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# Design Procedure for a Power Transformer Using EI Core

Required Specification: The transformer will be designed to supply a full wave, bridge type rectifier with an output of 10 volts and a minimum output current of 2 Ampere. Primary Voltage : 220 volts rms Secondary voltage : 10 volts, 2 amperes Operating Frequency: 60 Hz

Step 1:
From the specified output dc voltage, compute the voltage across the secondary, Esn; Esn = 2.35Es The factor 2.35 was obtained from twice the ratio of the root mean square to the average value plus an allowance for 5 percent regulation. It is applicable for full-wave rectification. See Table 1. Esn = (2.35)(10) Esn = 23.5 volts Table1. Factors K and K for Single-Phase Rectifier Supplies Capacitor Input K K Full-wave 0.707 1.06 Half-wave 1.4 2.2

Step 2:
The dc current is also multiplied by a factor (1.06) before being used to compute the input power (VA). Is = K Idc. The factor 1.06 is listed in Table 1. Is = kIs1 Is = (1.06)(2) Is = 2.12 amperes

Step 3:
The ouput power, Pout is obtained from the equation: Pout = EsIs Pout = (23.5)(2.12) Pout = 49.82 watts =50watts

Step 4:
Consult Table 2. For the corresponding efficiency, then compute the power input in Volt-amperes (VA). VA= Pout__ 0.9n

Table 2. Efficiencies for Various Power Supplies Output in Watts Approximate Efficiency in Percent 20 70 30 75 40 80 80 85 100 86 200 90

## VA = 68.38 VA where the factor 0.9 is the power factor

The tongue area (see Figure 6) in square inches is computed from the equation, A= VA 5.58

## A = 68.38 5.58 A = 1.48 in2

Step 5:
Assuming an area has a square cross section then the tongue width, and stacking height, g would be: g = tw = A g = tw = 1.48

g = 1.22in ; tw = 1.22in See Table 3. For standard tongue width lamination. Choose EI-125 C. Compure the window width (w) and torque length (tl). W = (1/2)tw W = (1/2)(1.22) W = 0.61inches tl = (3/2)tw tl = (3/2)(1.22) tl = 1.83 inches

Table 3. EI Core data on B, Tongue Width Lamination, and d core weight At 60 hz EI Type Torque Width Core Lamination of Lamination Weight EI B inches Lb (Gauss) 3.9 14,000 EI 21 0.5 0.199 5.8 14,000 EI 625 0.625 0.361 13. 14,000 EI 75 0.75 0.609 0 17. 14,000 EI 75 0.75 0.812 0 24. 13,500 EI 11 0.875 0.966 0 37. 13,000 EI 12 1.00 1.43 0 54. 13,000 EI 12 1.00 2.14 0

## 12,500 12,000 12,000 11,000 10,500

EI 125 EI 125 EI 13 EI 13 EI 19

## 2.83 3.97 4.92 6.56 9.75

Step 6:
The primary and secondary turns, Np and Nsn, respectively, are computed from the equations: Np = 3.49 Ep x 106 fBA Ns = 1.05 Np (Esn) Ep where Np - number of turns in primary Nsn - number of turns in secondary Ep - primary rms voltage (220 in our case) f - frequency in Hz(60hz) A - tongue area in square inches B - flux density in Gauss (from Table 3.) Primary: Np = 3.49 x 220 x 106 60 x 12,500 x 1.252

Np = 655.2 turns = 656 turns Secondary: Ns = 1.05 x 656 x 23.5 220 Ns = 73.58 turns = 74 turns

Step 7:
The next step is to determine the sizes of magnetic wires to be used in the coils. Prior to this, the primary current, Ip, is computed by, Ip = VA 220 Ip = 68.38 220 Ip = 0.31 amperes

Table 4. Magnet wire data on diameter, resistance, and core weight AWG Diameter in inches Ohms per Pounds per Margin B and S Bare 1000 ft m in Enamelled 1000 ft Gauge inches 10 0.1019 0.10390 0.9989 31.43 0.25 11 0.0927 0.0927 1.260 24.92 0.25 12 0.808 0.0827 1.588 19.77 0.25 13 0.0719 0.0738 2.003 15.68 0.25 14 0.0641 0.0659 2.525 12.43 0.25 15 0.0571 0.0588 3.184 9.858 0.25 16 0.0508 0.0524 4.016 7.818 0.1875 17 0.0453 0.0469 5.064 6.200 0.1875 18 0.0403 0.0418 6.385 4.917 0.1875 19 0.0359 0.0374 8.051 3.899 0.1562 20 0.0320 0.0334 10.15 3.092 0.1562 21 0.0285 0.0299 12.80 2.452 0.1562 22 0.0253 0.0266 16.14 1.945 0.125 0 23 0.0403 0.0239 20.36 1.542 0.125 24 0.0359 0.0213 25.67 1.223 0.125 25 0.0179 0.0190 32.37 0.9699 0.125 26 0.0159 0.0169 40.81 0.7692 0.125 27 0.0142 0.0152 51.47 0.6100 0.125 28 0.0126 0.0135 64.90 0.4837 0.125 29 0.0133 0.0122 81.83 0.3836 0.125 30 0.0100 0.0109 103.2 0.3042 0.125 31 0.0089 0.0097 130.1 0.2413 0.125 32 0.0080 0.0088 164.1 0.1913 0.0937 33 0.0071 0.0079 206.9 0.1517 0.0937 34 0.0063 0.0070 260.9 0.1203 0.0937 35 0.0056 0.0062 329.0 0.0954 0.0937 36 0.0050 0.0056 414.8 0.0757 0.0937 37 0.0045 0.0050 523.1 0.0600 0.0937 38 0.0040 0.0045 659.6 0.0476 0.0625 39 0.0035 0.0040 831.8 0.0377 0.0625 40 0.0031 0.0036 1049 0.0299 0.0625 Then to acquire the primary and secondary wire diameters, dp, ds in inches.

d = 1.13

1/2

1/2

## Secondary: ds = 1.13 2.12A 2470 585log68.38

1/2

ds = 0.044 inch diameter Determine from Table 4. the gauge or wire number of magnetic wire. Use commercially available sizes. Primary wire size: #25, dp = 0.0179 inches Secondary wire size: #17, ds = 0.0453 inches Now for the actual construction, it is also necessary to know how many turns are supposed to be made before starting another layer of windings. The turns per layer for both primary and secondary sides are required. After this, the number of layers to be formed should also be known. This information will be used in estimating the coil build up to check if the winding will fit the window of the core. Initially, compute first for winding length, wl; wl = tl 2( margin) 2(bobbin allowance) where: bobbin allowance = 0.032

## margin = 0.125 inches wl = 1.83 2(0.125)- 2(0.032) wl = 1.516 inches

Step 8:
The number of turns per layer and the number of layers is determined by the equation below. Note that the information for the specific bare wire in Table 4 was not used, but the next column of that particular size which gives the actual diameter of the wire considering the enamel insulation: For primary winding: Turns/layer = winding length (wl) Primary wire dia. (with insulation)(dp) Turns/layer = 1.516 0.019 Turns/layer = 79.79 = 80 turns/layer Number of layers = number of turns (Np) Turns/layer

Number of layers = 656 92 Number of layers = 7.13 = 8 layers Because some figures were rounded off, check if the values still satisfythe number of turns in the primary winding. Turns/layer = Np Number of layers

## Turns/layer = 656 8 = 82 turns/layer

Number of turns = (turns/layer)(number of layers) = (82) (8) = 656 turns This value still satisfies the number of turns and allowance to fit 656 turns. Continue by computing the number of turns per layer in the secondary windings. Turns/layer = wl Secondary wire dia( with insulation)(ds1)

Turns/layer = 1.516 0.0469 Turns/layer = 32.32 = 32 turns/layer Number of layers (n) = Nsn Turns/layer

Number of layers (n) = 74 32 Table 5. Core characteristics data at different operating frequencies. Frequenc Lamination Core Core Flux Approximate Core y Thickness Material Density Loss in Watts/Lb in Hz (inches) Bm in Gauss 25 0.025 2.5% silicon 14,000 0.65 60 0.014 4% silicon 12,000 1.0 60 0.014 Grain-oriented silicon 15,000 1.0 400 0.004 Grain-oriented silicon 10,000 4.5 800 0.004 Grain-oriented silicon 6,000 4.5 To check these values: Turns/layer = Ns Number of layers =