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ENGINEERING INSTRUCTION

SERVICE PROVISIONING IN BROADBAND

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Restricted use by BSNL Employees only

All efforts have been made to incorporate all relevant up to date information available, any discrepancies or need for addition or deletion is felt necessarily may please be intimated to this office for further improvement, on E-Mail Id

singhai_sc2@rediffmail.com.

improvement, on E-Mail Id singhai_sc2@rediffmail.com. BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (A Govt. of India Enterprise)

BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (A Govt. of India Enterprise) TECHNICAL & DEVELOPMENT CIRCLE, SANCHAR VIKAS BHAWAN, RESIDENCY ROAD, JABALPUR, MP-482001

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SERVICE PROVISIONING IN BROADBAND

1.0 Scope: Broadband refers most commonly the new generation of high speed transmission services more than 256 kbps to several Mbps which allows users to access the internet and intranet related services at higher speed. These broadband services will allow the subscribers to send receive video and audio content of digital quality to download interactive graphics rich web pages and to allow internet entrepreneurs to bring new services to market that take advantage of speeds that will make the internet truly interactive in real time. This article describes the broadband services for residential users on twisted copper pair.

2.0 General: With the evolution of computer networking and packet switching a new era of integrated communication has emerged in the telecom world. Rapid growth of data communication market and popularity of market, reflect the needs of enhanced infrastructure to optimize the demand of traffic. Ever increasing usefulness of internet, demands for higher and higher bandwidth for faster data communication has forced telecommunication companies to think from Local Area Network (LAN) to Virtual Private Network (VPN), from E-Mail to Video on Demand and so on. The list of such service is endless with never ending demand. Broadband connections are one which able to gain fast and reliable access to richer content of Websites, Business information and online services. It allows even video-conferencing to keep in touch with colleagues and customers bridging the distance gap. It helps to break down the boundaries between office and home allowing us to enjoy the advantages of home-working without any hassle. It promises a new age in entertainment and communication, as well as a major boost for e-commerce. Broadband is always-on high speed internet connection that is capable of achieving data transfer rates of at least 256 kbps both upstream and downstream. It is faster than the present dial up connection or ISDN where the maximum speed is 56 kbps (in case of dial up modem) and 128 kbps in ISDN case which further reduces to half i.e. 64 kbps if any voice call made or received. However in present wireless technologies the maximum speed is 117 kbps for GPRS in GSM and 144 kbps for CDMA. There are many different broadband technologies, both for wired and wireless and theses achieve widely differing data transfer rates ranging from 256 kbps to 10 Gbps or more. However, the broadband technologies most commonly used today to provides the speed of 256 kbps to 2 Mbps.

2.1.1 What is BROADBAND?

The connection between the exchange and customer premises, referred to as “local loop “, is generally extended over a twisted-pair cooper cable. These lines were originally designed for transmission of analogue speech. Transmission of digital information over these lines is achieved with the help of modems put one at both the ends. These modems converts the digital information into analogue which carried over at relatively slow speeds up to 56 kbps by these modems over the copper lines, a main draw back with these modems are that one can use voice or data at a time means if he is using internet or data services he will not able to receive/make any phone calls for that period. Modem speed places considerable restrictions on a service requiring faster speeds. In this contest “Broadband” refers to large bandwidth of communication network i.e. capability to transmit large amount of data rapidly in a given time without interrupting the voice services. Broadband is a fast connection to the internet that is always “on”. One need not dial-up every time to check E-Mails or web browsing. The extra bandwidth means that files, such as images, videos, graphics and animations are downloaded much more quickly as compared to a 56 kbps modem. Broadband services has the capability of minimum download speed of 256 kbps to an individual subscriber from the Point Of Presence (POP) of the service provider intending to provide Broadband services where multiple such individual Broadband connections are aggregated and the subscriber is able to access these interactive

services indulging the Internet through this POP.

2.1.2 Meaning of Broadband Services:

Different organization defined Broadband service in various terms. Original Bell System defines it as ‘A broadband channel is a communications channel having a Bandwidth greater than a voice- grade channel,

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therefore capable of higher-speed data transmission’. In 1996 Telecom Reform Act Broadband services are capable of carrying “high-quality” voice, data, graphics and video. While CCITT says “A service requiring transmission channels capable of supporting rates greater than 1.5 Mbps or primary rate in ISDN or E1 in digital terminology”. In Practical Definitions Broadband services currently means DSL, Cable Modem, or high speed wireless, today’s services are web access, work at home and steaming audio for Residential Subscribers. Data, and data, 1.5 Mbps and up in Business Broadband definition. The variety of broadband media services that consumers will receive is limited only by the creativity and ability of content provider. Following are the important features of Broadband Media Services:-

Truly customized access to multimedia content.

”On demand”- when and what one requires.

Interactivity by the user.

2.2 Technology Options For Broadband Services:

Demand for bandwidth has led to development of several technological approaches to provide broadband access to corporate and residential customers. The choice of the technology is left to the service provider who can decide based on the infrastructure already available with him in the existing network. The access technologies that can be used to provide broadband services can be categorized as follows:-

Wire line Technologies.

Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) on copper loop

Optical Fiber Technologies

Cable TV Network

PLC (Power Line Communication)

Wireless Technology

2.2.1 DSL Technology:

After traditional modems reached their peak data rate, telephone companies developed anther technology, DSL, to provide higher speed access to Internet. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology allows for the transmission of voice, video and data over existing copper telephone lines at incredible megabit speeds. The copper telephone lines are often referred to as the local loop or the last mile from the exchanges to the end-user’s home or business. DSL provides high speed Internet Access using regular telephone lines. DSL technology is a set of technologies, each differing in the first letter (ADSL, VDSL, HDSL, IDSL and SDSL). The set is often referred to as xDSL, where x can be replaced by A, V, H, or S.

xDSL types:

a) High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) – HDSL is one such technology employing a transmission technique, which derivers substantial capacity advantage in transporting digital signals in local network over existing copper pairs. It uses 2B1Q coding and advanced modulation techniques to transmit 1.544 Mbps or 2.048 Mbps in bandwidths ranging from 80 KHz to 240 KHz.

b) Single Line Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) – SDSL is a single line version of HDSL, transmitting T1 or

E1 signals over a single twisted pair, so a single line can support POTS and T1/E1 simultaneously. It suits individual subscriber requirement who are often equipped with only a single telephone line.

c) Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) – ADSL transmits an asymmetric data stream with higher

downstream compared to upstream. Video on demand, home shopping, Internet access, remote LAN access and multimedia access- all need high data rate downstream to the subscriber but relatively low data rates upstream and thus are asymmetric in nature. MPEG movies for example, require 1.5 or 3.0 Mbps downstream.

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BROADBAND SERVICE PROVISIONING No…………… . Figure: An ADSL Configuration d) Very High Data Rate Digital

Figure: An ADSL Configuration

d) Very High Data Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL): VDSL is asymmetric transceiver at data rates

higher than ADSL but over shorter lines. DSL is simpler than ADSL in terms of transceiver complexity even though it is ten times faster.

e) ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL): DSL over ISDN can pass through repeaters and DLCs.

Comparison between standards

DSL Type

Downstream

Upstream

Distance in feet

ADSL

1.5

– 8 Mbps

32 – 640 Kbps

9000

– 18000

ADSL 2+

24 Mbps

2 Mbps

5000

HDSL

1.544 – 2.048 Mbps

1.544 – 2.048 Mbps

12000 (1 to 3 pairs)

SDSL

144

Kbps – 2 Mbps

144

Kbps – 2 Mbps

115000 to 22000

IDSL

144

Kbps

144

Kbps

18000

VDSL

2.3

Mbps – 52 Mbps

1.6 – 26 Mbps

1000

to 45000

How DSL actually works? Traditional phone service (sometimes called “Plain Old telephone Service” or POTS) connects your home or office to a telephone company office over copper wires that are wound around each other and called twisted pair. Analog signals are used for exchange of voice information with other phone users. While for data transmission over copper line we have to use modems at our telephone and the telephone company which converts the digital data signals into analogue signals and vice versa. Now as analog transmission only uses a small portion of the available amount of information that could be transmitted over copper wires, the maximum amount of data you can receive using modems is about 56 kbps (with ISDN, one can receive up to 128 kbps). Regular voice signals travel over phone line at frequencies ranging from 0 KHz to 4 KHz. Standard modems use the same frequencies as voice. But DSL uses frequencies between 25 KHz and 1 MHz. That extra bandwidth also means it can send more data.

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This broadband connection requires special hardware at both ends, on user’s end, a DSL modem (called CPE Customer Premises Equipment) modulates digital information from his computer to send it along phone lines. These signals are translated by a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) located at the phone company’s nearest central office. The DSLAM separates the voice from the data signals, sending the latter to an ISP and from there to the internet at large. DSL is a technology that assumes digital data does not require change into analog form and back. Digital data is transmitted to your computer directly as digital data and this allows the service provider to use a much wider bandwidth for transmitting it to you.

2.2.2 OPTICAL FIBER TECHNOLOGY:

It provides nearly unlimited bandwidth potential and is steadily replacing copper network specially intra

city backbone networks. This is being deployed in commercial buildings and complexes and some metros/big cities having high density potential broadband subscribers. The fiber based models are future proof as they are able to provide huge amounts of bandwidth in the last mile as well as provides a true IP and converged network that can deliver high quality voice, data and video. Following technologies are popular for broadband through OFC:-

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC)

Fiber to the Curb (FTTC)

Fiber to the Home (FTTH)

2.2.3 CABLE TV NETWORK TECHNOLOGY:

Cable TV network technology can be used as franchisee network of the service provider for provisioning Broadband services. Cable modems can offer speeds as high as 10 Mbps. Cable operators needs to upgrade their networks to handle more channels and to offer services both in upstream as well as in downstream. As cable TV network is already a popular service, with their upgraded network capable to offer high bit rate access to their customers.

2.2.4 PLC (POWER LINE COMMUNICATION):

Power Line Communication is also known as BPL (Broadband over Power Line). A high frequency signal carries broadband IP on a utility power line. The high frequency signal is coupled directly onto the power line, not via modulation of the power waveform. The effective power is < 1Watt.

2.2.5 WIRELESS ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES:

1 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN / Bluetooth) – Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology designed to connect devices of different functions such as telephone, notebooks, computer (desktop and laptops), cameras, printer, coffee makers, and so on. A Bluetooth LAN is an ad hoc network, which means that the network is form spontaneously; the devices, some time called gadgets, find each other and make a network called Pico net. A Bluetooth LAN can even be connected to internet if one the gadgets has this capability. Today, Bluetooth technology is the implementation of a protocol defined by the IEEE 802.15 standard. The standard ‘Wireless Personal Area Network’ (WPAN) is operable in an area of the size of a room or a hall. 2 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN / Wi-Fi) – Wireless LAN offers Internet access speed up to several megabits per second. The base station in the Wi-Fi system is connected to a (Broadband) internet connection and a number of wireless nets and repeaters transmitters. 3 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN / Wi-Max) – Wi-Max (World-Wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the IEEE 802.16 standards- based wireless technology that provides MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) broadband connectivity. Wi-Max is a air interface for fixed broadband wireless access system, also known as the IEEE wireless MAN air interface. Wi-Max- based systems can be used to transmit signals as far as 30 miles. So far, Wi-Max can offer a solution to what is normally called “last – mile” problem by connecting individual home and business offices communication. 4 Fixed Broadband Wireless Access (LMDS) – Local Multipoint Distribution System is the broadband wireless technology used to deliver voice, data, Internet, and video services in the 25 GHz and higher spectrum.

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5 Cellular Mobile Telephony – GPRS is a packet based radio service that enables “always on” connections, eliminating repetitive and time- consuming dial –up connections. GPRS offers faster data transmission via a GSM network within a range 9.6 kbps to 115 kbps. EDGE triples the data communication capacity of GPRS; it offers a speed of 384 kbps with the help of 8PSK modulation technique. CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO (Data Only) is wireless packet data only technology developed by the 3G partnership Project 2 (3GPP2). The air interface defined by it is IS 856.It provides a peak data rate of 2.4576 Mbps in forward link (Base Station to Access Terminal) and 156.3 kbps in the reverse link (Access terminal to base Station). CDMA 2000 1x EV-DV (Data Voice) – It is capable of delivering integrated voice and simultaneous data services at peak rate of 3.09 Mbps in mobile environment.

3. BROADBAND APPLICATIONS:

3.1 PERSONAL SERVICES:

High Speed Internet Access – This the always-on Internet access service with speed ranging from

256 kbps to 8 Mbps. Broadband will make it easier for consumers to get content from the Internet faster. In the case of 2-way broadband technologies, all Internet access will be substantially faster. In the case of 1- way broadband technologies, consumers will quickly access Internet content related to the TV program that is "married" to the linear broadcast. However, general Internet searches will still require consumers to use their slower analog modems. An “Always On” Connection Broadband technology will not require the user to wait to "log on" to the Internet. "Always on" will make it very convenient for consumers to access information quickly. Bandwidth on Demand – This will facilitate customer to change bandwidth as per his/her requirement. For example a customer with 256 kbps can change to 1 Mbps during the Video Conferencing session.

Multimedia – Media Broadband media services provide endless possibilities for consumers to

choose and personalize their entertainment and infotainment. Broadband media services will also create new revenue streams for operators, media companies, and service providers through enhanced usage of existing networks, branded media portals, interactive "one-to-one" advertising and endless e-commerce possibilities. The proliferation of high-speed broadband IP access and broadband media services will require content creators to distribute large amounts of rich media to a global audience of high-speed users with increasingly greater demand for access to specific services. The challenges for broadband media development include understanding true consumer wants and needs for services and perfecting the technology standards behind the high data rates and significant bandwidth required for seamless delivery of high-quality multimedia services

for seamless delivery of high-quality multimedia services Figure: Media Services through Broadband BHARAT SANCHAR

Figure: Media Services through Broadband

BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (A Govt of India Enterprises) Restricted to Telecom Staff

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3.2 GOVERMENTS PUBLIC SERVICES:

E-Governance – E-governance has become a widely accepted priority for any government today. It is seen as not only being directly beneficial to citizens, but is also used as a USP by state governments to attract industrial and commercial investments. Further, if E-governance projects are to be aggressively used by citizens, then the technology that is chosen must be as simple to use as possible. Any project, which involves specialized hardware or software at the users’ end, will pose installation and long-term support problems. And since most government projects, typically, involve reaching out to millions of not very tech-savvy users, the technology option for delivery must remain at its simplest best. To this end, the Web is today one of the most powerful, cheapest and simplest tools for interaction between the government and citizens, notwithstanding the present limited reach of the Internet in rural areas.

The advantages of the Web are is that it is almost free-to-use, any citizen with the simplest of computers and browsers can access services, and a Web-based project is almost infinitely scalable. Citizen services also typically require low computing power at the users’ end, and their needs can be adequately addressed by the use of such sub-computer devices. E-Business Internet commerce is growing fastest among businesses. It is used for coordination between the purchasing operations of a company and its suppliers; the logistics planners in a company and the transportation companies that warehouse and move its products; the sales organizations and the wholesalers or retailers that sell its products; and the customer service and maintenance operations and the company's customers. Companies of all sizes can now communicate with each other electronically through the public Internet, networks for company-use only (Intranets) or for use by a company and its business partners (extranets), and private value-added networks. E-Education – The Educational Broadband Service (EBS), formerly known as the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS), is an educational service that has generally been used for the transmission of instructional material to accredited educational institutions and non-educational institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes, training centers, and rehabilitation centers using high-powered systems. Broadband will now make it possible for EBS users to continue their instructional services utilizing low- power broadband systems while also providing students with high-speed internet access.

3.3 COMMERCIAL SERVICES:

E-Commerce – Electronic commerce was again a natural evolutionary step. As more and

more people moved away from cash to credit cards, we all became numbers, or digits, ourselves. The actual plastic card is irrelevant on the Web. The creditworthiness of your digits is all that matters. Creating an entirely new world, a new collective understanding, is not easy, but well worth the investment.

Dial VPN Service – This service allows remote users to access their private network securely

over the NIB II infrastructure.

Videoconferencing – Video conferencing has in the past been relatively expensive, but use of

broadband makes it relatively cheap and fast, as it is possible for anyone with a fast enough internet connection to operate a video conference. Sometimes the conferencing takes place over a private network or VPN, which guarantees better performance, but there will be a trend towards running video conferences over the public internet as technology improves. Video conferencing can be used for conducting interviews, holding meetings, setting up meetings, giving lectures and has the advantage that it can reduce the need for

travel. Video conferencing can also be used within organizations to provide immediate tele presence, using internal LANs as the communications infrastructure.

3.4 VIDEO AND ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES:

Broadcast TV using IP Multicasting Services – Besides regular TV, BTV provides subscribers with virtual DVD controls to pause, start, stop, rewind and fats forward live TV

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programs. Users also have the flexibility to watch any previous broadcasted programs without prerecording.

Video / Music on Demand – Allow subscribers to watch any pre loaded program at any time with full DVD like controls. Programs broadcast according to a pre-set schedule with subscribers having the option of watching and paying for individual programs.

Content based Services – Like Interactive Gaming.

4.0 BSNL’s BROADBAND SERVICE:

BSNL has launched Broadband services under brand name “DATAONE”. Initially only Internet service is offered on broadband. Afterwards VPN, Video conferencing, Video on Demand, Broadcast service will be offered. Some silent features of data one mention below:

Data one service has the capacity to transmit speeds more than 256 kbps.

Surfing and downloading is much faster than dialup or any other narrowband service (DIAS, ISDN).

Surfing and phone conversation can be used simultaneously.

Fast download of more than 256 kbps.

Always ON and no need to dial-up.

No call charges for uses of Internet service.

For one fixed monthly fee, user can get unlimited Internet access without having to pay the “hidden

costs” of extra telephone line

or additional billing charges.

4.1 BSNL’s BROADBAND SERVICES IN NIB-II:

BSNL has undertaken the project of NIB-II With the objectives of to utilize the maximum BSNL’s existing infrastructure, to provide Value added services (Video, Broadband Data in addition to voice) to accelerate development and growth and to increase the footprint across the County to provide Access Country-wide. BSNL has envisioned NIB II project will be used for high speed Internet connectivity and shall be the primary source of Internet bandwidth and used for connecting broadband customers to the MPLS VPN through the BRAS. Also will be used for connecting dial VPN customers to the MPLS VPN through the Narrowband RAS.

4.2 COMPONENTS OF BROADBAND ACCESS NETWORK:

The BSNL’s broadband network consist of core routers located at MUMBAI,NEW

DELHI,KOLKATA,CHENNAI and BANGLORE connected in mesh topology with STM 16 links, with cities in INDIA classified as A1,A2,A3,A4 and other cities. The following are the significant network elements of Broadband:

Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS or BBRAS):- This is the device which acts as the

granting customers access to the network. Internet Access, Broadband Access, VLAN and Gigabit Ethernet Services, VPN, Multicasting and Content Delivery Services are the services which are offered by BBRAS.

SSSS: - It is called as Subscriber Service Selection System. When customer logs in he will be

welcomed with this customized screen from where he can select various range of services. This provides on –demand service without manual intervention. Aggregation Switch (LAN Switch):- The subscriber connections from DSLAMs are aggregated through this before being passed on to the core router. This again is implemented in two tiers, with tier-1 switch aggregating traffic from multiple tier-2 switches.

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Core Network interfaces SSSS Core router FE • GigE GigE FE Broadband RAS • Content
Core Network
interfaces
SSSS
Core
router
FE
GigE
GigE
FE
Broadband
RAS
• Content
BB
• Server
GigE
ADM
ADM
FE
FE
SDH RING
ADM
Tier1 Layer2
B1 city
ADM
ADM
Tier2 LAN
GigE Aggregation
B2 city
FE
Switch
Gig E & FE
Switch
FE
From MDF
Max 10/20 KM
FE/GE
FE
FE
Dark fiber
GE
GigE
240 Port
24 Port
480 Port
48 Port
DSLAM
120 Port
DSLAM
DSLAM
DSLAM
DSLAM
60 Port
DSLAM
ADSL
ADSL
ADSL
terminals
ADSL
terminals
ADSL terminals
terminals
Splitter
Max
KM
Dark 40
Fibre
GigE

Figure: NIB II – Broad Band Network Diagram of BSNL

DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM):- A digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) delivers exceptionally high-speed data transmission over existing copper telephone lines. A DSLAM

separates the voice-frequency signals from the high-speed data traffic and controls and routes digital subscriber line (xDSL) traffic between the subscriber's end-user equipment (router, modem, or network interface card [NIC]) and the network service provider's network The DSLAM at the access provider is the equipment that really allows DSL to happen. A DSLAM takes connections from many customers and aggregates them onto a single, high-capacity connection to the Internet. In addition, the DSLAM may provide additional functions including routing or dynamic IP address assignment for the customers.

POTS Splitters: - A splitter is a small device that captures the first 14 KHz of frequency and

splits them off for phone use, the rest of the data is passed onto the DSL equipment. The splitter is the first device a DSL line meets when it arrives at the users premises. Splitters are employed when ADSL lines are provisioned.

DSL CPEs: - At customer premises. On end it connects telephone cable from exchange. At the other end, it connects to telephone and PC through Ethernet using RJ-45 connector or USB.

5.0 CONCLUSION:

Rapid growth in the requirement of bandwidth intensive applications such as Fast access to Internet, Multimedia, Interactive gaming, videoconferencing and video on demand coupled with de-regulation and privatization of the telecom segment throughout the world has led to demand for more and more bandwidth, with broadband technologies becoming more widely available even residential customers can reap the benefits of high speed Internet. While Broadband access provides endless possibilities for consumers, it also promises to create new revenue streams for operators, media companies and service provider. The introduction of Broadband services is expected to users in true era of convergence and introduces a degree of seamlessness between the work and home environment that has never been possible before. Broadband services offered by BSNL will enable to provide high quality of service at low price. Other

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broadband access service provides lot of mobility and large area of utilization but charges are very high and service quality is also poor. Hence, present BSNL’s broadband on copper loop is the bets compared to any other broadband services of private telecom operators.

6.0 Glossary:

 

ADSL

:

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

BPL

:

Broadband over Power Line

BRAS /BBRAS

:

Broad Band Remote Access Server

BTV

:

Broadband Tele Vision

CCITT

:

International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee

CDMA 2000

:

Code Division Multiplex Access

1x EV-DO

:

Data Only

1x EV-DV

:

Data and Voice

CPE

:

Customer Premises Equipment

DIAS

:

Direct Internet Access Service

DSL

:

Digital Subscriber Line

DSLAM

:

Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer

DVD

:

Digital Video Disk

EDGE

:

Enhanced Data for Global Evolution

FCC

:

Federal Communication Commission

FTTC

:

Fiber To The Curb

FTTH

:

Fiber To The Home

3GPP2

:

3G Partnership Project 2

Gbps

:

Giga bytes per second

GPRS

:

General Packet Radio Service

GSM

:

Global Services for Mobile Communication

HDSL

:

High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line

HFC

:

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial

IDSL

:

ISDN Digital Subscriber Line

ISDN

:

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISP

:

Internet Service Provider

Kbps

:

kilo bytes per second

LAN

:

Local Area Network

LMDS

:

Local Multipoint Distribution System

Mbps

:

Mega bytes per second

MPLS VPN

:

Multi Protocol Label Switching based Virtual Private Network

NIB

:

National Internet Backbone

NIC

Network Interface Card

OFC

:

Optical Fiber Cable

PLC

:

Power Line Communication

POP

:

Point Of Presence

POTS

:

Plain Old Telephone Service

SDSL

:

Single line Digital Subscriber Line

SSSS

:

Subscriber Service Selection System

USB

:

Universal Serial Board

VDSL

:

Very High Data Rate DSL

VPN

:

Virtual Private Network

Wi

Fi

:

Wireless Fidelity Network

Wi Max

:

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

WMAN

:

Wireless Metropolitan

WPAN

:

Wireless Personal Area Network.

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7.0 Reference:

1. WWW.Broadband.org.

2. WWW.acterna.com

3. Telecommunications Journal May-June 2005.

4. Telecommunications Journal Nov-Dec 2005.

5. Data Communication and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan.

6. Broad Band System Vol II (July2005)

7. BSNL’s NIB II Project 2.2 for Broadband services

BRBRAITT, Jabalpur.