nrh;j;J tjf;fpa gpd;G Gjpdh> ,Q;rp G+z;L tpOJ> gr;ir
kpsfha;> ntq;fhak;> jf;fhsp> kpsfha; Jhs; kw;Wk; cg;G Nrh;j;J ed;whf tjf;fTk;.
gpwF gPd;];> Nful;> gr;irg;gl;lhzp Nrh;j;J tjf;fp rhik mhprp> 2 fg; jz;zPh;
Nrh;j;J nfhjpf;f itf;fTk;. ½ Njf;fuz;b nea; tpl;L Ff;fiu %b ,uz;L tprpy;
tUk; tiu itj;J ,wf;fp tplTk;.
yy ,wf;fpaTld; rpwpJ nea; tpl;L fpswp ky;yp ,iy Jhtp ghpkhwTk;

12 rpWjhdpa czT
rhik japh; rhjk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp 1 fg;(Ntf itj;jJ)

japh; 1 fg;
,Q;rp JUty; rpwpjsT
fLF ½ Njf;fuz;b
cg;G Njitahd msT
vz;nza; 2 Nkirf;fuz;b
gr;ir kpsfha; 1 vz;zpf;if (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)

nra;Kiw
yy xU gq;F rhik mhprpAld; 3 gq;F jz;zPh> cg;G Nrh;j;J Fioa Ntf itf;fTk;.
yy xU fg; japh;> JUtpa ,Q;rp> gr;ir kpsfha; Nrh;j;J fpswTk;.
yy thzypapy; vz;nza; fha;e;jTld; fLF> fUNtg;gpiy jhspj;J rhjj;jpd; Nky;
nfhl;lTk;.
yy JUtpa Nful;> eWf;fpa nfhj;jky;yp Nrh;j;J myq;fhpf;fTk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 13
rhik g;iuL iu];
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp 1 fg;
kpsFj;Jhs; rpwpjsT
vz;nza; Njitahd msT
cg;G Njitahd msT
g+z;L 3 gy; (eWf;fpaJ)
Gjpdh jio 2 nfhj;J
gPd;];> Nful;> Ks;sq;fp 1 fg;
gPl;&l;> nfhlkpsfha;
vYkpr;ir gok; 2 Jsp

nra;Kiw
yy xU ghj;jpuj;jpy; 2 gq;F jz;zPiu nfhjpf;f itf;fTk;. mjDld; 1 gq;F rhik
mhprp> cg;G Nrh;j;J 10 epkplk; %b Ntf itf;fTk;.
yy flhapy; vz;nza; fha;e;jTld; nghbahf eWf;fpa g+z;il tjf;fp gpddh; mjDld;
fha;fwpfis (gP;l;&l; jtpu) Nrh;j;J nghd;dwpkhf tjf;fTk;.
yy Gjpdh> kpsFj;Jhs; Nrh;j;J tjf;fpaTld; ,Wjpahf gPl;&l; Nrh;f;fTk;.
yy mjDld; rhik rhjj;ij Nrh;j;J ed;whf fpswp 2 Jsp vYkpr;ir rhw;iw Cw;wp
,wf;fTk;.
yy gPl;&l;bd; epwk;; rhjj;jpw;Fk; kw;w fha;fwpfspd; epwk; mg;gbNa ,Uf;Fk;.
yy Ritahd fyh;Gy; rhik gpiuL iu]; jahh;.

14 rpWjhdpa czT
rhik fhu Gl;L
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp khT 1 fg;
cg;G Njitahd msT
vz;nza; 2 Nkirf;fuz;b
fLF 2 fpuhk;
cSe;J 1 Njf;fuz;b
fliyg;gUg;G 1 Njf;fuz;b
,Q;rp 1 Njf;fuz;b (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
rpd;d ntq;fhak; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b(nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
kpsfha; 3 vz;zpf;if
jf;fhsp 1 (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
rPufj;Jhs; rpwpjsT
kQ;rs; rpwpjsT
nfhj;jky;yp rpwpjsT (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)

nra;Kiw
yy rhik mhprp khTld; rpwpJ cg;G fye;j ePiu njspj;J Gl;L khT gjj;jpw;F gpire;J
nfhz;L Mtpapy; NtftplTk;. nte;jgpd; jl;by; nfhl;b MwtplTk;.
yy thzypapy; vz;nzia #lhf;fp fLF> cSe;J> fliy gUg;G jhspj;Jf;nfhz;L
,Q;rp> kpsfha;> ntq;fhak;> fUNtg;gpiy> jf;fhsp Nrh;j;J ed;F tjf;fTk;. ed;F
RUz;LtUk; Ntisapy; rPufj;Jhs;> kQ;rs;Jhs; rpwpJ cg;G Nrh;j;J fyf;fTk;.
yy gpd; Ntf itj;j rhik Gl;il ,jDld; fye;J fpswTk;. filrpahf nfhj;jky;yp
,iyia Jhtp ,wf;fp #lhf ghpkhwTk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 15
rhik fpr;rb
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp 1 fg;
fLF 2 fpuhk;
cSe;J 10 fpuhk;
fliy gUg;G 10 fpuhk;
,Q;rp 10 fpuhk;
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J
jf;fhsp 1
gr;ir kpsfha; 1
rpd;d ntq;fhak; 1 fg; (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
Njq;fha; JUty; rpwpjsT
cg;G Njitahd msT
nfhj;jky;yp ,iy xU ifg;gpb (eWf;fpaJ)
fliy vz;nza; 2 Nkirf;fuz;b
tpUk;gpa fha;fwpfs; nfhj;jtuq;fha;> kQ;rs; g+rzp> Ruf;fha;> gPh;f;fq;fha;>
nra;Kiw
yy rhik mhprpia Rj;jk; nra;J nfhs;sTk;.
yy gpd;dh; xU ghj;jpuj;jpy; vz;nzia #lhf;fp fLF> cSe;J> fliyg;gUg;G> ,Q;rp>
fUNtg;gpiy> ntq;fhak;> jf;fhsp> gr;ir kpsfha;> fha;fwpfs; Mfpatw;iw ed;whf
tjf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh;; mj;Jld; %d;W fg; jz;zPh; Nrh;j;J nfhjpf;ftplTk;. mjDld; Rj;jk; nra;j
rhik mhprpia ed;F fpswptpl;L NtftplTk;. nte;jTld; ,wf;fp itj;J Njq;fha;
JUty; kw;Wk; nfhj;jky;yp ,iyia Jhtp #lhf ghpkhwpdhy; Ritahf ,Uf;Fk;.

16 rpWjhdpa czT
rhik kpsF nghq;fy;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp 300 fpuhk; (1fg;)
ghrpg;gUg;G 100 fpuhk;
,Q;rp 20 fpuhk;
Ke;jphp 30 fpuhk;
rPufk; ½ Nkirf;fuz;b
kpsF 1 Nkirf;fuz;b
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J
nea; 100 kp.yp
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy rhik mhprpia Rj;jk; nra;J ed;F fOtp nfhs;sTk;
yy xU ghj;jpuj;jpy; 3 gq;F jz;zPiu nfhjpf;f itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
yy fOtp itj;j rhikiaAk;> ghrpg;gUg;igAk; Nrh;j;J ed;F NtftplTk;.
yy gpd;dh; thzypapy; nea; Cw;wp ,Q;rp> rPufk;> kpsF> fUNtg;gpiy jhspj;J mij Ntf
itj;j rhjj;jpy; Nrh;j;J fpswTk;.
yy gpd;dh; Ke;jphpia jdpahf nea;apy; tWj;J rhjj;Jld; Nrh;j;J ghpkhwTk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 17
rhik ,dpg;G Gl;L
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik khT 1 fg;
nty;yk; ½ fg;
Njq;fha; g+ 1 fg;
nghl;Lf;fliy 2 Nkirf;fuz;b
Ke;jphp 1 Nkirf;fuz;b
nea; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b
Vyf;fha;j;Jhs; rpwpjsT
Rf;Fj;Jhs; rpwpjsT
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy thzypapy; rhikkhit ,sQ;#l;by; kpjkhf tWj;Jf;nfhs;sTk;. msthd ePhpy;
cg;ig fiuj;J> mj;jz;zPiu njspj;J khit Gl;L khT gjj;jpw;F gpire;J> 5
epkplk; Cw tplTk;. gpd; Mtpapy; Ntfitj;J vLf;fTk;.
yy nty;yj;Jhis rpwpjsT ePh;tp;l;L ghfhf;fp> tbj;Jf;nfhz;L mjDld; Njq;fha;
nea;apy; tWj;j nghl;Lf;fliy> Ke;jphpia Nrh;j;J fye;J nfhs;sTk;.
yy ,f;fyitia Gl;L khTld; Nrh;j;J fye;J> Vyf;fha;j;Jhs;> Rf;Fj;Jhs; Jhtp
ghpkhwTk;.

18 rpWjhdpa czT
rhik til
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
rhik mhprp khT 1 fg;
cSe;J 2 fg;
kpsfha; 4 vz;zpf;if
,Q;rp rpWJz;L
rPufk; 1 Njf;fuz;b
kpsF ½ Njf;fuz;b
ngUq;fhak; rpwpjsT
cg;G Njitahd msT
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J (eWf;fpaJ)
rpd;d ntq;fhak; ½ fg; (eWf;fpaJ)
nfhj;jky;yp 1 ifg;gpb (eWf;fpaJ)
vz;nza; nghwpf;f Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy cSe;ij Cwitj;J mjDld; kpsfha;> ,Q;rp> rPufk;> kpsF> ngUq;fhak;> cg;G
,it midj;ijAk; Nrh;j;J xd;whf til gjj;jpw;F miuj;Jf;nfhs;sTk;.
yy mjDld; rhikmhprp khT> fUNtg;gpiy> rpd;d ntq;fhak;> nfhj;jky;yp ,it
midj;ijAk; xd;whf fye;J tilahfj;jl;b vz;nzapy; nghwpj;njLf;fTk;.
yy Ritahd rhik til jahh;. ,j;Jld; Njq;fha; rl;dp Nrh;j;J ghpkhw Ritahf
,Uf;Fk;.

rpWjhdpa czT 19
rpWjhdpa Cj;jhg;gk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;

}
Fjpiuthyp Ie;Jk; rhpahd
jpid> rhik> msTfspy;
tuF> Nfo;tuF nkhj;jk; 4 Ftis
cSe;J 1 fg;
nte;jak; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b
cg;G Njitahd msT
Nful; 1 fg; (JUtpaJ)
nfhj;jky;yp 1 nfhj;J (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
vz;nza; Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy rpWjhdpaq;fis 6 kzp Neuj;jpw;F Nky; Cw itf;fTk;
yy cSe;Jld; nte;jak; Nrh;j;J mij 1 kzp Neuk; Cw itf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh; ,uz;ilAk; ed;whf Njhir gjj;jpw;F miuj;J xU ehs; Gspf;f itf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh; Gspj;j khTld; cg;G Nrh;j;J Cj;jhg;gkhf Cw;wp mjpy; JUtpa Nful;>
eWf;fpa nfhj;jky;yp Nrh;j;J Ntf tplTk;.
yy #lhd rpWjhdpa Cj;jg;gj;Jld; Njq;fha; rl;dp> rhk;ghh;> Gjpdh rl;dp Nrh;j;J rhg;gpl
Ritahf ,Uf;Fk;

20 rpWjhdpa czT
rpWjhdpa Njhir
Njitahd nghUl;fs;

}
Fjpiuthyp Ie;Jk; rhpahd
jpid> rhik> msTfspy;
tuF> Nfo;tuF nkhj;jk; 4 fg;
cSe;J 1 fg;
nte;jak; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy rpWjhdpaq;fis 6 kzp Neuj;jpw;F Nky; Cw itf;fTk;
yy cSe;Jld; nte;jak; Nrh;j;J mij 1 kzp Neuk; Cw itf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh; ,uz;ilAk; ed;whf Njhir gjj;jpw;F miuj;J xU ehs; Gspf;f itf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh; Gspj;j khTld; cg;G Nrh;j;J Njhir rl;bapy; ,l;L Njhirahf thh;f;fTk;.
yy #lhd rpWjhdpa NjhirAld; Njq;fha; rl;dp> rhk;ghh;> Gjpdh rl;dp Nrh;j;J rhg;gpl
Ritahf ,Uf;Fk

rpWjhdpa czT 21
rpWjhdpa gzpahuk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;

}
Fjpiuthyp
jpid> rhik>
tuF> Nfo;tuF 4 fg;
cSe;J 1 fg;
nte;jak;; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b
cg;G Njitahd msT
rPufk; 1 Njf;fuz;b
tukpsfha; 3
ntq;fhak; ½ fg; (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
vz;nza; 3 Nkirf;fuz;b
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J

nra;Kiw
yy rhik mhprp> jpid mhprp> Nfo;tuF> tuF mhprp> Fjpiuthyp mhprp> cSe;J> nte;jak;
Mfpatw;iw ed;F Cw itj;J cg;G Nrh;j;J miuj;J Gspf;f itf;fTk;.
yy vz;nza; #lhf;fp fLF> cSe;J> fliyg;gUg;G Nrh;j;J rPufk;> ntq;fhak;> kpsfha;>
fUNtg;gpiy jhspj;J ed;F tjf;fTk;.
yy ,jid Gspj;j khTld; fye;J gzpahur;rl;bapy; vz;nza; jltp khit Cw;wp Ntf
tpl;L vLf;fTk;.
yy #lhd gzpahuj;Jld; Njq;fha; rl;dp my;yJ Gjpdh rl;dp Nrh;j;J rhg;gplyhk;.

22 rpWjhdpa czT
jpid ,dpg;G nghq;fy;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
jpid mhprp 1 fg;
nty;yk; ½ fg;
Ke;jphp 15 fpuhk;
jpuhl;ir 15 fpuhk;
ghrp gUg;G ¼ fg;
nea; 200 kp.yp
Vyf;fha; nghb rpwpjsT
Rf;Fj;Jhs; rpwpjsT

nra;Kiw
yy jpid mhprp> ghrpg;gUg;G ,uz;ilAk; Rj;jk; nra;J jz;zPhpy; NtftplTk;.
yy ½ fg; nty;yj;ij jz;zPhpy; fiuj;J nfhjpf;f itj;J tbfl;b itj;Jf;
nfhs;sTk;.
yy miu gjk; nte;jTld; tbfl;ba nty;yj;ij Nrh;j;J fpswTk;
yy ed;F Fioa nte;J tUk; NghJ nea;tpl;L fpswTk;.
yy filrpahf nea;apy; tWj;j Ke;jphp> jpuhl;ir> Vyf;fha;j;Jhs;> Rf;Fj;Jhs; Nrh;j;J
ghpkhwTk;.
yy Ritahd jpid ,dpg;G nghq;fy; jahh;

rpWjhdpa czT 23
jpid ghahrk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
jpid mhprp ½ fg;
nty;yk; 150 fpuhk;
ghy; 3 fg;
Njq;fha; g+ ¼ fg;
nea; 200 kp.yp
Ke;jphp 20 fpuhk;
jpuhl;ir 20 fpuhk;
Vyf;fha;j;Jhs; rpwpjsT
Rf;Fj;Jhs; rpwpjsT

nra;Kiw
yy jpid mhprpia 100 kpyp nea;tpl;L ed;F thrid tUk;tiu tWf;fTk;. mjDld;
ePh; Nrh;j;J nfhjpf;ftplTk;.
yy nty;yj;ij rpwpJ ePUld; nfhjpf;ftpl;L tbfl;b mjDld; Nrh;f;fTk;.
yy rpwpJ nea; Nrh;j;J ed;F NtftplTk;. nte;jTld; ghy; Nrh;j;J fye;J nfhs;sTk;.
mjDld; Njq;fha;j;JUtiy Nrh;j;Jf; fpswp nea;apy; tWj;j Ke;jphp> jpuhl;ir
Nrh;f;fTk;. filrpahf Vyf;fha;j;Jhs;> Rf;Fj;Jhs; Nrh;j;J ghpkhwTk;.
yy tpUk;gpdhy; tWj;j vs;is Nrh;f;fyhk;. Ritahd jpid ghahrk; jahh;.

24 rpWjhdpa czT
tuF mjpurk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
tuF mhprp 250 fpuhk;
nty;yk; 250 fpuhk;
Vyf;fha;j;Jhs; ½ Njf;fuz;b
Rf;Fj;Jhs; ½ Njf;fuz;b
nea; 1 Nkirf;fuz;b
vz;nza; nghwpj;njLf;f Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy tuF mhprpia Cw itj;J> epoypy; cyh;j;jp khthf;fp rypj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
yy nty;yj;Jld; ePh; Nrh;j;J tbj;J fk;gp ghF gjk; tiu nfhjpf;ftplTk;.
yy ghif rypj;j khtpy; fye;J mjDld; Vyk;> Rf;Fj;Jhs; tiffis Nrh;j;J ed;F
fpswTk;. khT rg;ghj;jp khT gjj;jpw;F ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j khit ,uT
KOtJk; my;yJ xhpU ehl;fs; CwtplTk;.
yy Cwpa khit vYkpr;ir msT cUz;ilahf cUl;b mjid nea; jltpa thio
,iyapy; jl;b vz;nzapy; nghwpj;njLf;fTk;. Ritahd tuF mjpurk; jahh;.

rpWjhdpa czT 25
tuF kpsF rhjk;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Ntf itj;j
tuF mhprp rhjk; 500 fpuhk;
nghl;Lf;fliy xU ifg;gpb
fliyg;gUg;G xU ifg;gpb
tukpsfha; 2 vz;zpf;if
cSe;J xU ifg;gpb
cg;G Njitahd msT
jdpah ,uz;L ifg;gpb
nte;jak; ½ Njf;fuz;b
vz;nza; 4 Nkirf;fuz;b
rPufk; 1 Njf;fuz;b
ngUq;fhak; rpwpjsT
kpsF 2 Nkirf;fuz;b
nra;Kiw
yy cSe;J> fliyg;gUg;G> nghl;Lf;fliy> jdpah> nte;jak;> rPufk;> kpsF> tukpsfha;
,it midj;ijAk; jdpj;jdpahf nghd;dpwkhf tWj;J miuf;fTk;.
yy xU ghj;jpuj;jpy; vz;nza; Cw;wp fha;ejTld; cSe;J> fliyg;gUg;G> rPufk;>
ngUq;fhak; jhspj;J rhjj;jpy; nfhl;b rhjj;jpw;F Vw;wthW 4 Nkirf;fuz;b miuj;J
itj;j nghb Nrh;j;J fpswTk;.
yy $Ljy; Ritf;F fUNtg;gpiyia vz;nzapy; tWj;J nghb nra;Jk; Nrh;f;fyhk;.
Ritahd rj;jhd tuF kpsF rhjk; jahh;
yy kpsF rhjj;ij nfhj;jky;yp my;yJ Gjpdh rl;dpAld; gupkhwTk;

26 rpWjhdpa czT
tuF KWf;F
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
tuF mhprp khT 1 fg;
fliy khT 1 fg;
vs; 2 Nkirf;fuz;b
ntz;nza; 1 Nkirf;fuz;b
Xkk; 1 Njf;fuz;b
kpsfha;j;Jhs; 1 Njf;fuz;b
ngUq;fhak; rpwpjsT
cg;G Njitahd msT
vz;nza; nghwpj;njLf;f Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy tuF mhprp khT> fliy khT> cg;G Nrh;j;J ed;F rypj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
yy rypj;j khTld; tWj;j vs;> Xkk;> ntz;nza;> kpsfha; Jhs;> ngUq;fhak; ,it
midj;ijAk; xd;whf fye;J rpwpJ ePh; Nrh;j;J KWf;F gjj;jpw;F gpire;J
nfhs;sTk;.
yy xU thzypapy; vz;nza; Cw;wp fha;e;jTld; KWf;F mr;rpy; gpope;J vz;nzapy;
Nghl;L nghwpj;J vLf;fTk;.
yy KWf;F khTld; Njq;fha; ghy; Nrh;j;J gpire;J nra;jhy; $Ljy; RitAld; ,Uf;Fk;

rpWjhdpa czT 27
tuF GspNahjiu
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
Ntf itj;j
tuF NrhW 500 fpuhk;
fiuj;J itj;j Gsp 50 fpuhk;
cg;G Njitahd msT
vz;nza; 75 fpuhk;
fliy gUg;G 5 fpuhk;
cSe;J 5 fpuhk;
tukpsfha; 5 vz;zpf;if
g+z;L 7 gy;
nte;jak; 1 Nkirf;fuz;b
ngUq;fhak; rpwpjsT
fLF ½ Njf;fuz;b
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J
kQ;rs; Jhs; 1 Nkirf;fuz;b
nty;yk; rpwpjsT
nra;Kiw
yy xU ghj;jpuj;jpy; vz;nza; fha;e;jTld; fLF> cSe;J> fliyg;gUg;G> tukpsfha;>
g+z;L Nrh;j;J tjf;fp vz;nza; ,y;yhky; tWj;J nghbj;j nte;jaj;ij Nrh;f;fTk;.
yy ed;whf tjq;fpaTld; fiuj;J itj;j Gsp> kQ;rs;> ngUq;fhak;> cg;G> JUtpa
nty;yj;ij Nrh;j;J nfhjpf;f itf;fTk;.
yy vz;nza; NkNy tUk; gjj;jpw;F tUk; tiu mLg;gpy; itj;J Gspf;fiury;
jahhpj;J ,jid tuF rhjj;Jld; fpswpdhy; Ritahd tuF GspNahjiu jahh;.

Fwpg;G : fhw;W Nghfhj lg;ghtpy; ifglhjthW Gspf;fiuriy vLj;J itj;J xU khjk; tiu nflhky;
gad;gLj;jpf;nfhs;syhk;.

28 rpWjhdpa czT
tuF cg;Gkh
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
tuF mhprp 1 fg;
fLF 2 fpuhk;
cSe;J 10 fpuhk;
fliy gUg;G 10 fpuhk;
,Q;rp 10 fpuhk; (nghbahf eWf;fpaJ)
kpsfha; 2 vz;zpf;if
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J
cg;G Njitahd msT
nea; 2 Nkir fuz;b
fliy vz;nza; 3 Nkir fuz;b

nra;Kiw
yy tuif nea; tpl;L ,sk; rptg;ghf tWj;Jf;nfhs;sTk;.
yy #lhd vz;nzapy; fLF> cSe;J> fliyg;gUg;G> ,Q;rp> kpsfha;> fUNtg;gpiy
Nrh;j;J jhspj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
yy ,jDld; 3 fg; jz;zPh; kw;Wk; cg;G Nrh;j;J ed;F nfhjpj;J tUk;NghJ tWj;j
tuif Nrh;j;J fl;b jl;lhky; fpswTk;> %b itj;J NtftplTk;.
yy nte;jTld; ,wf;fp itj;J nfhj;Jky;yp ,iy Jhtp #lhf gupkhwTk;

rpWjhdpa czT 29
nfhs;S yl;L
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
nfhs;S 1 fg;
nty;yk; 1 fg; (JUtpaJ)
nea; 200 kp.yp
Ke;jphp 1 Njf;fuz;b
jpuhl;ir 1 Njf;fuz;b
Vyf;fhaj;;Jhs; rpwpjsT
Rf;Fj;Jhs; rpwpjsT
cg;G Njitahd msT

nra;Kiw
yy nfhs;Sit (fhdg;gapW) thzypapy; ,l;L kpjkhd jPapy; ed;F thrid tUk;
tiu tWj;J khthf miuj;J rypj;J itj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
yy rypj;j nfhs;S khit JUtpa nty;yk; nea;apy; tWj;j Ke;jphp> jpuhl;ir>
Vyf;fha;j;Jhs;> Rf;Fj;Jhs;> cg;G kw;Wk; nea; Nrh;j;J cUz;ilfshf gpbj;J
ghpkhwTk;.

30 rpWjhdpa czT
nfhs;S #g;
Njitahd nghUl;fs;
nfhs;S 1 fg;
(xU ehs; ,uT Cwitj;jJ)
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tu kpsfha; 2
nfhj;jky;yp 2 nfhj;J
fUNtg;gpiy 2 nfhj;J
cg;G Njitahd msT
nra;Kiw
yy Kjypy; jz;zPiu nfhjpf;f itj;Jf;nfhz;L gpd; nfhjpf;f itj;j j z;zPhpy; xU
fg; nfhs;S> miu B ];g+d; rPufk;> rpwpjsT nte;jak;> miu B ];g+d; kpsF> 3 gy;
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rpwpjsT Nrh;j;J cg;G Nrh;f;fhky; Ntf itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
yy Ntfitj;j nfhs;Sit Mw itj;J miuj;J itj;J nfhs;sTk;. Ntf itj;j
ePUld; cg;G fye;J miuj;j nfhs;Sld; Njitnadpy; jz;zPh; Nrh;j;J kPz;Lk;
ed;F nfhjpf;f itj;J ,wf;fTk;.
yy gpd;dh; thzypapy; rpwpjsT vz;nza; Cw;wp fha;e;jTld; rPufk;> fUNtg;gpiy>
ngUq;fhaj;Jhs; rpwpJ Nrh;j;J jhspj;J nfhl;lTk;. rpwpjsT ky;ypj;jio Nrh;j;J
ghpkhwyhk;.
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