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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Stilling Basins

The basins are usually provided with special appurtenances including chute blocks, sills and baffles piers.

Chute blocks: are used to form a serrated device at the entrance to the stilling basin. Their function is to furrow the incoming jet and lift a portion of it from the floor producing a shorter length of jump than would be possible without them.

The sill: is usually provided at the end of stilling basin. Its function is to reduce further the length of the jump and to control scour. The sill has additional function of diffusing the residual portion of high velocity jet that may reach the end of the basin.

Baffle piers: are blocks placed in the intermediate position across the basin floor. Their function is to dissipate energy mostly by impact action. They are useful in small structures with low incoming velocities. They are unsuitable where high velocities make cavitation possible.

Classification of Stilling Basins

Stilling basins can be classified into:

1. Stilling basins in which

2. Stilling basins in which

F 1 4.5 . This is generally encountered on weirs and barrages.

F

1

4.5 . This is a general feature for medium and high dams.

Stilling Basin Design for Low Froude Numbers F 1 <4.5

i. R.S. Varshney

ii. Indian Standard Stilling Basin

iii. U.S.B.R. Stilling Basin IV

iv. S.A.F. (Saint Anthony Falls) Stilling Basin.

I. The S.A.F. Stilling Basin

This stilling basin was developed at the St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, University of

Minnesota.

The design rules are:

1. The stilling basin can be designed for Froude numbers F 1 =1.7 and 17. Length of basin

L

B

4.5 D

2

F 1 =1.7 and 17. Length of basin L B  4.5 D 2 F 1

F

1

0.76

(3.7)

2. The height of chute blocks and floor blocks= D 1 and the width and spacing= 0.75 D 1 .

3. The distance from chute blocks to floor blocks=

4. No floor blocks should be placed closer to side wall than

5. The floor blocks should be placed downstream from the openings between chute blocks.

6. The floor blocks should occupy between 40-55% of basin width.

7. The height of end sill

8. Tailwater depth above stilling basin floor is given by

L

B

Tailwater depth above stilling basin floor is given by L B 3 3 D 1 /

3

3D

1

/ 8

C

0.07D

2

T

w

1.1

F

1

2

L B 3 3 D 1 / 8 C  0.07 D 2 T w 

120

D

2

For

F

1

1.7 to 5.5

T

0.85

D

For

F

5.5 to 11

w

2

1

(3.8)

(3.9)

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

(3.10)

9. Height of side wall above tailwater

10. Wing walls should be equal in height to stilling basin side walls. The top of the wing wall should have a slope of 1:1.

11. The wing wall should be placed at an angle 45º to the outlet centerline.

12. Cutoff wall of normal depth should be used at the end of stilling basin

13. The effect of entrained air should be neglected in the design of stilling basin. See Fig. 3.20, Varshney.

T

w

1.1

F

1

2

basin. See Fig. 3.20, Varshney. T w   1.1  F 1 2 800 

800

D

2

For F Z  D 1 2
For
F
Z  D
1
2

3.

11 to 17

F 1 2 800  D 2 For F Z  D 1 2  3

II. Indian Standard Stilling Basin I

Definition sketches are given in Figs 3.16 and 3.17, Varshney.

sketches are given in Figs 3.16 and 3.17, Varshney. III. U.S.B.R. Stilling Basin IV This stilling

III. U.S.B.R. Stilling Basin IV

This stilling basin is recommended for F 1 = 2.5-4.5 which usually occur on canal structures and diversion dams. For this range of Froude number an oscillating jump will be produced in the stilling basin generating a wave that is difficult to dampen. U.S.B.R. Stilling Basin IV is designed to solve this problem. See Figure 22. For better performance, it is desirable to make the blocks narrower than D 1 preferable 0.75D 1 and to set the tailwater (T w )= (1.05-1.1)D 2 . The length of basin equals the length of the jump. Basin IV is applicable to rectangular cross-sections only.

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Hydraulic Structures – Stilling Basins December 4, 2010 Stilling Basin Design for Froude Numbers F 1

Stilling Basin Design for Froude Numbers F 1 >4.5

i. S.A.F. Stilling Basin.

ii. Indian Standard Stilling Basin II. The dimension sketches are given in Fig. 3.21, Varshney.

iii. U.S.B.R Stilling Basin II. This design is recommended for large and medium spillways and large canal structures. The length of basin is 33% reduced with the use of appurtenances. The basin contains chute locks and dentated sill. No baffle piers are used because high velocities might cause cavitation on piers. See fig 15-16 (Chow) or Fig. 3.22, Varshney.

piers are used because high velocities might cause cavitation on piers. See fig 15-16 (Chow) or
piers are used because high velocities might cause cavitation on piers. See fig 15-16 (Chow) or
piers are used because high velocities might cause cavitation on piers. See fig 15-16 (Chow) or

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Design Steps

1. Set apron elevation to use tailwater depth (T w ) plus an added factor of safety (use Fig. 15- 16b, Chow) on the figure there is a minimum T w depth line which indicates the point at which the front of the jump moves away from the chute blocks. Any lowering would cause the jump to leave the basin. Bureau recommends a minimum safety margin of 5% of D 2 be added to sequent depth.

2. Basin II maybe effective down to Froude No. 4.

3. Length of the basin can be obtained from Fig. 15-16c, Chow.

4. Height of chute blocks= D 1 , width and spacing= D 1 . Space of 0.5D 1 is preferable along each wall to reduce spray and maintain desirable pressure.

5. Height of the dentated sill= 0.2 D 2 . Maximum width and spacing= 0.15 D 2 . The block is placed adjacent to each side wall. The slope of the continuous portion of the end sill is

2H:1V.

6. The slope of the chute varies from 0.6H:1V to 2H:1V.

7. This type of basin is suitable for spillways with fall up to 200 ft and flows 500 cfs/ft of basin width.

8. Water surface and pressure profiles of a jump in the basin are shown in Fig. 15-16d, Chow.

Example

Design a U.S.B.R. Stilling Basin II for the overflow spillway of crest length 250 ft (at El. 982.3 ft) and design flow rate 75 000 ft 3 /s. The upstream water surface at design flow rate is at El. 1000 ft, the average channel floor is at elevation El. 880 and tailwater at El. 920.

floor is at elevation El. 880 and tailwater at El. 920. Solution Head Total above fall

Solution

Head Total above fall 1000880 crest1000982.3 120ft 17.7ft

From Fig. 14-15 (Chow) the velocity of flow at toe of spillway= 79 ft/s.

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Q 75000 D    3.8 ft 1 L  V 79  250
Q
75000
D
 
 3.8
ft
1 L
V
79
250
V 79
F
 
 7.14
1
gD
1 32.2
 3.8

From Fig. 15-16b (Chow), F 1 =7.14

The solid line

T

w

From Fig. 15-16b (Chow), F 1 =7.14 The solid line T w D  1 2

D 1

2

gives

T

w

F 1 =7.14 The solid line T w D  1 2 gives T w D

D

2

T

w

D

2

T

9.7

1,

D

D

2

w

1

9.7

36.9

3.8

ft

ft

36.9

9.7

The elevation of the basin is placed at= 920-36.9=883.1 ft,

The total fall=1000-883.1=116.9 ft, but this will not change the flow velocity.

Length of basin (from Fig 15-16c)

L

D

2

L 4.16 36.9 154ft

From min. curve

T

From min. curve T D

D

w

 

1

9.2

T

w

T

w

with 8% margin of safety

9.2

D

1

9.2

3.8

35

ft

4.16

ft

37.8

Height= width= spacing of chute blocks= D 1 = 3.8 ft= 3ft 10 inches

Width= spacing of dentated sill

0.15 D

0.15

2

36.9

5.5

ft

or 5

ft

Top thickness of sill

0.02D

2 0.0236.9 0.738ft

6

inches

Angle of water surface 9from Fig. 15-16d, Chow.

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Design Example: R.S. Varshney Stilling Basin

Water flows under a sluice gate discharges into a rectangular plain stilling basin. Determine the stilling basin parameters for the following data.

q

34

m

3

/

s

Design

/

m H

,

L

m

1

,tailwater depth

From Blench Curves (Fig. 3.5, Varshney),

Ef

1

Ef

2

H

L

8.5

 

1

9.5

m

8.3

m

, width of basin

Ef

2

8.5m

From Energy of flow curves, Fig. 2.7

20

m

D  2.9 m , D  7.3 m 1 2 D  T 
D
2.9
m
,
D
7.3
m
1
2
D
T
 8.3
m
3
w
q
34
V
 11.72
m
/
s
1
D
2.9
1
V
11.72
1
Fr
2.2 
4.5 O.K.
1
gD
1 9.81
 2.9
2
2
q
34
D
3
3
 4.9
m
c
g
9.81

Length of Cistern

a. Length L 6D2 D1 67.32.926.4m

b. From Fr and L/D 1 relation, Fig. 3.15:

L

D

L

1

av .

12,

L

12

2.9

34.8

m

 

26.4

34.8

 

2

30.6

31

m

Blocks

a. Chute blocks

i. Height From h c and Fr relation in Fig. 3.14,

h c =0.9 m

ii. Width and spacing

b. Floor blocks

i. Position

0.75 h

c

0.75

0.9

0.675

6

0.7 m

Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

From

L

B

L

D

3

0.9

and

8.3

L

B

D

3

7.5

relation,

m

Fig. 3.14

From

Average

L

and

L

L

B

and

ii. Height h B

From

D

2

D

3

B

relation,

6.7

7.5

2

L

B

7.1

6.7

m

m

D h

B

3

relation given in Fig. 3.14,

D

2

D

3

h

B

D

3

7.3

8.3

0.22,

0.88

h

B

0.22

8.3

From

D

2

D

and

h

B

D

in Fig. 3.15

D

2

c

7.3

D

h

B

c

4.9

0.31

c

1.49,

4.9

Adopt mean value

h

B

D

c

0.31

1.52

1.83

m

1.52

2

iii. Width and spacing w B

1.83

m

1.67say 1.7 m

w B

h B

w

B

0.8

0.8

Top width

c. End sill

i. Height, H e

1.7

1.36 say 1.4

m

0.2

h

B

0.34 say 0.4

From Fig. 3.15, relation between

m

Fr and

H

e

D

3

H

0.18,

and

8.3

4.9

e

D

3

H

e

D

3

c

From

D

D

c

H

e

0.18

8.3

D

3

D

1.7,

c

in Fig. 3.15,

H

e

D

c

0.3,

H

e

1.5

m

1.47

Average

H

1.5

1.47

e 2

1.485 say 1.5

m

,

ii.

iii. Width and spacing of dents

iv. Width of basin=20 m

Top width

0.02D

2

0.027.3 0.15D 0.146 1.1m say 0.15m

2

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Design of S.A.F.

F

1

L

2.2

4.5 D

1

1.7 O.K.,

2

B F

0.76

D

2

7.3

m

4.5

7.3

2.2

0.76

18.04 say 18.5 m

Height of chute blocks= D 1 =2.9 m

Width and spacing= 0.75×2.9= 2.18 m Say 2.2 m

Distance from chute blocks to floor blocks

L

B

18.5

6.2

m

 

3

 

3

Minimum distance between floor blocks and wall

3

2.9

1.1 m

8

Distance between wall and chute blocks= 1 m

Length of end sill= 0.07×7.3=0.5 m

T

w

1.1

1.1

F

1

2

D

120

2.2

2

120

Height of side wall above

2

7.3

8.32 m

T

w

D

2

3

7.3

3

2.4

m

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Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

Design Example: S.A.F. Stilling Basin

Water flows under a sluice gate discharges into a rectangular plain stilling basin. Determine the stilling basin parameters for the following data.

q

34

m

3

/

s

Design

/

m H

,

L

m

1

,tailwater depth

8.3

m

, width of basin

21.8

m

Ef 2  8.5m From Blench curve (Fig. 2.5), Ef  Ef  H 
Ef
2  8.5m
From Blench curve (Fig. 2.5),
Ef
 Ef
H
8.5
 
1
9.5
m
1
2
L
D
1
2.9
m
,
D
7.3
m
2
D
 T
m
3
 8.3
w
q 34
V
 
 11.72
m
/
s
1
D
2.9
1
V
11.72
Fr
 1
 2.2
1
gD
9.81
1
 2.9
1.7  Fr
1
17 , we can design SAF Stilling Basin.

Length of Basin (L B )

L

B

4.5

D

2

4.5

7.3

F

1

0.76

2.2

0.76

18.04 say 18 m

Blocks

a. Chute blocks

1. Height

H

c

D

1

2.9

m

2. Width and spacing

W

c

0.75

0.75

D

1

2.9

No. of blocks

2.175

2.18

2.18

2

m

say 2.18

5

m

Distance adjacent to wall

0.5

  1.09 m

c

W

0.5

3  Min. distance 8 b. Floor blocks 1. Position 18 L 3  
3
Min. distance
8
b. Floor blocks
1. Position
18
L
3
 m
6
B
3

3

D  

1

8

2.9

1.087

9

2.18

1.09

m

O.K.

Hydraulic Structures Stilling Basins

December 4, 2010

2. Height

H

B

D

1

2.9

m

3. Width and spacing

0.75

2.175

D

1

m

0.2

say 2.18 0.2 H

0.75

B

2.9

2.9

m

0.58say 0.6 m

Top width

% Width of floor

4

2.18

100

40% O.K. between (40-55)%

 

2.18

 

c. End sill

C 0.07D

2 0.077.3 0.51m say 0.6m

Top thickness 0.7C 0.70.6 0.42m say 0.5m

d. Side wall

Z

D

2

3

7.3

3

2.43

m

say 2.5

m

 0.7 C  0.7  0.6  0.42 m say 0.5 m d. Side wall

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