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1

. R1 R2 .
, .
? ( .)

. . ?
( .)

R1 10.0.0.0.

HTTP, .

R2 10.0.0.0.

80 TCP .

R1 192.168.4.0.

R1 192.168.2.0.

IP- - 192.168.17.43.

R2 192.168.1.0.

- 8547 .

R2 192.168.3.0.
4

DNS ? ( .)
,
.
DNS- , IP-.
DNS .

DNS-.
DNS-
DNS-.

172.16.0.0
256
510

512
. .
ip route 192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.6. ?
1022
R1
R2
R3
R4

024
6


IP

10

.
. ? ( .)

. ,
ISP1, ISP2 ISP3, ?

DCE.

IGP

6,4 /.

EGP

0 1.
11

7 c:\> ping ? ( .)
IP-.
TCP- IP- .
- ICMP .
.
.

. S0/0/0 R2
. S0/0/0 R1,
?
R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.31 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)# no shutdown
R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.33 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)# encapsulation PPP
R1(config-if)# no shutdown
R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.28 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)# encapsulation PPP
R1(config-if)# no shutdown
R1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.29 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)# no shutdown

-.
, , , FTP.
?


IP-
DNS

- FTP- ,
. ?

1 , ,
.
OSI ?

224.0.0.0

255.255.0.0

255.255.255.0

13

1 show ip protocols?
( .)
.
.
.
, .
, .

. IP
192.168.2.0, IP- , 192.168.1.0.
, ?

18

FTP ?
(PI) (DTP).

ping 192.168.1.1 , , . DTP .


ipconfig /all, , IP- DNS-.

FTP : .

, .

PI DTP .

1 NVRAM, , ,
?

1
9


TFTP-

15

Cisco?

16

IP- A?
( .)
255.0.0.0
240.0.0.0

. R1 R2 IP-
(. ). .
.
,
A? ( .)
R2(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 S0/0/0

R1(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 S0/0/0


R1(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 198.213.219.1
R2(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.1
R1(config)# ip route 198.133.219.1 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.2

20
.
?
A - ; B - ; C -
A - ; B - ; C -
A - ; B - ; C -
A - ; B - ; C -

23

MIB?
, SNMP.
, .
, ,

.
, 192.168.25.0/24?

255.255.0.0
255.255.224.0

DNS

255.255.255.0

WINS

255.255.255.224

HTTP

255.255.255.240

DHCP

255.255.255.248
21

, IP- 192.168.1.5/24,
192.168.24.0/24 ?
,
, .
.

SMTP

25

.
.

HTTP HTTPS?
,
HTTPS HTTP.
HTTPS HTTP
.
HTTPS , -.
HTTPS .

2
2

2 , IP-
? ( .)

26

192.168.1.192/26

28

PAT?
IP- URL-.
IP- .
.
LAN IP-,
.

2 - ,
Telnet. OSI ?

. ip route
10.13.13.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1 R1. 10.12.12.0
10.13.13.0. ?

" ".

.
R1 .

30

.
2
7

. A B R1.
A B, ,
C D? ( .)
192.168.1.32/26
192.168.1.64/26
192.168.1.96/26
192.168.1.160/26

.
R1 R2. R1 R2 . ,
show ip interface brief?
IP-.
.
R2 no shutdown.

UDP-,

31

33

?
EIGRP
OSPF
RIPv1
BGP

3 .
.
(IDF) , SYST
.

show ip route , ,

?
.

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0


R 192.168.5.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.4.2, 00:00:19, Serial0/0
R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.3.1, 00:00:20, Serial0/1
R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/2] via 192.168.3.1, 00:00:20, Serial0/1
C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/1

POST.
NVRAM.

.

?
A
B

35

C
D
3
2

. .
IP-
?
NAT
PAT
. 120?

NAT

10.0.5.0

PAT
36

, , tracert.
, ? ( .)

setup

boot system

, , UDP- .
, .

4 , WAN- -.
ISDN

!!!!!,
.

Frame Relay

3 DUAL
?

T1/E1

OSPF
EIGRP

43

TCP? ( .)

RIP

, .

BGP

.
.

38

,
. ,
. ?

.
8 .

IDS

IPS

4
4

Anti-X

3 TCP?
.
.
.
.

40

,
500 (1640 ) ?
STP
UTP

41

?
Cisco IOS -
NVRAM
. ,

? ( .)

MAC-

RTB .

IP-

RTB - .

MAC-

.
RTB 2- .

RTB Cisco FastEthernet.

4 ?
.
,
, .
,
" ".

45

50

(SLA)?
.
, .
.

. R1 .
, ?

46

.
51

WAN- ?

EXEC "password1".

Telnet.

DNS DNS?
IP-.

52

.
.
ARP .

4
?


IP-

48

?
IP-
. , ,

RTB:
RTB(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 fa0/0
- PC3 RTB. ?
RTA 192.168.2.0.
ip route, 10.1.1.5.
ip route, 192.168.2.1.
ip route RTB.
RTA 10.1.1.6.

53

? ( .)

,
ARP-

,

5 Syslog?
,
.

.
, .
.

55

192.168.17.111/28?