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Contents rmwd u m

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"Easy English with Poems and Tables"


]]uAsmZ,m;usuf y g t*F v d y f p mpum;rcuf y g}}
vef a xmif p may
yxrtMud r f j zef Y c sd j cif ; (2010-atmuf w d k b mv ? e,l ; a'vD / )

27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

t*Fvyd t
f u&m "Alphabet" ----------------------------1
]o& rS 0wK} Z,m;? "Vowel to Novel" table ----------- 2
0gp*FSpfyg; pmpum; THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH ---- 3
NOUNS emrfrsm; --------------------------------- 3
SINGULAR - PLURAL NOUNS uAsm --------------- 4
a&SUquf Prefix aemufquf Suffix ---------------------- 9
PRONOUN emrfpm;rsm; --------------------------- 15
ADJECTIVES emr0daooersm; ---------------------- 17
VERBS Mud,mrsm;---------------------------------- 25
ykHrSefBud,m = REGULAR uAsm + Z,m;---------------- 26
ykHrrSefBud,m = IRREGULAR uAsm + Z,m;------------ 27
V ING = PRESENT PATICIPLE uAsm+ Z,m;--------- 41
AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECT--- 42
CONTINUOUS TENSE oHk;avhr&SdaomVERB rsm; ------- 44
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VERB FORMS (TENSES )---- 45
Mud,mwcsKd YwYkd\twdak umufrsm;Short form of some Verbs ---- 49
armf',ftrsdK;rsdK;toHk;taxGaxG/
USES OF MODALS AND SEMI-MODALS----------- 50
ADVERB Bud,m0daooe-------------------------- 53
PREPOSITIONS 0dbwfrsm; uAsm+ Oyrmrsm;------------ 62
CONJUNCTIONS pum;qufrsm;-------------------- 69
THE INTERJECTIONS tmar!dwfrsm;----------------- 75
ARTICLES ------------------------------------ 76
PUNCTUATION ------------------------------- 80
DAILY "FLASH" ENGLISH USAGES

aeUpOfoHk;vQyfwpfjyuft*Fvdyfpum;rsm;-------------------84
SENTENCES-CONSTRUCTIONS ---------------- 94
BODYudk,fcEm? FACE rsufESm? HAND vuf?
EYES rsufvHk;? FOOT ajc? ----------------------- 105
PROVERBS (pum;yHr
k sm;)--------------------------106
PHRASAL VERBS ----------------------------- 108
HAVE TO KNOW od&w,f 0gusav;rsm;------------- 110
HUMOROUS IDIOMS [moOmPfygaomtD'D,rfrsm;---- 115
SOME ABBREVIATIONS twdkaumufpmvHk;rsm;-------- 117
STRUCTURES, VERB PATTERNS ---------------- 119
++++++++

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uAsmZ,m;usufyg t*Fvdyfpmpum;rcufygg}} Easy English
with Poems and Tables oifaxmufulpmtkyfonf rlvtp India EdkifiH
New Delhi jrdKU? jrefrm'kuo
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12 ESprf S 60 ESpt
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vdkufvH ul;,lEdkifolrsm;&Sdovdk tcsdefrSD rul;,lEdkifolrsm;vnf;&SdMuygonf/

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Native English Teacher rsm;? ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;pkaygif;]]]]Prospect
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]] qdk&vG,f? em;vnfvG,f? rSwfrdvG,f oifaxmufuluAsmESifhZ,m;rsm;}}
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OD;jzL0if;(vefaxmifpyfpak v;)
uphyuwin@yahoo.com, satsuulay@gmail.com

t*Fvdyftu&m "Alphabet"
Capital Letter
pmvHk;MuD;

A B C D E F G
H I J K L M N O P
Q R S T U V W
X Y Z

Small Letter

a b c
h i j k
q r s
x

pmvHk;ao;

Script Letter
a&S ; a[mif ;
ausmuf p m

d e f g
l m n o p
t u v w
y z

A B C D E F G
H I J K L M N O P
Q R S T U V W
X Y Z

a b c d e f g
h i j k l m n o p
q r s t u v w
x y z

Running Hand
vuf a &;quf

BLOCK LETTER

pmvH k ; MuD ; tnD a &;

U PHYU WIN
PROSPECT BURMA

Vowel (o&)

(a, e, i, o, u) 5 vHk;/ if;wdkUESifhwGJygu


toHxGufaompmvHk;rsm;jzpfvmygonf/

Consonent (Asnf ; )

usef 21 vHk;udk (Asnf;) [kac:ygonf/

Semi-Vowel (w0ufo&)

tcgtm;avQmfpGmtoHxGufay;wwfaom y pmvHk;/

Word (pum;vH k ; )
AsOf;ESifho&wdkYaygif;pyf &vm aom
t"dyg ,fo
dS nfh pum;vHk;rsm;/

teacher, man, dog, tree, is, will,


can, come, go, same, dry, at, in,
of, an, the, quickly ponfwdkYjzpfygonf/

A group of words
(pum;vHk;pk)
pum;vHk;rsm;pkaygif;xm;jcif;/

a piece of chalk ajrjzLwpfydkif;?


a cup of tea vuf&nfwpfcGuf?
the big dog 'DacG;MuD;/ ponf/

Phrase( Bud , mryg pum;vH k ; pk ) A Phrase is a group of words


t"dyg ,fjynfph rkH rI Sad o;aom Mud,mryg without a verb.
pum;vHk;pkudkac:onf/
a tablet of medicine aq;jym;wpfjym;?
a bottle of medicine aq;wpfyv
k if;?? ponf/
Clause (Bud,myg pum;vHk;pk) A clause is a group of words with
t"dyg ,fjynfph rkH rI Sad o;aom Mud,myg&Sd a verb.
onfhpum;vHk;pkudkac:onf/
which bites me (uREkfyfudkudkufaom)
bmaumifudkufwmvJ? pojzifh t"dyg,frjynfhpHk/
Sentence (0gus)
t"dyg,fjynfhpHk tpDtpOfusaom
pum;vHk;pkudk 0gus[kac:onf/

This is a dog which bites me.


uRefawmfudkudkufaomacG;onf 'DacG;jzpfonf/
(t"dyg,fjynfhpHkjyD)

Paragraph (pmyd k ' f )

Sentences 0gusrsm;pkaygif;xm;aompmydk'f/

Comprehension pmpDpmuHk;/ if;wdkYonf Paragraph pmyd'k rf sm;pkaygif;zGJUpnf;


Composition pmwrf;??/
xm;aompmpkrsm;jzpfygonf/
pmnGefY?/Articleaqmif
aqmif;yg;
EassypmnG
yH k j yif Novel 0w K ponf/
StoryyH

0gp*FSpfyg; pmpum;
;

"The eight parts of speech"


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Verb
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Interjection

emrf (trnf[lorQESifh --jcif;? --rI? wdkYeJYqHk;wm)


emrf p m; (ol?ig pwJhemrftpm;oHk;wmawG)
emr0daooe (emrfudktxl;jyK? --aom eJYqHk;)
Bud , m (jyK? jzpf? &Sd jy wmawG? --onf?\? eJYqHk;)
Bud,m0daooe (Mud,mudktxl;jyK? --pGmeJYqHk;)
0d b wf (qufoG,fjy|mef;yk'f)
pum;quf (ESifh? aMumifh ? twGuf? pwmawG)
tmar!d w f(tr,fav;? tvdkbk&m;a&..ponfrsm;)

;
;
;
;
;

1.

NOUNS (emrf r sm;)

ouf&SdoufrJh? j'yf&Sdj'yfrJh? trnf[lorQ/ emrfac:Muyg/


A noun is the name of anything .
wpf
rsm; pdwZ? tpkjy? rSwfMu 4-rsdK;om/

Proper nouns
wpfOD;qdkifemrf? {Maung Ba, Ayeyawaddy}Capital eJYpa&;/
Common nouns trsm;qdkifemrf? {man, town, journal}
Abstract nouns pdwZemrf? {wisdom (ynmSjd cif;)? success (atmifjrifjcif;)}
Collective Nouns tpkjyemrf/{ People jynfolvlxk? school ausmif;/ ponf }
yk v d i f w d ? eyk e f 'G d ? rS w f o d v d i f a v;jzm/ English Noun rsm;udkrl
GENDER 3rsKd;om cGJxm;ygonf/ (tzdk tr vdifrJh ESifh 'Gdvdif)
{u A[k ? enf ; rsm;rI ? rS w f j yKud e f ; 2 jzm/
Singular numbertenf;ude;f ?Plural numbertrsm;ude;f [l ude;f 2-rsdK;&So
d nf/
The Three genders vd i f 3-rsd K ;Z,m;
Masculine tzd k
Feminine t r
men trsdK;om;rsm;
women trsdK;orD;rsm;
boy a,mufsm;av;
girl rdef;cav;;

Neuter vd i f r J h ES i f h
things t&m0wKrsm;
animal w&dpmef

'Gdvdif

tzdkESifhtrudkcGJ&ef?
tzdkwGif er , or ESiq
hf ;kH ygu e ESihf o udjk zKwfNyD; ess xyfaygif;jcif; jzifhtr &Edkif ygw,f/
Prince rif;om;
actor okyfaqmifrif;om;
waiter pm;yGJxdk;trsdK;om;

Princess rif;orD;
actress okyfaqmifrif;orD;
waitress pm;yGJxdk;trsdK;orD;

;
;

;
;
;
;
;
;
;

Singular - Plural Nouns uAsm


wpfck? wpfaumif? wpfa,muf[m singular
wpfckxufykdawmY plural yg/
book, chair, plate rSm s omxnfYNyD;
box, boss, watch, splash es yg/
...f,...fe qkH;&if ves ajymif;vkduf
leaf, thief, knife, wife Oyrm/
beliefs, chiefs, cliffs rSm somjznfYvkdY
proofs, roofs, safes wkdYcRif;csufyg/
Vowel aemufrSm y av;qkH;&if
boys, days, keys wkdY s jznffYum/
Consonant aemufrSm y tjyD;qufu
babies, cities ies vm/
mango, mosquito, potato eJY
tomato wkdY es yg/
piano, radio, zoo, yoyo ukd
o eJYqkH;vnf; s qufyg/
foot-feet, goose-geese,
tooth-teeth tvdu
k t
f xdu
k f
mouse-mice, man-men
Vowel ajymif;yg/
child qdk children , ox qdk oxen
en jznfYaygif;aoaocsmcsm/
basis, crisis, oasis eJY
thesis, axis, analysis rSm/
is qkH;wm es ajymif;
bases, crises... ponfjzifYyg/
datum-data , fomula-fomulae wJY
genius-genii , die-dice rSm/
himself , herself , myself wdkYvJ
themselves , ourselves ajymif;&wm/
Compound nouns qdk tqkH;ydkif;a&m?
tpydkif;a&m? ESpfydkif;vkH;a&m? trsm;ajymif;yg/
grown-ups, sons-in-law,
men-of-war aygY
women doctors rSwfp&m/

4
aygY
pmtkyf? ukvm;xdkif? yk*Hjym;?
aowm? olaX;? vufywfem&D ?
t&nfrStpufrsm;jzmxGufaponf??
opf&Guf? olcdk;? "g;? ZeD;
,HMk unfr?I tMu;D tuJrsm;? urf;yg;apguf?
oufaorsm;? acgifrdk;? rD;cHaowmrsm;?
a,mufsm;av;rsm;? aeY&ufrsm;?
aomhwHrsm;?
uav;i,frsm;? jrdKYawmfrsm;?
o&ufoD;? jcif? tmvl;?
c&rf;csOfoD;?
pE,m;? a&'D,dk? w&dpmef&Hk?
,dk;,dk;upm;p&m*sif
ajcaxmuf 2 zuf? bJief;rrsm;?
oGm;rsm;?
MuGufrsm;? vlrsm;?
uav;rsm;? EGm;xD;rsm;?
tajccH? tusyftwnf;? tdkatppf?
pmwrf;? 0if&dk;? cGJjcrf;pdyfjzmjcif;?

tcsuftvufrsm;? yHkaoenf;rsm;?
OmPfMuD;&Sifrsm;? tHpmwHk;rsm;?
oludk,fwdkif? olrudk,fwdkif?
uREkfyfudk,fwdkif?
olwdkYudk,fwdkif? uREkfyfwdkYudk,fwdkif?
t&G,fa&mufolrsm;? om;rufrsm;?
ppfvlppfom;rsm;
trsdK;orD;q&m0efrsm;(q&m0efrrsm;)

5
;
;
;

;
;
;
;
;

6
Plural trsm;omjzpfMu&wJY
pliers , scissors eJY binoculars / yvm,m? uufaus;? 2-vH;k jyL;rSeaf jymif;?
I rf sm;? abmif;bDw?kd abmif;bD&n
S ?f
pincers , shorts , pants , glasses rsm;uGJY oHEw
rs
u
r
f
eS ?f
f ?D
braces , pyjamas eJU suspenders/ wpH(k w&H)? n0wfp?kH vefuyG w
vufarmif;? t0wftpm;? tjyKtrl?
arms , cloths , manners ,
ywf0ef;usif?
surroundings ukd
congratulations , thanks , oats yg/ atmifjrifrItwGuf*kPfjyKjcif;?
aus;Zl;w&m;? jrifpm;*sHK?
tcsKdU noun awG[m s eJU qkH;vnf;
singular = tenf; ,l&wm/
owif;? bDvD,uf? tqifhtwef;?
news , billiards , classes eJY
darts , economics , physics yg/ jrSm;(rSdef;)? pD;yGm;a&;? &lyaA'?
Uncountable Noun ac:a&wGur
f &wJY
*Dw? tdrfpm? a&T? rD;cdk;? axmywf?
music, homework , gold, smoke, butter /
beef , chalk , funiture ponfrsm;udk trJom;? ajrjzL? tdrfaxmify&dabm*
enf;rsm;rcGJbJ usufrSwfyg/
singular - plural - noun qdkonfrsm;
rSwfom; tokH;cs aysmfp&m
usufyg rSwfyg / /

t"dutm;jzifh Noun udk ESpfrsKd;cGJEdkifygw,f/


(1)
(2)

a&wGuf&aomemrf Countable Noun


(a&wGuf&aomemrfonf tenf;ude;f ESit
hf rsm;ude;f [l 2rsK;d &SEd ikd o
f nf )
a&wGufr&aomemrf Uncountable Noun
(a&wGufr&aomemrfonf tenf;udef;[komowfrSwfMuonf)

Noun teJ u d e f ; Noun trsm;ud e f ; ajymif ; &ef e nf ; vrf ; tcsKd U


1. rsm;aomtm;jzif"h s" aygif;ay;&w,f/
Singular animal
chair
record
house
office
Plural
animals
chairs
records houses offices
2. y aSUwGif Vowel o& (a, e, i, o, u) wpfckckryg0ifygu y udk jzKwfNyD; "ies"
Singular city
country
lady
hobby
spy
Plural
cities
countries ladies
hobbies spies
3. y aSUwGif Vowel o& (a, e, i, o, u) yg0ifygu y udk rjzKwfbJ s" xyfaygif;
Singular day
key
boy
toy
buy
Plural
days
keys
boys
toys
buys

4. ' f ', ' fe ' ponfwdkYjzifhtqHk;owfaeygu ' f ', ' fe ' jzKwfNyD; " ves " aygif;
Singular
wife
knife
life
shelf
loofvufz0g;
thief
Plural
wives
knives
lives shelves looves
thieves
5. vowel o&ajymif;ay;vQif Noun trsm;ude;f &ygw,f/
Singular man
woman
tooth
foot
mouse
Plural
men
women
teeth
feet
mice
6. " ch " " sh " " ss " " o " " x " wdkYESifhqHk;aom Noun rsm;udk " es " aygif;/
Singular watch
brush
glass
potato
box
bus
Plural
watches brushes glasses potatoes boxes buses
7. wcsKdU Noun rsm;udktenf;udef;a&m? trsm;udef;&ygoHk;vdkY&ygw,f/
Singular fish
sheep
deer
swine
quail
Plural
fish
sheep
deer
swine
quail
8. News, Mathematics, Physics, Economics, Politics, wages,
Mechanics wdkYonf s yg aomfvnf; Noun tenf;udef;jzpfw,f/
9. scissors, spectacles, trousers, balances, pliers, pincers wdkY[m Noun

tenf;udef;jzpf w,f/(uyfaus;? rsufrSef? abmif;bD? csdefcGif? yvm,m?oHEIwf)


10. People, police, Public, cattle, dozen wdkYonf Noun trsm;udef;jzpfw,f/
(jynfolvlxk? &J? jynfol? EGm;uRJrsm;? 'gZif)
+++ Food, Material, Common Nouns , Abstract noun , rsm;onf
Uncountable Noun jzpf w ,f / ++++
rice (xrif;)? curry ([if;)? oil (qD)?
Food (tpm;tpmrsm;)
Butter (axmywf)? onion (MuufoGefeD)? Garlic (MuufoGefjzL)? salt (qm;)?
sugar (oMum;)? water (a&)? Bread (aygifrkefY)? cake (udwfrkefY)? tea (vuf&nf)?
coffee (aumfzD)? Pepsi (yufpD)? Horlick (a[mfvpf)? wjcm;trsm;tjym;Sdao;w,f/
Material (t&m0w K rsm;) ES i f h Metal (ow K yp n f ; rsm;)
gold (aT)? silver (aiG)? aluminium (tvlrDeD,H-'ef)? copper (aMu;)? iron (oH)?
tin (oHjzL)? sodium(qd'
k,
D rf)? potassium(ydw
k ufq,
D rf)? magnesium(r*f*eDq,
D rf)?
chromium(c&dr
k,
D rf)? sulphur(uefY)? uranium (,la&eD,)H ? ESit
hf jcm; owKrsm;SMd uygw,f/
Common Nouns (&d k ; &d k ; emrf r sm;)
rain (rdk;)? grass (jruf)? glass (zef)? sand (oJ)? hair (qHyif)? money (aiGaMu;)?
wood (opf)? tobacco (aq;wHaomufaq;)? ponfrsm;/
Abstract Nouns (pd w Z emrf r sm;)? love (cspfjcif;)? hate (rkef;jcif;)?
courage (owd S d j cif ; )? honesty (d k ; om;jcif ; )? wisdom (ynmS d j cif ; )?
beauty (tvSty) paom wjcm;aoma&wGufr&aomemrf rsm;vnf;Sdao;w,f/

8
Nouns

ESifhwGJoHk;avh&Sdaom pum;vHk;rsm;

N = Noun emrf (tenf;a&mtrsm;a&m)


V = verb Bud,m (tenf;a&mtrsm;a&m)
Ns = Singular Noun emrftenf;udef;(sryg) Vs = Singular verb Bud,mtenf;udef;(s yg)
Np = Plural Noun emrftrsm;udef;(s yg)
Vp = Plural verb Bud,mtrsm;udef;(sryg)
English 0gusrsm;zG J U &mwG i f
Noun tenf; ESifh verb tenf;? Noun trsm; ESihf verb trsm; wef;wla&;zGYJ ajym&onf/
Noun tenf; ESifh verb trsm;/ Noun trsm; ESifh verb tenf; rjzpfap&/
Oyrm- A baby cries.
A boy plays.
A bus stops.
Three boys play.
Four buses stop.
Two babies cry.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Adjective + N
Article + Adj + N
Pronoun + Adj + N
Number + Adj + N

beautiful girl
a clever boy
my best friend
two clever boys

t"du 4-rsdK;

1. This 'D / that [dk + Ns (sryg)


:- this boy('Daumifav;?) ,that girl ([dak umifrav;)
2. These 'D[mawG/ those [dk[mawG + Np (s yg) :- These boys 'Daumifav;awG(rsm;)?,
those girls [dak umifrav;awG(rsm;)/
3. One + Ns (sryg)
:- one book pmtkyw
f tkyf , one chair cHw
k vH;k /
4. Two/ three/ four ...
:- two books pmtkyf 2-tkyf ,
numbers + Np (s yg)
two chairs cHk 2-vH;k / ponf/
5. my/ his/ her/ your/ Its + N
:- my book ighpmtky?f , your school oif\ausmif;
6. our/ their/ your/ Its + N
:- their books olwdkY\pmtkyfrsm;?
our school uREfkyfwdkY\ausmif;/
7.'S + N \---(s ygwma&m? s rygwma&m)
:- the boy's book, the girl's pencil
('Daumifav;\pmtkyf? [dak umifrav;\cJwH)
8.S' + N rsm;\---(s ygwma&m? s rygwma&m) :- the boys' books, the girls' pencils
('Daumifav;rsm;\pmtkyfrsm;? [dkaumifrav;rsm;\cJwHrsm;)
Countable N
9. many - rsm;pG m aom

many cars rsm;pGmaomum;rsm;?


many students rsm;pGmaom pmoifom;rsm;?

10. few + countable N - r&S d o avmuf tenf ; i,f


He has few friends. olYrSmrdwfaqG r&Sdoavmufenf;vSonf/
i,ff
11. a few + countable N - wa,mufwav? wckwav? tenf;i,
He has a few friends. olYrSmrdwfaqG wa,mufwav &Sdonf/

Uncountable N
12. much - rsm;pG m - much rain rdk;rsm;pGm, much money aiGrsm;pGm/
13. little + uncountable N :- r&S d o avmuf tenf ; i,f
Will you have little wine ? oifr
h mS 0dik f (r&So
d avmuf) tenf;i,f &So
d vm;/
14. a little + uncountable N :- wpuf w av tenf ; i,
i,ff
Will you have a little wine ? oifhrSm 0dkif (wpufwav) tenf;i,f &Sdovm;/
Countable N / Uncountable N
I have a lot of CDs. uRefawmfhrSm pD'Drsm;pGm&Sdonf/
15. a lot of - rsm;pG m
I have a lot of money.uRefawmfhrSm aiGrsm;pGm&Sdonf/
wcsd
K
Y
16. SomeThere are some apples in the bowl. yef;oD;wcsKdUZvHx
k rJ mS &SMduonf/
There is some wine left over.0dkiw
f csKd U'DrSmusefao;w,f/
Have you some CDs.? pD'DwcsKd UoifhrmS &So
d vm;/
17. any - wcsKd Y ?tenf;i,f/ Negative/Interrogative tjiif;? tar;0gusrsm;wGio
f ;kH /
There aren't any children here. 'DrSmuav;wcsKd Ur&SMd ubl;/
Have you got any CDs. ?rif; pD'DwcsKd U&jyD;jyDvm;/
r&S
d
?
wck
r
S
r
&Sd? enf;enf;rS r&Sd/ I have no time.ighrSmtcsdev
18. Nof Hk;0r&S/d
There are no children here. 'DrSmuav;wa,mufrSr&SdMubl;/
19. Other wjcm;aom :- Other girls are clever.wjcm;aomrdef;uav;rsm;
20. One of the + Np + Vs wpf - -aom :- One of the boys is clever.

(a,mufsm;uav;rsm;pGmteuf)wa,mufaoma,mufsm;uav; onfvdrfrm\/
21. Some of the + Np + Vp wcsd K Uaom :- Some of the boys are clever.

wcsdKYaoma,mufsm;uav;rsm; onfvdrfrmMu\/
22. All of the + Np + Vp

tm;vHk;aom

:- All of the boys are clever.

tm;vHk;aoma,mufsm;uav;rsm; onfvdrfrmMu\/
23. N + N
sea beach yifv,furf;ajc (cGJoHk;jcif;) bodyguard (wGJoHk;jcif;)
salt-maker qm;csuform;, Galon-bird *VKefiSuf (Hyphen cH o H k ; jcif ; )
24. N + N + N
cherry wood doll. cs,f&Dom;tkyf/
25. N + N + N + N sea shell ash tray.yifv,fc&kcjHG zifv
h yk x
f m;onfah q;vdyjf ymcGu?f
26. Whose + N
:- Whose pen is this ? (b,fol\---vJ?)
27. Which + N
:- Which shirt do you like ? (b,f---vJ?)
28. Ved (or) Ven + N :- This is a boiled rice. 'gqefjyKwfwpftdk;/
:- This is a broken chair. 'gusdK;aewJhcHkwpfvHk;/
29. Ving + N :- colouring chalk.a&mifpakH jrjzLcJ/(0,fuwnf;u a&mifpakH jrjzLcJjzpfonf/)
coloured chalk ta&mifqdk;xm;aomajrjzLcJvdkYod&ygonf/
30. Groupal Adj + N :- This is a glass of water. 'ga&wpfzefcGuf/
This is a piece of bread. 'gaygifrHkUwpfcsyf/
+++++++++++++

a&SUquf Prefix aemufquf Suffix

a a&SUquf Prefix , aemufquf Suffix


toHk;cszdkU rodrjzpf/
a Prefix = a&SUquf (6)rsdK;rSm
t&G , f t pm;jywmeH y gwf 1. yg/
a macro, mega (rufcdk? rD*g) = tvGefBuD;rm;
mini , micro (rDeD? rdkufcdk)= tao;pm;/
a wlnDonfrsm; = equi (tDuGD;) qdk
wpf0ufwpfydkif;u = semi (qDrD;) = tBudK/
1. Prefixes of size : (t&G , f t pm;jya&S U quf r sm;)
macroeconomics rufcdk tDudkaemrpf = tBuD;pm;pD;yGm;a&;/
megaphone rD*gbke;f = toHBuD;csUJ puf/ megastore = ukeaf vSmif&t
kH MuD;pm;MuD;/
minicomputer rDeDuGefysLwm = uGefysLwmtao;pm;/
miniskirt puwfww
kd /kd miniature = ti,fpm;yHpk /H minibus = ti,fpm;bwfpu
f m;
microscope rdkufcdkpukwf = tPkMunfhrSefajymif;/
microbiology rdkufcdkbdkiftdkavm*sD tPkZD0aA'/microphone rdkufcdkzHk;/
equidistant tDuGD'pfpwifefU = tuGmta0;wlaom/
equilateral Triangle tDuGDvufw&,fvf = oHk;em;nDaom Mwd*H/
semiconductor qDrD;uGef'wfwm=wpfydkif;vQyful;ypnf;/
semifinal= tBudKAdkvfvkyGJ/ semicircle = puf0dkif;jcrf;/

a ae&mjyudk eHygwf 2. a[h


inter = tMum;? super = tvGef? tran = jzwf/
a peri (yg&D) awGUu = ywfvnfyg
(tD;tdyfpf)ex = tjyifodkY? tvGefUtvGef = extra /
a infra qdkwm = atmufem;us
sub uawmhjzifh = atmufzufus? =teleta0;u/
2. Prefixes of location : (ae&mjya&S U quf r sm;)
interchange tifwmcsdef;*sf = vJvS,fonf
supersonic plygqGef;epf = toHxufjrefaom
transmit x&efprpfwf = ta0;odkUydkUonf transfer x&efpzg;-vTJajymif;ay;onf
perimeter yg&Drw
D m = ywfvnftem; exclude tdwpf u
f vk('f) = xkwyf ,fxm;onf
extraordinary tdwfx&matmf'ifem&D = omrefxufvGefaom
infra-red tifz&m&uf'f =teDatmufa&mifjcnf submarine pyfr&if; = a&ikwo
f abFm/
telephone= w,fvDzHk; ?(tele= ta0; + phone= toH?vision = tjrif)/
television= kyfjrifoHMum;? telescope = ta0;MunfhrSefajymif;/
telegraph = aMu;eef; telepathy= ta0;rSpdwfcsif;qufoG,fjcif;/

a ta&twGufjyeHygwf 3. rSm
wpfESpfoHk;av;ig; mono , bi , tri , tetra , penta
wpfESpfoHk;av;ig; mono , di , tri , quad , penta
a hexa , sept , octa , nona , dec
ajcmufcGef&Spfudk;wpfq,f? multi = rsm;rsm;quf/

10

3. Prefixes of numbers : (ud e f ; ta&twG u f a&S U quf r sm;)


monogamy rdkEdk*rD = wpfvifwpfr,m;pepf/monopoly = wOD;wnf;ydkif/
binary bdik ef &D = ESpcf pk yf/ triangle xdik t
f if*,fv=f Bwd*/H tricolour =oH;k a&mifjc,f
tetrahedron = av;rsufESmxk quadrilateral uGdwf'&Dvufx&,f =pwk*H/
carbondioxide umAGef'dkifatmufqdk'f? (atmufqdk'f ESpfckygaom)
pentagon yifwm*Gef = yO*H/ hexagon [ufqm*Gef = qX*H/
Septemberpufwifbmv = ckepfvydkif;(,ckudk;vydkif;)/
October &Spv
f ydik ;f /(tck q,fvydik ;f )/ octagon t|*H (&Spfem;ygaom)
octopus atmufw
f ykd wfpf = vufw&H pS cf yk g a&b0Jaumif/
November udk;vydkif;/ nonane Edkedef;- umAGefudk;ckygt,fvfudef;/
December q,fvydkif;/decimal 'ufpr,f='rudef;/decimetre'ufpDrDwm/
multivitamin rmwDADwmrif = ADwmrif"mwfrsm;pGmygaom/

a 4. twGufu tcsdefjyrnf
ante(tefwD-) = a&SUeJU pre (y&D-)= rwdkifrD/
a aemufvSnfh (&Dxdk-) =retro, prime (ydkif;-) =yxr
post (ydkYpf-) a&SUqufu = aemufem;us/
4. Prefixes of time and order : (tcsd e f E S i f h t pD t pOf a &S U quf r sm;)
antecedenttefwDpD'ifefYZf = a&SUajy;jzpfaom/antedate = a&SUapmaeYpGJ/
prepare y&DyJ = BudKwifjyifqifonf/prewar = ppfMudKacwf/
retrospect &Dxdkpyufwf = twdwfjzpf&yfrsm;udkjyefMunfhonf/
primary ydkif;rm&D = rlvtptajccHjzpfaom/primary school=rlvwef;ausmif;
prime number ok'udef;? prime minister - 0efBuD;csKyf/
postgraduate ydkYpf*&uf'sLtdwf= bGJUvGef/post-1960 = 1960 tvGef/
AM= ante meridiem rGef;rwnfhrSD, PM = post meridiem rGef;vGJ/

a eH y gwf 5. u tEI w f t aygif ; jyr,f


r[kwfaMumif; [kwfaMumif; t"dyg,f/
a un , in_, im_, il_, ir_, non, mis_, dis_
tef, tif, tifrf, t,fvf, tD, eef; , rpf , 'pf
r[kwf? r&Sd? rnD? rxm;? rjzpf/
a avsmhypf = de ('D-) eJU anti (tefwD-) = qefYusif
over = tvGef? under = atmuf? re = xyfjyif/

11

12
5. Negative and Positive Prefixes :(tEI
(tEI w f E S i f h t aygif ; a&S U quf r sm;)
unmagnetized tefruf*eufwu
kd 'f f =oHvu
k d "f mwfr&Sad om? unmarried = vufrxyf&ao;aom/
incomplete tifuGefyvd(wf)= rjynfhpHkaom/
impossible = rjzpfEdkifaom?
illegal tDvfvD;*Jvf = Oya'ESifhrnDaom?
irregular tD&,f*lvm=yHkrSefr[kwfaom/
non-metal eef;r,fw,f = owKr[kwfaom/ non-smoker = aq;vdyfraomufol/
misleadrpfvd('f)=vrf;rSm;odkYOD;aqmifonf/
misunderstand =em;vnfrIvGJ/
disagree'pft*&D;= oabmrwljzpfonf/
dislike = rESpfouf/
demagnetize'Druf*eufwu
kd Zf =f oHvu
kd "f mwfavsmah ponf/ deactivate vIy&f mS ;rIavsmah p/
antiseptictefwpD yufwpf=yd;k rTm;rsm;udzk supf ;D wwfaom/ antivirus = Adik ;f &yfqefYusiaf q;/
anti-American tar&duefqefYusifa&;/ anti-fascismzuf q pf p epf q ef Y u sif a &;/
overload tdkAmvk'f=tqrwef0efwifonf/
overconfident=,HkMunfrIydkvGef/
undergroundteff'g*a&mif; =ajratmuf /
underwear = twGif;cH/
renew &De,l;=topfjyefvkyfonf/ restart jyefp/ rejoin = jyefvnfacsyonf/

a eH y gwf 6. wG i f t axG a xG + wjcm;a&S U quf r sm;


co (udk) =twl eJY pro (ydk-) =a&SUoGm;/
a tvdkvdkqufjim; = auto yg
con = ]]ESifhtwl}} wJh ponfjzifh rsm;pGm/
6. Other prefixes : (taxG a xG + wjcm;aoma&S U quf r sm;)
co-ordinate udkatm'edwf = yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufonf/
co-exist =twlwnf&Sd/
program ydk*&rf = a&SUOD;tpDtpOf/
prologue= uAsmed'gef;? a&SUOD;tzGifh/
progress ydk*&ufpf= a&SUOD;wdk;wufrI/ probationer = tprf;cefY? tvkyfoif/
automatic =tvdktavsmufvIyf&Sm;aom/ autobiography = udk,fa&;twKywd/
autonomy =udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh/
connect uGefeufwf =qufpyfonf/
aero__avESiq
hf ikd af om/ aeroplaneav,mOf, aerodromeavqdyf , aeronaut avol&/J
air__avESifhqdkifaom/ air-craft av,mOf/air-bed avtdyf, airship avoabFm/
air-hotess av,mOfr,f/ air-conditioner avat;avoefYpuf/ (air-con [kac:Mu)
Anglo__t*FvdyfESifhqdkifaom/ Anglo-Burma Treaty t*Fvdyf jrefrmoabmwlpmcsKyf/
Anglo-Indian t*Fvdyf-ukvm;ujym;,
anglophile t*FvdyfwdkYudkoabmusolrsm;/
anglophone t*Fvyd pf um;ajymEdik if rH sm;/ anglophile t*Fvyd w
f Yku
d o
kd abmrus? rke;f wD;olrsm;/
arch_tMuD;trSL;?archbishop*dkPf;csKyf,archduketrwfcsKyf,archenemyt"du&efol/
by__ , by(e)__ , ta&;rygaom? rxif & S m ;aom/ bygone a&S ; vG e f a vjyD ; aom?
bystander ab;rS&yfMunfah eol? bye-law Oya'tao;pm;? by-election Mum;a&G;aumufy/JG
contra__ qefYusifbuf, contraceptive y#doaEwm;aq;? contradiction 0da&m"d/
demi__w0ufwydkif;/ demi-godewfwydkif;?pma&;q&m?EdkifiHa&;orm;paomausmfMum;olrsm;/
fore__ a&S Y yd k i f ; usaom/ fore-leg a&S U ajcaxmuf / foresee Mud K wif jrif o nf /

grand__ MuD;us,fcef;em;aom? grand-stand txl;wef;/ grand-ma = tbGm;/


grand-pa = grandfather tbdk;/
Grand-master ppfbk&ifcsefyD,HMuD;/
great__omrefxufomvGeaf om/ Great Britain jAdwo
d QuRe;f pk/ great-coat 0wf&&kH n
S Mf uD;/
hydro__a&ESifhqdkifaom/ hydro-electric a&tm;vQyfppf/ hydrogen [dkufj'dK*sif/
hydrocarbon [dkufj'dKumAGef/
hydro-phobia a&aMumufa&m*g(acG;&l;jyefa&m*g)/
mal__yHyk suyf ef;ysu/f rawmfrw&m;/ maltreat tEdik u
f sio
hf nf/ mal-nutrition t[m&csKd UwJ/h
poly__ trsm;/ polygamy rdef;rtrsm;,ljcif;/ poly-technic toufarG;rIoifausmif;/
pseudo_twkta,mif/pseudonymtrnf0Suf?uavmiftrnf/ pseudocodeuk'ftwk/
step___vifyg r,m;yg/ stepchild vifyg r,m;yguav; / stepfather yaxG;/
vice__ udk,fpm;?'kwd,/Vice-President'kwd,orw/
vicechairman 'kOu|/

a Prefix qdkwm a&SUrSmqufovdkbJ


root word aemufrSm suffix awGwGJ/
a t"dyg,fuGJNyD; tvGeftoHk;0if
suffix rsdK;uGJav;rsdK;wGif/
a Noun toG i f a jymif ; aemuf q uf u m;
er, or, ar, ee, eer, ier rsm;/
painter =yef;csDq&m/
a aemufrSmxm;vpf ism eJY ist
indicator =tcsufjyud&d,m/
scholar = ynmoif/
ian , ity eJU yst /
trainee=oifwef;om;
a tion , sion &Sif; ESpf &Sif;
engineer
= tif*sifeD,m/
ation, ion vJ noun xJoGif;/
financier = aiGaMu;axmufyHhol/
a &if; eJUvif; u ing, ling
Buddhism= Ak'bmom/
ette , let , ant , ent /
Buddhist = Ak'bmom0if/
a ance, ence, ness
magician= rsufvSnfhq&m/
ess eJU sis /
flexibility = aysmhaysmif;jcif;/
a useaf emufqufu (&Spf ) ([k-'f) (zl;) ('rf;)
analyst = pHkprf;ppfaq;ol/
useaf emufqufu ship, hood , ful , dom opposition = qefYusifzuf/
ment , ure eJU y , th wkdYqufumvSrf; / admission=0ifciG /hf
investigation = pHkprf;ppfaq;jcif;/
a aemufNrD;wef;u age, al
action
= vIyf&Sm;rI/
noun jzpfapwmrsm;pGmuG,f/
Noun suffixes emrf j zpf a paomaemuf q uf r sm;
ereeJ Y qH k ; computer = uGefysLwm/ lier = vlvdrf/ receiver = a&'D,dk(zrf;puf)/
programmer = tpDtpOfa&;qGJol/
recorder = rSwfwrf;wifpuf/
= *Pef;aygif;puf/ actor = rif;om;/ operator = vkyaf qmifo/l

oreJeJYqHk; calculator

13
eJ Y q H k ; interviewee = awGUqHak r;jref;cH&ol/ examinee = ppfaq;cH&ol/
eeeJ
ismeJeJYq;kH atheism = wdw0d g'/ magnetism = oHvu
kd "f mwf/ __ism = --0g'/ --"gwf/
isteeJYqHk; atheist = wdwd/ specialist =txl;uRrf;usifol/ violinist wa,morm;/
artist = tEkynmonf/ typist =vufEydS pf ufu
dk o
f /l futurist = tem*gwf0g'D/

ianeJeJYq;kH comedian = vl&iT af wmf / electrician tDvufx&D&iS f = vQypf pfqidk &f mynm&Si/f
ityeeJ Y q H k ; electricity tDvufx&pfpD;wD; = vQyfppf"mwftm;/ ablity = pGrf;tm;/
sioneJeJYq;kH explosion = aygufurJG /I conversion = ajymif;vJjcif;/ decision= qH;k jzwfcsu/f
ingeeJ Y q H k ; swimming qGr;f rif;if=a&ul;jcif;/ playing = upm;jcif;? wD;cwfjcif;/
lingeeJYqHk; duckling = bJuav; / foundling = aumuf&aomuav;av;/
etteeeJYqHk; cigarette = pD;u&uf/ leatherette = om;&nfw?k bachelorette = vlysKd aygufp/
leteeJYqHk; piglet = yufuavmh = 0ufuav;/ booklet = pmtkyfi,f/ __let =-ti,fav;/
anteeJYqHk; applicant = avQmufxm;ol/ servant = tapcH/ attendant = tapmifh/
enteeJ Y q H k ; dependent = rSDcdkol/ different = jcm;em;csuf/ absorbent = pkyf,lrI/
anceeJeJYq;kH performance ygzGe;f refp=f toH;k awmfcjH cif;?jyKvyk jf cif;/ significance=ta&;Bu;D jcif;/
enceeeJ Y qH k ; independence tif'Dyif;'JefYpf= vGwfvyfa&; / dependence= rSDcdkjcif;/
nesseJeJYqHk; readiness&yf'eD ufp=f toif&h jdS cif;/ tidiness=oyf&yfjcif;/lioness=jcaoFrh /
resseJeJYq;kH actress =rif;orD;/waitress = pm;yGx
J ;kd r/tigress =usm;r/ heiress =tarGpm;tarGc/H
siseeJYqHk; analysis=qef;ppfjcif;/ neurosis=pdwfa&m*gtEkpm;/ psychosis=t&l;a&m*g/
shipeeJYqHk; relationship= &D;av;&Sif;&Spf=qufpyfjcif;/ kinship = aqGrsdK;tjzpf/
friendship=cifrifrI/ partnership=tpkpyf0ifjcif;/ ownership= ydik q
f ikd rf /I
hardship=tcuftcJ/ workmanship=uRr;f usirf v
I uf&m/
hoodeeJYqHk; manhood = a,musfm;tjzpf/ childhood= uav;b0/
neighbourhood =tdrfeD;csif;b0/ likelihood = jzpfwefjcif;/
fuleeJYqHk; handful=vufwpfqkyfpm/ spoonful = wpfZGef;tjynfh/ houseful = &Hkjynfh/
plateful = wpfyef;ueftjynfh/ mouthful = yvkwfyavmif;/ _ful = -jynfh/
domeJeJYq;kH freedom = vGwfvyfa&;/ martyrdom = tmZmenftjzpf/ wisdom = ynm/
menteeJYqHk; measurement rJ&Sm;refYwf= wdkif;wmjcif;/ fulfilment= NyD;jynfhpHkjcif;/
ureeJeJYqHk; failure=us;HI jcif;/ exposure= zGiv
hf pS af z:xkwjf yjcif;/ scripture=w&m;usr;f pm/
ryeeJYqHk; delivery =ay;tyfjcif;/ finery =0wfaumif;pm;vS/ infirmary = oltdk&Hk/
theJeJYq;kH
warmth = taEG;"mwf/ growth = Mu;D xGm;jcif;? wd;k wufr/I truth = trSew
f &m;/
ageeeJYqHk; storage = odr;f qnf;jcif;/breakage =usKd ;yJt
h &m0wK marriage=vufxyfjcif;/
wrekage = tysuftpD;/ package = txkwftydk;/ wastage=jzKef;wD;rI/
aleeJYqHk;
survival=raobJusejfcif;/(&Sio
f efr)I / rehearsal=Zmwfwu
k d jfcif;/ trial=prf;oyfjcif;/
approval = oabmwljcif;/ national = EdkifiHawmfESifhqdkifaom/
logyeeJYqHk; __logy = _aA'(bmom)/Biology = ZD0aA'(ouf&Sdrsm;udkavhvmaombmom)/
Zoology = owaA'bmom/ Psychology = pdwaA'(pdwfynm)/
tudeeJeJYqHk; __tude = __pGr;f &nf/ altitude tjrif(h pGr;f &nf) ,fortitude ZGcJ EH ikd jf cif;(pGr;f &nf)/
pathyeeJYqHk; neuropathy = taMumukx;kH / hydropathy = a&jzifu
h x
k ;kH /

14

a Adjective wu,fodEkdifMubkdU
al, ar, ous wkdU/
a ygovm;vkdY aemufrSmMunfhrnf
able, ible,less,eJU ing/
a ed,en , ish , ive ,
ic, ical , ful , some /

Adjective suffixes emr0d a ooejzpf a paomaemuf q uf r sm;


careless = owdrxm;aom/ interesting=tifx&ufpif;=pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;aom/
computed = wGufcsufwwfaom/
golden = a&TjzifhjyKvkyfxm;aom/
wooden = opfom;jzifhjyKvkyfxm;aom/ yellowish=cyf0g0g (0gwmwm)/
inventive=wDxGifwwfaom/ automatic = tvdktavsmufjzpfaom/
electrical = vQyfppfESifhqdkifaom/ helpful= aus;Zl;rsm;aom/
handsome = cefYjim;aom/ smaller = yd
k ao;i,faom/ smallest = tao;i,fq;kH aom/
more beautiful = ydkvSyaom/ most beautiful = tvSyqHk;aom/

a adjective NyD; Verb aemufqufrSm


ise , ize , ate wdkU t&if rSwfum/
a en yg&if verb jzpfEdkifom;
ify eJU fy ponfrsm;/

computerise = wGufcsufonf/
(uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKonf/)
calculate = wGufcsufonf/

Verb suffixes Mud , mjzpf a paomaemuf q uf r sm;


computerizeuGefysLwmdkufZf = wGufcsufonf/ uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKonf/
widen0dkuf'ef;= us,faponf? csJUonf/ fasten= cdkifjrJaponf/
purify = jyLvDzdkif; = oefU&Sif;aponf/ simplify qifyvDzdkif; = &Sif;onf/

a Adverb onfum; enf;enf;av;


ly t"du long, wards, wise, eJU ways /
prefix , suffix rcufao;/
a&SUqufavhvm tpOfraES;/ /

wisely = ynmygpGm/
helpfully = toHk;0ifvsuf?
aus;Zl;rsm;pGm /

Adverb suffixes Mud , m0d a ooe jzpf a paomaemuf q uf r sm;


headlong- OD;pdkuf? tMurf;ywrf;(OD;wdkuf)/ sidelong-ab;wdkuf/
homewards-tdro
f Ukd / backwards-aemufjyef/upwards-tay:odUk /
forwards-a&SUodYk / likewise-tvm;wl?xdek nf;if;/ otherwise-wenf;tm;jzif/h
straighway-rqdik ;f rwG/ straighaway-rqdik ;f rwG/ adjrsO;f wajzmifw
h nf;jzpfaom/
anyway- b,fenf;eJYjzpfjzpf/ always-tpOftNrJ/
+++++++++

15

2. PRONOUN (emrf p m;rsm;)


Person

Possessive Possessive Reflexive


yk*dKvf(vl) jyKo(l -onf) tjyKcH(-udk) Adjective-\ Pronoun-[m Pronoun-ud,
k w
f ikd f
First
singular

yxrvltenf;

Subject

Object

me

my

mine

uREkfyfonf

uREkfyfudk

uREkfyf\

uREkfyf[m

uREkfyfudk,fwdkif

We

us

our

ours

ourselves

+
+

myself

+
First
plural

yxrvltrsm;

uREyfk w
f Yko
d nf uREkfyfwdkYudk uREkfyfwdkY\

Second
singular

oifonf

Second
plural

'kwd,vltrsm;

oifwdkYonf oifwdkYudk

Third
singu-M

'kwd,vltenf;

You
You

uREkfyfwdkY[m

uREkfyfwdkYudk,fwdkif

you

your

yours

yourself

oifhudk

oif\

oifh[m

oifudk,fwdkif

you

your

oifwdkY\

yours

yourselves

oifwdkY[m

oifwdkYudk,fwdkif

He

him

his

his

himself

w-tenf;-tzdk

olonf

olYukd

ol\

olY[m

oludk,fwdkif

Third
singu-F

She

her

her

hers

herself

w-tenf;-tr

olronf

olrudk

olr\

Third
singu-N

It

it

its

its

itself

if;\

if;[m

their

olwdkY\

w-tenf;-rJh

Third
plural
wwd,vltrsm;

if;onf

if;udk

They

them

olwdkYonf olwdkYudk

olr[m

16

I, He, She, It ponfawG[memrfpm; tenf;udef;jzpfNyD;


We, You, They wdkY[memrfpm;trsm;udef; awGjzpfygw,f/
You u awmhemrfpm;tenf;ude;f tjzpfa&m trsm;ude;f tjzpfygoH;k vdYk &ygw,f/
emrfpm;awGudk 1st Person, 2nd person ESifh 3rd person vdkYoHk;rsKd;cGJygw,f/
1st person rSmawmh I ESifh We wdkYjzpfygw,f/ rdrdudk,fwdkifyg&ygr,f/
I udk ( am, was, do, did, have, had ) ESifh V1 trsm;udef;eJYwGJygw,f/
We udv
k nf; ( are, were, do, did , have, had ) ESihf V1 trsm;eJY yJwo
JG ;kH &w,f/
2nd person uawmhrdrdeJYrsufESmcsif;qdkifwJhvl You udkoHk;ygw,f/
You[mtenf;udef;vnf;jzpfEdkifygw,f/ trsm;udef;vnf;jzpfEdkifygw,f/
'gaMumifh Reflexive Pronoun rSm Yourself ESifh Yourselves 2 rsKd; &Sd w,f/
You u ( are, were, do, did , have, had ) ESihf V1 trsm;ude;f eJY oH;k &w,f/
3rd person urdrdESifhwjcm;pDjzpfwJh wwd,emrfpm;udkoHk;ygw,f/
tJ'Demrfpm;rSm ( He, She, It ,They ) wdkYyg0ifygw,f/
He, She, It u( is, was, does, did, has, had ) ESihf V1 tenf;wdYkeYJ wGo
J ;kH ygw,f/
They u( are, were, do, did, have, had) ESihf V1trsm;ude;f awGeYJwo
JG ;kH &ygw,f/
It udak wmh Possessive pronoun rSm its vdYjk yxm;ygw,f/ Possessive Case
ydkifqdkif rIjypum;vHk;vnf; oHk;vdkY r&ygbl;/ It's = It is = xdk[monfjzpfonf

qdw
k yhJ pkH b
H aJ &;vdY&k w,f/ xd[
k monf ydik q
f ikd o
f nf qdw
k yhJ pkH aH &; vdYrk &ygbl;/'gaMumifyh g/

olrudk,fwdkif
if;udk,fwdkif

Pronoun
emrf p m;

Present Past
Present Past
ypKyef(,ck) twdwf(,cif) (,ck)
(,cif)

theirs

themselves

am jzpfonf wasjzpfcJhonf dojyKonf didjyKcJhonf have&Sdonf had&SdcJhonf

olwYkd [m

olwYkd u,
kd w
f ikd f

He, She, It

is jzpfonf wasjzpfcJhonf doesjyKoSf didjyKcJhonf has&Sdonf had&SdcJhonf

I am Ma Ma. = uRefr rrjzpfonf/ Please give me. = aus;Zl;jyKuREkfyfudkay;yg/


This is my book. = 'guREkfyf\pmtkyfjzpfonf/This is mine.= 'guREkfyf[mjzpfonf/
You should read your poem by yourself. oifonfoifu
h Asmudo
k ifu,
kd w
f ikd zf wfoifo
h nf/
He gives his ball-pen to them.= oluolwYu
kd o
k d Ul abmvfyifay;onf/It's his.= 'gol[mjzpfonf/
This is their ball. = 'golwdkY\abmvHk;jzpfonf/This is theirs.= 'golwdkY[mjzpfonf/
That is our school.='guREy
kf w
f Ykd\ausmif;jzpfonf/That is ours.'guREyfk w
f Ykd[mjzpfonf/

Englishpmpum;udk rsm;aomtm;jzifh S+ V + OyHyHkpHtwdkif; a&;&? ajym&onf/


+
t*Fvdyf0guswpfaMumif;a&;&if Subject(uwm;? jyKvkyfol)u pa&;&w,f/
+
uwm;ae&m rSm Noun (emrf)? Pronoun (emrfpm;)? Gerund=Ving(Bud,memrf)?
Phrase (Bud,mryg pum;vH;k pk)eJU Clause (Bud,myg pum;vH;k pk)wdYk dS wwfw,f/
+
0guskawGtrsm;MuD;a&;Mu&rSm emrfwpfckudkxyfvJvJroHk;bJemrftpm;?
Pronoun emrfpm;awGudkoHk;ay;&ygw,f/

Present
(,ck)

Past
(,cif )

We, You, They are jzpfMuoSf werejzpfcJhMu dojyKonf did jyKcJhMu have&SdMu had&SdcJhMuoSf

I am Ma Ma. uRefr rrjzpfonf/ He was an actor. olo&kyfaqmifwa,mufjzpfcJhonf/


He does homework. oltrd pf mudk jyKvyk o
f nf/ They have a car. olwYkdrmS um;wpD;&So
d nf/
She did not read this book. olr 'DpmtkyfudkrzwfcJhyg/ We had arrived. igwdkYa&mufjyD/

I, He, She, It, We, You, They tm;vHk;wdkYonf will rS must(Helping Verb)
rsm;jzifh wGJoHk;Edkifonf/ (Helping Verb)rsm;rSm will --vdrfhrnf, would --cJhvdrfhrnf,
shall --vdrfhrnf, should --cJhvdrfhrnf,should --oifhonf? xdkufonf,can --Edkifonf,
could --Edik cf o
h J nf, may --csi-f -Edik o
f nf, might --csi-f Edik cf o
h J nf? must --&rnf/ ponfrsm;/ Helping Verb rsm;aemufwGif Infinitive Verb (Verb1) rsm;vdkuf&onf/
He will sing.olocD si;f qdv
k rd rhf nf/ I shall go to school. uReaf wmfausmif;oGm;vdrrhf nf/
We should play piano. igwdYk pE,m;wD;oifo
h nf/
She can swim. olra&ul;Edik o
f nf/
They may come. olwYkv
d mcsiv
f mEdik o
f nf/
You must try. oifMudK;pm;&rnf/
+++++++++

17

18

ADJECTIVES (emr0daooersm;)

3. ADJECTIVES OF NUMBER ocsF m emr0d a ooe

yk*dKvf(odkY) t&m0wKwdkY\ta&twGufudkazmfjywJhJ Adjectives awGjzpfygonf/


emrfudktxl;jyKaompum;vHk;? emrftaMumif;ajymaompum;vHk;rsm;udk
emr0daooevdkYac:onf/ Adjective rsm;onf---aom
---aom jzifhqHk;avh&SdMuonf/
a fat man
a live rabbit

a thin man
a dead rabbit

a heavy box
an old book

a. DEFINITE ud e f ; *Pef ; twd t us


Cardinal Number = ( one, two, three, four.......etc)
Ordinal Number = (First, second, third, fourth ........ etc)

a light box
a new book

emr0daooe[m emrfukd aSUrS vnf;txl; jyKEikd o


f nf/ if;udk Premodifier
[kac:onf/ emr0daooeonf emrfudkaemufrS vnf;txl;jyKEdkifonf/ if;udk Post
d ikd o
f nf/
modifier [kac:onf/ ADJECTIVES onfemrf &JUaSUrSma&m aemufrmS yg&SE

b. INDEFINITE wd w d u susrajymEd k i f
All, no, many, few, some, any, certain(aocsmaom), several(rsm;pGmaom),
sundry(trsdK;rsdK;aom)...... ponf/

The beautiful

The hand has five fingers. vufrSmvufacsmif; 5-acsmif;SdMuonff/


Few cats like cold water. tenf;i,faomaMumifwdkYa&at;udkBudKufMuonf/
There are no picture in this book. 'DpmtkyfxJrSmkyfyHkrygbl;/
I have taught many things. uRefawmf[mt&mrsm;pGmoifMum;NyD;cJhygNyD/
The club is open to all and sundry. uvyfonftm;vH;k twGut
f rsKd ;rsKd ;zGio
hf nf/

Premodifier

aSUtxl;jyK

girl
N

sitting in the front desk


Post Modifier

is

my friend.

Verb

aemuftxl;jyK

7 KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
1. PROPER ADJECTIVES trnf j y emr0d a ooe
1. The English language
2. The Mandalay hill
3. The Yangon University
4. The Shwedagon Pagoda

= t*Fvdyfbmompum;/
= rEav;awmif/
= &efukefwuodkvf/
= a&Twd*Hkbk&m;/

Adjectives of Number udk" How

4.

many" ]]b,fESckvJ}} jzifhar;avh&Sdygw,f/

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES T e f j y emr0d a ooe


this, that, these, those, such(uJhodkYaom), another (tjcm;aom),
other (tjcm;aom), yonder ([dkrSmwbufjzpfaom), ponf/

2. ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY yrmPjy emr0d a ooe

b,faTUb,frQSdw,fqdkwmudkazmfjywJh Adj wdkYudkac:onf/

Demonstrative Adjectives udk" Which"

jzifhar;avh&Sdygw,f/

some, any, much, few, little, enough, all ,no, great, half, sufficient, whole,

ponfrsm;/
I ate some rice.
uRefawmfxrif;enf;enf;(wcsdKY)pm;cJhonf/
He showed much patience. ol[mpdwfSnfrIrsm;pGmudkjyonf/
He has little intelligence. olUrSmtodw&m;tenf;i,frQomSdygw,f/
We have enough exercises. uReaf wmfwYr
kd mS tavhtusit
hf vHt
k avmufydS gw,f/
He has lost all his wealth. olUrSmydkifqdkiforQypnf;tm;vHk;qHk;IH;oGm;ygNyD/
Adjectives of quantity ud"k How much" "b,favmufv}J } jzifah r;avh&y
dS gw,f/

5. DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES jzef Y a 0 emr0d a ooe

wpfOD;pD wpfa,mufpDudkazmfjywJhae&mrSmoHk;wJh Adjectives awGyg/


each( ____toD ; oD ; )? (N tenf ; ) each boy a,mufsm;av;toD;oD;/
every( _____wd k i f ; ) (N tenf ; )
every man vlwi
kd ;f /
wGif 1 ___)=
)= ( 2 a,muf wGif 1a,muf)=( 2vHk; wGif 1vHk;)
either ( 2 ___wG
(N tenf ; )
either boy a,mufsm;av;2- a,muf wGif 1-a,muf
neither ( 2- a,muf pvH k ; r[k w f ) (N tenf ; )
neither boy a,mufsm;av;2- a,muf pvHk; r[kwf/ pwmawG/

19

20

6. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES

tar;emr0daooe

What, Which, Whose.... pwJhar;cGef;pum;vHk;rsm;/ (N ESifhwGJoHk;)


What book are you reading now ?

oif,ckbmpmtkyfzwfaewmvJ/
Which boy can answer this question ?

b,fausmif;om;'Dar;cGef;udkajzEdkifovJ/
Whose dog is this ?

'gb,fo\
l acG;vJ/
7. ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY t&nftaoG;jy emr0daooe

vly*k Kd vf(odYk )t&m0wK\t&nftaoG; (quality) udak zmfjyaom Adjective udak c:


onf/
a red flower teDa&mifyef;wyGifh? a big dog acG;MuD;waumif?
a long journey c&D;Snfwck? ponfrsm;/
Mandalay is a large city. rEav;NrdKU[mNrdKUBuD;wpfNrdKUjzpfygw,f/
He is an honest man. ol[mdk;om;ajzmifhrwfolwpfa,mufjzpfygw,f/
white = jzLaom? red = eDaom? blue = jymaom? black = rnf;aom?
yellow = 0gaom? green = pdr;f aom? grey = ta&mifraJG om? brown = ndKaom?
ponfjzifhta&mifrSeforQonf ---aom jzifhqHk;aom Adjective rsm;jzpfMuonf/
happy = aysmf&Tifaom? lazy = ysif;&daom? small = i,faom?big = MuD;aom?
strong = oefrmaom? weak = tm;enf;aom?
ill = aeraumif;aom?sick = zsm;emaom?
glad = 0rf;omaom? sad = 0rf;enf;aom?
fat = 0aom?thin = ydefaom?
beautiful = vSyaom?ugly = kyfqdk;aom? cold = at;aom?hot = ylaom?
light = ayghaom?heavy = av;aom? new = opfaom?old = a[mif;aom?
good = aumif;aom? bad = qdk;aom? tame = ,Ofyg;aom?wild = dik ;f aom?
wise = ynm&Sad om?foolish = rdu
k rf aJ om? quick = jrefaom? slow = aES;aom/
large = us,faom? short = wdkaom?
thin = yg;aom?thick = xlaom?
dry = ajcmufaoGYaom?wet = pdpk w
G af om? deep = eufaom?shallow = wdraf om?
brave = &J&ifah om?coward = owed nf;aom? kind = Muifemaom/ curel = &ufpufaom
bright=awmufyaom?OmPfaumif;aom? dull= tHkUrIdif;aom? OmPfxdkif;aom?
right= rSeu
f efaom?wrong = rSm;,Gi;f aom? narrow = usO;f ajrmif;aom?wide = us,af om?
well = aumif;aom? healthy = use;f rmaom? -----------ponf/

ADJECTIVES emr0d a ooeud k 'D * &D Degree 3rsd K ;cG J E d k i f y gw,f /


if;wdYrk mS Positive Degree (D1), Comparative Degree(D2), Superlative Degree(D3)

[k 3-rsKd;cGJEdkifygw,f/
1. emrfwpfckaSUrS D1Adj jzifhtxl;jyKEdkifygw,f/ D1 + N
2. 0guswGif than yg0ifygu D2Adj jzifhtxl;jyKEdkifygw,f/ D2 + N + than
3. ESpfOD;? ESpfckudktxl;jyK&if than rygaomfvnf; D2 udkomtoHk;jyK&w,f/
He is the elder brother of the two brothers.
4. txl;jyKvdkvQif the yg0ifygu D3Adj udkomtxl;jyK&w,f/ the+ D3Adj + N
Gt
f &yftjrifq
h ;k H aumifav;jzpfonf/
He is the tallest boy in the class. olonftwef;xJwi
This is the oldest pagoda in this town. 'g[m'DjrdKYrmS a&S;tusqH;k apwDjzpfonf/
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

emr0daooersm;EIdif;,SOfjcif;

1.wcsKdU Adjective rsm;udk Positive Degree , Comparative degree ESifh


Superlative degree ajymif;&mwGif " er " ESifh " est " aygif;ay;&ygw,f/

D1
sweet csKdaom
small ao;i,faom
tall
Snfaom
short ykaom
clever vdrmaom
kind Muifemaom
young i,fG,faom
Great BuD;us,faom

D2
sweeter ydkcsKdaom
smaller yd
k i,faom
taller ydkSnfaom
shorter ydkykaom
cleverer ydkvdrmaom
kinder ydkMuifemaom
younger ydki,fG,faom
Greater yd
k BuD;us,af om

D3
sweetest
smallest
tallest
shortest
cleverest
kindest
youngest
Greatest

tcsKdqHk;
ti,fqHk;
tSnfqHk;
tykqHk;
tvdrmqHk;
tMuifemqHk;
ti,fG,fqHk;
tBuD;us,fq;kH

wpfckonf " e " ESifhqHk;aeygu " r " ESifh " st " omaygif;ay;&ygw,f/
D1
D2
D3
brave &J&ifhaom
braver ydk&J&ifhaom
bravest t&J&ifhqHk;
fineao;i,f?aumif;rGeaf om finer
yd
k ao;aom
finest tao;i,fq;k H
white jzLazG;aom
whiter ydkjzLaom
whitest tjzLazG;qHk;
large BuD;rm;aom
larger ydkBuD;rm;aom
largest tBuD;rm;qHk;
able pGrf;Edkifaom
abler ydkpGrf;Edkifaom
ablest twwfpr
G ;f Edik q
f ;kH
noble jrifhjrwfaom
nobler ydkjrifhjrwfaom
noblest tjrifhjrwfqHk;
wise ynmSdaom
wiser ydkynmSdaom
wisest ynmtSdqHk;
wide us,faom
wider yd k us,faom
widest tus,fqHk;
2. Adj

21

22

3.Adjective wpfcw
k iG "f y" qH;k aeygu " y " udjk zKwNf y;D "ier " ESihf " iest " aygif;ay;&ygw,f/

D1
happy aysmfTifaom
easy vG,fulaom
heavy av;vHaom
merry TifjrL;aom
wealthy csrf;omaom

happier
easier
heavier
merrier
wealthier

D2
ydkaysmfTifaom
ydkvG,fulaom
ydkav;vHaom
ydkTifjrL;aom
ydkcsrf;omaom

D3
happiest taysmfTifqHk;
easiest tvG,fulqHk;
heaviest tav;vHqHk;
merriest tTifjrL;qHk;
wealthiest tcsrf;omqHk;

4.Adjective wpfc\
k aemufq;kH pmvH;k aSUwGif Vowel (o&) (a, e, i, o, u) jzpfaeygu?
aemufqHk;pmvHk;udk 22--cgxyfa&;NyD;? " er " ESifh " est "aygif;ay;&ygw,f/
red
big
hot
thin
sad
fat

D1
eDaom
BuD;aom
ylaom
ydefaom^yg;aom
0rf;enf;aom
0aom

D2
redder ydkeDaom
bigger ydkBuD;aom
hotterydkylaom
thinner ydkydef^yg;aom
sadder ydk0rf;enf;aom
fatter
ydk0aom

D3
reddest teDqHk;
biggest tBuD;qHk;
hottest tylqHk;
thinnesttydefqHk;^tyg;qHk;
saddest t0rf;enf;qHk;
fattest t0qHk;

2-oH(odkY) 2-oHxufydkaom Adjective rsm;udkaSUrS more ES i f h most


cHay;NyD; ajymif;&ygw,f/
D1
D2
D3
5.toHxGuf

beautiful vSyaom
difficult cufcJaom
expensiveaps;BuD;
courageousowd& dS

more beautiful ydkvSyaom


more difficult ydkcufcJaom
more expensiveydkaps;BuD;
more courageousyd
k owd dS

most beautiful tvSyqHk;aom


most difficult tcufcJqHk;aom
most expensiveaps;tBuD;qH;k
most courageous owdt
Sq
d ;kH

yHkrrSefEIdif;,SOfcsufemr0daooersm;
D2
D3
better omaumif;aom
best taumif;qHk;aom
worse omqdk;aom?
worst tqdk;qHk;aom

6. Irregular Comparison of Adjective

D1

good aumif;aom
bad qd;k aom?
evil raumif;qdk;0g;jzpfaom? worseydkraumif;qdk;0g;jzpfaom?
worse ydkzsm;aom?
ill zsm;aom
little ao;i,faom
less, lesseromao;aom
much rsm;jym;aom more ydkrsm;jym;aom?
many rsm;jym;aom more ydkrsm;jym;aom?
late aemufusaom
later, latterydkaemufusaom

worstraumif;qdk;0g;tjzpfqHk;aom?
worst tzsm;qHk;aom
least tao;i,fqHk;aom
most trsm;jym;qHk;aom?
most trsm;jym;qHk;aom?
latest, lastaemuftusqHk;

D1
D2
D3
old/eldtoufBuD;aom older, elder ydktouf oldest, eldest touftBuD;
^a[mif;EGr;f aom Bu;D aom^ydk a[mif;EGr;f aom qHk;aom^ta[mif;EGr;f qH;k aom
far a0;uGmaom
farther yd
k a0;uGmaom farthest ta0;uGmqH;k aom
in twGif;usaom
inner yd
k twGi;f usaom innest twGif;tusqHk;aom
up tay:usaom
upper yd
k tay:usaom uppesttay:tusqHk;aom
out tjyifusaom
outter yd
k tjyifusaom outtest tjyiftusqHk;aom
FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES

emr0daooersm;zGJUwnfjzpfay:vmyHk

1. Adjectivesawmf a wmf r sm;rsm;[m Noun uajymif ; vJ v mwmjzpf w ,f /


Noun
Adjective
boyish uav;qefaom
boy uav;
fool tl;
foolish tl;qefaom
care owd
careful owdSdaom
trouble 'ku
troublesome 'kua&mufapEdkifaom
silk ydk;xnf
silken ydk;xnfESifh,ufvkyfxm;aom
gold aT
golden aTa&miftqif;Sdaom
dirt tnpftaMu;
dirty npfywfaom
storm rkefwdkif;
stormy rkefwdkif;xefaom
glory BuD;us,fjcif;
glorious BuD;us,fcef;em;aom
man vl
manly vlESifhqdkifaom
king bk&if
kingly bk&ifESifhywfoufaom
gift vufaqmif
gifted vufaqmifay;xm;aom
2. wcsKd U Adjectives uawmh verb uaeajymif ; vmMuwmyg/
Verb
Adjective
play upm;onf
playful upm;p&mjzpfaom
hope arQmfvifhonf
hopeful arQmfvifhbG,f&mjzpfaom
laugh &,farmonf
laughable &,fp&m aumif;aom
tire yifyef;EGrf;e,fonf
tireless ryifyef;aom? BudK;pm;tm;xkwfaom
talk pum;ajymonf
talkative pum;rsm;aom
cease &yfpaJ ponf
ceaseless&yfpx
J m;aom?qufvufrvkyaf om
move aTUvsm;onf
moveable aTUvsm;Edkifaom
3. wcsKUd Adjectives awGuawmhwjcm; Adjective uaexyfqifah jymif;vmwmjzpfw,f/
Adjective
Adjective
tragic aqG;ajrUbG,faumif;aom tragical taqG;jyZmwfESifhqifaom
whole tjynft
h pHjk zpfaom
wholesomercRwfr,Gi;f tjynft
h pHjk zpfaom
three oHk;ckjzpfaom
threefold oHk;acgufwpfacguf
black rJaom
blackish rJeufaom
white jzLaom
whitish jzLazG;ajymifvufaom
sick zsm;aom
sickly zsm;emwwfaom

23

wcsKdUuawmh ly eJYqHk;ayrJh Adverb r[kwfbJ Adjectives awGjzpfMuw,f/


daily=aeYpOfjzpfaom/ early =apmaom/ elderly =toufMu;D aom/ friendly =&if;ES;D aom/
likely=jzpfwefaom/ lovely =csppf &maumif;aom/ lonely=wud,
k w
f nf;jzpfaom/
monthly =wvwMurd jf zpfaom/ costly = tuket
f usrsm;aom/ hilly=awmifxal om/
4.

Using Adjectives

emr0daooersm;
toH k ; jyKyH k
ooersm;toH

1. Adj + N :long river.&Snaf omjrpf, easy book vG,u


f al ompmtkyf
2. Article + Adj D1 + N :- a tall boy, t&yfSnfaomaumifuav;wa,muf/
an interesting book. pdwy
f g0ifpm;bG,&f mpmwpftyk /f
the beautiful girl tJh'D vSywJh rdef;uav;/
3. Pronoun + Adj D1 + N :- Our big school uREkfyfwdkYausmif;BuD;?
My new car. uRefawmfhum;opf/
4. Number + Adj + N :- Two clever boys vdrr
f maomaumifuav; ESpaf ,muf/
5. am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been + Adjective t"d u 5-rsd K ;&S d j yD /

9. as + Adj/ Adv + as :- Ngapali is as beautiful as Chaungtha.

(vdk-? avmuf-)

24

iyvDurf;ajc[macsmif;omurf;ajcvdkvSyygw,f/
Phuket is as pleasant as Pattaya.

zl;uufuRef;awG[myw,murf;ajcavmufvSyygw,f/
10. as + Adj/ Adv + that :- She speaks as fast that I can't understand it.

(--vGef;wJhtwGuf)

olrpum;ajymwmodyfjrefvGef;wJhtwGufuRefawmfem;rvnfEdkifyg/
He runs as quickly that I can't follow him.

olonfvsifjrefpGmajy;oGm;ojzifhuRefawmfvdkufrrSDyg/
11. so + Adj/ Adv + that :- He is very poor. He cannot buy a house.

(--vGef;vdkY)

olonftifrwefqif;&Jonf/ tdrfwvHk;r0,fEdkifyg/
He is so poor that he cannot buy a house.

olonfqif;&JvG
vGef;vdkYtdrfwvHk;awmifr0,fEdkifacs/
12. too + Adj/ Adv + to :- This sum is too difficult to calculate it.

(--bdkY&efvGef;w,f)

'DykpmonfwGufbdkY&efcufcJvGef;w,f/
(cufcJvGef;aomaMumifhwGufr&acs/)

He walks too quickly to follow him.

olvsijf refpmG avQmufaomaMumifv


h u
kd rf rSaD cs/ (vdu
k rf b
DS YkdjrefveG ;f )

]---aom} rS ]---onf } jzpf /


]---aom} jzifhqHk;avh&Sdaom Adjective rsm;udk ]---onf } jzifh qHk;aom Verb
rsm;jzpfap&ef Verb to be (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) wdkYudk
Adjective rsm;a&SYwGif vdktyfovdkxnfhay;&onf/

13. Adj/ Adv + enough to :- This story is interesting enough to read it.

++ beautiful vSyaom/ is beautiful vSyonf/ She is beautiful. olr vSyonf/


They are beautiful. olwYkd vSyMuonf/ They were beautiful. olwYkd vSycJMh uonf/

14.AdjectiveawGtrsm;MuD;xyfo;kH zdYkv&
kd if atmufygtpDtpOfwckct
k wdik ;f xm;&w,f/
(a) Article + Quantity + Quality + Age+ Colour + Origin + Material+
Noun :- { AQQACOM tpDtpOf}
(u) a,an,the +ta&wGu+f t&nfaoG; +oufwrf; +ta&mif+rlvZpfjrpf +j'yfowK+Noun

6. Linking Verb + Adjective ]---aom} rS ]---onf } jzpf/ Linking Verbrsm;rSm


seem [ef&Sdonf, appear jzpfay:vmonf, look wlonf, feel cHpm;&onf,
smell teHY&onf, taste t&om&Sdonf, sound toHjrnfonf,
become jzpfvmonf, grow MuD;xGm;vmonf, get &onf, go oGm;onf,
turn ajymif;onf/ ponf
seems realistic rSefuef[ef&Sdonf/
appears older than ydktdkvmonf
looks nice aumif;[efwlonf
feels damp pdkpGwfaeonf (cHpm;&onf)
smell beautiful teHYarT;onf
tasted horrible t&omqdk;onf
sounds expensive aps;MuD;oHjrnfonf became angry pdwfqdk;vmonf
grew cold ydkat;vmonf
got hotter and hotter ydkylylvmonf
went(go) white jzLoGm;onf get older tdv
k monf turn grey rD;cd;k a&mifajymif;onf/
7. Adj D2 + than :-

(xuf y d k --)

Maung Maung is taller than Maung Hla.

armifarmifonfarmifvxuf
Sx ufy d k t&yfSnf ygonf/
He is the elder of the two brothers.

olwdkYnDtpfudkESpfa,mufteufolutBuD;aumifjzpfonf/
8. The + Adj D3 :-

(t--qHk;)

The River Nile is the longest river in the world.

Edkif;vfjrpfBuD;onfurmwGiftSnfvsm;qHk;jrpfjzpfonf/

(--bdkYvHkavmufw,f)

'DyHkjyifonfzwf&eftwGufpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;vSygonf/
(zwfbdkY&eftwGufpdwf0ifpm;p&mvHkvHkavmufavmufygonf)

(b)
Article+ Opinion+ Appearance(Size, Shape, Condition) + Age+
Colour + Origin + Material+ Noun :- { AOAACOM tpDtpOf}
(c) a,an,the + txiftjrif+ toGiftjyif(t&G,f? yHkyrf;?tajctae) + oufwrf; +
ta&mif+ rlvZpfjrpf + j'yfowK + Noun
Ex; The two new red brick houses are mine.

teDa&miftkwfwdkufopfBuD;ESpfvHk;uuRefawmhftydkifyg/
The three tall beautiful girls are my friends.

t&yfn
S &f n
S v
f yS onfrh ed ;f cav;3a,mufonfuReaf wmfo
h il ,fcsi;f rsm;jzpfonf/
15
(a) Verb to be (am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been) aemuf w G if
quite (vH;k 0)? very (tvGe)f ? so (tvGe)f ? too (ody)f ? much(tvGe)f ? rather (tawmftwef)? more (yd
k )?
most (tqHk;pGef)? 8-vHk;teuf wckck vdkufjyD;? aemufqHk; Adjective vdkuf&onf/
(b) Verb(d k ; d k ; ) aemuf w G i f r l aemuf q H k ; Adverb omvd k u f & onf /
He is very clever to do it. He walks very quickly.
He is so fast that he wins the race. (Adjective taeeJYoHk;\)
He writes so clearly that his hand writing is the best. (Adverb taeeJYo;kH \)

++++++++

25

26

Verbs (Mud,mrsm;)
Verb

rsm;onf ]]jyKjcif;}}]]jzpfjcif;}} ]]&Sdjcif;}}jy pum;vHk;rsm;jzpfonf/

Verbrsm;udk

y"meBud,mMain Verbs ESitul


hf ulBud,m Helping Verbs [k2-rsK;d cGjJ cm;Edik o
f nf/
t
y"meBud,mrsm;rSm

write a&;onf/, run ajy;onf/, read zwfonf/,


walk vrf;avQmufonf, sing oDcsif;qdkonf/ ponfrsm;/

y"meBud,mMain Verbs rsm;udk


Transitive Verbs tjyKcH ( Object )vd k a omMud , mrsm;ESifh
Intransitive Verbs tjyKcH(Object ) rvdkaomMud,mrsm;[k2-rsKd ;cGMJ uonf/
Transitive Verbs tjyKcH Object vd k a omMud , m Oyrmrsm;/
I saw an elephant. igqifwaumifjrifcJhonf/ (bmjrifovJ tjyKcHvdktyf)
h vJ tjyKcv
H t
kd yf)
We are watching TV. igwdYk wDAMD unfah eMuonf/ (bmMunfo
He speaks English. olt*Fvdyfpum;ajymavh&Sdonf/ (bmajymovJtjyKcHvdk)
Intransitive Verbs tjyKcH Object rvdkaomMud,m Oyrmrsm;/
He has arrived.
olwdkYa&mufjyD;ESifhjyD/ (tjyKcHrvdktyf? rygvJ&/)
Sanda goes to school. pEm ausmif;oGm;avh&o
dS nf/ (tjyKcHrvdt
k yf? rygvJ&/)
She speaks fast. olpum;jrefjrefajymavh&Sdonf/(tjyKcHrvdktyf? rygvJ&/)
Helping Verbs tul B ud , mrsm;rS m

will --vdrfhrnf/, can --Edkifonf/


may --csif--Edkifonf/ am, is, are, does, do, did, has, have, had,ponf/

tcsKdU aomBud,mrsm; (be, do, have) ponfwdkYonf 0gustwGif;toHk;udkvdkuf


y"me Bud,mvnf;jzpfEdkifjyD; tulBud,mvnf;jzpfEdkif\/

]]jzpf? jyK? &Sd }}jy VERB Mud,m 3-rsdK;/


+ jzpf j yMud , m Verb to be :- am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being.

]] jzpfonf? jzpfMuonf? jzpfcJhonf? jzpfcJhMuonf? jzpfaeonf?}} jyMud,m 7-vHk;/


+ jyKjyMud , m Verb to do :-

do, does, did, done, doing.

]] jyKonf? jyKMuonf? jyKcJhonf? jyKcJhMuonf? jyKaeonf?}} jyMud,m 5-vHk;/


+ &S d j yMud , m Verb to have : - has, have, had, having.

]] rSm&So
d nf? rSm&SMd uonf? rSm&Scd o
hJ nf? rSm&Scd MhJ uonf? rSm&Sad eonf?}} jyMud,m 4-vH;k /
Mu Mu has a cat. rlrr
l mS aMumifwaumif&S&Sdonf/ (has udyk "meBud,mtjzpfo;kH /)
Ko Ko has bought a car.udu
k u
kd m;wpD;0,fjyD;jyD/ (has udt
k ulBud,mtjzpfo;kH /)

rsm;ESifh
Verbrsm;udk -ed, -ied aygif;&avh&adS om ykHrSefBud,m=
m=Regular Verbrsm;ES
yHko@meftrSefr&SdaomykykHrrSefBud,m=
m=Irregular Verb rsm;[kcjJGcm;Muao;onf/
&,f*lvm

ykHrSefBud,m= Regular uAsm


# Verb(1) , Verb(2), Verb(3)wJh
Verb Bud,mokH;rsdK;rSm/
# Verb(1) awGukd ed xnfhNyD;
Verb(2), Verb(3) ajymif;&wm/
# e ESifhqHk;wm d omxnfhNyD;
vowel cH&if y udk rjzKwf ed vm/
vowel rcH&if y udkjzKwfvdkU ied vm/
# b , d, g , l, eJU m , n p , t qHk;&if
bb , ... , tt ESpfvHk;xyfNyD; ed qufyg/
# Verb(1) qdkwm ]]--onf}} ]]--avh&Sdonf}}wJh
Verb(2) uawmh ]]--cJhonf}} yg/
# Verb(3) qdk&if ]]--NyD;NyD}} ]]--cJhaom}}
]]--cH&aom}} vnf;od&rSm/
# ykHrSef=regulartjzpfrsm;vkdY
rSwfom;zkdYvnf; rcufyg/

ykHrSefBud,m = regular Verbs rsm;


Infinitive Past tense Past paticiple
Verb(1)
Verb(2)
Verb(3)
wash 0-&Sf washed 0-&Su'f f washed 0-&Su'f f
aq;avQmfonf/ aq;avQmfcJhonf/
aq;NyD;NyD? taq;cH&aom/
invitetifAu
kd fw?f invitedtifAu
kd w
f uf invited tifAu
kd w
f uf
zdwfMum;onf/ zdwfMum;cJhonf/
zdwfMum;NyD;?zdwfMum;cH&aom/
play yav;? played yav;'f ? played yav;'f?
upm;onf/
upm;cJo
h nf/
upm;Ny;D Ny?D upm;cJhaom/
cry cdik ;f
cried cdik ;f 'f cried cdkif;'f
ido
k nf/
idkcJhonf/
idkNyD;NyD? idkcJhaom/
rub &yfbf
rubbed&yfbuf'f rubbed &yfbuf'f
yGwfwdkufonf/ yGwfwdkufcJYonf/
yGwfwdkufNyD;NyD/yGwfwdkufc&H aom

27

ykHrrSefBud,m= IrregularuAsm
uAsm
# 'gayr,fYvnf;]]ykHrSefr[kwf}}onfY
verb Bud,m Irregular/ tD&,f*lvm
# tkyfpk0rf;=( I ) rSm tm;vkH;wlwwf

shed &Su'f ?f

bufwf vuf(wf) cwf(wf) &Syf(wf) zGw(f wf)

bet , let , cut , shut , put rSwfyg/


&D;('f)

&uf('f)

&uf('f)

pyJvif;=pmvH;k aygif;

# read,read,readwGifspellingwlvsuf
toHxGufurwlyg/
# set,cast,cost,hit , hurt,burst,slit vJ
bmeJUwGJwGJ wlMurSm/

ykHrrSefBud,m= Irregular Verbs rsm;


tkyfpk0rf;= Group I tm;vkH;wltkyfpk
bet bufw?f

bet bufw?f

bet bufw?f

avmif;upm;onf avmif;upm;cJhonf avmif;upm;NyD;NyD

let
let
let
vuf(wf) cGifhjyK vuf(wf) cGifhjyKcJh vuf(wf) cGifhjyKNyD;
cut
cut
cut
cwf(wf)

jzwf cwf(wf)

shut
&Syf(xf) ydwf

put
&D;('f)

set

qufwf

&Syf(wf)

zwf

zGw(f wf)

read

&uf('f)

set

xm; qufwf

cwf(wf)

jzwfNyD;

shut
ydwfcJh

put

zGw(f wf) xm;

read

jzwfcJh

shut

&Syf(wf)

ydwfNyD;

put
xm;cJh

zGw(f wf)

read

zwfchJ

&uf('f)

xm;cJh

qufwf

set

28

Group I tm;vkH;wltkyfpk/
shed

reset &DqufwfjyefaoG;? reset --cJh? resetf--NyD;NyD/


forecast zdkuJhpfwf forecast forecast
cefUrSef;onf/
recast &DuJhpfxf
jyefkyv
f ;kH az:onf/

overcast

cefUrSef;cJhonf/

cefUrSef;NyD;NyD/

recast

recast

jyefyk v
f ;kH az:cJ/h

jyefyk v
f ;kH az:NyD;/

overcast overcast

tdkASmuJhpfxf wdrfzHk;onf/ wdrfzHk;cJhonf/ wdrfzHk;NyD;NyD/


wed 0uf'f? 0uf'uf'f wed (or) wed (or)
vufxyfonf/-cJh/-NyD;NyD/ wedded wedded
bpf'f

xm;NyD;

shed

oGeo
f nf? xGuu
f sonf? oGecf ?hJ xGuu
f sc?hJ oGeNf yD;?xGuu
f sNyD;/
spread py&uf'f spread
spread
jzefUBuJonf?jyefUonf/ jzefUBuJcJh?
jzefUBuJNyD;/
outspreadjyefUum; outspread outspread
split pyvpfxf
split
split
cGJonf? jcrf;onf/
cGJcJhonf/ jcrf;cJh? cGJNyD;?jcrf;NyD;/
thrust o&yfpfwf thrust
thrust
wGe;f onf?xd;k oGe;f onf/ wGe;f cJ?h xd;k oGe;f cJ/h wGe;f NyD;xd;k oGe;f NyD;/
upset tyfqufwf upset
upset
arSmufoSf?aESmuf,SufoSf/ arSmufcJh/ ---cJh/ arSmufNyD;?---NyD;/

bpf'f

bd'f

bpf'f

bpf'if;ef

avvHqGJonf/ bid /bade bid/bidden


bid
atmufbpf'f
atmufbpf'f
outbidavvHydkay;onf outbid---cJh/ outbid--NyD;/

zwfNyD;
xm;NyD;

cast

cast

cost

cost

hit
[pfwf xdrSef
hurt

hit
hit
[pfwf xdrSefcJh [pfwf xdrSefNyD;
hurt
hurt

beat bdt
beat bdt beaten bD;wJef
du
k o
f nf?tEdik ,
f o
l nf/ du
k cf h J ? tEdik ,
f cl h J / du
k Nfy;D ? tEdik ,
f Nly;D NyD?-cH&aom

burst

browbeat

uufpw
f -f ypfcs uufpfwf

cast

# tkyfpkxl; = ( II ) rSm Verb1, 2 wlNyD;


Verb 3 eJUawmhrwlyg/
# OyrmrSm beat , beat , beaten
browbeat vJbJrSwfoifhwm/

ypfcs uufpfwf ypfcs

cost

aumhpfwf ukefus aumhpfwf ukefuscJh aumhpfwf ukefusNyD;

[wf

burst

emusOf [wf emusOfcJh

bwfpw
f f aygufuJG

[wf

emusOfNyD;

burst

bwfpw
f f aygufucJG hJ bwfpw
f f aygufujJGy;D

slit
slit (wf) cG-J vS;D cJq
qvpf(wf) cG-J vS;D qvpf
h slit
vpf(wf) cG-J vS;D NyD;

Group II V1 = V2 V3

browbeat browbeaten

bd;k bdt ESyd pf ufonf/ bd;k bdt ESyd pf ufch J bd;k bD;wJef ESyd pf ufc&H aom

29

30

# tkyfpko&D; ( III ) rSm Verb1, 2 rwlbJ


Verb 1, 3 uawmYwlwwfwm/
bDcrf;-rf

bDcdrf;-rf

bDcrf;-rf;

# become,became,becomeeJY

Group IVA iau


begin

began

begun

bD*if;ef tpjyKonf/ bD*ef;ef tpjyKcJh bD*ef; tpjyKNyD;

sing

sang

come,came,come uerlem/

qif;(if) oDqdkonf/

qJif;(if) oDqdkcJh qef;(*f) oDqdkNyD;

&ef;ef &Jif;ef &ef;ef

swim

swam

crf;(rf;) cdrf;(rf) crf;(rf)


tdkASm&ef;

# run,ran,run eJY overrun wdkY


Prefix
a&SUqufwGJvJtwdkif;om/

Group III V1 = V3 V2
become

became

come

came

become

bDcrf;-rf jzpfvmonf/ bDcdrf;-rf jzpfvmcJhonf/ bDcrf;rf; jzpfvmjyD;NyD

come

sung
swum

qGif;(rf;) a&ul;onf/ qGJ(rf;) a&ul;cJh qGrf;(rf)a&ul;NyD;

drink

drank

drunk

'&if(h ifu)f aomufonf/ '&JUef(ifwf) --cJh '&efU(ifuf) --NyD;

ring
&if;

wD;onf/

rang

rung

&Jif;-if wD;cJh

&ef;'f-if wD;NyD;

sank

sunk

sink
qifhcf

ESpfjrKyfonf/ qJihfcf ESpfjrKyfcJh

qefUcf ESpfjrKyfNyD;

crf;(rf;) vmonf/

cdrf;(rf) vmcJhonf/

crf;(rf) vmNyD;jyD/

overcome

overcame

overcome

shrink

welcome

welcame

welcome

spin qyif;
span/spun spun
csnif ifonf?vnfywfonf/ qyJif --cJh
qyef; --NyD;

run

ran

run

tdAk mcrf; ausmv


f eG o
f nf/ tdkAmcdrf;(rf)ausmv
f eG cf Jhonf/ tdkAmcrf; ausmv
f eG Nf yD;jyD
0Jvfcrf;(rf;) BudKqdkonf/ 0Jvfcdrf;(rf) BudKqdkcJhonf/ 0Jvfcrf;(rf) BudKqdkNyD;jyD
&ef;ef

ajy;onf/
&Jif;ef ajy;cJhonf
&ef;ef ajy;NyD;jyD
td
k
A
m&J
i
f
;
ef
overrun tdAk m&ef;ef overran
overrun tdkAmef;ef
tESUH tjym;0ifa&mufonf? tESUH tjym;0ifa&mufcJhonf tESUH tjym;0ifa&mufNyD;jyD
outrun atmuf&ef;ef outran atmuf&Jif;ef outrun
vGeu
f o
J mG ;onf/
vGeu
f o
J mG ;cJhonf
atmuf&ef; vGeu
f o
J mG ;NyD;jyD

# wpfrlxl;wm[mtkyfpkzdk;(IV)aygY
okH;rsdK;pvHk;rwllyg/
# tkyfpk(IVA) iau wJY
i rS a , u ajymif;&wm/
# begin,began,begun, sing,sang,sungeJYU
swim , swam , swum urSwfp&m/
# drink , drank , drunk vJ xkdenf;if;rkdY
ring,rang,rung, sink,sank,sunk wkdUrSwfoifhwm/

shrank

shrunk

&S&ifhcf &SHKU-usHKUonf/ &JS&ifhcf &SHKU-usHKUcJh &S&efhcf &SHKU-usHKUNyD;

spring

sprang

sprung

qy&if; ckefonf/

qyJ&if ckefcJh

qy&ef; ckefNyD;

# tkyfpk (IVB) oen wJY


o udk e ajymif; n jznfYyg/
*dk;
*l;
*kef;(ef)
# grow , grew , grown &,f
Edk; EsL;
Ekef;(ef)
know , knew , known eJY
bvdk;
bvl;
bvHk;(ef)
blow , blew , blown, urSwfp&m/
Id;

SL;

IH;(ef)

# show , shew , shown tjyif


odk;

ol;

okef;(ef)

throw , threw , thrown wdkU


Prefix
a&SUqufwGJvJ rlrajymif;yg/

31

32

Group IVB oen


grow *d;k

Group IVC en qHk;/

grew *l;
grown *ke;f (ef)
k cf ^hJ aygufco
hJ nf pdu
pdu
k o
f nf^aygufonf pdu
k Nf y;D Ny^D aygufNy;D NyD

'du
k (f AS)f armif;ESif 'kw(f AS)f armif;ESifcJh '&pfASif armif;ESifNyD;

know

write

Edk;

odonf

blow
bvdk;

rIwfonf

show
Id;

throw
od;k

knew

EsL; odcJhonf

known

drive

drove
wrote

Ekef;(ef) odNyD;NyD/

dkuf(wf)a&;onf/ kw(f wf)

blew

blown

shake

bvl;rIwfcJhonf

bvH;k (ef)rIwNf yD;NyD

a&SU(uf)vIyfonf/ &Twf(c)

shew/showed shown

take

driven
written
a&;cJh &pfw(J ef) a&;NyD;

shook

shaken
vIyfcJh a&SUuif;(ef)vIyfcJhNyD;

took

xdwf(uf),lonf/ xGw(f uf)f

taken
,lchJ xdwfuJif;(ef) ,lNyD;

jyonf

SL;?Id;('f) jycJhonf IH;(ef) jyNyD;NyD/

ypfonf

ol; ypfcJhonf okef;(ef)ypfNyD;NyD

pyd(cf) pum;ajym pykw(f c)pum;ajymcJh pykwu


f if;(ef)ajymNyD;

overthrew

bite

overthrow

threw

thrown

overthrown

tdkASmodk; jzKwfcsonf tdkASmol; --cJhonf tdAk mS oke;f (ef)--Ny;D

outgrow

outgrew

outgrown

yd
k jrefjrefBuD;xGm;aygufa&mufonf?ausmv
f eG Ef ikd ef if;onf/-cJ?h -NyD;/

overgrow

overgrew

overgrown

h nf?-Ny;D /
tdkASm*d;k ^tdkASm*l;^tdkASm*ke;f (ef)/tvGezf NHG zdK;onf?-cJo

regrow

regrew

regrown

&D*d;k jyefaygufonf/ &D*l; jyefaygufchJ &D*ke;f (ef)--Ny;D Ny/D

foreknow

foreknew

foreknown

az:Edk; BudKodonf

az:EsL; BudKodcJh

az:Eke;f BudKodNyD;NyD

foreshow

foreshew

foreshown

az:I d ; ^az:SL;^az:IH;(ef)? BudKajym?BudKowday;onf/--cJh?-NyD;

# tkyfpk (IVC) drive , drove , driven


write , wrote , written pusufyg/
# shake,shook,shaken; take , took , taken
speak, spoke, spoken qufusufyg/
# bite , bit , bitten , ; choose , chose , chosen
give , gave , given odrSwfyg/
# break , broke , broken ponfrsm;wdkUY
enqHk;aMumif;owdxm;yg/

speak

spoke
bit

bdu
k (f wf)udu
k fonf bpf(wf)

choose

spoken
bitten
udkufcJh bpfwif(ef)udkufNyD;

chose

chosen

csL;(Zf) a&G;cs,f csdKU(pf) a&G;cs,fcJh csKd;Zif(ef)a&G;cs,fNyD;

give

gave

*pf(ASf) ay;onf a*;(ASf)

break

given
ay;cJh *pfAif;(ef) ay;NyD;

broke

broken

b&dw(f cf) csKd;zsuf bkw(f c)csKd;zsufcJh bdk;uef csKd;zsufNyD;


arise tdu
k Zf f arose tdUk Zf arisentdu
k Zf if
jzpfay:vmonf/ jzpfay:vmcJo
h nf/ jzpfay:vmNyD;NyD/

rise dkufpf wufoSf rose dkUZf wufcJh risen&pfZifefwufNyD;/


awaket0dwfcf awoke
awaken
tdyf,mrSEdk;onf/ t0kwfcf --cJhonf/ t0dwfcif;ef --NyD;

wake 0dwcf f Ed;k oSf woke 0kwcf f Ed;k cJh woken0kwu


f if;ef Ed;k Ny;D /
fallazSmvf-vJus fellzSJvf-vJuscJh fallenazmvifef-NyD;
befall jzpfysuf/ befell --cJh/ befallen --NyD;/
get *ufwf &onf/ got a*ghwf &cJ/h gottena*ghwif;ef &NyD;
beget jzpfxGef; begot --cJh/ begotten --NyD;/
forgetzS*ufwf forgotzSa*gUwf forgotten
arhavsmhonf/
forgive zS*pfAf
cGifhvTwfonf/
misgive r,Hk?

arhavsmhcJhonf/

zSa*ghwif; arhavsmhNyD;

forgave

forgiven

zSa*hAf?cGifhvTwfcJhoSf zS*pfAif;ef ? cGifhvTwfNyD;


misgave -cJh misgiven-aom

33

34

forsakepGefypf
freezez&D;Zf at;cJ
hide [du
k 'f f 0Su/f
betake oGm;oSf
mistake

foresook-cJh/
froze zkZd f -cJc/hJ
hid [pf'f 0Sucf /hJ
betook oGm;cJh
mistook

forsaken-NyD;?aom
frozenzk;d Zifef --cJNy;D /
hidden[pf'ifef 0SuNf y;D
betaken oGm;NyD;/
mistaken

Group IVD vowel-bm0gusbrf;tkyfpk


do
'l;

did
jyKvkyfonf 'pf('f)

go

rpfpxdyfcf?rSm;,Gif;? rpfpxGwfcf? --cJh/

rpfpwdwfcrfef? --NyD;/

*dk;

overtakerSDvm overtook -cJh


partake
partook

overtaken-aom/
partaken

eat

went

done
jyKvkyfcJh 'rf;(ef) jyKvkyfNyD;

gone

oGm;onf/ 0if-h (efw)f oGm;cJh *Gef;

ate

eaten

td(wf) pm;onf/ tuf(wf)tdwfpm;cJh tdwif;

pm;NyD;

ygxdwfuJif;ef?-,lNyD;/

wear

stealpwD;vf cd;k oS/f stolepwd;k vf ck;d cJ/h


strivepxdkufAf strovepxkyfAf

retaken jyef,lNyD;/
stolenpwd;k vif;ef; cd;k Ny;D
striven

BudK;pm;onf/

BudK;pm;cJhonf/

px&pfAif;ef?

forebid

forbade

forbidden

0J(,m&f) 0wfqif a0g(&f) 0wfqifchJ a0g(ef) 0wfqifNyD;


bear bJ,m; bore bdk;
born abmef
onf;cH? cHEdkif&nf&Sd? arG;zGm;?toD;oD;onf/ ---cJ/h --NyD;NyD/
bear bJ,m; bore bdk;
borne abmefeD
o,faqmifonf/o,faqmifcJhonf/ o,faqmifNyD;NyD/

az:bpf'f wm;jrpf/
chide csdKuf'f
tjypfwifonf/
ride du
k 'f f pD;oSf

az:bdwf'f wm;jrpfcJh/
chidedcsdKuf'Jh
chid cspf'f
rodekwf'f pD;cJh

az:bpf'if; wm;jrpfcJhaom/
chided csdKuf'Jh
chiddencspf'if;
ridden&pf'if; pD;NyD;

tear

override

overrode

overridden

see

ygxdwfuf? a0pk,l/ ygxGwfuf?a0pk,lcJh


retake jyef,loSf retook --cJh

BudK;pm;NyD;/

tdkASmdkuf'f vTrf;rdk;? tdAk mS kw'f f vrT ;f rd;k cJh

tdkASm&pf'if; ? vTrf;rdk;NyD;

melt t&nfaysmfoSf melted-aysmfcJh/

melted/molten

t&nfaysmfaponf? t&nfaysmfapcJhoSf/
t&nfaysmfaom?t&nfaysmfapNyD;?
tread x&uf'f trod xkwf'f
trodden / trod
eif;rd?eif;avQmufoSf eif;rdcJh?eif;avQmufchJ xkwf'if;/xkwf'f-?eif;avQmufNyD;

# tkyfpk (IVD) (vowel) bm0g usbrf;


'l;

'pf('f) 'rf;(ef)

*dk; 0ifh-(efwf) *Gef;

do, did ,done eJU go ,went ,gone yg/


# eat , ate , eaten, wear-wore-worneUJY
bJ,m;

bdk;

abmef (abmef)

bear-bore-born (borne)rSwfvdkUom/
wJ,m;

wdk;

awmef

vkdif; av; vdef;ef

# tear - tore - torn eJU lie - lay - lain NyD;


qD;

aqm

qD;ef;

see - saw - seen vJod&rSm/

wore

oGm;NyD;

tore

worn

torn

wJ,m;

qkwfNzJ wdk;
qkwfNzJcJh awmef qkwfNzJNyD;
lie vkdif;
lay av;
lain vdef;ef
vJavsmif;onf/ vJavsmif;cJhonf/ vJavsmif;NyD;NyD/

saw

seen

qD;

jrifonf/ aqm jrifcJhonf/ qD;ef; jrifNyD;NyD/


am/is/be was a0ghpf/ been bif;ef
tefrf/tpf/bD/ &So
d nf?jzpfonf/ &Scd o
hJ nf?jzpfco
hJ nf/--NyD;NyD/
are tm
were 0,f been bif;ef
&SdMuonf?jzpfMuonf/ &SdcJMhuonf?jzpfMucJhonf/ --NyD;NyD/

undo tef'l;

undid tef'pf('f)undonetef'ef;/
jznfonf?jzKwfonf/ jznfcJhonf?jzKwfcJhonf/ --NyD;NyD/

outwear atmh0Joutworeatmh0g outworn--0ef;


0wfypfonf/
hew [l;
ckwfvSJydkif;
jzwfonf/

0wfypfcJhonf/
0wfypfNyD;NyD/
hewed[l;'f hewn[lef;
ckwfvSJydkif;jzwfcJh/ ckwfvSJydkif;jzwfNyD;/

35

36

Group IVD vowel-bm0gusbrf;tkyfpk


draw 'a&m

drew 'l;

drawn 'a&mef

qGJ?kef;?o,f?a&;qGJonf qGJ?kef;?o,f?a&;qGJcJh/ --a&;qGJNyD;?-cJhaom/

overdraw

overdrew

overdrawn

aiGydkxkwf?csJUajymonf aiGydkxkwfcJh?csJUajymcJh aiGydkxkwf?csJUajymNyD;

withdraw

withdrew

withdrawn

0wfof'a&m? qkwfcGg/ 0wfof'l;?qkwfcGgcJh 0wfof'a&mef?--NyD;


flyzvdkif;? ysHonf/ flew zSvl; ysHcJh flown zSvkef;ef
vTihf? xGufajy;onf/ vTihfcJh? xGufajy;cJh/ ysHNyD;?vTihfNyD;?-ajy;NyD;
saw aqm?
sawed aqm'f? sawn aqmef?
vTwdkufonf/
vTwdkufcJhonf/
vTwdkufNyD;NyD/
foregovufvTwf/ forewent -cJh/ foregone-NyD;
outgoomoGm;oSf/ outwent -cJh/ outgone-NyD;
undergotef'g*dk; underwent undergone
MuHKawGUcHpm;&onf/ tef'g0ifhefwf --cJh/ tef'g*Gef;?-NyD;?-aom

forbear azSmbJ

forborn azSmbGef forborne-abmefeD

onf;cHonf?a&SmifMuOf?onf;cHcJh?a&SmifMuOfcJh? onf;cHNyD;?a&SmifNyD;?
atmifhtnf;onf/
atmifhtnf;cJh/
atmifhtnf;NyD;/

overbear

overborn

overborne

tdkASmbJ ESdyfuGyfonf/ tdkASmbdk;ef?ESdyfuGyfcJh/ tdkASmabmef?ESdyf-NyD;/


swear qGJ0g;? swore qa0g sworn q0ef;ef
usdefqdkoSf?usdefqJonf usdefqdkcJh? usdefqJcJh/ usdefqdkNyD;?usdefqJNyD;

forswearzSqGJ0g;? forswore

forsworn

usdefqdkrIzsufonf/

zSq0ef; --zsufNyD;/
outdone-'ef;
ydkvkyfcJhaom? -NyD;/
overdone'ef;

zSqa0g --zsufcJh/
outdo/-does
outdidatmh'pf
atmhwf'l;?'wfp
yd
k
v
k
y
f
o
S
f
/
yd
kvkyfcJhonf/
tdkASm'l;?tdkASm'wfpf
overdo/does overdid-'pf'f

aygh
# usef w mawG [ m tk y f p k(V)aygh
Verb 1,2 rwlbJ 2,3 uawmYwlwwfwm/
# bring - brought , buy - bought,
fight - fought - fought eJY
teach - taught , think - thought,
build - built yg/
# find-found, has-had, have-had-had Ny;D
leave-left, meet-met, make-made yg/
# get,say,sell,tell, sit,stand,sleep eJY
spell,strike,win,lie, lead,weep yg/

Group V V1 V2 = V3
bring b&if;if brought

brought

,lvmonf/
buy bdkif;
0,fonf/
fight zdkuf(wf)
wdkufcdkufonf/

ba&mhwf ,lvmcJh b&mhwf ,lvmNyD;

teach
wd(csf)

bought

bought

fought

fought

taught

taught

abmh(wf) 0,fcJh abmh(wf) 0,fNyD;


azSmuf(wf)---cJh/ azSmuf(wf)--NyD;NyD/

oifjy awmh(wf) oifjycJ


oif
think h(ifvf) thought
awG;xifonf/
aomh(vf)---cJh/
bpf
(
vf
'
)
f
build
built bpf(vfw)f
aqmufvyk o
f nf/ aqmufvyk cf o
hJ nf/

awmh(wf)oifjyNyD;

thought

aom(vf)awG;xifNyD;
built bpf(vfw)f
aqmufvyk Nf y;D NyD/

find

found

found

csJUvGef;?ydkvkyf?uRrf;wl;onf csJUvGef;?ydkvkyf?uRrf;wl;cJh csJUvGef;?ydkvkyf?uRrf;wl;NyD;

Adkif;(ef'f)awGU&Sdonf/ azmif;('f) awGU&SdcJh/ azmif;('f) awGU&SdNyD;

redo/redoes redid &D'pf


redone &D'ef;
jyefvkyf?jyefjyifqifoSf/ jyefvkyfcJh?jyeffqifcJh/ jyefvkyfcJhaom? -NyD;/
overeattdkASmtdw overate-tdwf overeaten
rsm;rsm;ydkpm;onf/
rsm;rsm;ydkpm;cJhonf/ rsm;rsm;ydkpm;aom?NyD;
foreseeBudKjrif/ foresaw--cJh/ foreseen-NyD;/

has

had

had

leave

left

left

overseeMunfhMuyfoversaw--cJh/ overseen-NyD;/

[JufZf rSm&Sdonf/ [uf('f) rSm&Scd hJ [uf('f) rSm&SdNyD;


have [Juf-ASf had [uf('f) had [uf('f)
rSm&SdMuonf/
rSm&SdcJhMuonf/
rSm&SdNyDMuNyD/
vd;(AS)f xGucf mG onf/ vuf(zSv
f )fS xGucf mG cJh vuf(zSw
f )f xGucf mG NyD;

37

meet

met

bleed bvd'f

met

aoG;xGufonf/

rd(wf) awGUqHkonf ruf(wf) awGUqHkcJh ruf(wf)awGUqHkNyD;

make

made

made

rdwf(cf) jyKvkyfHkonf rdwf('f) jyKvkyfcJh

get

got

*uf(wf) &onf

a*gh(wf)

say

said

aq;

ajymonf

sell

rdwf('f) jyKvkyfNyD;

got
&cJh

a*gh(wf)

&NyD;

said

quf('f) ajymcJh quf('f) ajymNyD;

sold

sold

qJ(vf) a&mif;onf qdk;(vf'f) a&mif;cJh qdk;(vf'f) a&mif;NyD;

tell

told

told

wJ(vf) ajymonf wdk;(vf'f) ajymcJh wdk;(vf'f) ajymNyD;

sit

sat

sat

qpf(wf) xdkifonf

qJuf(wf) xdkifcJh qJuf(wf) xdkifNyD;

stand

stood

stood

pwJif;(ef'f) &yfonf pwGwf('f) &yfcJh

pwGuf('f) &yfNyD;

sleep

slept

slept

qvd(yf) tdyfonf qvuf(yfwf)tdyfcJh qvuf(yfwf)tdyfNyD;


spell pyJ(vf) spelt pyJ(vfx)f spelt pyJ(vfx)f
pmvH;k aygif;onf
pmvH;k aygif;cJh
pmvH;k aygif;NyD;

strike

struck

struck

pxdkuf(cf) dkufonf px&yf(uf) dkufcJh px&yf(uf) dkufNyD;

win

won

0if;(ef) Edkifonf

0rf;(ef)

lie

lied

won
EdkifcJh

0rf;(ef) Edik Nf yD;

lied

vkdif; vdrfajymonf vkdif;'f vdrfajymcJh vkdif;'f vdrfajymNyD;


lead vd-'f
led vuf'f
led vuf'f
a&SUaqmifonf
a&SUaqmifcJh
a&SUaqmifNyD;?

weep

wept

wept

0dyf idkonf
0ufyfwf idkcJh 0ufyfwf idNk yD;
sweep qGd (yf) swept qGwpf w
f f swept qGwyf w
f f
wHjrufvSnf;onf wHjrufvSnf;cJhonf wHjrufvSnf;NyD;
keep
kept
kept cufyfx
cd-yf odrf;xm;onf cufyfxfodrf;xm;cJh odrf;xm;NyD;

bled bvuf'f bled bvuf'f


aoG;xGucf o
hJ nf/

aoG;xGuNf yD;NyD/

breedb&d'f?arG;jrL/ bredb&uf'f?-cJh bredb&uf'f-NyD;


bind bdik ;f 'f
boundabmif;'f boundabmif;'f
csnfaESmifonf/
csnfaESmifcho
J nf/ csnfaESmifNyD;NyD/
feedzD;('f)auR;arG; fedzuf'fauR;cJh/ fedzuf'f?auR;NyD;

overfeed

overfed

overfed

tdkASmzD;('f)? ydkauR;oSf/ tdkASmzuf'f?ydkauR;cJh tdkASmzuf'f?ydkauR;NyD;


fleezvD; xGufajy; fledzvuf'?f --cJ?h fledzvuf'-f -NyD;

hear[D;,m; Mum;oSf/ heard[m'fh --cJh/ heard[m'fh --Ny;D /


overhear
overheard overheard
trSwfwrJhMum;onf/
hold [d;k vf'f
udik o
f nf?usi;f yonf/
beholdbD[;kd vf'f
owdxm;rdonf/

trSwfwrJhMum;cJh trSwfwrJhMum;NyD;/
held [Jv'f f held [Jv'f f
udik cf ?hJ usi;f ycJh onf/ udik Nf y;D ? usi;f yNy;D /

beheldbd[v
J 'f f beheldbd[v
J 'f f

owdxm;rdcJhonf/ owdxm;rdNyD;NyD/

f ithheld-[Jv'f f
withhold0pf[;kd vf'f withheld-[Jv'f w

qGJ?csKyf?xdef;xm;onf/ qGJ?csKyf?xdef;xm;cJh/ qGJ?csKyf?xdef;xm;NyD;/


layav;?xm;oS?f OoS/f laidavh'?f --?OcJ/h laidavh'?f --?ONyD;/
inlay pDjc,fonf/ inlaid pDjc,fcJh/ inlaid pDjc,fNyD;/
mislaytxm;rSm;? mislaid-rSm;cJh? mislaid-rSm;NyD;?
overlayxyfqifhxm; overlaid --cJ/h overlaid--NyD;/

relayowif;wqifhydkU relaidwqifhydkUcJh/ relaidwqifhydkUNyD;/


misleadrpfvd-'f misledrpfvuf'f misledrpfvuf'f
vrf;rSm;jyonf/
understand

vrf;rSm;jycJhonf/ vrf;rSm;jyNyD;NyD/
understood understood

misunderstand

misunderstood misunderstood

tef'g;pwif;'fem;vnf? tef;'gpwGwfcf--cJh/ tef;'gpwGufcf--Ny;D /

txifvGJonf/
txifvGJcJhonf/ txifvGJaom?-NyD;/
payay;/ vkyfcay;? paidayh'f/-ay;cJh? paidayh'f?-ay;NyD;
ta<u;ay;?qkcsonf/ ta<u;ay;cJh?qkcscJh/a<u;ay;NyD;?qkcsNyD;/
repay jyefay;onf repaidjyefay;cJh repaidjyef--NyD;
slideqvdkuf?avsmwdkuf slidqvpf'?f --cJ/h slidqvpf'?f --NyD;

backslide avsmusonf/ backslid avsmuscJh/ backslid/backsliden


clothe 0wfqifonf/ clothed/clad-cJh clothed/clad-NyD;

gainsay jiif;qdk/ gainsaid -cJ/h


foretella[mudef;xkwf foretold -cJ/h
retelluyfajymoSf retolduyf--cJ/h
wind 0dkif;'f?auGUoSf/ wounda0gif;'f

gainsaid-NyD;/
foretold--NyD;/
retolduyf--NyD;/
wounda0gif;'f

aumufonf?oHywfay;oSf? auGUcJh? aumufcJh?--cJh? auGUNyD;?aumufNyD;?--NyD;?

38

39

abidetbdkuf'f/
opm&SdoSf?apgifhxdef;/
beseechbDqdcsf
wdk;vQdK;awmif;yefoSf/
burn bef;ef?
rD;avmif?rD;IUd zsufq;D ?
cleave uvd-ASf
ESpyf ikd ;f ydik ;f onf/

bend bifh'f?

bent bifhwf bent bifhwf


auG;Gwfonf/
auG;GwfcJhonf/ auG;GwNf yD;?-aom/
unbendajzmifhoSf? unbentajzmifhcJh unbentajzmifhNyD;
blend bvJef'f? blent bvifhwf blent bvifhwf
a&mpyfonf/
a&mpyfcJhonf/
a&mpyfNyD;?-aom/
catch cufcsf caught acgh-wf caught acgh-wf
zrf;qD;oSf?tcsdefrDa&muf/ zrf;qD;cJ?h tcsderf -D -cJ/h zrf;qD;NyD;?tcsderf -D NyD;/

creep c&d-yf

crept c&uf-wf crept c&uf-wf


xGm;oGm;?vQdKU0Suo
f mG ;/ xGm;oGm;cJ?h --oGm;cJ/h xGm;oGm;NyD;?-oGm;NyD;/
deal 'D;vf
dealt 'Jhwf dealt 'Jhwf
a&mif;0,f?qufqHoSf/ a&mif;-cJ?h quf-cJ/h a&mif;-NyD;?quf-NyD;/
misdealzJrSm;a0? misdealt--cJ/h misdealt--NyD;/
dwell'GJ;vf?aexdkif/ dwelt 'GUJ vfw?f cJ/h dwelt'GUJ vfw?f NyD;/
feelzD;vf?cHpm;onf/ feltzJhvfxf cHpm;cJh feltzJhvfxf cHpm;NyD;
lean vD;ef?
leant vefUxf leant vefUxf
rSDaxmif?pdwf,dkifoSf/ rSDaxmifcJh?pdwf,dkifcJh?rSDaxmifNyD;?-,dkifNyD;/
learn vm;ef?
learnt vefUxf learnt vefUxf
avhvmoif,lonf/ avhvmoif,lcJh/ avhvmoif,lNyD;/
lendvif;'f?acs;iSm;/ lentvifw
h ?f -iSm;cJ/h lentvifw
h ?f -iSm;NyD;

cling cvif;?

wG,fuyfxm;?pGJNrJxm;oSf/ -uyfxm;cJh?pGJNrJxm;cJh/ -uyfxm;NyD;?pGNJ rJxm;NyD;/

crow cd;k
MuufzwGefonf/
dig'pf*f?wl;qGonf/
em;vnfonf/
dream '&if;rf

&SmazG?awmif;yefonf? &SmazGchJ?awmif;yefcJh? &SmazGNyD;?awmif;-NyD;?


sendqif;ef'f?ay;ydkY sentqifeh w
f ?f ydUk cJ?h sentqifhefwf?ydkUNyD;
shoot I-wf shot a&Smhwf shot a&Smhwf
ypfonf?ky&f iS f u
kd o
f /fS ypfcJh? kyf&SifdkufcJh/ ypfNyD;? kyf&SifdkufNyD;/
spend pyif;ef'f spent pyifhefwf spent pyifhefwf
oH;k pGo
J nf?jzKef;onf/ oH;k pGcJ ?hJ jzKef;cJ/h
oH;k pGNJ yD;? jzKef;NyD;/
spoil pydGKif;vf spoiltpydGKif;vfwf spoiltpydGKif;vfwf
zsufpD;?w&m;r0ifjzpfapoSf zsufpD;?w&m;r0ifjzpf-cJh? zsufp;D ?w&m;r0ifjzpf-NyD;

oversleep

overslept overslept

qvd-yf?ttdyv
f eG o
f /fS qvuf-yfw?f --cJ/h qvuf-yfw?f --NyD;

crowed /crew crowed /crew


cd;k 'f?cl;/-wGecf /hJ cd;k 'f?cl;/ -wGeNf yD;/
dug'wf*?f wl;qGc/hJ dug'wf*?f wl;qGNyD;/
em;vnfcJhonf/ em;vnfNyD;NyD/
dreamt/-ed dreamt/-ed

tdyfrufruf?pdwful;,Of/ '&Jr'f ?f tdyrf ufc?hJ --cJ/h '&Jr'f ?f tdyrf ufNyD;?--NyD;/

lightvdkufwf?rD;xGef;nd? litvpfww
f ?f -xGe;f ncd ?hJ litvpfww
f ?f -xGe;f nNd yD;?
lose vk-Zf
lost avmhpfwf lost avmhpfwf
loose(adj) vk-Zf
qHk;IH;?xdcdkuf?aoaysmufoSf qHk;IH;?xdcdkuf?ao--cJh/ qH;k I;H ?xdcu
kd ?f ao--NyD;/
meanrD;ef?qdv
k o
kd /fS meantrd-wf?-cJ/h meantrd-wf?NyD;/
overbuildf
overbuilt overbuilt
tdkASmbpfv'f fxyfwifaqmuf? tdkASmbpfvw
f f?xyfwif-cJh/ tdkASmbpfvw
f f xyfwif-NyD;/
rebuildjyefaqmuf rebuiltjyef--cJ/h rebuiltjyef--NyD;/
unbuildNzdKzsufoSf unbuilt NzdK-cJ/h unbuilt NzdK--NyD;/
seek qd-cf
soughtaqmhwf soughtaqmhwf

abidedtbdkuf'Jh abidedtbdkuf'Jh/
/abodetbkwf'f /abodetbkwf'f/
besoughtbDqYkdwf besoughtbDqYkdwf
/beseeched /beseeched
burnt/burned burnt/burned
befUwf?bef;'f?--cJh befUwf?bef;'f?---Ny;D
clove/uvky-f ASf cloven/uvkyAf if;ef
cleft/uvuf-zfwf cleft/ uvuf-zfwf
cleaveduvd-AS'f f cleaved uvd-AS'f f
clung cvef;?
clung cvef;?

vGwfae? acsmifaeaom?
eJYaeaom? rxde;f odr;f aom?
looser ydk acsmifaom,
loosesttacsmifqHk;/
loose(V1) vk-Zf
acsmifaponf/

loosed(V2, V3)
acsmifapcJo
h nf/--jyD;jyD/
loosen(V1) vk-Zif
ajzonf? avQmhonf/

loosened(V2,V3)
ajzcJhonf? ajzjyD;jyD/
avQmhco
hJ nf/ avQmhjyD;jyD/

flingzvif;?vTiyhf pf/ flungzvef;?--cJ/h flung zvef;?--Ny;D /


gird *gh-'f
girded/*gh-'uf'f girded/ *gh-'uf'f
ywfonf?csnfaESmif/ girt*gh-wf?ywfc?hJ -cJ?h girt *gh-wf?ywfNyD;?hang [J-if?
hung [ef;-if hung [ef;-if
wGJvGJcsdwf?BudK;ay;oSf/ wGv
J cJG sw
d cf ?hJ -ay;cJ/h wGv
J cJG sw
d Nf yD;?-ay;NyD;/
overhangtdkASm[Jif overhung-[ef;if overhung--[ef;if
tay:rSrdk;aeonf/ tay:rSrdk;aecJh/ tay:rSrdk;aeaom/
heave [dAfS
heaved/hove heaved/hove
ronf?yifhonf?ajrm uf? [dA'fS ?f [kwAf /fS --cJ/h [dA'fS ?f [kwAf /fS --NyD;/
kneel eD;&,f
knelt/kneeled knelt/kneeled
'l;axmufonf/
eufz?fS eD;&,f'/f -cJ/h eufz?fS eD;&,f'/f --NyD;/
knit epfwf?Zmxdk;oSf/ knitted/ knit cJh/ knitted/knit -NyD;?
leap vdzSf?
leaped/leapt leaped/leapt
ckefonf?ckefausmfoSf/ vdzw
f ?f vufzw
Sf /f cJ/h vdzw
f ?f vufzw
Sf /f -NyD;
mow rd?k jruf&w
d o
f /fS mowed/mown mowed/mown
twHk;tHk;jzpfaponf rd-k 'f?rd-k ef/jruf&w
d cf /hJ rd-k 'f?rd-k ef/-NyD;?aom/
shine
shone/shined shone/shined
Idif;ef awmufyonf/ Ief;ef awmufycJh/ Ie;f ef awmufyNyD;/
outshineatmhIdif;ef outshone
outshone
ydkawmufyonf/ atmufwf eI ;f ef?-cJ/h atmufwf eI ;f ef?--NyD;
sling pvif;?
slung pvef;if slung pvef;if
tm;jzifhvTJypfonf/ tm;jzifhvTJypfcJh/ tm;jzifhvTJypfNyD;/

40

41 smell qrJvf
smelt/smelled smelt/smelled
teHYco
H ?fS owif;pHpk rf;/ qrJvw
f t
f eHYccH ?hJ -cJ/h qrJvw
f ?f -eHYcNH yD;?-NyD;
spill qay;vf spilt / spilled spilt / spilled
t&nfzdwfusonf/ qyvpfwf? qay;vf'f? qyvpfwf? qay;vf'f?
stick pwpfcf?uyfoSf? stuckpwwfc?f -cJ/h stuckpwwfc?f -NyD;
wG,af p?wkwcf RefeYJ x;kd ? wG,-f cJ?h -cReef YJx;kd cJ/h wG,Nf yD;?-cReef YJx;kd NyD;/
wring&if;? npo
f nf/ wrung&ef;if? npcf ?hJ wrung&ef;if?npNf y;D ?
qkyfudkifvdrfonf? qkyfudkifvdrfcJh? npNfy;D aom?--vdrNf yD;?
tm;jzifhvdrfonf/
tm;jzifhvdrfcJhonf/ qkyu
f ikd v
f rd Nf yD;aom/

# V ing = Present paticiple uawmh


Regular, Irregular rcGJjcm;yg/
# V1 = Infinite rSm ing qufNyD;
vG,fvG,f rcuf ajymif;Edkifwm/
# e qHk;&ifom e jzKwfNyD;rS
ingav; qufay;&rSm/
# b ,d, g , l , eJU m , n , p , t qHk;&if
bb , ....., tt ESpfvHk;xyfNyD; ing vm/
# am,is,are,was,were, be..awGaemufrSm
]]-aeonf?aeMuonf? aecJhonf?aecJhMuonf?}}yg/
# Nouna&SUrSmom ]]-aeaom? -aeMuaom?}}
]]-vsuf&Sdaom}} [kod&rSm/
# Bud,memrf Gerund uvJ
ing bJtqHk;owfwm/
# uwm;(subject)tjzpf? uH(object)tjzpftjyif
emrfaygif;(compound noun)tjzpfvJoHk;&rSm/
# bmomjyef&if]] t- ? -jcif;? -rI? }}wJh
]] --aom}} eJU ]]--&ef}} ]]--zdkU}} owdjyKyg/
# tuoifq&m = dancing-teacher
dancing teacher = uaomq&m/
# [dkufzif(hyphen) = wHk;wdk yg? ryg jzifh
t"dyg,frluGJ cGJ&rSm/
Vingqdkwmrsm;vJ vufawGUtoHk;cs jyHK;Muyg/ /
eats td-wfpf? pm;onf/pm;avh&Sdonf/(V1+s)/ tpm;tpm/
eat td-wf?pm;Muonf/pm;avh&SdMuonf/ (V1wpfvHk;wnf;)/
ate tufwf?pm;cJhonf/pm;cJhMuonf/ (V2wpfvHk;wnf;)/
eatentdwif;ef?pm;NyD;NyD/-NyD;MuNyD/-NyD;cJhNyD/(has,have,had+V3)
eaten pm;cJhaom(V3+Noun)/ pm;cH&aom(Vbe+V3)/
eatingtdwif;?pm;aeonf(Vbe+Ving)/t pm;?pm;jcif ;?(Noun)/
eating pm;aeaom?(eating hen)/ pm;&ef? pm;zdkY? (eating-hen)/

SUBJECT(jyKvkyfol)ESifhVERB(Mud,m)wdkYvdkufavsmnDaxG&SdrI/

42

AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECT

rdrdtoHk;jyKrJh VERB Bud,m[m rdrdoHk;wJh Subject jyKvkyfol ESifh Person


yk*dKvf(First rdrd? Second oif? Third ol) vdkufavsmnDaxGrISdbdkYvdktyfygw,f/
1. rdrdtoHk;jyKwJh Subject u Singular number, First person jzpf&if verb
[mvnf; Singular number, First person jzpfbdkYvdkygw,f/
I am here.ig'DrSm&Sdw,f/ I was there.ig[dkrSm&SdcJhw,f/ (am,is,areeJYhere)
D mS &Sw
d ,f/ He was there.ol[rkd mS &Scd w
hJ ,f/ (was,wereeJYthere)
He is here.ol'r
I play football.igabmvH;k upm;avh&w
dS ,f/He plays football.olabmvH;k upm;avh&w
dS ,f/
rdrdtoHk;jyKrJh Subject [m Plural number, Third person jzpfae&if Verb
[mvnf;Plural number, Third person jzpf&ygr,f/
They are here.olwdkY'DrSm&SdMuw,f/ They were there.olwdkY[dkrSm&SdMuw,f/
3. Singular Subject 2ckukd and ESiq
hf ufxm;&if verb [mvnf; Plural Verb jzpf&r,f/
h al tmif[m'DrmS SMd uw,f/
Maung Maung and Thu Aung are here. armifarmifES
EiS fo
eJ YrD;[mrwnfhMu ygbl;/
Fire and water do not agree. a&eJ
4. Singular nouns 2ck[m Same person vlwpfa,mufxnf;udkTef;r,fqdk&if
Verb [mvnf; Singular Verb jzpf&ygw,f/
My friend and boss has come. ighrdwfaqGvkyfief;&SifvmjyD/ (wOD;wnf;)
5.Subject 2ck[m (one idea)woabmwnf;jzpfae&if Singular Verb udo
k ;kH &w,f/
Bead and butter is his only food. aygifrkefYeJYaxmywf[molUtpm;tpmygbJ/
The horse and carriage is at the door. jrif;eJY&xm;[mwHcg;0rSmSdw,f/
Slow and steady wins the race. (aNz;ajz;rSefrSef atmifyGJcH/)
6. Singular subject awGukd (Every--wdik ;f ? Each--ud,
k pf )D wdYk ESiw
hf o
JG ;kH &ifawmh
Verb [mvnf; Singular Verb toHk;jyK&ygr,f/
wdkif;[mtpOfoifhjzpfcJhygNyD/
Every boy and girl was ready.a,mufsm;av;eJYrdef;cav;wd
k d pf [
D mud,
Each day and each hour brings its duty.aeYu,
k d pDpf eD m&Dud
k w
h f m0efu,
kd ,
f al vh&w
d S ,f/
u,
f cck,nor r[kw,f
7. Singular Subject awGukd or odYk r[kw,f either ... or.... wckr[kww
Sq
hf uf&ifVerb[mSingular Verb jzpf&r,f/
neither ...nor....wckrSr[kwf wdYkEi
Ma Ma or Ma Hla is absent today. rr odYkr[kwf rvS 'DaeY rvm? r&S/d (ysuu
f u
G o
f nf/)
Neither he nor I was there.ola&migyg wa,mufrS tJh'DrSmr&Sd/
Either Ma Mya or Ma Hla has stolen the watch.

2.

rjrodkYr[kwfrvSwa,mufa,muf'Dem&Dudkcdk;jyD/

8. Different numbers(rwlwJhta&twGuf) awGukd (or, nor) ESiq


hf ufxm;&ifawmh
Plural Verb oH;k ayawmh/
Moe Aung or his brothers have done this.rd;k atmif odYkr[kwf olYnt
D pfuakd wG'gudv
k yk jf yD;MujyD/
Neither the Headmaster nor the Assistant Master were present.

ausmif;tkyq
f &mBuD; a&mvufaxmufq&mBuD;ygESpaf ,mufteuf wpfa,mufrS r&Scd MhJ uyg/

43

9. Different persons 2ckudk (or, nor) ESifhqufxm;&ifawmhBud,m[moleJYeD;uyf


aewJh Person udkMunfhNyD;xnfhayawmh/

I, who am your friend, will guard your interests.

Either he or I am mistaken.

ol'grSr[kwfuRefawmfESpfa,mufteuf wpfa,mufa,muf awmhrSm;aejyD/


10. Number rwlnw
D hJ subject awGukd and ESiq
hf uf&if verbtrsm; vdu
k &f r,f/
He and I are well. oleJYuRefawmfESpfa,mufvHk;aeaumif;Muygw,f/
My father and I have lived here for five years.

uRefawmftazESifhuRefawmf'DrSm 5-ESpfMum aejyD;ESifhjyD/


11. Collective Noun awGudkwpfpkwpfa0;xJyHkpHESifhoHk;&ifawmh Verb [m
Singular verb jzpf&r,f/ wpfckcsif;qdk&ifawmh Plural verb oHk;aygh/
The Council has chosen its President. aumifpD[mOu|aG;NyD;ESifhNyD/
The fleet has sailed. ppfoabFmpkrsm;[mGufvTifhoGm;MuNyD;NyD/
The commitee was agreed on the main question.

aumfrwD[mt"duuswJhtar;udk oabmwlnDcJhMuygw,f/
12. wcsKdU Noun awGuyHkpHtm;jzifh Plural form jzpfaeayrJht"dyg,ft&
tenf;udef;jzpfae&if Singular verb omoHk;&r,f/ tJ'D Noun awGuawmh
(news,mathematics, Physics, mechanics, politics...) ponfwYk/d (page 5-6 jyefMunf)h
The news is true. owif;[mrSefygw,f/
Physics is an interesting subject.

lyaA'ynm[mpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;wJhbmom&yfwpfckygbJ/
Mathematics is a branch of study in every school.

ocFsmbmom&yf[mausmif;wdkif;rSmoif&wJhbmom&yfwpfckjzpfygw,f/

13. wcsKdU Noun awGuyHkpHtm;jzifh Singular form jzpfaeayrJht"dyg,ft&


trsm;udef;jzpfae&if Plural verb oHk;&r,f/
twelve dozen cost kyats one hundred.

44

16. Subject onf Relative Pronoun = qufpyfemrfpm; (who, whom,


whose, which, that)rsm;jzpfaeygu verb udkqDavQmfatmifjznfhay;&ygr,f/

12-'gZifu1kd 00usyfjzpfygw,f/

14. Plural Noun onf Singular Subject taetxm;jzifhygvmygu verbonf


tenf;udef;jzpf&ygr,f/ Plural Noun jzpfaevdkY Plural verb roHk;rdapESifh/
Each of the sisters is clever. nDrav;wpfa,mufpD[mvdrmMuygw,f/
Each of the boys was given a prize.a,mufsm;av;wpfa,mufpu
D q
kd ak y;w,f/
Neither of the men was very tall. b,folrSt&yftvGefrSnfMuygbl;/
Each of these substances is found in Myanmar. 'Dt&mwdik ;f udjk refrmEdik if rH mS awGU&w,f/
Each one of our house is to let. uRefawmfwdkYrSmiSm;bdkYtdrfwpftdrfpDSdw,f/
The quality of the mangoes was not good. 'Do&ufo;D trsK;d tpm;uraumif;ygbl;/
15. Singular Subject rsm;udk (with, together with,in addition to,as well as,... )
ponfwdkY oHk;NyD;qufxm;vQif verb onf singular verb jzpf&rnf/
The Chief, with all his aide-de-camp, has arrived.tBu;D tuJEiS o
hf Ul tulrsm; a&mufEiS Mhf uNy/D
Justice, as well as mercy, allows it.Oya'a&moem;MuifemrIa&mxdk[mudkcGifhjyKygw,f/

rif;&JUoli,fcsif;jzpfwJhig[m rif;pdwfyg0ifpm;wmawGudk apmifhaSmufrSmyg/


You, who are my friend, should not worry me.

igh&JUoli,fcsif;jzpfwJhrif;[mightwGufryloifhbl;/(ylp&mrvdkbl;)/
He, who is my friend, should stand by me.

igh&JUoli,fcsif;jzpfwJhoYltwGufig&yfwnfyghr,f/ (ig&yfwnfay;oifhw,f)
She is one of the best mothers that have ever lived.

touf&iS cf jhJ yD;orQtarrsm;teuf olr[mtaumif;qH;k tarwa,mufjzpfonf/


+++ Ving (Continuous Tense)

oHk;avhr&SdaomVerb rsm;

+++

(1) Verb of perception (tm&Hk6-yg;Mud,mrsm;)


see jrifonf? awGYonf, hear Mum;onf, smell teHY&onf, taste t&om&So
d nf,
sound toHjrnfonf, notice owdjyKrdonf, recognize rSwfrdonf? ponf/

(2) Verbs of appearing (jzpf y H k a y:Mud , mrsm;)


appear

ay:aygufonf, look wlonf, seem [efSdonf? ponfrsm;/

(3) Verbs of emotion (pdwfvIyf&Sm;Mud,mrsm;)


want tvdkSdonf, wish qESdonf, feel cHpm;&onf, desire awmifhwonf,
like ESpfoufonf, dislike rESpfouf, love cspfcifonf, hate rkef;wD;onf,
hope arQmfvifhonf, refuse jiif;qdkonf, prefer vdkvm;onf, please auseyf?
satisfy auseyfjynfh0onf? surprise tHhMo? astonish tHhtm;oifhaponf?
realize od&e
dS m;vnfoabmaygufonf? doubt ,Hrk mS ;oHo,&So
d nf? ponfrsm;/

(4) Verb of think (tawG ; txif M ud , mrsm;)


think xifjrifonf? pOf;pm;onf, mind *kjyKonf? apmifah &Smufonf/ know odonf/
believe ,HMk unfonf, consider pOf;pm;qifjcifonf? trust ,HMk unfu;kd uG,o
f nf?
rememberowd&onf/forget arhavsmo
h nf/ mean qdv
k o
kd nf/ deny jiif;onf?
understandem;vnfonf/ imagerSe;f qMunfo
h nf? impress txifMuD;aponf?
suppose rSwx
f ifonf, agree oabmwlonf, disagree oabmrwl? ponf/

(5) Verb of have (wnf&SdrIMud,mrsm;)


possess ydkifEdkifonf/ own ydkifqdkifonf/ belong to oufqdkifonf,
contain yg0ifonf/ consist of yg0ifonf? tusHK;0ifonf/ ponf/

+++ rS w f c suf /

/ txufyg Verb rsm;onfwcgw&H t"dyg,fudkvdkuf

Ving (Continuous Tense) jzifh oHk;xm;onfrsm;udkvnf;awGY&wwfonf/


I am thinking of going to America. igtar&dum;udkoGm;bdkYpOf;pm;aew,f/
U Hla is minding the baby. OD;vSuav;xdef;ay;onf/

Im feeling awful.aMumufae/ The cook is tasting the sauce! jrnf;ae/


Shes seeing a doctor this morning.ol'Dreufq&m0efarQmfaeonf/

+++++++++

45

Active and Passive Verb Forms (Tenses )

Tenses (umvrsm;)
1. Simple Present

,ckumv &dk;&dk;/
--avh&Sdonf/--avh&SdMuonf/
(habit tavhtx? truth trSefw&m;?
permanent tjrJudp& yf? For Present
rsufarSmufumvrsm;twGuf tense
udko;kH &onf/)

2. Present Continuous

,ckumv qufvkyf/

--aeonf/ -aeMuonf /
(,ckqufvkyfqufjzpfrsm;? jid K jiif r I r sm;?
rMudKufwmrsm; twGuo
f ;kH &onf/)
3. Present Perfect

,ck jyD;ESifh/

--NyD;ESifhNyD/--NyD;ESifhMuNyD/
(ajymaeaomtcsdef ,ckav;wifjyD;oGm;
onfrsm;?owif;xl;aMujimcsufrsm;
twGuf oHk;Muonf/)

Active Verb Forms(tjyKMud , myH k p H r sm;)


V1wpf v H k ; xJ (V / Vs/ Ves)
Daw Yu teaches English.
(They teach)
dMuonf
oifavh
a':,kt*Fvdyfpmoifavh
avh&Sdonf/
avh&SMu
Mu /
Daw Yu does not teach English. (don't teach)
a':,kt*Fvdyfpmoifavh
avhr&Sdyg/
Does/Doesn't Daw Yu teach English?
a':,kt*Fvdyfpmoifavh
avh&Sdovm;/(avhr&Sdbl;r[kwfvm;/)
Who dose teach English?
b,f o lt*Fvdyfpmoifavh
a vh& S d o vJ /
(Do/Don't they teach English? ) ponf.../
am/is/are + Ving
Daw Yu is teaching English. They are teachinga':,kt*Fvdyfpmoifaeonf
-oifaeMuonf
aeonf/
aeMuonf/
Daw Yu is not teaching English.(--oifrae/)
Is Daw Yu teaching English?(--oifaeovm;)
has/have + Ved/en
Daw Yu has taught English for many years.
oifNyD;ESifhNyD/
a':,kt*FvdyfpmESpfrsm;pGmMumoif
Daw Yu has not taught English for many years.
Has Daw Yu taught English for many years.

4. Present Perfect Continuous has/have + been + Ving


,ck jyD;vJjyD; qufvJvkyfae/ Daw Yu has been teaching English for six years.
--NyD;aeESifhNyD/--NyD;aeESifhMuNyD/ Daw Yu hasn't been teaching English for six years.
(wcsdKYw0ufjyD;jyD? usefwcsdKYw0uf qufvyk f Has Daw Yu been teaching English for six years.
aeygu? vGev
f eG u
f u
J v
J yk af eygu oH;k Muonf/) (r[kw0f gustwGuf notxnf?h ar;cGe;f twGuf Hasa&SYq;kH ydYk ?)
5. Simple Past twdwfumv &dk;&dk;/ V2wpf v H k ; xJ( Ved/en )
Daw Yu/They taught English last year.
--cJhonf/ --cJhMuonf/
rESpu
f a':,k/olwYkdt*Fvyd pf moifcJchJonf/ (oifcJchJMuonf/)
(vGefcJhaomtwdwfumvrS jyKcJh? &SdcJh? jzpfcJh
Daw Yu did not teach English last year.
onfrsm;udk tcsed t
f wdtusjzifo
h ;kH Muonf/)
Did Daw Yu teach English last year? (cJo
h vm;)
was/were
+
Ving
6. Past Continuous
Daw Yu was teaching English this morning.
twd w fumv
umv qufvkyf/
'Dreufa':,kt*FvdyfpmoifaecJ
aecJhonf/
--aecJhonf/ --aecJhMuonf/
Daw Yu wasn't teaching English this morning.
(,cifqufvyk q
f ufjzpfrsm;twGuo
f ;kH &onf/) Was Daw Yu teaching English this morning?
f mvjy;D qH;k / had + Ved/en
7. Past Perfect twdwu
--NyD;cJhNyD/ --NyD;cJhMuNyD/
Daw Yu had taught English since 2005.
jyD;cJhjyD/
2005 uwnf;u a':,kt*Fvdyfpmudk oifay;jyD
(twdwfumvxufydkapmum jyD;qHk;cJh
onfhjzpf&yfrsm;twGufoHk;Muonf/)
(r[kwftwGun
f otxnfh? ar;cGef;qdk OD;qHk; Verb a&SYydkY?)

tjyKES i f h t jyKcH M ud , myH k p H r sm; (umvrsm;)/

46

Passive Verb Forms(tjyKcH M ud , myH k p H r sm;) Key words(aomhcsufpmvHk;rsm;)


am/is/are + Ved/en (-ud k - avh & S d o nf / )
English is taught by Daw Yu.( by them.)
ud ka':,koifavh
t*Fvdyfpmud
a vh& S d o nf /
English is not(isn't) taught by Daw Yu.
ud ka':,koifavh
t*Fvdyfpmud
avhr&Sdyg/
Is English taught by Daw Yu?
ud ka':,koifavh
t*Fvdyfpmud
a vh& S d o vm;/
Does English teach by Daw Yu?
ud ka':,koifavh
t*Fvdyfpmud
a vh& S d o vm;/
What does Daw Yu teach ? a':,kbm
bmoif
avh&SdovJ/
bm avh
am/is/are + being + Ved/en(-ud k - aeonf / )
English is being taught by Daw Yu.
ud k a':,koifaeonf
t*Fvdyfpmud
aeonf/
English is not being taught by Daw Yu.
Is English being taught by Daw Yu.
has/have + been + Ved/en (-ud k - jyD ; ES i f h j yD / )
English has been taught by Daw Yu for many
ud k ESpfrsm;pGmMum a':,koif
years. t*Fvdyfpmud
oifNyD;ESifhNyD/
English has not been taught by Daw Yu for
many years. (ar;cGef;twGuf Has a&SUydkU/)
(Present Perfect Continuous Tense twGuf
Passive Verb Forms (tjyKcHMud,myHkpH)
toHk;r&Sdoavmufenf;onf/)

was/were + Ved/en (-ud k - cJ h o nf / )


English was taught by Daw Yu last year.
u dka':,koifcJhonf/
jyD;cJhaomESpfut*Fvdyfpmu
English wasn't taught by Daw Yu last year.
Was English taught by Daw Yu last year?

usually rsm;aomtm;jzifh/dailyaeYpOf/
sometimes tcgw&H/ often rMumcP
always tjrJwrf;/ neverb,fawmhrSr/
on Sundays we*FaEGaeYrsm;rSm/
every__ --wdik ;f / every day aeYwikd ;f /
seldom jzpfcJ/ hardly &HkrQ? tEdkifEdkif/
once_wcg/once a weekwywfwcg/
twice a month wvESpfcg/ __a__,
see, hear, smell, believe, know,
understand, think, ponfrsm;/
now ,ck/ at present vuf&Sdtck/
at this moment 'DtcdkuftwefY/
Look! Munfhprf;? Munfhprf;/
Listen! em;axmifprf;?em;axmifprf;
Please! aus;Zl;jyK/ Wait! apgifhOD;/
justtckav;wif/ recentlyrMumrDu/
latelyrMumrD u / since uwnf ; u/
fortcsed w
f m(-Mum)/ never b,fawmhrrS /
evertjrJwrf;/ already-ESifhjyD;/
yet-xdao;/ afterjyD;aemuf/ ponfrsm;/
since uwnf;u? wdwdusus/
for u tcsed w
f m? rSwMf uyg/
all wcsed v
f ;kH ? wavQmufv;kH /
up to now tcktxd/
a long time tcsed t
f MumMu;D /
yesterday raeYu/
the day before yesterday waeYu/
during tawmtwGi;f /
last jy;D cJah om/ ago vGecf ahJ om/

was/were + being + Ved/en (-udk-aecJhonf/) when tcsdefrSm/ while pOfwGif/


English was being taught by Daw Yu this morning. as pOfwGif/ whole vHk;vHk;/ this 'D--/
all wcsed v
f ;kH ? wavQmufv;kH /
ud ka ':,koifaecJhonf/
'Dreuft*Fvdyfpmud
(r[kwftwGufwasaemufnotxnfh? ar;cGef;qdk Wasa&SYyYkd ?)
when tcsdefrSm/ before rwdkifrSD/
had + been + Ved/en (-ud k - jyD ; cJ h j yD / )
English had been taught by Daw Yu since 2005. after jyD;aemuf/ as soon as csufcsOf;/
ud k a':,k oifay;jyD
jyD;cJhjyD/
2005 uwnf;u t*Fvdyfpmud

47

48

Tenses (umvrsm;)

ActiveVerb Forms(tjyKMud , myH k p H r sm;)

had +been+Ving
Daw Yu had been teaching English for many
oifNyD;aecJhNyD/
years.
a':,kt*Fvdyfpmudk ESpfrsm;pGmMumoif
--NyD;aecJhNyD/--NyD;aecJhMuNyD/
Daw Yu had been teaching English since 1993.
(,ciftwdwf qufvyk
f jyD;aecJhonfrsm;/) a':,kt*Fvdyfpmudk 1993 uwnf;u oifNyD;aecJhNyD/
8. Past Perfect Continuous

twdwfumvjyD;pD;qufvkyf/

9. Future Tenses

tem*gwfumv/
--vdrfhrnf/ --Muvd r f h r nf /
(aemifvmrnfhtem*gwf jzpfrnfh? jyKrnfh?
&SdrnfhtjzpftysuftaMumif;t&mrsm;twGuf
k ;kH &onf/)
tense udo

--awmhrnf/ --Muawmhrnf/
(rMumawmh r nf h t csd e f tck a v;wif
jzpfrnf?h jyKrnf?h &Srd nft
h jzpftysut
f aMumif;
t&mrsm;twGuf tense udo
k ;kH &onf/
NearFutureTense [kvnf;ac:Muonf/
10. Future Continuous

will / shall + V1
Daw Yu will teach English. (I,We shall---)
a':,kt*Fvdyfpmoif
oif v d r f h r nf /
Daw Yu will not teach English. oifvrd rhf nfr[kw/f
/
Daw Yu won't teach English.
Will Daw Yu teach English? oifvdrfhrvm;/
f m;/
Won't Daw Yu teach English? roifb;l r[kwv
am/is/are + going to + V1
Daw Yu is going to teach English. (I am--)
a':,
oif a wmh r nf /
a':,kt*Fvdyfpmoif
Daw Yu is not going to teach English.
Is Daw Yu going to teach English?
Isn't Daw Yu going to teach English?
will + be + Ving
Daw Yu will be teaching English at this time.
oifaevdrfhrnf/
'Dtcsderf mS a':,kt*Fvyd pf moif

Passive Verb Forms(tjyKcH M ud , myH k p H r sm;) Key words(aomh c suf p mvH k ; rsm;)
Past Perfect Continuous Tense twGuf
Passive Verb Forms toHk;r&Sdoavmufenf;onf/

since uwnf;u/ for tcsed w


f m(-Mum)
all wcsed v
f ;kH ? wavQmufv;kH /
up to now tcktxd/
a long time tcsed t
f MumMu;D /

tomorrow reufzef/
the day after tomorrow obufcg/
to night 'Dn/ when tcsdefrSm/
if tu,f--cJhvQif/
next----, aemuf---/
next year aemufESpf,
like this time 'DvdktcsdefrSm,
am/is/are+going to+be+V3 udkawmhrnf/ coming----, vmrnfh---/
English is going to be taught by Daw Yu.
coming Sunday, vmrnfh we*FaEG/
ud ka':,kk o if a wmh r nf /
t*Fvdyfpmud
soon rMumrD/
English is not going to be taught by Daw Yu.
Is English going to be taught by Daw Yu?
Is English not going to be taught by Daw Yu?

will / shall + be + V3

--udk--vdrfhrnf/
English will be taught by Daw Yu.
ud ka':,kkoifvdrfhrnf/
t*Fvdyfpmud
English will not be taught by Daw Yu.
Will English be taught by Daw Yu?
Will English not be taught by Daw Yu?

Future Continuous Tense twGuf


Passive Verb Forms toHk;r&Sdoavmufenf;onf/

at __ ---rSm/,
at this time 'DtcsdefrSm/

will/shall +have+V3
Daw Yu will have taught English before 10.
oifNyD;vdrfhrnf/
--NyD;vdrfhrnf/--NyD;Muvdrfhrnf/ 10em&Drwdik rf aD ':,kt*Fvyd pf moif

will + have + been + V3 udk-jyD;vdrfhrnf/


English will have been taught by Daw Yu before 10.
ud k a':,k oifNyD
10em&DrwdkifrD t*Fvdyfpmud
NyD;vdrfhrnf/

by tcsdef? tawmtwGif;? aemufqHk;xm;?


--xufaemufrusapbJ/
before rwdkifrSD/

12. Future Perfect Continuous will + have + been + Ving


tem*gwffumv jyD;qHk;qufvkyf/ Daw Yu has been teaching English before 10.
oifNyD
NyD;aevdrfhrnf/
--NyD;aevdrfhrnf/--NyD;aeMuvdrfhrnf/ 10em&DrwdkifrDa':,kt*Fvdyfpmoif

Future Perfect Continuous Tense twGuf


Passive Verb Forms toHk;r&Sdoavmufenf;onf/

by tcsdef? tawmtwGif;? aemufqHk;xm;?


--xufaemufrusapbJ/
before rwdik rf /DS
Modal Verbs rsm;twGuf
Key words(aomhcsufpmvHk;rsm;)
yHkaor&SdbJSentence \ t"dyg,f
t& twdwf Past ? ,ck Present ?
tem*gwfFuturetrsKd ;rsKd ;jzpfEikd o
f nf/

tem*gwfumv
umvquf
umvqufvkyf/

--aevd r f h r nf / --aeMuvd r f h r
11. Future Perfect

tem*gwffumv jyD;qHk;/

13. Modal Verbs

( jzpfEdkifrI? &nf&G,frI? vdktyfrI?


wm0ef,lrI? ponfwdkYudk xkwfaz:
a0zefonfh pdwu
f ;l Idea Mud,mrsm;
jzpfonf/ Present, Past, Future
umvoH;k yg;vH;k twGuo
f ;kH Muonf/
Pure Modals, Semi Modals

ponfjzifh Modal rsm;pGm&Sdonf/)

will --vdrrhf nf/ would --cJv


h rd rhf nf/ shall --vdrrhf nf/
should--cJv
h rd rhf nf/ should --oifo
h nf? xdu
k o
f nf/
can --Edik o
f nf/ could --Edik cf o
hJ nf/ may-csi-f Edik o
f nf/
might -csi-f Edik cf o
hJ nf? must --&rnf/ + V1
oifEikd o
f nf/)
(Daw Yu can teach English.a':,kt*Fvyd pf moif
am/is/are/was/were to --&ef&Sdonf/--&ef&SdcJhonf/
need to--bdYkvo
kd nf/ ought to--bdYkoifhonf/
have/has/had to --&onf/(rvkyfcsifbJvkyf&onf/)
dare to--bdYk&o
J nf/ want to --apcsifonf/
able to --bdYkwwfEdkifonf/ about to --awmhrvdkY/
seem to--bdY[
k ef&o
dS nf/ let (to)--cGijhfyKonf/
used to --avh&cdS o
hJ nf/ make (to) --cdik ;f onf/+ V1
hJ nf/
Daw Yu used to teach English.-t*Fvyd oif
f ifavh&cdS o
o

will, would, shall, should, should,


can, could, may, might, must +

be + V3

English can be taught by DawYu. t*Fvyd pf mudk a':,koif


oifEdkifoSf/
oifEdkifovm;/
Can English betaughtby DawYu? t*Fvyd pf mudk -oif

English cannot be taught by Daw Yu.


English can't be taught by Daw Yu.
am/is/are/was/were to, need to,
ought to, have/has/had to,
dare to, want to, able to, + be + V3
about to, seem to, let (to),
used to, make (to)
English was used to be taught by Daw Yu.
t*Fvdyfpmudk a':,k oifavh&SdcJhonf/

Active ESihf Passive wGif I, we, you,


they, he, she, it wdkYudm
k e, us, you,
them, him, her, it tjyeftvSeaf jymif;&ef?
one, somebody, someone, we,
people, they, no one, nobody,
by one, by somebody, by someone,
by people, none, wdUk udjk zKwf&efvo
kd nf/

49

50

Short form of some Verbs Mud,mwcsdKYwdkY\twdkaumufrsm;


Full forms

I am
he is
You are
He was not
You were not
I do not
They do not
We have
She has
he had
It is
It has
I will
they would
I shall not
they cannot
we must
them
need not
what is

Short forms

I'm
he's
You're
He wasnt
You werent
I dont
They don't
We've
She's
he'd
It's ('tis)
Its
I'll
they'd
I shant
they cant
we mustnt
'em
needn't
what's

It is raining.
It's raining.
She is waiting. She's waiting.

Full forms

Wad da ya wanna do?


kinda = kind of = almost
sorta = sort of = almost again

armf',ftrsdK;rsdK;toHk;taxGaxG/

Short forms

I am not
he is not
You are not
She was not
We were not
She does not
We did not
We have not
She has not
he had not
It was
It has not
I will not
they would not
we should not
they could not
dare not
let us
ought not
what has

I'm not (I ain't)


he's not (he isn't)
You're not (You aren't)
She wasnt
We werent
She doesn't
We didn't
We haven't
She hasn't
hed not (he hadn't)
'twas
It hasnt or Its not
I won't
they wouldn't
we shouldnt
they couldnt
daren't
let's
oughtn't
what's

He has remembered. He's remembered.


He had already gone. He'd already gone.

(ain't udk am not omru is not, are not, have not rsm;twGufygoHk;Edkifonf/)
Short forms and Full forms

USES OF MODALS AND SEMI-MODALS

Examples

What do you want to do? rif;bmvkycf sifv/J


I kinda did my homework.igtdrfpmjyD;vkjyD/
Did you sleep with him? rif;oleYJtyd cf o
hJ vm;/
Sorta kinda... tjynfht0avmufygbJ/
hafta = have to = Quick!
I hafta run, I am late.igaemufusaejyD?ajy;&bD/
musta = must have
I musta been stupid when I decided to learn English.
t*Fvdyfpmoif,lbdkYigqHk;jzwfcJhwm[m igrdkufrJvdkYjzpf&r,f/
wanna = want to
You wanna eat now? rif;tckpm;csifjyDvm;/
wannabe = want to be Madonna wannabes ra'gem;vdjk zpfvo
kd rl sm;? twkc;kd olrsm;/
gotta = got to = have to I gotta go, class is starting. twef;paejyD? igoGm;&jyD/
gonna = going to
Were gonna win today. igwdkY'DaeYEdkifawmhr,f/
dunno = dont know
I dunno, maybe I can stay. igaeEdik rf aeEdik ?f igrodb;l /
wudja = would you Wudja eat with me if I paid for it?igeJYtwlpm;&ifigay;r,f/
cudja = could you Cudja eat with me if you have time?igeJYtwlpm;Edkifrvm;?
Ya = You, cya = see you, Kay = Okay =OK, Ya wanna go eat? rif;pm;csijf yDvm;/
Ill see you later. aemufawmhawGYMuwmaygh/ Okay, cya. I gotta go, kay? aumif;jy?D oGm;jy/D
+++++++++++++

g pG r f ; Ed k i f & nf ABILITY (positive and negative)


present: can + V1,
I can speak English well.
igt*Fvdyfvdkaumif;aumif;ajymEdkifonf/
(,ck) Edkifonf/ EdkifMuonf/
am/is/are able to + V1
I am not able to swim.
(,ck) wwfEdkifonf/ wwfEdkifMuonf/
iga&ul;zdkYrwwfEdkifbl;/ (iga&rul;wwfbl;/)

past: could + V1,

I could speak French perfectly when I was younger.


was able to + V1/ igi,fi,fwHk;u jyifopfvdkvHk;0ajymEdkifcJhonf/(,ckrajymEdkifawmhbl;)
were able to + V1:
He wasnt able to solve the problem.
(,cifu) --EdkifcJhonf/ wwfcJhonf/
ol'Djyemudkrajz&Sif;Edik cf b
hJ l;/
EdkifcJhMuonf/ wwfcJhMuonf/ Fortunately, we were able to speak to the manager.
(,ckawmh rwwfEdkifawmh/) (Fortunately, we could speak to the manager.)
uHaumif;pGmeJY refae*smudk pum;ajymzdkYwwfEdkifcJhonf/(pum;ajymEdkifcJhonf/)

future: will be able to + V1: I will be able to speak English well after the summer.
(aemif)--wwfEdkifvdrfhrnf/

'DaEGjyD;&ifawmh igt*Fvdyfvdkaumif;aumif;ajymEdkifvdrfhrnf/
I wont be able to speak English as well as my brother.
ightpfudkvdkawmh igt*FvdyfvdkajymEdkifvdrfhr,fr[kwfbl;/

g jzpf E d k i f a jc POSSIBILITY (= it is possible to do something now.)


present: can + V1,
We can ski because there is enough snow.
ESi;f awGvv
kH akH vmufavmuf&v
dS YkdigwdYkEiS ;f avsmpD;Edik w
f ,f/
am/is/are able to + V1,:
--Edkifonf/ --EdkifMuonf/
We are able to go shopping
because the shops are open today.
'DaeYaps;qdkifawGzGifhvdkY igwdkYaps;0,fxGufEdkifMuw,f/

future: may / might / could + V1:

I may go to the party. Im not sure.


igygwDyGJudkoGm;csifoGm;Edkifw,f/ igraocsmao;bl;/
It could rain tomorrow. reufzef rdk;&Gmcsif&GmEdkifonf/
If you dont train harder, you might not win." rif;jyif;jyif;ravhusif&ifrif; rEdkifEdkifbl;/
--csif--Edkifonf/

g wm0ef o d j cif ; ES i f h v d k t yf j cif ; OBLIGATION AND NECESSITY


present: must + V1 --&rnf/
I must study.igoif,l&rnf/
has to, have to + V1 --&onf/(rvkyrf jzpf vky&f onf) He has to stay at home.
need to + V1 --bdkYvdktyfonf/
oltdrfrSmae&onf/(raerjzpf)
Does he need to go there?
ol[dkudkoGm;bdkYvdktyfovm;/
past: had to + V1 (rvkyrf jzpf)--cJh&onf/ --cJh&w,f/ I had to study. igoif,lcJh&w,f/
need to + V1 --bdYv
k t
kd yfco
hJ nf/ Did you need to be so cruel?ody&f ufpufbYv
kd t
kd yfco
hJ vm;/
future: will have to + V1
Sooner or later Ill have to tell him the truth.
(rvkyrf jzpf)--&vdrrhf nf/
taES;eJYtjref igolYudk (rajymrjzpf)trSefajym&vdrfhrnf/

51

k yfjcif; LACK OF OBLIGATIONAND UNNECESSITY


g wm0efcsKd YwjhJ cif;ESirhf vdt
present: dont have to + V1
"I dont have to work on Sundays."
we*FaEGaeYrsm;rSm igtvkyfrvkyf&bl;/
r--&bl;/(rvkyrf jzpf vky&f jcif;r&Sd/)
doesnt have to / neednt + V1: You neednt come to work so early.
rif;tvkyfvkyfzdkY apmapmvmp&mrvdk/
r--&bl;/(rvkyrf jzpf vky&f jcif;r&Sd/)/ --p&mrvdktyf/
past : didnt have to + V1
I didnt have to work yesterday. It was a holiday.
raeYu igtvkyfrvkyfcJh&bl;/ &Hk;ydwf&ufjzpfvdkY/
r--cJh&bl;/(rvkyrf jzpf vky&f jcif;r&Sd/)/
future: will not (wont) have to + V1: I wont have to go to work tomorrow.
---&vdrfhr,fr[kwfbl;/(rvkyrf jzpf vky&f jcif;r&Sd/)/
reufzef igtvkyfvkyfzdkYoGm;&vdrfhr,fr[kwfbl;/
g aumufcsucf sjcif; DEDUCTION (= certainty that something is true or impossible.)
must + V1 : ---&rnf/
The lights are on. He must be at home.
cant + V1 : r--Edkif/
rD;awGvif;aew,f/ oltdrfrSm&Sd&rnf/
He cant be English. He has a strong French accent.
olt*FvdyfrjzpfEdkif? olYrSm jyifopfav,lavodrf;&Sdw,f/
g cG i f h j yKjcif ; PERMISSION
asking for awmif;qdk: could /
Could I smoke? igaq;vdyaf omufEikd rf vm;/
may / "May I smoke?igaq;vdyaf omufcsiw
f ,f? aomufEikd rf vm;/
can:
Can I go to the party?
igygwDyGJoGm;Edkifrvm;/
giving ay;tyf: can --Edkifonf/
You can smoke. rif;aq;vdyaf omufEikd w
f ,f/
may -csif-Edkifonf: You may smoke. rif;aq;vdyaf omufcsiaf omufEikd w
f ,f/
g arw m &yf a wmif ; cH j cif ; REQUESTS
can / could / would:
Could / Would you follow me, please?
---Edkifrvm;/
aus;Zl;jyK oif...ighaemufvdkufEdkifrvm;/
Can you open the window?rif;jywif;aygufzGifhay;Edkifrvm;/
g wm;jrpf y d w f y if j cif ; PROHIBITION
mustnt r-&bl; /
You mustnt / cant park here. Its forbidden.
cant r -- Edkifbl;:
rif;'DrSm um;r&yf&bl;/ rif;'DrSm um;r&yfEdkifbl;/ wm;jrpfxm;w,f/
g tMuH a y;jcif ;
should /
ought to:
oifhonf/

ADVICE
You shouldnt smoke so much. rif;aq;vdyt
f rsm;MuD;raomufoifb
h ;l /
Should I tell him? igolYudkajymoifhovm;/
You ought to study. rif;avhvmoif,o
l ifhw,f/

g urf ; vS r f ; jcif ; OFFERS


shall / can / may:
Shall I help you?ig..rif;udkulnD&rvm;/
--&rvm;/ --Edkifrvm;/
Can I help you?ig..rif;udkulnDEdkifrvm;/
--csifw,f? --&rvm;/
May I help you?ig..rif;udkulnDcsifw,f? ulnD&rvm;/
g tMuH j yKjcif ; SUGGESTIONS
can / could: --Edkifonf/ We can / could go to the cinema tonight.
igwdkY 'Dn &kyf&Sif&Hkudk oGm;Edkifw,f/(wa,mufa,mufutMuHjyKjcif;)

52

g twdwftavhtxESifhtajctaePAST HABITS & PAST SITUATIONS


used to / would (past habits): I used to / would read at night (= I usually did it.)
--avh&SdcJhonf(twdwftavhtx)/
ignzufrSmpmzwfavh&SdcJhonf/(rsm;aomtm;jzihfvkyfcJhwm)
I didnt use to / wouldnt go to the cinema. (= I seldom did it.)
ig&kyf&Sif&HkudkoGm;avhr&SdcJhbl;? (oGm;avhr&SdcJh? oGm;cJonf/)
used to (past situations):
I used to have a dog (= I had a dog before.)
--avh&SdcJhonf(twdwftajctae)/
ighrmS acG;waumif&adS vh&cdS o
hJ nf/ (,cifu acG;waumif&cdS o
hJ nf/)

g vkyfEdkifcJh&ufeJYrvkyfcJhwm WAS CAPABLE OF DOING BUT DIDNT DO


could have/ couldnt have + V3 --EdkifcJh&ufom;eJY r--cJhbl;? (r--vkyfcJhbl;)
I could have gone to Oxford University but I preferred Harvard.
igatmufpzdYk 'w
f uov
kd o
f Gm;EdkifcJh&ufom;eJY [m;Awfwuofkvfuo
dk Gm;cJhw,f? (vdkvm;cJhw,f/)
She could have married him but she didnt want to.
olr olYudkvufxyfEdkifcJh&ufom;eJY rvdkvm;cJhbl;? (vufrxyfcJhbl;/)
They could have bought a house here 20 years ago but chose not to.
vGefcJwJhESpf-20 u olwdkY'DrSmtdrfwvHk;0,fEdkifcJh&ufom;eJY r0,fcJhbl;? (0,fzdkYra&G;cs,fcJhbl;/)
I couldnt have managed without you. rif;rygbJigrpDrHrxdef;odrf;EdkifcJhbl;/
I couldnt have got the job. He was always going to appoint his nephew.
igtvkyfr&EdkifcJhbl;/ oltjrJwrf;olYwludkomcefYcJhvdkY/ (oltjrJwrf;olYwludkomcefYawmhrSmrdkY)/
I couldnt have enjoyed myself more. Thank you for a lovely day.
igudk,fwdkifuudk ydkjyD;raysmfEdkifcJhbl;/ cspfp&maeYwaeUtwGufaus;Zl;wifygw,f/
g axmuf c H c suf ? xif r d x if a rQmf v if h c suf ? owd a y;csuf

recommendation, desperate hope, warning


ydkaumif;zdkY&Sdw,f/
had better --yd

You had better take your umbrella with you today.


'DaeYrif;xD;,lomG ;&ifyakd umif;zdYk&w
dS ,f/ ('DaeYrif;eJYtwlrif;xD;udrk if;,lomG ;&ifyakd umif;zdYk&w
dS ,f/)
That bus had better get here soon!
tJh'Dbwfpfum;'Dae&mudkrMumrDa&mufzdkY&Sdw,f/(a&muf&ifydkaumif;r,f)/
You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future!
aemifq&kd if rif;ighuakd jymwJv
h rf;uapgifw
h mrif;twGuyf akd umif;zdYk&w
dS ,f/(rif;ajymwJv
h rf;uapgif&h ifyakd umif;r,f)/
g It is supposed to = it is said to... qd k M uygpd k Y ? rS w f , l & rnf o mjzpf o nf /

Im going to buy his book. Its supposed to be very good.


(odyfaumif;w,fvdkYbJ rSwfjyD;) igolYpmtkyfudk0,fawmhrnf/ odyfaumif;w,fvdkYbq
J dkMuygpdkY/
Why hasnt the teacher come to school today?
She is supposed to be ill. (She is said to be ill.)
q&mrbmaMumifh'DaeYausmif;rvm&ygvdrfh? aeraumif;bl;vdkYbJ(rSwf&rSmbJ/)
(aeraumif;bl;vdkYbJqdkMuygpdkY?)
must have aeavmufjyD/ jyD;jzpf&r,f/ He must have arrived there by now.
tckavmufqdk&if ol[dkudka&mufaeavmufjyD? (a&mufjyD;jzpf&r,f)/
V1 = be + adjective [k,l&rnf/ ( be beautiful = vSyonf/)
Cant help = --raeEdkifawmhbl;/ "Cant Help Falling In Love"
lyrics by Elvis Presley. rcspfbJ raeEdkifawmhbl;/
++++++++

53

54

ADVERB (Bud , m0d a ooe)

(b). Adverbs of time (tcsdefjyBud,m0daooe)

ADVERBS Bud,m0daooe
ooeonf Verb Bud,mtaMumif;udkydkrdk
ay:vGifapatmifaz:jyonf/ Bud,m0daooeonf Bud,mudk txl;jyKaomyk'fjzpfonf/
b,f t csd e f b,f a e&m bmaMumif h b,f v d k v J pojzif h vIyfSm;rIawGudkjyonf/
Bud,m0daooewdkYudk Bud,mwdkY\aemufbufrSmxm;oHk;avhSdMuonf/

Adverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how
long, and how often. tcsed jf yBud,m0daooersm;onf
When ?
1/ (jyKonft
h csed ?f jzpfonft
h csed ?f So
d nft
h csed )f
2/ (jyK? jzpf?f So
d nfh tcsdefwmm))
For how long
3/ (jyK? jzpf?f Sd onft
h Mudr)f How often(Adverbs of Frequency) wdYk ujkd yonf/

Adverbs are words that tell us more about Verbs. Adverbs tell us when, where, why,
how, an action takes place, and the consequences or result of an action.

Adverb 8-rsKd;/
(a). Adverbs of manner (trlt,mjyBud,m0daooe)
trlt,mjyBud,m0daooeonf jyKyHk? jzpfyHk? SdyHk trlt,m udjk ywwfygonf/ trlt,mjy
Bud,m 0daooe[m emr0daooersm;udk _ly aygif;jcif;jzifh&Sdygonf/
Adverbs of Manner tells us how an action takes place.
Many adverbs of Manner are formed by adding __ly to adjectives.
quick vsifjrefaom/ -----> quickly vsifjrefpGm/
# The quick fox vsifjrefaomajracG;/ # run quickly vsifjrefpGmajy;onf/
speedily tSdefjyif;pGm/
interestingly pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm/ hopefully arQmfvifhpGm/
willingly qESdpGm/ lazily ysif;&dpGm/ slowly aES;auG;pGm/reluctantly pdwfrygpGm/
greedily avmbBuD;pGm/ sadly 0rf;enf;pGm/ ponf/
# He speaks English well. olt*Fvdyfpum;aumif;pGmajymEdkifonf/
# She sang happily.olaysmf&TifpGmoDcsif;qdkcJhonf/
# He laughed loudly. olus,favmifpGm&DarmcJhonf/

He swims well. (after the main verb) olaumif


aumif;pGma&ul;avh&Sdonf/(wwfonf/)
He ran rapidly, slowly, quickly. ol vsifpGm? aES;auG;pGm? vsifjrefpGm? ajy;cJhonf/
She spoke softly, loudly, aggressively.olElE;l nHph mG ? us,af vmifpmG ? &efvpkd mG ? ajymcJo
h nf/
He plays the flute beautifully.(after the object) olyavGut
kd oHaumif;pGmrIwaf vh&o
dS nf/
He ate the cake greedily. ol udwfrHkYudkavmbMuD;pGm pm;cJhonf/
BE CAREFUL! Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens.
They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object.
The adverb should not be put between the verb and the object:
+++Adverbs of manner (trlt,mjyBud,m0daooersm;) onf
rsm;aomtm;jzifh main verb \ aemuf? odkYr[kwf object \aemufwGifxm;&onf/
verb ES i f h object Mum;wGif rxm;&/

When: yesterday raeYu/ now ,ck/ today ,aeY/later aemufawmh,


last year jyD;cJhaomESpf,
When adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:
+ She's arriving today. olkr 'DaeY a&mufvdrfhrnf/
+ He arrived yesterday olk raeY u a&mufcJhonf/
# Later Ma Ma ate some fruits. (tcsd e f t "d u xm;)
# Ma Ma later ate some fruits. (pnf ; urf ; wus? &J r S w f w rf ; rsd K ;)
# Ma Ma ate some fruits later. (obm0twd k i f ; ? txl ; jyrI r &S d )
For how long:
for a while cPwmav;, all day waeYvHk;,
not long odyfrMum/ since last year vGefcJhwJhESpfuwnf;u/
for three days, for a week, for several years,
since Monday, since 1997, since the last war.
( since uwnf;u? wdwdusus/ for ucsdefwm? rSwfMuyg/)
For how long adverbs are usually placed at the end of the
sentence:
# She stayed in the U Bas house all day.
# My mother lived in France for a year.
+++++'Yet xd r--ao;/ and still --aewHk;bJ/ +++++
Yet is used in questions and in negative sentences, and
is placed at the end of the sentence or after not.
Have you finished your work yet? (= a simple request )
No, not yet. (= simple negative answer)
They havent met him yet. (= simple negative statement)
Havent you finished yet? (= expressing slight surprise)
Still expresses continuity; it is used in positive sentences and
questions, and is placed before the main verb and after
auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, might, will)

55

I am still hungry.
Are you still here?

She is still waiting for you.


Do you still work for the BBC?

(c). Adverbs of frequency (tMudrftcgta&twGufjyBud,m0daooe)


tMudrftcgta&twGufjyBud,m0daooersm;onf jyKonfhtBudrf? jzpfonfhtBudrf?
SdonfhtBudrftcgudkjyw,f/
always, never, sometimes, usually, after, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly,
annually ESpfpOf, twice, thrice_oHk;cg, tell us about the frequency of actions :
# The committe meets monthly. aumfrwD[mvpOfawGUqHkMuygonf/
Adverbs of Frequency answer the question How often? or How frequently?
They tell us how often somebody does something.Adverbs of frequency
come before the main verb (except the main verb to be):
# We usually go shopping on Saturday.
# I have often done that.
# She is always late.
Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently and usually can also go at
the beginning or end of a sentence:
# Sometimes they come and stay with us. # I play tennis occasionally.
Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with very):
# We see them rarely.
# John eats meat very seldom.
When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is much
stronger.+ +( frequency adverb rsm;udkaemufrSmxm;vQifydkav;eufrI&Sdonf/)++
# She regularly visits France. # She visits France regularly.
Adverbs that can be used in these two positions:
( xdkodkY Verb Mud,ma&SYESifh Sentence0gusaemufwGif xm;oHk;Edkifaom Adverbs rsm;rSm
often, sometimes, usually, frequently, generally, normally,
occasionally, regularly, ponfwdkYjzpfonf/
ORDER OF ADVERBS OF TIME ( ADVERBS OF TIME \tpDtpOf)
If you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence,
use them in this order:
1: how long 2: how often 3: when (think of low)
Example: 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day
2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
1+2+3:
She worked in a hospital (1) for two days
(2) every week (3) last year.
++++++++

(d). Adverb of place (ae&mjyBud 0 d a ooe)

56

tjzpftysufb,frSmjzpfyGm;w,fqdkwmudk Adverb of place uaz:jyygw,f/


ae&mjyBu,
d m0daooersm;[m jyKonfah e&m? jzpfonfah e&m? So
d nfah e&mwdYkujkd yygw,f/
Adverbs of Place tell us where an action takes place.They are usually placed
after the main verb or after the object:
there [dkrSm
up tay:rSm
inside twGif;rSm
here 'DrmS
down atmufrSm
outside tjyifbufrSm
somewhere wae&m&mrSm, everywhere ae&mwdi
k ;f , nowhere wae&m&mrSmrS--r[kw/f
anywhere wae&m&mrSm (r[kwf0gusESifhar;cGef;twGuf), ponf../
He lived here. ol'DrSmaecJhw,f/
Have you seen my pen anywhere ? rif;wpfa,muf ighri
Sw
f u
H w
kd pfae&mrSmawGUcJ&h UJ vm;/
He hid there; ol[dkrSmykef;atmif;cJhonf/ She fell there; olr [dkrSmvdrfhuscJhonf?
They sat there; olwdkY[dkrSmxdkifcJhMuonf/
(0gusrsm;wGif Adverb jzpfwhJ there [m trlt&mjzpfymG ;&mae&mudak z:jyygw,f/)
NOTE: most common adverbs of place rsm;onf Prepositions or
Phrasal Verbs rsm;ESifhqufoG,fcsuf&SdMuonf/
Examples:
about, across, along, around, behind, by,
down, in, off, on, over, round, through, under, up.
-wards jzif h q H k ; aomadverbs of place rsm;/ (___od k Y)
forwards a&SUodYk, backwards aemufoYkd, downwards atmufoYkd, upwardstay:odYk,
inwardstwGi;f odYk, outwards tjyifoYkd, northwardsajrmufoYkd, southwards awmifoYkd,
eastwardsta&SUodYk , westwards, homewards tdrx
f o
J Ykd , onwards a&SUodYk , ponfjzif/h
Example: Cats dont usually walk backwards. The ship sailed westwards.
BE CAREFUL!
Towards is a preposition, not an adverb,
so it is always followed by a noun or a pronoun:
He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.
+ Expressing both movement and location:
ahead a&SU?a&SUodkY,
abroad EdkifiHjcm;?-odkY, overseas yifv,f&yfjcm;?-odkY, uphill awmifay:?-odkY,
downhill awmifatmuf?-odkY, sideways ab;rS?-odkY, indoors tdrfwGif;?-odkY,
outdoors tdrjf yif?-odYk/He lived and worked abroad.The child went indoors.

(e). Adverbs of Degree tqif h j yBud , m0d a ooe


Adverb udkvnf; Adjective emr0daooevdk Degree 3-rsKd;ajymif;Edkifw,f/
Bud,m0daooersm;udk emr0daooersm;uJhodkYyifEIdif;,SOf&mwGifoHk;Edkifygw,f/
S jJG cif;? (more) ESifh (most)udak &SYrS
vH;k csif;Mud,m0daooewGi-f er ESihf est udak emufrw
wGJjcif;jzifh omvGeftqifh Comparative Degree ESifh tomvGefqHk;tqifh
Superlative Degree wdkYudkazmfjyEdkifw,f/

57
Positive Degree
Comparative Degree
Superlative Degree
Best taumif;qH;k aom
Good(Adj)aumif;aom Better ydkaumif;aom
well(Adv) aumif;pGm
Better ydkaumif;pGm
Best tqHk;pGefaumif;pGm
bad(Adj) qdk;aom
worse ydkqdk;aom
worst tqdk;qH;k aom
badly(Adv) qdk;pGm
worse ydkqdk;pGm
worst tqH;k pGefqdk;pGm
slow(Adj) aES;auG;aom slower ydkaES;auG;aom
slowest taES;auG;qH;k aom
slowly(Adv) aES;auG;pGm more slowly ydkaES;auG;pGm most slowly tqHk;pGefaES;auG;pGm
careful(Adj) owdadS om more careful yd
k owdadS om most careful owdtSq
d ;kH aom
more carefully yd
k owdpdS mG
most carefully tqH;k pGeo
f wdpdS mG
carefully(Adv) owdpd S mG
quickest tvsifjrefq;kH aom
quick(Adj) vsifjrefaom quicker ydkvsifjrefaom
quickly(Adv) vsijf refpmG more quickly yd
k vsijf refpmG
most quickly tqH;k pGev
f sijf refpmG
Adverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, an
adjective or another adverb.

Common adverbs of degree: tqif h j yBud 0 d a ooetcsd K U/


Almost vkeD;yg;/, very tvGef/ , nearly vkeD;yg;? eD;eD;/ , quite vHk;0/, just
tckav;wif/ , too vJbJ/, enough vHkavmufpGm/ , hardly tEdkifEdkif/ , scarcely
(puJpvD;) r&Sdoavmuf, completely vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;/, extremely tvGeftuRH/.
Adverbs of degree are usually placed:
1.
before the adjective or adverb they are modifying:
e.g. The water was extremely cold.
2.
before the main verb:
e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished.
Examples:
She doesnt quite know what shell do after university.

They are completely exhausted from the trip.

I am too tired to go out tonight.

He hardly noticed what she was saying.


Enough, very, too
Enough as an adverb meaning to the necessary
degree goes after adjectives and adverbs.
Example:
Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)

He didnt work hard enough. (adverb)


It also goes before nouns, and means as much as is necessary. In this
case it is not an adverb, but a determiner.
Example:
We have enough bread. (determiner)

They dont have enough food. (determiner)


Too as an adverb meaning more than is necessary or
useful goes before adjectives and adverbs,
e.g.
This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
He works too hard. (adverb)

Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by for someone/


something.
Example:
The dress was big enough for me.

Shes not experienced enough for this job.

The coffee was too hot for me.

The dress was too small for her.


We can also use to + infinitive after enough and too with adjectives/
adverb.
Example:
The coffee was too hot to drink.

He didnt work hard enough to pass the exam.

Shes not old enough to get married.

Youre too young to have grandchildren!

58

Very, not very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger.


Example:
The girl was very beautiful. (adjective)

He worked very quickly. (adverb)


If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use
a word of opposite meaning, or not very.
Example:
The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautiful

He worked slowly OR He didnt work very quickly.


BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very.
Very expresses a fact:
Ex:
He speaks very quickly.
Too suggests there is a problem:
Ex;
He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).

Other adverbs like" very"


These common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed in
order of strength, from positive to negative:
extremely tvGeftuRH/
especially xl;xl;jcm;jcm;/particularly txl;ojzifh/, pretty vHk;0? tawmftwef/
rather tawmftoif/h quite vHk;0/ fairly rQwpGm/ rarely MuHKawmifhMuHKcJ? &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;/
Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective or
adverb that follows:
Positive: The teacher was rather nice.
Negative: The film was rather disappointing.
+++++Note on inversion with negative adverbs:
Normally the subject goes before the verb: However, some negative
adverbs can cause an inversion - the order is reversed and
the verb goes before the subject
I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.

59

She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.
Negative inversion is used in writing, not in speaking.
Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be
used like this: , scarcely, hardly, not only .....but also, no sooner
.....than,
not until, under no circumstances

b,fvdktajctaetaMumif;aMumif;rSr&Sd/
(f.) ADVERBS OF CERTAINTY (usdef;aorIjyMud,m0daooersm;)

These adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an


action or event. Common adverbs of certainty:
certainly usdef;ao/definitely twdtus? tcdkiftrm, probably jzpfwefpGm/
undoubtedly oHo,uif;uif;/ , surely usdef;aopGm? aocsmpGm/
Adverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the
verb to be:

He definitely left the house this morning.

He is probably in the park.


With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the
auxiliary and the main verb:

He has certainly forgotten the meeting.

He will probably remember tomorrow.


Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of
the sentence:

Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.


BE CAREFUL! with surely.
When it is placed at the beginning of the sentence, it means
the speaker thinks something is true, but is looking for
confirmation:
Surely youve got a bicycle?

(g.) INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS (tar;Mud , m0d a ooersm;)


What bmvJ, Who b,folvJ, Whom b,folYudkvJ,Whose b,fol\vJ,
Why bmhaMumifhvJ, Where b,fae&mvJ, When b,ftcsdefb,ftcgvJ,
f )I , Whether [kwo
f vm;r[kwv
f m;,How b,fvv
kd ,J
Whichb,f'if;vJ(a&G;cs,r
How many b,fEp
S cf v
k ,J How much b,favmufv,J How oftenb,fEMS urd v
f ,J
How tall b,favmufjrifhovJ,How old b,favmuftjkd yDvJ,How long
b,favmuf&n
S o
f vJ? MumvJ,How far b,favmufa0;a0;vJ, What about
How about b,fvdkvJ(tajctae),How quickly b,favmufjrefjrefvJ,
What is his name? Who are you? To whom was she talking?
Whose is this? Why are you so late? Where is my passport?
When does the train arrive?
Which keys opens this door?
Whether they say it aloud or not? How are you?
How many people are coming to there? How much is that coat?
How often do you go to Pyi? How tall are you? How old are you?
How long is this rever? How long have you been there?
How far is your house? How quickly can you read this?

(h.) RELATIVE ADVERBS (qufoG,frIjyMud,m0daooe


ooe)

60

The following adverbs can be used to join sentences or


clauses. They replace the more formal structure of preposition
+ which in a relative clause:
where, when, why
Thats the restaurant where we met for the first time.(where
= at/in which) igwdkYOD;qHk;awGYcJhMu wJ h a e&m 'Dpm;aomufqdkifaygh/
I remember the day when we first met.(when = on which)
There was a very hot summer the year when he was born.
olUudkarG;cJh wJ h t csd e f tvGefylwJhaEG&moD wckaygh/(when = in which)
Tell me (the reason) why you were late home.
rif;tdrfjyefaemufus& wJhtaMumif;&if; ighudkajymjyprf;/
(why = for which,
but could replace the whole phrase the reason for which)
Adverb wcsKd U awG [ m Adjective
Adjective emr0d a ooe
hard rmaom? cufcJaom
straight ajzmifhwef;aom
deep eufaom
high jrifr
h m;aom
low edrahf om
fast vsifjrefaom
tight wif;Muyfaom
slow aES;auG;aom
late aemufusaom
early apmaom
far a0;uGmaom
much rsm;jym;aom
little ao;i,faom
near eD;uyfaom

Adverbtjzpf r S m ygoH k ; vd k Y & /


Adverb Bud , m0d a ooe
hard cJ,Of;pGm? BudK;pm;pGm
straight ajzmifhwef;pGm
deep eufpmG
high jrifr
h m;pGm
low edrp
hf mG
fast vsifjrefpGm
tight wif;MuyfpGm
slow aES;auG;pGm
late aemufuspGm
early apmpGm
far a0;uGmpGm
much rsm;jym;pGm
little ao;i,fpGm
near eD;uyfpmG

tjzpfa&m

#Adverb and Adjective Confusions.

Bud,m0daooeESifhemr0daooea&maxG;rI/

Bu,
d m0daooetrsm;rSm emr0daooerSymG ; vmojzifh Bu,
d m0daooeESihf emr0daooe
wdkYudka&maxGpGm rSm;oHk;rdwwfw,f/
It is a hard life. (Adj) tifrwefyifyef;aomb0jzpfonf/
He works hard. (Adv) oltvkyfBudK;pm;vkyfonf/
I usually get the early train. (Adj) uRefawmfeHeufapmapmpD;rD;&xm;rSDonf/
She always gets there early. (Adv) olrxdkae&mudkapmpD;pGma&mufonf/

61

62

The boy's behaviour was good. (Adj taeeJYoHk;jyxm;\)


The boy behaved well.
(Adv taeeJYoHk;jyxm;\)

Prepositions 0dbwfrsm;uAsm

good and well wGif good rSmemr0daooejzpfw,f/ Well onf wpfpHkwpffOD;\

usef;rma&; ESiyhf wfoufazmfjyaomfemr0daooejzpfjyD; well onftrlt&mudak zmfjy


onfhtcg Bud,m0daooe jzpfw,f/

Good is an adjective :
Well is an adjective when it tells us about someone's health :
My mother is well now. I am well now.
Well is an adverb in sentences where it tells us more about the action
done: Thuzar sings well.

That shelf is too high for me. (adj) xdp


k if[muReaf wmftwGujf rifv
h eG ;f ygw,f/
The plane flew high in the sky. (adv) av,mOfaumif;uifrmS jrifp
h mG yso
H mG ;cJo
h nf/
She hid behind a low wall. (adj) olronfer
d ahf omeH&w
H pfcrk mS yke;f atmif;cJo
h nf/
He bowed low, then turned and walked away. (adv)

olO;D TwNf yD;awmhvn


S Nhf yD;jyefomG ;cJyh gw,f/

#
#
#

aemufu Noun wdkY Pronoun wdkYvdkufwJhtwGuf no udk adjective


vdkYrSwf,l&r,f/ not [mtjiif;0gusawGrSm Bud,mawGeJYwGJoHk;vdkY Adverb
Bud,m0daooevdkYrSwf,l&yg r,f/

No (Adj) :
Not (Adv) :

# no

I have no time. I have no money.


I do not go to school today.

Adverbs rsm;\ tpD t pOf ( PMTR )

P = Adverb of place (ae&mjyyk'f)


M = Adverb of manner (trlt&mjyyk'f)
T = Adverb of time (tcsdefjyyk'f)
R = Adverb of reason (taMumif;&if;jyyk'f)

if;wdkYudk place, manner, time, reason tqifhqifhoHk;ay;&ygw,f/

I went to Bangkok by plane yesterday to attend the meeting.


P
M
T
R

uRefawmf tpnf;ta0;yGJwufa&muf&ef befaumufudk av,mOfysHeJY


(taMumif;&if;jyyk'f)
(ae&mjyyk'f) (trlt&mjyyk'f)
raeYu xGucf yhJ gonf/
(tcsed jf yyk')f

+++++++++

Preposition = 0dbwfonf
tcsdef ae&m eJY enf;[ef OD;wnf/
ydkifqdkifjcif;jyrnf noun ESifhwGJvsuf
rsm;aomtm;jzifh noun ta&SUbuf/
csdefem&D at ]] ? rSm? wGif? 0,f}}rarheJY
aeY eJY &uf ]]rSm}} on udkxnfh/
ESpf eJY v ]]wGif}} in oHk;vQif
]usOf;}vQifat, ]us,f}vQifin, ]] ESifh wGif}}/
]]tay:rSm}}xdaevQifon, farmxJrSm on
jrpf x J r S m on, council rS m vJ on /
]]tay:rSm}} xdraevQifabove yg
]]jzwfausmf}}wJhtcg over /
]]omrefxufom}} above aemf
over qdkwm]]awmfawmfav;ausmf}}/
]]NyD;qHk;oGm;}}aomf over
above all u]]ta&;BuD;qHk;}}yg/
]]ESpfckMum;}}wGif between xm;
among qdk&if]]trsm;Mum;}}/
like qdkonfum; ]]ouJhodkY}}
]]vdk}} ]]wlaom}} [krSwfMupdkY/
]]uJhodkY}} ]]tjzpf}} ]]vdk}} ]]enf;wl}}
as ]]taejzifh}} ]]wrQ}},l/
at to, as for ]]ESifhpyfvsOf;}}
as if, as though ]]ouJhodkY}}rarh/

Prepositions examples Oyrmrsm;


at---->
on---->

at 9 , at 9 oclock, 9rSm? 9em&DrSm? 9em&Dxdk;rSm/


on Friday, on July 19, aomMumaeYrmS ? *sLvdik v
f 19&ufrmS /
th
on 27 June,1880. 1880? *Refv?27&ufaeYrSm/

63

in---->
at, in---->
on ---->

in 1964,in July,in Alone1964wGi?f *sLvdik v


f wGi?f tvHk /
at Yangon inMyanmar. jrefrmjynfwiG &f efuek Nf rKdU?
on the table, on the farm,pm;yGJay:rSm?,mxJrSm/
on the river, on the council, jrpfxJrSm?aumifpDrSm/
above, over---->
above our head uReaf wmfwUkd acgif;ay:rSm/
over the city, NrdKUawmfudkjzwfausmf/
above the average, omrefxufom?yQrf;rQxufom/
over 40, 40ausmf? 40awmfawmfav;ausmf/
The school is over. ausmif;NyD;oGm;NyD/(qif;oGm;NyD/)
above all ---->
He is strong, brave and above all, honest.
olonf oefrmonf? &J&ifo
h nf? NyD;awmh ta&;tBuD;qH;k rSm d;k om;onf/
between ---->
between the two chairs,xdkifcHkESpfckMum;/
among ---->
among the three sisters nDtpfroH;k a,mufMum;/
like---->
like a horse,jrif;wpfaumifuo
hJ Ukd ?--vd?k --ESiw
hf al om/
He swims like a fish.ig;wpfaumifuJhodkUola&ul;onf/
as---->
as a woman, trsdK;orD;BuD;wpfa,mufuo
hJ Ukd ?-enf;wl/
as a teacher, q&mwpfa,muftjzpf?---vdk/
as a gift, as a brick, vufaqmiftjzpf? tkwfcJwrQ/
as representative, udk,fpvS,ftjzpf/
as for/as to ----> to as for/as to the stolen jewels,
tcd;k cH&aom&wemrsm;ESiphf yfvsO;f

]]txJodkY}} awGU into aygh


]]tjzpfodkY}} vJ into aemh/
with uawmhjzihf ]]ESifhtwl}}
]]ESifh}} eJY ]]jzihf}} vJxdkYtwl/
without udkrl noun eJYwGJ
Ving xnfh ]] r uGufvyf bJ}}/
]]txJjzwf}} azmufxGufvQif
]]rSwpfqifh}} vJ through [kyif/

]]uefYvefYjzwf}} &if across wJh


]]rS}} from, to ]]odkY}} rarheJY/
to &JUenf;[ef ]] &ef?bdkY?bG,f?&m?}}
get to]]a&mufonf}}next to ]]tem;rSm}}/
up qdkwm[m ]]tay:odkY}}
]] NyD;qHk;onfhwdkif }} odvdkufpdkY/
]]atmufoYk}d } odMu down, under yJ/
behind ]]aemufrSm}} ]]axmufyHh}}vJ/
since ]]aMumif}h } ]]uwnf;u}}wdwu
d sus
for u ]]csdefwm}} rSwfom;Mu/
for ]]twGuf}} u]]odkY}}?]]tvdkYiSm}}?]]udk}}
]]-vifhupm;}} vJ oHk;Edkifovdk/
during qdkwm ]]tawmtwGif;}}
near ]]eD;em;}}? ]]csOf;uyf}} &if;/

into ---->

into the room,tcef;xJodkU/


into solid tcJtjzpfodkU/
with ----> with her aunt, olrta':ESit
hf wl/
with caution, owd&jdS cif;ESi/hf owd&jdS cif;jzif/h
d /J
without ---->
without money, aiGr&Sb
without playing, r upm; b J/
through ---->
through the window,jyLwif;aygufrjS zwf/
through Ma Ma, rrrSwqif/h
across ---->
across the river,jrpfudk(uefYvefU)jzwf/
from__to ---->
from birth to death arG;jcif;rSaojcif;odUk /
to ---->
to go,to play, to eat, oGm;&ef?upm;bdkY?pm;bG,f/
get to home, tdrfodkUa&mufonf/
next to me, igh(uREkfyf)tem;rSm/
up ---->
They went up the hill.olwUkd awmifay:odUk oGm;cJ/h
He ate up the food.oltpm;udkukefatmifpm;cJhonf/
down ----> down the stairs, avSum;atmufodkU/
under ----> under five, 5atmuf?5ESpaf tmuf/

64

65

behind ---->

behind the tree, opfyifaemufrSm/


behind Yangon aemufrmS &efuek /f
She's right behind us.
wdUk aemufrmS olrwu,f&o
dS nf?axmufyahH eonf/
since ----> since 1952,1952uwnf;u/
for ---->
for five years,5ESpfwmMum/ for you, oifhtwGuf/
for K 50, usyf50tvdkUiSm/
He left Yangon for Pathein,
olonf&efuek rf yS o
k rd u
f (kd odUk )xGucf mG oGm;onf/
For all his wealth, he didnt seem happy.
pnf;pdrOf pm&Sv
d ifu
h pm;olaysm[
f efr&S/d
during ---->
during the war ppftawmtwGif;/
near ---->
near the market aps;teD;tem;/

]]odyfeD;uyfjcif;}} &SdaevQif
by udkoHk;rS rSefr,fxif/
ntcsdef ]]wGif}} by night wJh
]]tm;jzihf}} ]]ausmf}} ]]ab;wGif}} uGJY/
in front of xnfh ]]ta&SUrSm}}
Noun eJYwJGNyD;oHk;Edkifwm/
before qkdwm ]]ta&SYrSm}} bJ
]]rwdkifrD}} vJ before qGJ/
after eJYvJwGJoHk;Edkifonf
]] NyD;aemuf}} ]]aemufodkY}} V ing /
]]tjyifodkY}} xGufNyD out, eJY out of
out of 60 = 60 ]]teuf}} aygh
about twGufuawmh]]taMumif;}}bJ
]]cefY? eD;yg;}}vJnumber+nouneJYwGJ/
]]awmhrnfhqJqJ}} ]][dk[dk'D'D}}
about ]]avmuf}} udkoHk;&rnf/

]]ywfywfvnf}} onfaround
adverb tjzpf ]]teD;tem;w0dkuf}}/
round udkBudKuf&if wu,fbJrarh
]]ywfywfvnf}} eJY ]]vSnfhywf}}/
cPcPawGYEkdifwm
round about u]]0ef;usifavmuf}}yg/
]]txJrSm}} udk inside oHk;
]]twGif;bufem;}} vJ inside oHk;/

by ---->

66

by the blackboard, oifyek ;f tem;wGi/f


by 19601960em;wGi/f by FridayaomMumaeUwGi/f
by night ntcsdefwGif/ by train &xm;jzifh?
by the post office pmwdkufudkausmf?ab;wGif/
in front of ---->
in front of the class, tcef;ta&SUrSm/
before ----> before the teacher, q&mhta&SUrSm/
befor the war,ppfBuD;rwdik rf /D
after ----> after the war, ppfBuD;NyD;aemuf/
after reading, pmzwfNyD;aemuf/
after the horse, jrif;aemufodkU/
out ----> pull out, tjyifodkUqGJxkwf/ come out of, tjyifodkUxGufvm/
out of date , acwfaemufus/
out of 60 boys, a,mufusm;av;60teuf/
about ----> about poem, uAsmtaMumif;/
about 25 books, pmtky2f 5tkycf efU/--eD;yg;/
about to go to bed, tdyf,m0ifawmhrnfhqJqJ/
walking about the town,NrdKUxJ[[
kd 'kd 'D aD vQmuf/
around ----> around our village, uREykf w
f Ukd &Gmywfywfvnf/
I shall be around. (adv) uReaf wmfteD;em;w0du
k rf mS &Sv
d rd rhf ,f/
round ----> round the table,pm;yGJywfywfvnf/
round the sun aeudv
k n
S yhf wf/
round about 6 p.m n6em&D0ef;usifavmuf/
inside ----> inside the kitchen rD;zdkacsmiftxJrSm/
just inside the gate *dwftwGif;bufem;ususrSm/

67

below oHk;&ifod&r,f
above eJYqefYusif ]]atmuf}} rSmuG,f/
]]ab;rSm}} wu,foHk;wwfrS
beside qdkwmowd&/
outside uawmh ]]tjyifbuf}}
off ]]tay:rSqif;}} ]]tjyifodkYxGuf}}/
]]tay:odkYwuf}}&if onto aygh
]]a&S;I&mjy}} &if towards /
]] jzwfausmf}} &ifawmh past udkjrif
along ]]wavQmuf}} ]]a&SUodkY}} ]]twl}} yif/
]]qefYusifha&GU}}&if against ]]zDvm}}
opposite qdkwm ]]qefYusifbufae&m}}/
till twGuf[m ]]wdkifatmif}} ]]txd}}
]] r uGufvyf rcsif;}} until od/
]]wdus tcsdefrSef}} on time ,lrnf
in time uawmh ]]tcsdefrSD}}/
preposition awGonf t&mus,fvS
rusufbJvJr&? usufrS&?
r&rcsif; usufvdkufMu/
a&SUqufNyD;vJ avhvmMu/ /

below ---->

below this line, 'DrsOf;atmufrSm/


five degrees below, ig;'D*&Datmufus/
below the standard tqift
h wef;edr/hf
tqifhtwef;pHxufatmufus/
beside ---->
sit beside me,uREkfyftem;rSmxdkif/
outside ---->
the outside world, urmhtjyifbuf/
off ---->
fell off the chair,ckHay:rSqif;/
off duty,wm0efreS m;/ wm0efcsdejf yify/
onto ----> onto the beach, urf;ajctay:odkUwuf/

68

towards ---->
towards the town,NrdKUqDoUkd /
past ---->
past 2 oclock, 2em&Dxdk;ausmf/
half past 2 , 2em&DcGJ/
ran past the house, tdrfudkjzwfajy;/
along ---->
along the road,vrf;wavQmuf/
bring a book along,pmtkyw
f pftyk t
f wl,/l
against ---->
fight against the invaders,
usL;ausmfolrsm;udkqefYusifwdkufcdkuf/
against his coming,olvmaewmudzk v
D mqefUusif
opposite ---->
opposite the house is a tree.
tdr\
f qefYusib
f ufwiG o
f pfyifwpfyif&o
dS nf/
till, until ---->
until night, till night, nwdkifatmif/
faithful till death,aoonftxdopm&Sdaom/
Until you told me,I had no idea.
(rif;rajymrcsi;f ?ighrmS tMuHr&S/d )
on time ---->
He got here on time.
ol'aD e&mudt
k csed rf eS af &mufonf/
in time ----> in time to catch a bus,bwfpfum;rSDbdkYtcsdefrSD/

+++++++

a&SUqufNyD; avhvm&ef preposition rsm;/

aboard oabFm av,mOf &xm;ay:odkY/


amid tv,f? tMum;/
anti qefYusiv
f su/f
beneath atmuf/
besides xdkYtjyif/ but rSwyg;/
concerning ywfouf? rQavmuf/
considering axmufxm;vsu?f

despite aomfjim;vnf;/
except rSv
JG /
excepting rSwyg;/
excluding rygbJ/
following aemufqufw/JG

xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;vQif/

minus ryg/
of \/
per wckpDtwGuf/
regarding pyfvsO;f /
save rSvw
G u
f if;vsuf/(jzifv
h jkH cHK)
than xuf/
toward qDodkY? bufodkY? pyfvsOf;/
underneath atmufr?S atmufoYkd /
unlike ouJo
h Ykdr[kw/f
upon tay:/
versus qefYusifbuf? tjydKiftqdik /f
via rSjzwf/
within twGi;f rSm? txJrmS /

++++++++++++++++

69

CONJUNCTIONS pum;quf
Conjunctions are words used as joiners.
Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical
structures.

Kinds of conjunctions: pum;quf t rsd K ;rsd K ;


A. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS n d E I d i f ; pum;quf

for twGuf/ , and ESifh, nor r[kwf, but odkYaomf, or odkYr[kwf, yet
aomfvnf;, so 'gaMumifh/ (FANBOYS [krSwfEdkif)
Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another:
words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses.
Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other
conjunctions do.
Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning
or end.
Punctuation with coordinating conjunctions:
When a coordinating conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate
clauses, no comma should be placed before the conjunction.
A coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, phrases, or
subordinate clauses creates a series and requires commas between the
elements.
A coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a
compound sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating
conjunction
B. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS t jyeftvSefpum;quf
either. . .or wck r [k w f wck /
both. . . and ES p f c k p vH k ;

neither. . . nor ES p f c k p vH k ; r[k w f


not only. . . but also omru... yg

These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after


each one.

70
C. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

t quft pyf p um;quf(pum;quf


( pum;qufM ud , m0d a ooe)
These conjunctions join independent clauses together.
The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs:
after all tm;vHk;jcHKvdkuf&if also vJbJ
next aemufawmh
incidentally rawmfwq indeed trSefpifppf?
besides 'ghtjyif?
finally aemufqHk;
instead tpm;? udk,fpm;/ still odYk ygvsufEiS ?hf
furthermore xdkYtjyif?
moreover xdkYtjyif?
then xdkYaemuf/
for example Oyrmtm;jzifh?? in addition 'ghtjyif?
in fact pifppf/
thus odYkjzif?h xdYkaMumif/h
however odYkaomfvnf;? likewise tvm;wl? xdYktjyif?
meanwhile xdktawmtwGif;? therefore xdktaMumif;Mumifh? hence ae&mrSm?
nevertheless, nonetheless odkYygvsufESifh/ otherwise tu,fr[kwfcJhvQif?
consequently tusdK;quftm;jzifh/ taMumif;aMumif;aMumifh?
as a result &vm'ftusdK;quftm;jzifh? on the contrary qefYusifbuftm;jzifh?
in other words aemufwrsdK;ajym&&if/ on the other hand wenf;tm;jzifh?
Punctuation:
Place a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and
a comma after the conjunctive adverb.
D. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS vufatmufcHpum;quf
These words are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions
after xdkYaemuf/ so as tvdkYiSm/ unless r---cJhvQif/ till, until wdkifatmif/
though, although odkYaomfvnf;/ as pOf? aewHk;? uwnf;u? aomaMumifh/
when tcsdefrSm/ whenever b,ftcsdefrqdk/ how b,fvdk/ so that xdkYaMumifh/
where b,fae&m/ wherever b,fae&mrqdk/ whether [kwfovm;? r[kwfovm;/
before rwdkifrDS/ since aMumifh?uwnf;u/ than xuf?ydk/ if cJv
h Qif/ that xdkt&m/
why bmaMumifh/ because tb,faMumifhqdkaomf/ while pOfwGif/ once wcgu/
as far as ([dk;t&if rSwfrdorQ)/ as soon as csufcsOf;/ no matter ta&;ryg/
as if, as though ouJhodkY/ now that tck/ provided(that) taMumif;aMumifh/
even if , even though cJhvQifawmifrS/ supposing (that) tu,f/
lest pdk;&drf? uJhodkYr[kwfap&ef/ I was afraid to open the door lest he should follow me.
in order to (that) tvdkYiSm/ He talked quietly in order(so as) not to wake the children.
in so far as qdkvdkwmuawmh/ (to introduce a statement which explains and adds to
something you have just said.) We are entering a period of less danger insofar as the
danger of nuclear war between the superpowers is less.

as much as rsm;MuD;awmif/ as much as 1000 $ a':vm 1000 rsm;MuD;awmif/

71
Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing
so, they make one clause dependent (or subordinate) upon the other.
A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or
between two clauses in a sentence.
A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between
clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does.
Loose:

It is raining, so we have an umbrella.

Tight:
Because it is raining, we have an umbrella.
Punctuation Note:
When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma
between the two clauses. When the independent clause is placed first
and the dependent clause second, do not separate the two clauses with a
comma.

Conjunctions: pum;quftrsdK;rsdK;&Sif;vif;csufrsm;/
1.A conjunction is a word which Joins together sentences
and sometimes words.

pum;qufqdkwm[m 0gustcsif;csif;? qufoG,f&mwGifif;? pum;vHk;rsm;


aygif;pyfay;aompum;vHk;rsm; jzpfMuygw,f/
A. God made the country and man made the town. (0gus2ckqufjcif;)

bk&m;ocifonfEikd if aH wmfuzkd efqif;NyD; vlrsm;onfNrdKUrsm;aqmufvyk Mf uonf/


B. Two and two make four. (pum;vHk;2ckqufjcif;)

2 ESi2hf aygif;av;&ygonf/
Conjunctions rsm;udk Relative Pronouns, Relative Adverbs and
Prepositions rsm;wGif vnf;oHk;ygonf/
2.wcsKd U conjunctions rsm;onf t wG J v d k u f o H k ; Mu&ygw,f /
Either ... or :Either take it or leave it.

(2ck t euf w pf c k )

'gudk,l&if,l r,l&ifxm;cJh/

Neither ... nor : -

It is neither useful nor ornamental.

(2ckteufwpfckrSr[kwfaom) 'g[mtoH;k vnf;rusb;l ? tbd;k vnf;rwefb;l /

Both ... and : -

We both love and honour him.

72

uRefawmfwdkYolUudkcspfvnf;cspfonf/*kPfvnf;jyKonf/
Though ... yet : - Though he is suffering much pain, yet he does
not complain. olonfemusifrIudkcHpm;ae&aomfvnf;NiD;jiLjcif;rSdygacs/

Whether ... or : - I donot care whether you go or stay.

rif;oGm;vQifoGm;? aevQifae? ig*krpdkufygbl;/


Not only ... but also : - Not only is he foolish, but also obstinate.
olonfrdkufdkif;jyD;w,lvnf;oefonf/ (obstinate(adj) w,loefaom)?

(conjunctions rsm;udk correlative conjunction or merely


correlatives.[kvnf;ac:ygonf/)

3. Compound conjunctions if;wdkYrSm


(in order that, on condition that, even if, so that,
Provided that, As though, as well as, as soon as, as if)

4. Conjunctions rsm;udk two clauses tjzpfcGJEdkifygw,f/


(a) Co-ordinating Conjunction
(b) Subordinating conjunction

5. Co-ordinating conjunctions rsm;udktoHk;jyKNyD; 0gus


ESpfaMumif;qufxm;vQif if;udk compound sentences[kac:ygw,f/
Night came on. The room grew dark.

narSmifvmcJhonf/ tcef;onfarSmifoGm;cJhonf/
Night came on and the room grew dark.

nnfheufvmtcef;onfarSmifvmonf/

6. Co-ordinative conjunctions tcsKdUrSm (And, for, or ,nor)


(but, still, yet, never, the less .....) ponfwdkYjzpfMuw,f/

7. Subordinate conjunctions toHk;jyKNyD;qufxm;aom


0gusrsm;udk complex sentences [kac:ygw,f/
subordinate conjunctions tcsKdUrSm (After, because, if, that,
though, although, till, before, unless, as ,when, where, while
ponfwdkYjzpfygw,f/

73

74

8. Compound sentences tcsKdUrsm;


1. We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone.
igwdkYrsOf;waMumif;udkauG;atmif rvkkyfEdkifyg? jyD;awm
awmh ausmufwHk;wwHk;udkvnf;r rEdkifyg/
2. He is slow, but he is sure. olonfaES;auG;onfod
odkYaomfvnf;aocsmonf/
3. I was annoyed, still I kept quite.
uRefawmfpdwftaESmuf,SufjzpfcJaomf
ha omfv nf ; uRefawmfwdwfwfdwfaecJhonf/
omrSdvQifvmcJrh ,f/
4. I would come; only that I am angaged. igcsed ;f xm;wmomrS
5. He was all right; only he was fatigued.
olaeaumif;ygw,f'gayrJ
' gayrJh yifyef;NyD; tm;ukefaewm ouf o uf y g/
6. She must weep, or she will die.
olridka<u;&rnfod
o dk Y r [k w folraooGm;Edkifonf/
7. Either he is mad, or he feigns madness.
olonfl;oGwfaeonf'grS
'grSr[kwf l;oGwf [efaqmifaeonf/
feigns(v) pdwful;onf/ wDxGifzefwD;onf/ [efaqmifonf/
8. Neither a borrower, nor a lender be.
acs;iSm;olvnf;rjzpfygapESifh? acs;,lolvnf;rjzpfygapESifh/ (ESpfrsdK;vHk;rjzpfygapESifh/)
9. They toil not, neither do the spin.
olwdkYyifyifyef;yef;tvkyfrvkyfMuygbl;? qufpyfajymqdk(jzD;ae)wmvnf;rSdygbl;/
toil(v) yifyef;BuD;pGmtvkyfvkyfonf? yifyef;onf/
spin(v) csnfiifonf? Adkif;iifonf? qufpyf-zGJU-qdk ajymqdkonf/(jzD;aeonf)
10. Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him.
'grSr[kwfvQif rif;olUudkrSDrSmr[kwfygbl;/
rif;jrefjrefavQmufyg'grS
11. Something certainly fell in; for I heard a splash.
wpfpHkwpfckckaocsmaygufusvmvdrfhr,f?
bmaMumifhvJqdkawmha&pifwmuRefawmfodw,f/
certainly(adj) aocsmaom splash(v) a&pifonf? THU&nfpifonf/

9. Complex Sentences
1. After the shower was over the sun shone out again.
a&csKd;NyD;wJhaemufydkif; aexGufvmygw,f/
2. A book's a book, although there is nothing in it.
'Dpmtkyf[mpmtkyfwpftkyfawmhjzpfygw,f'gayrJhtwGif;rSmbmrSrygygbl;/
3. As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
olrSdwJhtwGufolUnDudkuRefawmfajymcJhygw,f/
4. He ran away because he was afraid.
ol[maMumufGHUwJhtwGufxGufajy;cJhygw,f/
5. Answer the first question before you proceed further.
yxrOD;qHk;ar;cGef;udkajzyg? aemufrSusefwmawGqufvkyfyg/
6. You will pass if you work hard. oifBudK;pm;vQifoifatmifjrifygvdrfhrnf/
7. Since you say so, I must believe it.
rif;tJ'DvdkajymwJhtwGufig,HkMunfygw,f/

8. Tell them that I will come. olwdkYudkigvmrJhtaMumif;ajymvdkufyg/


9. He finished first though he began late.
ol[myxrqhk;NyD;cJhygw,f/ odkYaomfvnf; ol aemufqHk;rSpcJhwmyg/
10. Will you wait till I return ? uRefawmfvmwJhtxdcifAsmapmifhrSmvm;/
11. He will not pay unless he is compelled.
olrvIHUaqmfrcsif;olUudkaiGray;yg/
compel(v)compelled twif;tMuyfjyKonf? rjiif;qefEdkifatmifvIHUaqmfonf?
r&raewdkufwGef;onf? vIHUaqmfonf/
12. I waited for my friend untill he came.
uRefawmfoli,fcsif;udkolvmwJhwdkifatmif uRefawmfapmifharQmfcJhonf/
13. When I was younger, I thought so.
uRefawmfi,fpOfuvnf;'DvdktawG;vGefcJhygw,f/
14. I do not know when he comes. olb,fcsdefvmr,fqdkwmuRefawmfrodyg/
15. He found his watch where he had left it.
olUem&Dudkolxm;cJhwJhae&mrSjyefawGUcJhygw,f/
16. I do not understand how it all happened.
'gawGbmaMumifhjzpfvmw,fqdkwmuRefawmfrodyg/
17. Make hay while the sun shines.
aeomwkef;jrufajcmufvSrf;yg/(vomwkef; Adkif;iif)
18. I do not know why he left us.
olbmaMumifh uRefawmfwdkYudkpGefYcGmoGm;w,fqdkwmuRefwmfrodyg/
19. He is taller than I. olonfuRefawmfxuft&yfydkSnfygonf/
20. I like you better than he likes you.
olurif;udkESpfoufwmxuf igu rif;udkydkjyD; ESpfoufygw,f/

++++++++
bmbJ j zpf j zpf /
whoever(whosoever) = b,f o l b J j zpf j zpf /
whenever = b,f t csd e f b J j zpf j zpf /
wherever = b,f a e&mbJ j zpf j zpf /
whichever = b,f t &mbJ j zpf j zpf /
whomever = b,f o l U ud k b J j zpf j zpf /
however = b,f v d k b J j zpf j zpf / od k Y a omf v J /
+++++++++
whatever(whatsoever) =

75

76

THE INTERJECTIONS tmar!dwfrsm;


txdwfwvefYoHk;pGJaompum;vHk;rsm;udk Interjections tmar!dwfrsm;
sm;vdkYac:ygonf/
exclamation mark (!) eJYvnf; qufa&;&ygw,f/
1. Hello ! What are you doing there ? [vd k ? tJ'DrSmrif;bmvkyfaewmvJ/
2. Alas ! He is dead ? tvd k ? olaooGm;NyD/
3. Ah ! Have they gone ? tmtm-olwdkYxGufoGm;MuNyDvm;/
4. Oh ! I got such a fright. tdkY? igvefYoGm;wmyJ/
5. Hush ! Don't make a noise. &S L ; -rqleJU/
6.Ouch!, Ouch! , she cried. tm;? tm; eJY olidkaew,f/,
7.Wow! , what a good idea. tr,fav;? aumif;vdu
k w
f t
hJ awG;tac:awG/
8.Slow down! Whoa! ajz;ajz; [d k ; (&yf ) /
9.Bravo Mud w f v d k u f u G ? awmf w ,f u G /
10.Hey! Can I ask you a question? a[;a[;-igwckavmufar;Edkifrvm;/

11. Tut-tut! her lifestyle... uRwfuRwf-olUpwdkifu.../


12. eureka! I've got it. [kwfjyDuG-ig&jyD/
13.Yippee!, hurray!, hooray! a[;aysmfw,fa[h/
qdk;vdkufwmm??
14.Woe!, Yuk! ugh! tr,fav;
v;qd
15. oops! we make a mistake. tGwf yvkwfwkwf? igwdkYtrSm;vkyfrdjyD/
16. aye man, we aye, aye, Aye, aye, sir - at; at; [kwu
f q
hJ &m/
17.Gee! [Jjh rif;/
18. okey, OK tdak u? aumif;w,f/
19.Aha tm[? tHah &m/ hi! Hiya! [dkif;? [dkif;, (EIwfqufpum;)
20. Gosh ! there's a lot of noise.- tvdak v;.pdwn
f pfvu
kd w
f m? qlaewmyJ/
21. Ow! Don't do that atmif; 'grvkyef YJav/
22. Shh!You want to listen or don't you? &SL; rif;em;raxmifcsib
f ;l vm;/
23. Boo! bl;? ig'DrmS a[h/
24. Ha, ha, ho, ho, he chortled. [m;[m;[D;[D; eJU oltoHuek [
f pfaew,f/
25. Uh... huh ! [kww
f ,f/ 26. Yeah!, Yes! [kww
f ,f? [kwu
f /hJ ---ponf/
(page 84 -93 twGi;f wGiv
f nf; Interjections tmar!dwfrsm; awGYEdkifonf/)
++++++++++

ARTICLES
Article rSm 3rsK;d Sy
d gonf/ Definite Article ESihf Indefinite article [l2rsK;d 2pm;cGEJ ikd yf gw,f/
1. Definite Article (the).
wdusaocsmaomtmwDuJvf
2. Indefinite Article (A, An)
rwdusraocsmaomtmwDuJvf
3. Zero Article
tmwDuJvfroHk;aomae&mrsm;

1.Indefinite Article (A, An) oHk;yHk


wpfck? wpfaumif? wpfa,mufqkdvQif Article (A, An) wpfckckoHk;Edkifygonf/
odkYaomf A, An txl;jyKrnfh Noun udkt&ifMunfh&ygrnf/ Noun onf vowel
(o&)oHygaeygu An udkoHk;NyD;? o&oH ryg0ifygu a udkoHk;&ygrnf/
an ass jrnf;wpfaumif?
an enemy &efolwpfOD;?
an inkstand rSifwHxnfhonfht&m?
an orange vdarmfoD;wpfvHk;
an umbrella xD;wpfacsmif;
an hour wpfem&D
an honest man dk;om;ajzmifhrwfolwpfOD;
an owl ZD;uGufwpfaumif
an aeroplane av,mOfysHwpfp;D
an heir tarGpm;tarGco
H m;orD;
an heiress tarGpm;tarGcr
H ed ;f r
rSwfcsuf/ / hour, honest, heir onf h ESifh a onfvnf; ]]o&oH}} ygaeojzifh
an ESifhwGJ oHk;&r,f/
a boy,
a woman,
a horse jrif;wpfaumif
a yard wpfudkuf
a hole taygufwpfayguf
a university wuodkvfwpfck
a union tzGJUtpnf;wpfck
a European Oa&mywdu
k o
f m;wpfO;D
a unicorn OD;csKd;wpfacsmif;Sdewfjrif; a useful article ............
rSwcf su/f / university, union onf u ESiphf aomfvnf; o&oH r[kwb
f J consonent
toH jzpfojzifh a ESifhwGJoHk;&ygonf/

2. Definite Article (the) oHk;yHk


1. wpfpw
kH pfa,mufaomyk*Kd vfperson(or) thing &nf,
G x
f m;olwpfO;D OD;udk
azmfjyvdkvQif the udkoHk;ygw,f/
The book you want is out of print.

2.

rif;vdck siw
f phJ mtky[
f myHak wmifrESyd &f ao;ygbl;/
I dislike the fellow. xdkyk*Kd vfudkuRefawmfrBudKufyg/
Let us go to the club. tJ'DuvyfudkoGm;MupdkY/
Singular noun [m a whole class udktxl;jyKygu the udkoHk;ygw,f/
The cow is a useful animal. EGm;[mtbdk;wefwJhwd&pmefjzpfw,f/
The horse is a noble animal. jrif;[mjrifhjrwfaomwd&pmefjzpfw,f/

77

The cat loves comfort. aMumif[mZdrfususaecsifw,f/


The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.

yef;awGxJrSmESif;qDyef;[mtcsKdomqHk;? tvSyqHk; ygbJ/


rSwfcsuf/ / man ESifh woman udk general sense a,bl,soabmoHk;ygu
article xnfhroHk;ygacs/
Man is the only animal that uses fire.

3.

rD;udt
k oH;k cswJo
h w0g[mvlawGbjJ zpfygw,f/
Woman is man's mate. rdef;rawG[ma,mufsm;awGeJYrdwfzufawGbJ/
gulfs yifv,fauGU stream jrpfacsmif; rivers jrpfrsm;
seas yifv,frsm; oceans ork'&mrsm; groups of islands uRef;pkrsm;
mountain ranges awmifp,
G af wmifwef;rsm; - aSUwGif the udo
k ;kH ay;ygw,f/
The Persian Gulf ygSe;f yifv,fauGU
London is on the Thames. vef'efNrdKU[modrf;jrpfurf;em;rSmSdw,f/
The red sea. yifv,feD
The Indian Ocean tdE,
d ork'& m
The Himalayas lie to the North of India.

[dr0Emawmifuek ;f awmifwef;rsm;[m tdE,


d Edik if &H UJ ajrmufbufrmS Syd gw,f/
4. pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;aSUwGifvnf; the udkoHk;ygw,f/
the Vedas AD;'wfpmtkyf
the Ramayana &mrpmtkyf
The Bible c&pf,meformusrf;pm
5. common nouns wpfckwnf;omSdapomemrfaSUrS the udkoHk;ygw,f/
the sun, the sky, the ocean, the sea, the earth
6. Proper noun wpfcak SUwGif Adjective Sad eygu if; Adjective aSUwGif the udk

oH;k &ygw,f/
The great Caesar qDZmbk&ifBuD;
the immortal Shakespeare wkEdIif;rrSDaomdSwfpyD;,m;pma&;q&mBuD;
7. Superlative Degree Adjectives aSUrS the udkoHk;&w,f/
The darkest cloud has a silver lining.

arSmifrw
J rhJ ;kd aumif;uifrmS aiGa&mifvikd ;f av;awGyg ygw,f/
This is the best book chemistry.
8.

'Dpmtky[
f m"gwkaA'pmtkyt
f aumif;qH;k ygbJ/
ordinal number rsm;ESifhvnf; the udkwGJoHk;Edkifygw,f/
He was the first man to arrive. ol[myxrOD;qHk;a&mufvmoljzpfygw,f/
The ninth chapter of the book is very interesting.

'Dpmtky&f UJ e0rtcef;[mtvGepf w
d yf g0ifpm;bG,&f mjzpfygw,f/

78

9. musical instrument aSUrSmvnf; the udkoHk;ay;&ygw,f/


He can play the flute. (ykavG)
He can play the piano. (pE,m;)
10. The + Adj = Nrsm;
The poor are honest. (qif;&Jom;rsm;[mdk;om;Muygw,f/)
The wounded are carried to the hospital. ('Pf&m&olrsm;udkaq;HkodkYydkY)
11. N aSUwGif the udkoHk;jcif;jzifh (to give the force of a superlative)

twGufoHk;Edkifygw,f/
The verb is the word ( = the chife word) in a sentence.
12. Adverb comperative aSUwGifvnf; the udkoHk;Edkifygw,f/
The more they get, the more they want. (&avvdkav)qdkwmrsKd;yg/

3.

OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE (ZERO ARTICLE)


1. common noun (trsm;qdkifemrf)wpfckudkus,fjyefYaomjrifuGif;t&oHk;vQif
Article udkjrKyfxm;Edkifygw,f/
Man is mortal. What kind of flower is it ?
2. Materials t&m0wKrsm;aSUrSvnf; Article udkjrKyfxm;Edkifw,f/
Gold is a precious metal. aT[mtbdk;twefqHk;owKwpfrsKd;jzpfygw,f/
Cotton grows in India, America and Egypt.

0g*Grf;[mtdEd,tar&duESifhtD*spfEdkifiHrsm;rSmaygufa&mufygw,f/
3. Proper Noun (wpfOD;wnf;ydkifemrf)aSUrSvnf; Article udkjrKyfoHk;Edkifygw,f/
Yangon is the capital of Myanmar. &efue
k Nf rdKU[mjrefrmEdik if &H UJ NrdKUawmfjzpfygw,f/
Mandalay is the second largest city of Myanmar.

jrefrmEdkifiHrSmrEav;[m 'kwd,tBuD;qHk;NrdKUjzpfygw,f/
4. Article udk Proper Noun aSUrSxm;vQifxdk Noun onf Common noun

tjzpf ajymif;vJ oGm;ygw,f/


This man is a second Newton.
(Newton uJhodkYaom 'kwd, vlwpfa,muf[kwifpm;ac:a0:jcif;jzpfygw,f/)
Bombay is the Manchester of India. bHkab[m tdEd,&JY refcsufpwmbJ/

(tdEd,EdkifiH\xkwfvkyfrItrsm;qHk;NrdKUawmf[kqdkvdk jcif;jzpfygw,f/)
5. Abstract Noun (pdwZemrf)rsm;aSUwGifa,bl,soabm General Sense
t& Article udkoHk;Edkifygw,f/
Wisdom is the gift of heaven.
Honesty is the best policy.
6. bmompmaypum; (languages) aSUwGif Article udkjrKyfoHk;Edkifygw,f/
We are studying English. He prefers French.
7. school, college, church, bed, table, hospital, markets, prison, ponfwYkd ukd
tNrJwef; xdawGUaeolrsm;twGuf Article udkjrKyfoHk;Edkifygw,f/

79

8.

I learnt French at school. uRefawmfausmif;rSmjyifopfbmomavhvmygw,f/


We go to church on Sundays.

we*FaEGaeYwdkif;uRefawmfwdkYc&pf,mefbk&m;ausmif;udkoGm;ygw,f/
eHygwf 7 rSm Noun rsm;udkwdusaocsmpGmtoHk;jyKxm;vQifrlif;aSUwGif
the udkoHk;Edkifygw,f/
The school is very near my house. ausmif;uuRefawmft
h rd ef YJ teD;uav;yg/
I met him at the church. uReaf wmfoUl udc
k &pf,mefb&k m;ausmif;rSmawGUcJw
h ,f/

I went to the hospital to see my uncle.


9. aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm; father, mother, aunt, uncle, ESifh our cook, our nurse
wdkYaSUwGif Article udkjrKyfoHk;Edkifygw,f/
Father has return. tazjyefa&mufvmygNyD/
Aunt wants you to see her. ta':urif;udkawGUcsifvSw,f/
Cook has given notice. xrif;csufudk]]EdkUwpf}}ay;jcif;cH&ygw,f/
10. transitive verb ygSdaom certain phrases rsm;aSUwGif
Article udkjrKyfoHk;Edkifygw,f/
to catch fire, to take breath, to give battle, to bring word, to give car,
to set foot, to leave home,
11. Preposition yg0ifaom phrases aSUwGifvnf; Article udkjrKyfoHk;Edkifyg,f/
at home, in hand, in debt ta<u; by day, by night, at daybreak,
at sunrise, at noon, at sunset, at night, at sight jrifuGif;
on demand 0,fvkdtm; at interest, on earth, by land, by water,
by river, by train, by streamer rD;oabFm by name, on foot ajcvsif
at dinner, above ground.
+++++++++++

+ wck waumif wa,muf twGuf a eJY an aygh


]] t}} oHxGufawmh ]] an}} oHk;rnf/
+ &nf&G,f odxm; wzGJY wpkvHk;u
jcHKiHk wdus the oHk;onf/
+ jrpf acsmif; yifv,f uRef;pk ae v
awmifwef; pmtkyf the p wnf/
+ the great__, the best__, the __est eJY
the first, the flute, .....the oHk;rnf/
+ the poor, the word, the more..., the less...
ponfwdkYtwGuf ]]o,f}} eJY ]]onf}}.../
+ ]]o,f}} vm;? ]]onf}}vm;? toHxGufrrSm;atmif
]]t}} oHtwGuf ]]onf}} xGufrnf/
+ the boy ]]o,fbGdKif;}} the oil ]]onftGdKif;}} rwkHYrqdkif;?
toHxGufwdkif;rSefoifhonf/
/

Punctuation

80

z jzwfqufyk'fcH punctuation
wu,frSwf&ifwu,f&Sif;/
z 0guswpfaMumif;csif;tprSm
Capital letter(uufyw,f-vufw,f)ok;H &wm/
z ekdifiHNrdKY&Gmukd,fykdiftrnfrsm;
poemtprsm; capital letter xm;/
z twkdaumufrsm;vJ capital letter
Mum;eJYtqkH;rSmfull stopwG,f/(wcsdKUrwG,f/)
z 0gustqkH;0,f full stop cs
tpufwpfpufav;rkdYrarh&/
W CAPITAL LETTER & full stop ( . )
(0gustp)
They tell you many truths about life.(0gustp)
Egypt (EkdifiH), Rome (NrdKU) ,Kampong Ayer (&Gm)),
k yf ikd t
f rnfrsm;
U Zaw, Julius Caesar, Pope Gregory, (ud,
rsm;)
rsm;)
tprsm;)
Any kind of bridge at all; (poemtprsm;)
H.C.Bunner, A.POPE, Y.M.C.A. (twkdaumufrsm;)
REM and NREM, WHO,Kuala Lumpur or KL,
(Mum;eJYtqkH;rSmfull stop cs? wcsdKUMum;eJYtqkH;rSmfull stop rcs/)

z ar;cGef;tqkH;u Question mark(?) qkd


tmar!dwfu Exclamation(!) vkd/
z hello! oh! look! hey! eJY see!
how beautiful! alas! now! hurry! /
W question mark(?) & exclamation mark(!)
(ar;cGef;) Enjoy yourself !
What is a biography?(ar;cG
O tell your poor blind boy! (tmar!dwf)
hello![vd!k , oh!td!k , look! Munfph rf;Munfph rf;!,hey!a[;!,
see!jrifvm;(oabmaygufvm;)!, how beautiful!w,fvyS gvm;!,
alas!uRwu
f Rwt
f r,fav;!, now!tcktck!, hurry!tjreftjref!

z colon (aumfvH)tMuD;u tpufESpfpuf&H(:)


wpfpufwpfaumfrmsemicolon(qDr;D aumfv)H /(;)
z trnfpm&if;jy&ef taMumif;jycsuftwGuf
a&SYrSmcsMu colon eSpfpuf/

81

z pum;qufrygwJYpum;pkawGMum;0,f
semicolon xm;qufoG,f/
W colon (:) & semicolon (;)
There are two kinds of blood vessels:arteries and vein.
in the United States: Eastern equine encephalitis,
Western equine encephalitis,St.Louis encephalitis,
and LaCrosse encephalitis. (trnfpm&if;jy)
(taMumif;jycsuf)
I know her well:she is my neighbour.(taMumif
I am going to Liverpool today; what shall I bring you.
One studied music and dancing; another studied medicine;
another studied astrology; and the
`
(pum;quf r ygpum;pk a wG M um;)
fourth,philosophy.(pum;quf

z hyphen([dik zf ife)f qkw


d m&,frsO;f wkad v;aemY( - )
eSpfvkH;okH;vkH;aygif;pyfaygU/
z dash ('uf&)fS uawmYjzifhoYl xuf&n
S rf nf( )
tykdxnfhawG&JYa&SYrSmokH;onf/
z apostrophe ykdifqkdifaMumif;jy( )
jrKyfxm;tu&mae&mvJcs/
W hyphen( - ) , dash( ) & apostrophe ( )
rsOf;wkad v;)
gear-wheel, three-story, one-to-ten,(hyphen-rsOf
rsOf;wk)d
165-year-old organ, 37-metre tall Merlion, ((rsOf
sOf;wk)d
20-hectare Jurong Bird Park,well-known (r
(rsOf
Sixty miles each way that is a long spell.('uf&Sf)
Axle the wheel turning round a fixed axle('uf&Sf).
He started to climb down slowly,shakily.('uf&Sf)
Some are pointlessthough not very many.('uf&Sf)
Heathcliff s first introduction, Harveys tutor(tay:pwdkzD)
todays robots,Kellers garden,Im ,cant,isnt,..ponf/

z quotation mark uinverted comma


}} )
pum;ajymawGtwGufjy&wm/( ]]
z ar;cGef;0guseJYtmar!dwfrsm;
inverted comma tjyifrSmxm;/
z olwkdYMum;atmuf comma rvkd ( , )
full stop 0gus comma vkd/

Wquotation marks =inverted comma( )

82

Ive been a bad girl,Sue,said Johnsy.


Yes,maam,I said. (full stop ae&mrSm comma)
What is it ,dear?asked Sue.How do I look?she asked.
Tell me !said Sue. Two weeks!I thought.

z tjyifV2 ukda&SYrSmawGY&if
comma av;uV2 em;inverted rwkdifcif/
z tjyif V2 vSsifa&SYrSmrawGYawmY
inverted atmufMum; comma aygY/
z rarYavsmYeJYtjyif V2 [m
0gustv,f eSpfqifYMum;vJ twkdif;om/
z to eJY object yg,ygvm&ifjzifY
object aemufxd comma &Sdoifh/
z em;axmif vifhol twGif;wGif&Sdjim;
olYatmufem;vnf; comma ,lxm;/
W inverted comma( ) & comma ( , )
onf
# ( V2onf
tjyifbufa&SU(odkY)aemufwGif&Sdaomf)
Johnsy said, Put up the curtain,Sue.
aemuf r S m )
Six, said Johnsy very quietly. (tjyifV2aemuf
aemuf r S m )
Your time to dream,I said. (tjyifV2aemuf
aemuf r S m )
It is the last one,said Johnsy. (tjyifV2aemuf

# (tjyifV2 0gustv,f eSpfqifYMum;)


Dont worry,said Ni Ni , I will help you.
Yes,maam,I said You sure would.

# (to eJYobject ygvmvQif obj aemufxdcomma)


He said to her,Please wait here till I return.

dS olYatmufem;
# (em;axmifol twGi;f wGi&f u
m;comma ,l)
Father said, Pho Htoo, sit still and dont move.

z comma jcm;ay; Yes, No, Oh, Well,


all right, well done, very well, /
z oHk;av;vHk;wGJ and eJY or
toD;oD;Mum;rSm comma aemf/

83

z Noun in Apposition ac: emrfrsm;uyfaom


comma udkyJ Mum;cHa&m/
z zero 3vH k ; eJU tajymcH?tar;cH?tcdkif;cH&ol
pum;Mum;rSm comma av;,l/
z wpfrltxl;jy0gusrsm;
comma jcm;rS t"dyg,fyGm;/
z Therefore, However, Nevertheless
Then, Moreover, eJY in fact,/
z In addition, Besides, At last, jzifh
Finally,For example,For instance,/
z 'gESifh pum;rpyf by the way, vm
that is, in that case, ponfwdkUyg/
z 'gawGtp-tqHk;rSm comma av;xnfh
this too, 'gvJyJ comma uGJU
Punctuation qdkwmawGrarheJY/ /
W comma ( , )
Yes, No, Oh, Well, all right, well done, very well,....
Hindley,Cathy and me. yellow fever,encephalitis,
dengue fever and malaria. (oH k ; av;vH k ; wG Jand eJY or)
Its colour may be grey, brown or red.
U Pu , our teacher , is very fat.(Noun in Apposition)

3,000 240,000 220,000 ( zero 3 vHk;a&SUaumfrm)


Please help me , Ma Ma.(tajymcH a &S U aumf r m)
Where are you going , Mu Mu? (tar;cHa&SUaumfrm)
Sit down , Mi Mi. (tcd k i f ; cH a &S U aumf r m)
(comma ( , ) between modifier and sentence)
Standing on a box , he tried to get the banana.
Sitting at his desk , he began to do his homework.

(comma ( , ) between some clauses)


If you work hard , you will succeed.
You must go now , or you will miss the train.

(some words and phrases need comma , )


Therefore, 'gaMumif?h However, odUk ygaomfvnf;?
Nevertheless, odUk ygvsuEf iS ?hf Then,xdUk aemuf?Moreover,'ghtjyif?
in fact,trSerf mS awmh? In addition,xyf? Besides, xdkUtjyif?
At last,aemufq;kH wGi?f Finally, aemufq;kH awmh?
For example, Oyrmtm;jzifh? For instance, erlemtm;jzifh?
by the way, pum;rpyf? that is,if;rSm?
++++++++++

++++Daily "Flash" English Usages++++


aeUpOfoHk;vQyfwpfjyuft*Fvdyfpum;rsm;
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84

I say a[hv/l (ajym&OD;r,f)


I see[kwNf yD ^ oabmaygufNyD/
You see? rif;odvm;/
I do oabmwlygw,f/
I'm doneigawmh Zmwford ;f vdu
k Nf yD/
Done ! aumif;NyD jzpfap&r,f/
I'm up ! uREykf t
f yd ,
f mEd;k NyD/
I'm all ears.uREykf ef m;axmifaew,f/
I give up yef;ay;w,f ^ tI;H ay;w,f/
Search me ! - yef;ay;w,f/ uREyfk rf odyg/
I quit- uReaf wmf EIwx
f u
G o
f nf/
I'm buyinguReaf wmf 'umcHr,f/
My treat ! uREykf af uR;r,f/
Your treat? rif;auR;rSmvm;
How much do I owe you ?b,favmufusygovJ/
That calls for celebrations !- rkeUf auR;oifw
h ,f/
God bless you ! - bk&m;ocif aumif;cs;D ay;ygap/ (ESmacs&m toH;k jyKonf/)
God bless you ! - aus;Zl;BuD;ygayw,f/
Touch wood ! - wdu
k w
f u
kd q
f ikd q
f ikd f pum;qHrk v
d Qif qkawmif;jcif;/(opfom;udk
xdqkawmif;ujynfo
h nfw)hJ
Knock on wood ! - uHaumif;ygap/
Cross my heart ! - bk&mpl;/
Keep you fingers crossed ! - atmifjrifzUkd qkawmif;aeMu/
Swear upon the Bible bk&m;ay;ay;? usr;f ay;ay;/
Swear to God bk&m;pl;/
Thank God awmfygao;&JU/
Jeeze !bk&m;a&/
Holy cow ! tr,fav;/
Good Heavens ! - tr,fav;/
Ma... ma...mia... ! - tr,fav; ... av;/
My ... my !tr,fav; ... av;/

85
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Wish me luck ! qkawmif;ay;yg/


Let's say grace qkawmif;MupdUk /
By the grace of God - bk&m;aus;Zl;awmfaMumif/h
God forbid ! zG ... vGaJ pz,fap/
Freeze ! rvIyef UJ /
Hold still rvIyef UJ ... NidrNf idraf e/
Hold it ! &yfvu
kd f ^ aetH;k /
Thumbs up !atmifNyDa[h/
Come on ! vmavuGm/
(Just) you dare ! rif;vky&f v
J yk Mf unfph rf;/
Just you wait ! rif;odr,f/
Just in case vdv
k rkd ,fr,f/
Just as I thought xifxm;wJt
h wdik ;f yJ/
Shut up ! yg;pyfyw
d /f
Take that ! uJumG /
Break it up ! &efjzpfwm awmfMuawmh/
Enough is enough - awmfwefww
d /f (awmfNyDqakd wmfNyD)/
A deal is a deal ! tay;t,l vkyNf yD;om;uvkyNf yD;om;yJ/
Deal ! oabmwlw,f/
No kidding aemufaewmr[kwb
f ;l /
No fooling you aemufaewmr[kwb
f ;l /
Never say never again- pum;tukerf ajymeJU/ (qdck aJ p jrJap)
Never say die b,fawmhrS tI;H ray;eJU/
Never say lie b,fawmhrS rkom;rajymeJU/
It never rains but pours jyemaygif; aomif;ajcmuf axmif
(rd;k awmhr&Gm a&awmhavmif;)
A watched pot never boilsapmifMh unfah e&ifb,fawmhrjS zpfrvmbl;/
Age before beauty - toufBu;D olukd OD;pm;ay;yg/
Act your age ! t&G,ef UJ vdu
k af tmifaeprf;/
Take it easy jznf;jznf;aygh/
Easy now jznf;jznf;yJ? pdwaf t;at;xm;/
Right away ! straight away ! Right now!- tckcsucf si;f /
Make it snappy jrefjrefvyk u
f mG /
Look alive ! jrefjrefvyk /f

64.
65.
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86
Dead or alive !tao&&? t&Si&f &/
Alive and kicking ouf&iS v
f yI &f mS ;qJy/J
Let's rock n' roll vIy&f mS ;vdu
k Mf updUk /
Show time ! vIy&f mS ;vdu
k Mf updUk /
Believe it or not ! ,Hck si,
f kH r,Hck siaf e/
Take my word uReaf wmfajymwm,Hyk g/
Too good to be true ,Hak wmif r,H&k bl;/
Get outtahere !igr,Hb
k ;l /
Keep the faith ,HMk unfprf;yg/
Go for it ! vkyx
f m;uG/
The show must go on vkypf &m&Sw
d m qufvyk &f rSmyJ/
It goes without saying - txl;ajymp&mrvdb
k ;l /
Going... gone..gone... .- oGm;awmhr,f... oGm;awmhr,f... oGm;NyD/
Go! Go! Go! Go! vkyMf u... vkyMf u/
Go... go ! vkyx
f m;uG/
Out you go ! xGuo
f mG ; ^ xGu.f ..xGu/f
One down, two to gowpfa,mufus&if? ESpaf ,muf wufr,f/
Let bygones be bygones - NyD;cJw
h mawGvnf; NyD;ygapawmh/
It'll go down in history ordik ;f wGiu
f se&f pfr,f/
Let go ! vTwpf rf;? vTwv
f u
kd /f
Duty calls !udpa v;ay:vmvdUk oGm;vdu
k f OD;r,f/
Nature calls ! tdro
f moGm;vdu
k Of ;D r,f/
Where can I wash my hands? - tdro
f mcPwufcsiw
f ,f/
Where can I powder my nose? tdro
f m cPwufcsiw
f ,f/
(trsK;d orD;rsm;twGuo
f m)
Got to do what you go to do - tE&m,f rvG,af umif;bl;/
Near miss ! uyfvo
JG mG ;w,fumG /
Bull's-eye ypfrw
S x
f w
d ,f/
Far from it ! wjcm;pDy/J
Far out ! rdu
k w
f ,fumG /
Head or tail? acgif;vm;? yef;vm;/
Head you win tail you loseacgif;qdrk if;Edik ?f yef;qdrk if;I;H /
Money makes everything ydu
k q
f &H &dS if tukejf zpfw,f/
Money is no object ydu
k q
f u
H pd twm;tqD;r[kw/f
Money is no object aiGa&;aMu;a&; taMumif;r[kw/f

87
98. Time is money tcsed [
f m wefz;kd &Sw
d ,f/
99. Money talks ydu
k q
f pH um;ajymw,f/
100.Take hearttm;wif;xm;/
101.Have a heart.oem;yg ^ pmemyg/
102.Well done ! rif;tvkyv
f yk w
f m awmfw,f/ om"k/
103.Well done ! usuu
f suu
f av; ^ awmfw,f/
104.One for all and all for one- vkyv
f nf;twl? cHvnf;twl/
105. Look who's talkingem;&Sv
d Ukd om Mum;&w,f/
106. Walls have ears ! vlawGMum;ukerf ,f/
107. Miracles do happen arQmv
f ifch su&f ydS gao;w,f/
108. Rumour has it ...[kwrf [kwrf od? Mum;ae&w,f/
109. Business is business pD;yGm;a&;u pD;yGm;a&;yJ/
110. Say chese ! NyHK;yg/ ("mwfykH u
kd &f moH;k onf)
111. There's one born every minute ! - tcsOzf rf;&wmvG,yf gw,f/
112. Boys will be boys a,mufsm;av;awGy?J 'Davmuf awmh&rdS mS aygh/
113. No news is good newsbmowif;rS r&yHak xmufawmh
tqifajyaevdUk aygh/
114. Rise and shine ! aejrifNh yD ... xawmh/
115. For your eyes only b,foUl udrk S rjyeJU/
116. Forget it !
arhvu
kd af wmh? bmrSr[kwaf wmhb;l /
117. Sweet dreams tdyrf ufvv
S aS v;awG rufygap/
118. It's a small world awGUMujyefNyD/
119. Serves your right ! xdraS umif;w,f/
120. New pinch ! tust
opfawG/
121. Anybody home? tdr&f iS w
f Ukd
122. A penny for your thoughts. - bmawGawG;aewmvJ/
123. A little bird told me odaew,fav/
124. How time flies tcsed u
f ek jf refvu
kd w
f m/
125. Welcom aboard ! ,mOfay:rS BudKqykd g\/
126. Knock it off ! vkyrf aeprf;ygeJU/
127. Go to hell ! oGm;aovdu
k f ^ aovdu
k yf gvm;/
128. Shit ! (qJqjkd cif;)
129. You look like shit!rif;yH[
k m pkwjf ywfaewmyJ/
130. Give me a break at;at;aq;aq;aeyg&aptH;k /
(vmraESmif,
h u
S pf rf;ygeJU)

88
131. That's great ! odyaf umif;wmaygh/
132. ..... man ... uGm/
133. ... the hell... ? ... uG/
134. Have a nice day 'DwpfaeUwm aysmyf gap/
135. It depends tajctaet&yJ/
136. Look out !owdxm;/
137. Keep the change ta<urtrf;eJUawmh/
138. I will eat my hat ig ZufjzwfcrH ,f/
139. Don't take it serious aAGr,lygeJU/
140. No hard feelings ! pdwx
f b
J ,fvrkd S ratmufarhygbl;/
141. Shame, shame .puppy shame !- ua,mf?ua,mf..&Suyf gw,f/
142. Ups a daisy ! uJ... vmvm... x/
143. Like father, like son zatwlom;/
144. Not again ! vmjyefNyD... awmfygawmh/
145. To be honest yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif;ajym&&if.../
146. Home sweet home om,mcsKNd rdef ud,
k ahf etdr/f
147. Home is where the heart is pdwaf ysm&f m XmaeyJ/
148. Give me a huguJ..uJ..ausat;vdu
k Mf updUk /
149. First come,first served ! OD;&mvlpepfy/J
150. A.S.A.P (As soon as possible)- wwfEik d o
f rQ tjrefq;H k /
151. Suit yourself pdww
f ikd ;f usovdv
k yk yf g/
152. Here comes... ...vmygNyD/
153. Best of three
oH;k yG,
J OS Nf ydKiMf updUk /
154. Over my dead body ! - &r,f tm;BuD;/
155. Stay for dinner npmpm;NyD;rSjyefyg/
156. Bon appetit Nred &f nf,,
S &f nf&ydS gap/(jyifopfpum;)
157. What's more 'gwifb,futH;k rvJ/
158. finders keepers awGUwJv
h l tydik ,
f al Mu;/
159. Say 'hello' to your family- rif;rdom;pkuEkd w
I q
f ufvu
dk yf gw,f/
160. Life stinks ! b0[m pdwu
f ek pf &myJ/
161. Bonanza ! yGwmyJa[h/
162. Chow ! oGm;vdu
k Of ;D r,f/
163. Hip, hip... hooray ! a[;vmarmifwUkd ... 0g;/
164. Fee! Fi! Fo! Fum! eJeaJ emaemBuD; r[kwyf gvm;/

89
165. Oops ! yvkyw
f w
k /f
166. Ole !awmfw,f/
167. Ouch ! tm;/
168. Gosh ! tvdak v;.. pdwn
f pfvu
kd w
f m/
169. Wow ! tr,favh/
170. Uh... huh ![kww
f ,f/
171. Blah, blah, blah - bmnm... bmnm/
172. Knock ! Knock ! - a'guf... a'guf/
173. Timber ! opfyifNydKvNJ yDAsKUd /
174. Yeah ! [kwNf yDuG
175. Yellow ! [J[;kd /
176. Yo ! a[h/
177. Bingo ! [kwNf yDu?G 'grSu/G
178. Heave..... ho ! aAav qyf/
179. Presto ! OHKz/G
180. Chin - chin aysmaf ysmyf g;yg;aomufMupdUk /
181. Duck ! acgif;iHUk ^ 0yfcsvu
kd /f
182. Boo ! toH;k rusvu
kd w
f m/
183. Boo...hoo...hoo.. - bl;...[l;...[l;.../
184. Ho...ho...ho... - [d;k ...[d;k ...[d;k .../
185. Aye, aye, sir [kwu
f q
hJ &m/
186. Piss off ! xGuo
f mG ;prf;/
187. Gotcha ! rdNyD ^ cHvu
kd &f NyD/
188. Hush hush I; ... wd;k wd;k /
189. I don't have all day - igwpfaeukef tcsed rf &bl;/
190. That's my boy - 'grS ighcsmwdwu
f /G
191. But me no buts - qifajcawG bmawGvyk rf aeeJU/
192. Action speaks louder than words- ajymaeMumw,f..xvkyv
f u
kd pf rf;yg/
193. Back to the drawing board tpujyefpMupdUk /
194. Giddy up ! [Jjh rif;/
195. Hands up ! vufajrmuf/
196. Rain or shine aeylyl rd;k &Gm&Gm/
197. Don't give me that ! ighukd tjiif;0gusawG ray;eJU/
198. Slow down !t&Sed af vsmh ^ jznf;jznf;armif;/

90
199. Speed up ! jrefjref/
200. Step by step wpfqifNh yD; wpfqif/h
201. Get home safely tdraf umif;aumif;jyef/
202. Coming or what ? vdu
k rf mS vm; ... bmvJ/
203. Watch your step ! acsmu
f sr,f? owdxm;/
204. Don't worry I've done this before - rylygeJU? 'grsK;d tawGUtBuHK&w
dS ,f/
205. If worst comes to worsttajctae tawmfuav;qd;k vm&if
206. You can say that -again !
ody[
f w
k w
f maygh ^ [kwv
f u
k d af vjcif;/
207. I only know him by name emrnfyJ Mum;zl;wm/
208. I have only one pair of hands - ravmeJUuGm... ighrmS vufwpfpykH &J w
dS m/
209. The point is ... igqdv
k ckd siw
f mu.../
210. If you pleaseaus;Zl;jyK/
211. Ask me another ! aemufwpfcx
k yfar;/
213. Time out !acw&yfem;ay;yg/
214. Love all okn... okn/
215. What are friends for ?oli,fcsi;f qdw
k m bmtwGuv
f /J
216. Buzz off ! xGuo
f mG ;/
217. That's sick ! pdwn
f pf&ygvm;/
218. Keep away !a0;a0;ae/
219. Hold tight NrJNrJuikd x
f m;/
220. Surprise! Surprise! tHah &m... tHah &m/
221. Give me a five ! ighvuf0g;du
k pf rf;/
222. Dead and buried MumcJNh yD (odUk ) xm0&oGm;NyD/
223. Bugger off ! xGuo
f mG ;prf;/
224. Beggars can't be choosers ! - tvum;&wm acs;rsm;raeeJU/
225. Perish the thought rpOf;pm;eJuawmh^arhypfvu
kd af wmh/
226. First class ! odyaf umif;wmyJ/
227. It's an old chestnut 'D[mo igMum;zl;ygw,f/
228. Quite so ! [kwyf gh/
229. All aboard ! ,mOfay:wufMuawmh/
230. Mind your p's and q's taetxdik q
f ifjcifaemf/
231. He's in good shape oltajctaeaumif;w,f/
232.I have an itchy palm igvufz0g;,m;w,f/(ydu
k q
f &H awmhr,fxifw,f)
233.Sorry to interrupt,but pum;jzwfajym&wmawmh0rf;enf;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh

91
234.Over here ! ig'DrmS ^ 'DbufrmS /
235.Get to the point vd&k if;udk ajymyg/
236.Gentlemen, start your engines!- pufE;dI xm;Muawmh/
237. Once a thief, always a thief - wpfcgNcHcek zf ;l wJEh mG ; qufcek rf mS yJ/
238.Cut that crap ! aygufu&awG vkyrf aeeJU/
239.Cheaper by the dozen - 'gZifvu
kd 0f ,f&if oufomw,f/
240.Back off ! aemufqw
k Mf u/
241.Retreat ! wyfqw
k /f
242.Open fire ! ypf/
243.Don't take it for granted. - tydik rf wGuef UJ /
244.Big in size, small in wit.- vlaumifBuD;NyD; tcsed rf pD;bl;/
245.Everybody his due olUae&meJUol/
246.Don't get me wrong txifrvGyJ geJU/
247.I'm so hungry that I could eat a horse - Adu
k t
f &rf;qmw,f/
248.Your fly is undone abmif;bDZpfjyKwaf ew,f/
249.What will Mrs.Grundy say ?- tdref ;D csi;f awG bmajymrvJ/
250. What line are you in ? bmpD;yGm;a&;vkyu
f ikd o
f vJ/
251. You have the green light.rif;udk vkycf iG jhfyKvu
dk Nf y/D
252. Touch gloves ! vuftw
d cf si;f xdNyD; EIwq
f ufMu/
253. Are you nuts? rif;l;aeovm;/
254. Tell you what ! ajym&OD;r,f/
255. This much. a[m'Davmuf/
256. The salt of the earth tm;ud;k tm;xm;p&myJ/
257. My lips are sealed vQKUd 0Suf pum;EIwyf w
d x
f m;w,f/
258. Down in front ! a&SUuxdik Af sKUd /
259. Do I make myself clear?- usKyaf jymwm&Si;f vm;
260. On three !wpf-ESp-f oH;k a&MupdUk /
261. Let's get down to business !- vkyif ef;taMumif; aqG;aEG;MupdUk /
262. Any news? bm(owif;)xl;vJ/
263. Hop in um;xJ0ifcyhJ g/
264. Give me a sec wpfpueUf avmuf tcsed af y;yg/
265. You stay out of it. rif;0ifrygeJU/
266. Move over ! ab;z,f ^ [db
k ufw;kd /
267. You heard me ! Mum;w,faemf/

92
268. All the best atmifjrifygap/
269. How you doing ? aeaumif;vm;
270. Words fail me ! tHah &m/
271. Put some beef into it ! enf;enf;tm;pdu
k v
f u
k d pf rf;yg/
272. You got a minute ?tcsed ef nf;enf;tm;vm;
273. Hang it ! aoygawmhumG /
274. Shame on you ! rif;&Suzf Ukd aumif;w,f/
275. How was your flight ? av,mOfc&D;tqifajy&JUvm;/
276. That's the beauty of it tJ'gav; csppf &maumif;wm/
277. I wish I knew uReaf wmfvnf; odcsiv
f u
kd w
f m/
278. Be glad to 0rf;omvQuyf g/
279. Come againbmajymw,f ^ wpfacgufjyefajymygOD;/
280. so he said olajymwmyJ/
281. Carefulowdxm;/
282. Man matters most in life - vlomy"meyg/
283. Too little too late enf;enf;av;aemufus oGm;w,f/
284. Camera rolling ! ky&f iS f u
kd u
f ;l jcif;pNyD/
285. Stay out of trouble jyem rwufapeJU/
286. Calm down. pdwaf t;at;xm;yg/
287. What's the point? bmudq
k v
kd w
kd mvJ
288. The salt of the earth tm;ud;k tm;xm;p&myJ/
289. Words fail me ! tHah &m
290. Action stations ! toifjh yif? ae&m,l/
291. Be there [drk mS &Sad e (odUk ) vmcJrh ,f/
292. ... you know - ...
ayghaemf/
293. End of story awmfNyD/ xyfrajymeJUawmh/
294. Every second counts pueUf wdik ;f wefz;kd &Sw
d ,f/
295. Stupid ! toH;k rusvu
kd w
f m/
296. Back off ! aemufqw
k /f
297. Hot dog coming up ! Hot dog wpfy&JG NyD/
298. Move it ! jrefjrefvyk Mf u/
299. Don't let the bedbugs bit you - Murf;yd;k awG rudu
k af peJU/
300. Any luck ? uHx;l vm;/
301. You have my word uReaf wmfuwday;w,f/

93
302. Fall out ! wef;jzKw/f
303. One one thousand wpfpueUf /
304. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush - vufxrJ rd &d &
&&Sx
d m;aomt&monf yd
k om\/
305.All that glitter is not goldtjyifyef;MunfNh yD; rqH;k jzwfygESi/hf
(0g0gjrifwikd ;f a&TrxifeYJ)
306.Beauty is only skin deep tvSruf&if npmcufomG ;r,f/
(tvStyqdw
k m ta&jym;waxmuf)
307.Birds of a feather flock togetherpdu
k w
f cl si;f aygif;Muw,f/
308.Nothing ventured,nothing gained- xdik af evdUk awmh bmrSjzpfrvmbl;/
309.That's the last straw uJ...yGo
J rd ;f a&m/
310.You said it ody[
f w
k f ^ odyrf eS w
f maygh/
311.If worst comes to worstonfx
h uftajctaeqd;k vm&if/
312.Settle down ! NidrMf uawmh/
313.Let's give him a warm welcome- olUudk vIu
d v
f u
dI v
f v
JS BJS udKqMkd updUk /
314.Rules are rules pnf;rsO;f awG[m pnf;rsO;f awGy/J
315.Do you follow me? em;vnfovm;
316.Get out of my face !igha&SUuxGuo
f mG ;/
317.Don't "Hello! How are you?" me- ighuak d eaumif;vmawG? bmawGvyk rf aeeJU/
318. Bigger than Texas a>rqdak ygufNyD/
319.What a cake walk ! ysi;f awmifysi;f ao;w,f/
320. Check it out ! Munfph rf;ygOD;/
321. Be good ! vdrv
f rd rf mrmae/
322. This isn't happening'g vH;k 0rjzpfEikd b
f ;l /
323. In a minute wpfred pfavmufapmifyh g/
324. Attaboy ! 'grS ighom;uG/
325. Accept no substitutes bmeJUrS tpm;rxd;k Edik b
f ;l /
326.I'll be history !igawmh 'kuv
v
S BS u;D awGUr,f/
327.Hold on to your hat kww
f &uf tHMh orItwGut
f oifjh yifxm;/
328.You scared me ! (rif;vkyw
f m) ighvefUoGm;wmyJ/
329.You'll go down in historyrif;awmh ordik ;f wGiu
f se&f pf r,f/
330.Sit tight pdw&f n
S &f n
S af pmifah e/

++++++++

94

SENTENCES-CONSTRUCTIONS
1.

Nouns In Apposition
emrfrsm;uyfxm;jcif;
qd k a om ____on
on
___qd
onf ___/

U Hla is our headmaster. U Hla is very kind and understanding.


OD;vSonf uREkfyfwdkY\ ausmif;tkyfBuD;jzpfonf/ OD;vSonf tvGefMuifemNyD;em;vnfwwfonf/
U Hla, our headmaster, is very kind and understanding.
OD;vSqdkaom uREkfyfwdkY\ ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;onf tvGefMuifemwwfNyD; em;vnfwwfonf/

2.

as _____ as ( Simile )
uJ h o d k Y _____
_____uJ
Her lips were red. They were like roses.
olr\EIwfcrf;rsm;eDMuonf/if;wdkYonffESif;qDyef;rsm;ESifhwlMuonf/
Her lips were as red as roses.
olr\EIwfcrf;rsm;onfESif;qDyef;rsm;uJhodkYeDMuonf/

3.

After + Ving
ae
NyD ; aemuf _____cJ
cJ h o nf /
_____ae
aeNyD
After +Sub+ had + V3
jyD ; NyD ; aemuf _____ cJ h o nf /
____jyD
Mg Mg did his homework. Then he went to bed.
armifarmif ol\tdrfpmudk jyKvkyfcJhonf/xdkYaemufoltdyf,modkY0ifcJhonf/
After doing his homework, Mg Mg went to bed.
NyD ; aemu
yKvk y f a eeNyD
aemuf armifarmif tdyf&modkY 0ifcJhonf/
ol\tdrfpmjyKvk
After Mg Mg had done his homework, he went to bed.
armifarmifonf ol\tdrfpmudk jyKvkyfjyD; NyD;aemuf olonftdyf&modkY 0ifcJhonf/

4.

Without + Ving
____ r ____ bJ
Without +being + V3
bJ
_____ ud k rr_____bJ

95

96
She took my book. She did not tell me.
olrusGEkfyf\pmtkyfudk,lcJhonf/ olruREkfyfudkrajymcJh/
Without telling me,she took my book.
uREkfyfudkrajymbJolruREkfyf\pmtkyfudk,lcJhonf/
He went to the party.Noone invited him.
olygwDodkYoGm;cJhonf/olYudk b,folrSrzdwfcJh/
Without being invited, he went to the party.
olYudk b,folrSrzdwfbJolygwDodkYoGm;cJYonf/

5.

when = csdefwGif
By the time = csdefwGif
as soon as = wmeJYcsufcsif;
No sooner had + Sub+ V3 + than.....
cJ h o nf /
____ jyD ; vd k Y rS r Mumao; _____cJ
No sooner did + Sub+ V1 + than......
cJ h o nf /
____ cJ h v d k Y rS r Mumao; ____cJ
He went out when he had done the work.
oltvkyfNyD;cJhcsd
c sde f w G if oltjyifxGufcJhonf/
By the time he had done the work, he went out.
oltvkyfNyD;cJhcsd
c sde f w G if oltjyifxGufcJhonf/
As soon as he had done the work, he went out.
oltvkyfNyD;wmeJY csufcsif; tjyifxGufcJhonf/
No sooner had he done the work than he went out.
oltvkyf N yD ; vd k Y r S r Mumao; oltjyifxGuf cJhonf/
No sooner did he do the work than he went out.
oltvkyf v k y f c J h v d k Y rS r Mumao; oltjyifxGuf c J honf/

6.

Neither_____nor____
yg ....r&Sd? rvkyf/
_____ a&m _____yg
Mg Mg doesn't like coffee and Mg Ba doesn't either.
armifarmifonf aumfzDBudKufavhr&Sd? NyD;awmh armifbvJ xdkenf;if;/
Neither Mg Mg nor Mg Ba likes coffee.
armifarmiff a&m
a &m armifbyg aumfzDBudKufavhh r&Sd/

7.

Neither of
pvH k ; ____rr ____ Muyg/
_____pvH
The two boys aren't studying.
a,musfm;av;ESpfa,muf pmavhvmraeMuyg/
Neither of the two boys is studying.
a,musfm;av;ESpfa,mufpvHk; pmavhvmraeyg/

8.

Both _____ and ____


a&m _____ yg ES p f a ,muf p vH k ;
_____a&m
Mg Mg is a clever student. Mg Hla is a clever student.
armifarmifonf vdrmaomausmif;om;wpfa,muf jzpfonf/
armifvSonf vdrmaomausmif;om;wpfa,mufjzpfonf/
Both Mg Mg and Mg Hla are clever students
a&marmif
byg ESpfa,mufpvHk; vdrmaomausmif;om;rsm; jzpff M u
uonf/
armifarmifa&m
a &m

9.

____more + _____+ than....


xuf y d k _____
_____xuf
as _____as
uJ h o d k Y (avmuf ) _____
_____uJ
Hla Hla is more beautiful than Mya Mya.
vSvSonf jrjrxufydk vSyonf/
Mya Mya isn't as beautiful as Hla Hla.
jrjronf vSvS uJhodkY(avmuf) rvSyyg/

10. .... such +a/an + Adj + N +that ....


uJ h od k Y__aom
aom
wpf___jzpf
jzpf v d k Y__
aom__wpf

........so + Adj/Adv + that .......


tvG e f _____vG
vG e f ; vd k Y _____
_____tvG
........because........
aomaMumifh_____
_____aomaMumif
It was such an interesting film that I saw it twice.
wp
jzpf v d k YuREfkyfif;udkESpfcgMunfhcJhonf/
uJ h odkYpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;aom
aomkyf&Sifum;wp
wpff um;jzpf
The film was so interesting that I saw it twice.
'Dkyf&Sifum;onf tvG efpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;vG e f ; vd k Y uREfkyfif;udk ESpfcgMunfhcJhonf/
I saw the film twice because it was so interesting.if ; onf
aomaMumifh uREfkyfkyf&Sifum;udk ESpfcgMunfhcJhonf/
tvGefpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;aomaMumi

97

98

11. .... so + Adj/Adv + that .......


tvG e f_____aomaMumif
aomaMumif h____
_____tvG
too + Adj/Adv +for ( ) + to V1
bdkY&ef (
)twGuf___ vGef;onf
___bd
Adj/Adv + enought+for( )+toV1
bdkY&ef (
)twGuf rr___avmuf
avmufbl;/
___bd

14.

It was very hot. Children shouldn't play outside.


tvGefylonf/ uav;rsm; tjyifwGifrupm;oifh/
It was so hot that children shouldn't play outside.
tvG efyl a omaMumif h uav;rsm; tjyifwGifrupm;oifh/
It was too hot for children to play outside.
twG u f yll v G e f ; onf /
bd k Y &e
tjyifwGifupm;bd
&eff uav;rsm;twG
It was not cold enought for children to play outside.
twG uf rat;avmuf
avmuf b l ;/
bd k Y &e
tjyifwGifupm;bd
&ef uav;rsm;twG

12.

If I study hard, I will pass this exam.


cJ h v Qi
uRefawmfBudK;pm;avhvmcJ
Qif pmar;yGJudk uREfkyfatmifjriff v d r f h r nf /
Unless I study hard, I will not pass this exam.
uREkfyfBudK;pm;ravhvmvQif pmar;yGJudk uREkfyfatmifjrifvdrfhrnfr[kwf/
If I were bird I should fly away.
igomiSufjzpfcJhvQif ig ta0;odkYysHcJhvdrfhrnf/
If I had seen him I could have saved him from drowning.
igolYudkjrifjyD;jzpfvQif igolUudka&epfjcif;rSu,fjyD;jzpfvdrfhrnf/

There is/was no+N....who/that.......not


aom
qd k v d k U wpf a ,muf r S r &S d /
____aom
aom____qd
rdcifwdkif;onf olrwdkU\uav;rsm;udkcspfavY&SdMuonf/
There is no mother who does not love her children.
olrwdkU\uav;rsm;udkcspfavYr &SdMuaom rdcifqd
q dk v d k U wpf a ,muf r S r &S d /

13.

If+V1...... will+V1 .... (open yH k p H)


vQif ___vd
vd r f h r nf /
___vQif
Unless+V1 .....will not +V1
r ___vQif
vQif ___vd
vd r f h r nf r [k w f /
pdwful;,OfyHkpH)
If+V2...would+V1 (pd
cJ h v Qif ___ cJ h v d r f h r nf /
____cJ
rjynfYpHkyHkpH)
If+had+V3...would+have+V3(rjynf
jyD ; jzpf v Qif ___ jyD ; jzpf v d r f h r nf /
____jyD

the + Adj(est) +Noun


t -----qH k ; ---There is no other + Noun
----qd k v d k Y ? b,f - ---rS r &S d /
No other + Noun ... is
wjcm;b,f - --rS . .... r-----yg/
Australia is the largest island in the world.
Mopaw;vsonf urmay:wGif tBuD;rm;qHk;uRef;jzpfonf/
There is no other island in the world as large as Australia.
Mopaw;vs uJhodkY(avmuf) BuD;rm;aomuRef;qdkvdkY urmay:wGif b,fuRef;rSr&Sd/
No other island in the world is as large as Australia.
urmay:wGif wjcm;b,fuRef;rS Mopaw;vs uJhodkY(avmuf) r BuD;rm;yg/

15.

The more / The less / The---er....


the more / the less / the ----er....
avav?
avav/
____avav?
avav?_____avav/
a.

If you work harder, you will succeed more.


oiftvkyfydkBudK;pm;vQif oifydkatmifjrifvdrfhrnf/
The harder you work, the more you will succeed.
oiftvkyfBudK;pm;avav oifydkatmifjrifavav jzpfvdrfhrnf/
b.
When the sun is hot, we get lazy.
aeylwJhtcsdefrSm uREfkyfwdkYysif;Muonf/
The hotter the sun ( is ), the lazier we get.
aeylavav uREfkyfwdkYysif;avav jzpfonf/
c.
He sells more books and takes less profit.
olpmtkyfrsm; ydka&mif;avonf? NyD; tjrwfenf;enf; ,lavh&Sdonf/
The more books he sells, the less profit he makes.
olpmtkyfrsm; ydka&mif;&avav tjrwfenf;enf;om ,lavh&Sdavav jzpfonf/

99

16.

100
Please turn down the radio So that / In order that I
can get to sleep. igtdyfEdkifbdkYaus;Zl;jyKa&'D,y
kd w
d v
f u
kd yf g/
He saved part of his salary so that he could buy a cycle.

It +is/was+N/N group+that/who+......
'D v l [ mm/'g[m.......aygh
'g[m.......aygh? olUudk/if ; rS m .....wm/
Bogyoke Aung San was born at Natmauk.
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk eufarmufNrdKU arG;zGm;onf/
It was Bogyoke Aung San who was born at Natmauk.
'Dvl[mAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;aygh olYudkeufarmufNrdKUrSmarG;zGm;wm/
It was at Natmauk that Bogyoke Aung San was born.
'g[meufarmufNrdKUaygh if;rSmAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk arG;wm/

17

.........because/as/since ........
aomaMumifh_____
_____aomaMumif
......because of /On account of /
.......owing to / due to + noun
On account of / owing to / due to
aMumif h _____
_____aMumif
He took a taxi because/as/since he was late for work.

oltvkyfaemufuscJJ haomaMumif
aomaMumifh oltiSm;um;wpfpD;iSm;cJhonf/
He arrived late because of the heavy traffic.

aMumifh olta&mufaemufuscJhonf
c&D;vrf;yrf;ydwfqdkUjcif; aMumi
18. To / In order to/ In order not to
+ V1
So as to / So as not to
__&ef , __bdkU , r__&ef , r__bdkU
Do you eat to live or live to eat?

oifwdkYtouf&SifbdkUpm;Muwmvm;?
bd k Utouf&SifMuwmvm;
'grSr[kwf pm;bd
She is going out in order to do some shopping.
He got up early so as not to be late for school.

19.So that / In order that + modal verb + V1


__Edkif&ef , __EdkifbdkU , __&nf&G,fvsuf
on condition that / proviede that
__rnfqdkvQif,

puf b D ; wpf p D ; ol 0 ,fEdkif&ef^&nf


^ &nf& G , f v suf ol U vpm
wpd w f w yd k i f ; ud k o l p k a qmif ; cJ h o nf /
The time-table was put up in order that the students would
know when classes will begin.

pmoifcsdeftpudkausmif;om;rsm;od Edkif&ef^&nf
^&nf&G,fvsuf
tcsdefpm&if;rsm;uyfxm;cJhonf/
I will allow you to go out on condition that / proviede
that you come back before dinner.
rnfqdkvQif rif;udkigtjyifxGufcGifhjyKr,f/
npmrwdkifrD oifjyefvmrnf

even if / even though;

_cJhvQifawmifrS

Such an act would not be kind even if /even though it just.

w&m;rQwcJhvQifawmifrSuJhodkYaomtjyKtrlwpfckonf
Muifemoem;&mra&muf
as if / as though
__taejzifh/__oa,mifa,mif
She speaks as if / as though she were a very learned person.

olonftvGefynm&Sdaomvlwpfa,mufjzpfonfU taejzifh /
oa,mifa,mif olpum;ajymavh&Sdonf/
as well as;
Nilar as well as Kyi Pyar will phone you about the trip.
__ vdkbJ __
eDvmh vdb
k J Munfjym c&D;pOftaMumif;oifx
h zH ;kH qufvrd rhf nf/
She trembled as soon as she heard the news.
as soon as
__ wmeJUcsufcsOf; ol'o
D wif;udMk um;wmeJUcsucf sO;f olwek v
f yI o
f mG ;cJo
h nf/
20. In case
vd k & r,f &

Lock all the doors and windows in case there are


thieves in the neighbourhood,.tdrt
f em;rSmolc;k d awG&ad S evdUk

vdk&r,f& wHcg;awGeYJjyLwif;awGtm;vH;k aomhcwfxm;yg/


21. Active-Passive (see page 46-49)

101

102

22. Although
---aomf v nf ; ---

I haven't improved although I


take the medicine regularly.

igaq;rSefrSefaomuf aomfvnf; igrwdk;wufcJh/


In spite of + Noun (Ving)
----jcif ; jyK aomf v nf ; ---

2 4 . "So...that" is used with


many, few, much, or little.

She made so many mistakes that she failed in the exam.


He had so little trouble with the test that he left twenty minutes early.
She has so much money that she can buy whatever she wants.

25. Though...yet / --aomf v nf ; --ao;onf /


Though he was poor, yet he was happy.
olqif;&&JJaomfvnf;olaysmfEdkifao
ao;onf
a o;onf/

In spite of taking the medicine regularly, I haven't improved.

igaq;aomufjcif;rSefrSefjyK aomfvnf; igrwdk;wufcJh/


Although domestic robots have simple vision, they would
not be able to climb the stairs.
In spite of having simple vision, domestic robots would
not be able to climb the stairs.

23. Relative Clauses


"who or that" vl (jyKol)
The woman lives next door. She is a doctor.
trsdK;orD;BuD;wbufcef;wGifaeonf/olonfq&m0efwa,mufjzpfonf/
The woman who/that lives next door is a doctor.
wbufcef;wGifaeaomtrsdK;orD;BuD;onfq&m0efwa,mufjzpfonf/
I know the girl. Toe Toe is talking to her.
I know the girl who/that Toe Toe is talking to.
Her daughter was injured in a car accident. She is now in hospital.
Her daughter who was injured in a car accident is now in hospital.

"that"or "which" t&m0w K (a&G ; cs,f r I )


Where is the money? It was on the table.
Where is the money that/which was on the table?
These are the keys. Mother was looking for them.
These are the keys that/which mother was looking for.

"whose" his/her/their

paomyd k i f q d k i f r I

We helped our neighbours. Their car had broken down.


We helped our neighbours whose car had broken down.

"whom" vl (tjyKcHol) (ol U ud k )


I went to see the doctor yesterday. He is very patient.
The doctor whom I went to see yesterday is very patient.

whether ... or/--od


od k U r[k w f - --bmbJ j zpf j zpf /
I do not care whether you stay or go.
odkUr[kwoG
foGm;oGm;;bmbJ
bmbJjzpfjzpf?ig*krpdkuf/
aeaeod
rif ;aeae

2 6 . Direct Speech / Indirect Speech


(Reported Speech)
( Present awG u d k Past ajymif ; ? Past awG u d k
Perfect ajymif ; ?
Future awGudk Conditional ajymif;? Conditonal awGudk Conditional Perfect
ajymif;? I / you awGudk he/she ajymif;? me / you awG u d k him / her ajymif ; ?
we / you awG u d k they ajymif ; ? us / you awG u d k them ajymif ; ?
yesterday
ud k the day before, the previous day ajymif ; ? today ud k that day ajymif ; ?
ajymif;/)
tomorrow ud k the next day, the following day, ajymif;? now udk thenajymif

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

a.Statements
say, will say, said ,
said to tpm;

say that ,will say that,


said that, told that ajymif ; /

Mya Mya said, "I am hungry now."


Mya Mya said that she was hungry then

jrjrajym]]igtckqmonf}}
jrjru ol tckqmonf[^k vdYk ajymonf/

b.Questions
said, said to tpm;
Do, Does
Did
Has,Have, Had
Will , Shall , Can , May
Are
Wh---/ How--+ do/ does/is
Wh---/ How--+ will , shall ,
can , may

asked, wanted to know,


inquired, enquired ajymif;/
asked + if + V2
asked + if + had + V3
asked + if + had + V3
asked+if / whether +
would ,should,could,might + V1
asked + if + was
wh--- / how-----+ V2
wh--- / how-----+ would ,
should , could, might, + V1

103

104
She said to me, "Can you speak Japanese?"
She asked me whether/if I could speak Japanese.
Lwin said to Htet , "Where do you live?"
Lwin asked Htet where she lived.
Cherry said, "What time does the film begin.
Cherry wanted to know what time the film began.
"How long should a day or a year be?
No one can be dicide how long a day or a year should be.

c. Requests

Commands.
say, said, said to tpm; tell,, told , ask, asked, advised,
encouraged, invited, ordered,
commanded, permitted, reminded,
warned ,requested, begged , urged,
shouted, forbaded.. ponf j zif h ajymif ; /
V1, Please,
to + V1
Don't + V1
not to + V1

The teacher said to the class, "Stand up."


The teacher told the class to stand up.
Ni Ni said to Bo Bo , "Please wait here." Ni Ni requested Bo Bo to wait there."
Our teacher said to us, "Don't talk in the class."
Our teacher told us not to talk in the class.

d.Exclamatory
say, said, said to tpm;

wished, exclaimed, confessed,


ponf j zif h ajymif ; /
prayed...ponf
What, How ponf w d k U tpm;
very ajymif;/
Oh! , Ah!, Alas! ponf.tmar!dwf ( ! ) rsm;jzKwf/

Za Za said,"Alas! I've lost my pen!"


Za Za exclaimed that he had lost his pen.
Su Su said,"Oh! What a beautiful girl!"
Su Su exclaimed that it was a very beautiful girl.

+++++++++
wG i f (ta&twGuf)ck &Sdonf/ -&SdMuonf/
There is/ are--(wae&m&m)wG
wG i f (ta&twGuf)ck &S d c J h o nf / -&S d c J h M uonf /
There was/ were--(wae&m&m)wG
wG i f (ta&twGuf)ck &Sdvdrfhrnf/ -&SdMuvdrfhrnf/
There will be--(wae&m&m)wG
(will uJo
h Ykyd ifwould, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must wdYko;kH Edik /f )
There is a cat in my house. There are two cars in our street.
There was a cat in my house.(ightdrfwGifaMumifwaumif&SdcJhonf/tckr&Sdawmh)/
There will be three PCs in my office next month.(PCoH;k vH;k &Sv
d rd rhf nf)
There should be five DVDs in our school. 'dYkausmif;rSm'DA'D iD g;vH;k &So
d ifo
h nf/
++++++++

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

BODY
head
face
neck
shoulder
back
chest
arm
elbow
wrist
hand
stomach
abdomen
waist
buttocks
hip
thigh
knee
shin
leg
calf
ankle
foot, feet

b'f ' D
[uf('f)
azh(pf)
euf(uf)
&Tw(f vf)'g
bJh(cf)
csuf(pfw)f
trf;
tJ(vf)bd;k
&pf(pfx)f
[J(ef')f
pwrf;rwf(uf)
tJ(h bf)'drk (J ef)
a0h(pfw)f
bwfwuf(cf)
[pf(yf)
odkuf(*f)
eD;(vf)
&Si;f (ef)
vuf(*f)
um(zf)
tJ(ef)uJ(vf)
zGwf(wf)? zd(wf)

udk,fcEm
OD;acgif;
rsufEmS
vnfyif;
ycH;k
ausm
&iftyk f
vufarmif;
wHawmifqpf
vufaumuf0wf
vuf
tpmtdrf
0rf;? 0rf;Adu
k f
cg;
wifqkH
wifyg;
aygif
'l;
ndKUousnf;
ajcaxmuf
ajcovH;k
ajccsi;f 0wf
ajc

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

FACE
hair
fore head
nose
nostril
mustache
chin
beard
temple
cheek
ear

azh p f
[J(,m;)
zdk;[uf('f)
Edk;(Zf)
aemh(pf)x&if;vf
rGwf(pf)wJh(csf)
csif;(ef)
bD;,mh('f)
wJ(rf)yJ(vf)
csd(uf)
[J(ef')f

rsufESm
qHyif
ezl;
ESmacgif;
ESmacgif;ayguf
EIwcf rf;arT;
ar;aph
rkwq
f w
d af rT;
em;xif
yg;
em;

105

HAND
11. wrist
12. palm
13. thumb
14. finger
15. fingernail
16. knuckles
17. index finger
18. middle finger
19. ring finger
20. little finger
EYES
21. eye
22. eye brow
23. eye lashes
24. eyelid
25. pupil
26. iris
27. tears
28. mouth
29. lip
30. gum,gums
31. tooth, teeth
32. tongue
33. tonsils
34. uvula
FOOT
35. ankle
36. heel
37. toes
38. big toe
39. little toe
40. toenail
41. arch
42. sole

106

[J(ef'f)
&pf(pfw)f
yg;(rf)
orf;(bf)
zif;(ef)ig;
zif;(ef)*gae;(vf)
eyfu(J vfp)f
tif(ef)'uf(ufp)f
rpf'pf(vf)
&if;(if)
vpfwJ(vf)
tdkif;(pf)
tdkif;
tdkif;bdkU
tdkif;vuf(&Sf)
tdik ;f vpf('f)
jyL;ypf(vf)
tdik ;f &pf(pf)
wD;,m;(pf)
armuf(wf)
vpf(yf)
*rf;(rf)?*rf;(pf)
wlU(of)?wd(f)
wef;(if)
awmf(ef)qif(vf)
,ljALvm;
zGwf(wf)
tJ(ef)uJ(vf)
[D;(vf)
wdk;(pf)
bpfw;kd
vpfwJ(vf)wdk;
wd;k ae;
tmh(csf)
qdk;(vf)

vuf
vufaumuf0wf
vuf0g;
vufr
vufacsmif;
vufonf;
vufqpfrsm;
vufdK;
vufcv,f
vufol<u,f
vufoef;
rsufvHk;
rsuaf ph
rsucf ;kH
rsuaf wmif
rsucf HG
rsufqH? oli,ftdrf
rsuef uf0ef;
rsu&f nf
yg;pyf
EIwcf rf;
oGm;zHk;
oGm;
vQm
yg;od?tmpyfoD;
vQmcif
ajc
ajccsi;f 0wf
ajczaemifh
ajcacsmif;rsm;
ajcr
ajcoef;
ajconf;
ajctcH;k
ajcz0g;

PROVERBS (pum;yHkrsm;)
1. No Rose Without A Thorn.
2. Look Before You Leap.
3. Let Sleeping Dogs be.

ql;rygonfhESif;qDr&Sd/ temrcHvQif tomrpH&/


rckefcif BudKMunfhyg/
tdyfaysmfaeaom acG;rsm;udkrEId;ygESifh/
usm;aoudktoufroGif;ygESifh/
4. Fortune Favours the Brave uHMurmonf &J&ifholrsm;udkrsufESmomay;onf/
5. Heaven Helps Those Who Help Themselves.
bk&m;ocifonfudk,fhtm;udk,fudk;olrsm;tm;tultnDay;onf/
6. Patience And Perseverance Will Conquer Mountains.
pdwf&SnfrIESifhZGJonfawmifrsm;udkatmifEdkifonf/
7. Knowledge Is Power
A[kokwonf cGef;tm;jzpfonf/
8. A Friend In Need Is A Friend Indeed.
ta&;BuHKvQiu
f ,
kd b
hf uf&yfwnfonfo
h il ,fcsi;f onf oli,fcsi;f aumif;wpfO;D jzpfonf/
9. All The World's A Stage avmuBuD;onf ZmwfcHkBuD;wpfckjzpfonf/
10. A Stitch In Time Saves Nine
tcsed rf t
DS yfcsuw
f pfcsuo
f nf tyfcsuu
f ;kd csuu
f o
kd ufomaponf/ (tcsed rf cDS sKyt
f pkwo
f wfom)
11. Waste Not, Want Not.
rjzKef;wD;vQif vdktyfjcif;r&Sd/
12. Well Begun Is Half Done
aumif;pGmpwifjcif;onf wpf0ufNyD;pD;onf/ tpaumif;rStaESmif;aocsm/
13. All Is Not Gold That Glitters.
ta&mifawmufywdkif;a&Tr[kwf/ 0g0gjrifwdkif;a&TrxifESifh/
14. Rome Was Not Built In a Day
a&mrNrdKUudk w&ufwnf;ESiw
fh nfaqmufco
hJ nfr[kw/f cka&wGi;f wl;cka&Munfaomufr&/
15. A Rolling Stone Gathers No Moss.
vdrfhaeaomausmufwHk;wpfwHk;wGifa&Sdruyf/(BudK;pm;aeolOmPfyGifh)
16. Where There's A Will, There's A Way. vdkvQifMuHqenf;vrf;&/
17. Nothing Venture, Nothing Have.
pGefUpm;rIr&SdvQifbmrSr&/ aMuufvQifvGJ? &JvQifrif;jzpf/
18. No Pains, No Gains. temrcHvQif tomrpH&/
19. Example Is Better Than Precept.
erlemonf xkwfjyefxm;onfhOya'rsm;xufydk aumif;onf/
20. More Haste, Less Speed. tvsifvdktaES;jzpf/
21. Experience Is The Best Teacher. tawGUtBuHKonftaumif;qH;k q&mjzpfonf/
22. Union Is Strength. pnf;vHk;jcif;onftiftm;/ pnf;vHk;nDnmatmifaMumif;jzm/

107
23. Necessity Is the Mother Of Invention.
vdktyfjcif;onf wDxGifjcif;\rdcifjzpfonf/
24. Prevention Is Better Than Cure.
BudKwifumuG,fjcif;onf ukojcif;xufydkaumif;onf/
25. Birds of A Feather Flock Together. tawmifwil u
S rf sm;onf twlpak 0;Muonf/
26. Industry Is The Mother Of Invention.
vHkHUv0D&d,&Sdjcif;onf atmifjrifjcif;\rdcifjzpfonf/
27. Make Hay While The Sun Shines.
aeylwkef;jrufvSef;yg/ vomwkef;Adkif;iifyg/ rdk;&Gmwkef;a&cHyg/
28. Slow And Steady Wins The Race. jznf;jznf;rSefrSefatmifyGJcH/
29. Honesty Is The Best Policy. dk;om;jcif;onftaumif;qHl;rl0g'jzpfonf/
30. The Man Who Hesitates Is Lost. wHkUqdkif;aomolonfIH;edrfhonf/
31. To Be Forewarned Is To Be Forearmed.
BudKwifowday;jcif;onf BudKwifjyifqifrIjzpfaponf/
32. Man Is The Architect Of His Own Fate
vlonfrdrdudk,fydkifuHMurm\Adokumjzpfonf/
33. Forgiveness Is Nobler Than Revenge.
cGifhvTwfjcif;onf vufpm;acsjcif;xufydkaumif;rGefonf/
34. A Man Is Known By The Company He Keeps.
vlwpfa,mufbmqdkonfudk olaygif;oif;olrsm;udkMunfhodEdkifonf/
35. Procrastination Is The Thief Of Time
aESmifhaES;wHkUqdkif;jcif;onf tcsdefudkcdk;onfholcdk;jzpfonf/
36. To Kill Two Birds With One Stone wpfcsufckwfESpfcsufjzwf/
37. To Be In The Same Boat. wpfavSwnf;pD;wpfc&D;wnf;oGm;/
38. To Bring Oil To The Fire rD;avmif&mavyifh/
39. From Hand to Mouth. &&pm;pm;

40. To Run With the Hare and Hunt With The Hounds
,kefESifhtwlajy;? acG;ESifhtwlvdkuf/ udk,fhvlolYzufom;vkyfonf/
41. To Make a Mountain Of A Mole-hill
rSUJ udak wmifvyk o
f nf/ wpdwu
f w
kd pftw
d v
f yk o
f nf/
42. To Paddle One's Own Canoe udk,hfavSudk,favSmf/ udk,fh'l;udk,fcRef/
43. Every man to his trade. uRrf;usif&mvdrrf m/
44. A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing od;k a&NcHKaom0Hyak vG/ ta&NcHKoDvaMumif/
45. Putting the Cart Before The Horse vSn;f a&SUjrif;usL;? EGm;a&SUxGeu
f sL;/
udk,fEIwf,Ofaus;? pdwfjzLazG;? at;Nidrf;csrf;om&ygap/

108

Phrasal Verbs
ask for = awmif;qdkonf/
answer back = jyefvSefajymonf/
broke out = jzpfyGm;onf/
broke down = ysufonf/
brought up = arG;jrLysdK;axmifonf/ butter up = rsufESmcsdKaoG;? az:vHzm;onf/
call for = vkyfzdkYvdkonf/
carry on = qufvkyfonf/
fake up = vkyfMuHzefwD;onf/
fall in love = cspfMudKufonf/
find out = azmfxkwfonf/
flew into = (a'gx)aygufuGJonf/
fond of = ESpfoufonf/
give up = pGefYvTwfonf? jzwfonf/
give in = tavQmhay;onf/
grow up = &ifhusuf? t&G,fa&mufonf/
keep away = a&SmifMuOfonf/
keep in touch with = tquftoG,frjywfatmifxdef;xm;onf//
keep on = qufxdef;xm;onf/
laugh at = ysuf&,fjyKonf/
make for = OD;wnfoGm;onf/
make out = oabmaygufonf/
make up = tpm;xdk;onf/
mix up = a&mukef? &Iyfukefonf/
passed away = uG,fvGefoGm;onf/
pass off = yaysmufonf? ta,mifaqmifonf/
pick up = (um;? ,mOfwckckjzifh)wifac:onf/ point out = nTefjyonf/
pull in = (um;? ,mOfwckck)qdkufa&mufvmonf/ put down = ESdrfeif;onf/
put on = pD;onf? 0wfonf? aqmif;onf/
put off = cRwfonf/tcsdefqGJonf/
put up with = onf;cHonf/
put aside = ab;z,fxm;onf/
run out of = ukefoGm;onf? jywfoGm;onf/
ran into = rarQmfvifhbJawGUonf/
run down = tm;ukefoGm;onf/
ring up = zHk;qufonf/
screw up = 0uftl&pfonf/
set off = c&D;pxGufonf? (aAsmuftdk;)azgufonf/
show up = ay:vmonf? a&mufvmonf/ show off = MuGm;0gonf/
shut up = yg;pyfydwfonf/
snap at = &efaxmifonf/
skip over = ausmfxm;? csefxm;onf/
speak up = pum;us,fus,fajymonf/
speak out = ajymMunfhonf/
switch on = rD;zGifhonf/
tell on/ upon = tusKd ;oufa&mufonf/ turn off = rD;ydwfonf/
turn up = (toH)csJUonf/
turn down = (toH)avQmhonf/
take part = yg0if,SOfjydKifonf/
tie up = ndaeonf(rtm;bl;)/
worn out = ajcukefvufyef;usonf/

109
Phrasal Verb Get

+ get at vuf0,f? trSefodatmifygh


usuf&? &&SdjyKvkyfr,f/
+ get back jyefvnfa&muf&Sd&if
get in aumufcHpkaqmif;uG,f/
+ get down atmufqif; get into usa&muf
get off vGwfajrmufqif;ouf w,f/
+ get on qufvuf0wfqifMunfh yg?
get over u atmifjrifausmfvTm; r,f/
+ tqHk;owfoGm; get through wJh
get on wdk;wuf? get to a&mufvmmw,f/
+ get up rwfwyf&yf? tay:wuf?
Phrasal Verb get usuf&ifv,
G /f /
Phrasal Verb Go
+ go went gone [m oGm;onf oGm;chJ oGm;jyD;jyD rdkY
Go! Go! Go! u vk y f M uyg
uyg/
+ go after vd k u fvdkY&S& Sm&if
go against vQif ckcHqefYusifrSm/
+ go along with twloGm;;awmh
go away u xGufcGg? pGefYcGg/
+ go aside rSm vrf;vGJ cRwfacsmf
go back jyefvmm? go between Mum;0ifaphpyfyg/
+ go beyond u ausmfvGefydkrsm;
go by tem;ujzwf? csefxm;? vdkufemm/
+ go for *&k j yK
yK? go on qufvkyf
ae&ma&TUajymif; go over /
+ go through vQif tp-tqHk;zwfrS
csOf;uyf? atmifjrif go upto awmhrSm/
Go Phrasal Verb usufrSwfyg/ /

Phrasal Verb look


+ look after [m Munfh&Iapgifha&Smuf
look on wa,muf u oabmxm;onf/
+ look down on u txiftjrifao;
o;aomf
look upto u txifMuD;av;pm;
av;pm;jyD/

110

+ look up wdk;wuf look over Munfh&Ippfaq;


look through av;u em;vnfoabmaygufonf/
+ look for &S m azG look out owdxm;
look forward arQmfvifh look into avhvmpHkprf;rnf/
look Phrasal Verb, t&usufoihfonf/

Have to Know od & w,f 0gusav;rsm;


Do they recognize you? olwdkYrif;udkrSwfrdvm;/
Did you fare well in exam? pmar;yGJaumif;aumif;ajzEdkifcJhovm;/
I see movie once in a blue moon. (vrif;jymjym wcgavom)
&Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; wcgav ig&ky&f iS Mf unfah vh&w
dS ,f/
Have you phoned her? rif;olYqD zHk;qufjyD;jyDvm;/
Have you had dinner? rif;npm pm;jyD;jyDvm;/
I haven't had dinner. ignpm rpm;&ao;bl;/
a&mufzl;ovm;/
Have you ever been to the States? rif;tar&dum;a&muf
I have never seen a jet. ig*sufav,mOf wcgrS rjrifzl;bl;/
Have you ever seen a ghost? rif;wapwaumifaumifjrif
jrifzl;ovm;/
I have once seen a bullet train. usnfqH&xm;udk igwcgjrifzl;w,f/
I have ever seen the train. &xm;udkawmh igtjrJvdkvdkjrifzl;w,f/

Have something done


I have cut my hair. ighqyH ifignSyjf yD;jyD/(ud,
k b
f momud,
k n
f yS w
f m)
I have my hair cut. ighqyH if nSycf ikd ;f jyD;jyD/(wa,mufa,mufun
kd yS cf ikd ;f wm)
I have had my ears lowered. ighqHyif nSyfvdkufjyD/ (American idiom)
I have repaired my bike. ighpufb;D igjyifjyD;jyD/
I have my bike repaired. ighpufb;D jyifcikd ;f jyD;jyD/
I am having my bike repaired. ighpufb;D jyifcikd ;f xm;jyD/

111

We must do it. igwdkYvkyf&r,f/(trdefYay;wmrsdK;)


We have to do it. igwdkY vkyf&w,f/ (0w&m;t&)
We have got to do it. igwdkYvkyfrSudkjzpfr,f/ (udk,fhtodpdwfqEt&)
How are you? aeaumif;&JUvm;/
How are things with you? tqifajy&JUvm;/
How's business? tvkyftudkifb,fvdkvJ? tqifajy&JUvm;/
What's up? bmjzpfaewmvJ/
What's going on? bmjzpfaevJ/(bmvkyfaevJ)
What's wrong? bmjzpfvdkYvJ/(bmrSm;aevJ)

How do you like.......? b,fvdkvJ? oabmus&JUvm;/


How do you like Myanmar people?
jrefrmvlrsdK;awGudk b,fvdkoabm&ygovJ? oabmus&JUvm;/
How do you like Chinese dish ? w&kyf[if;awGudk oabmus&JUvm;/
I like it. oabmusygw,f/
I like them very much. odyfoabmusygw,f/
I don't care much for Chinese dish/ hot weather.
igw&kyf[if;awGudk odyfrMudKufvSbl;/ igylwJh&moDudk odyfrMudKufvSbl;/
Well, personally I don't think he's very good.
wud,
k x
f t
J jrifajym&&if oluodyaf umif;w,f igrxifygbl;/
Well, as a matter of fact, I'm not keen on Myanmar videos.
rSew
f majym&&if uRefawmf jrefrmAD',
D u
kd m;awG odyrf MudKufvb
S ;l /

How do I go about....... b,fvdkvkyf&rvJ/


How do I go about meeting your boss?
rif;tvky&f iS ef YJ awGUbdYk igb,fvv
kd yk &f rvJ/
How do I go about buying a used car?
wywf&pfum;wpD;0,fbYkd igb,fvv
kd yk &f rvJ/
How do I go about taking a job interview?
tvkyv
f al wGYajzbdYk igb,fvv
kd yk &f rvJ/

112

Where does this camera go ? 'Duifr&m b,frSmxm;&rvJ/


Where do these books go? 'DpmtkyfawGb,frSmxm;&rvJ/
Where do you want this piano go? 'DpE,m;b,frSmxm;apcsifovJ/
Does this spoon go in here? 'DZGef;udk 'DxJrSmxm;&rSmvm;/
Do these go in the drawer? 'gawGudk tHqGJxJxm;&rSmvm;/
The clothes go in the closet. t0wfawGAD'dkxJrSm xm;yg/
The dictionary goes on the top shelf.
tbd"mefupkd mtkypf iftay:xyfrmS xm;yg/
It doesn't go in the meatsafe, it goes on the table.
'gudak Mumiftrd x
f rJ mS rxm;ygeJY? pm;yGaJ y:rSmxm;yg/
qdk&if b,fvdkvJ? What about ?qd
qdk&if bmjzpfrvJ/
How about?qd
How about going for a walk ? vrf;avQmufMur,fqdk&if b,fvdkvJ?
I'd love to. aumif;om;bJ? igavQmufcsifw,f/
What about playing a game of tennis?
wif;epfwyGaJ vmuf upm;&&if bmjzpfrvJ/
That a very good idea. 'godyaf umif;wJph w
d u
f ;l ygbJ/
Well, I'm afraid, I haven't got time. 0rf;enf;ygw,f? tcsdefr&vdkYyg/
How's your father? rif;tazaeaumif;&JUvm;/

Self Introducing

rdrdudk,fudk rdwfqufjcif;

May I introduce myself? uRefawmfhudk,fuRefawmfrdwfqufay;yg&ap/


I'm Win Yu Tun, one of the Prospect Burma students.
How do you do? I am so glad to meet you.
aeaumif;&JUvm;? awGU&wm0rf;omygw,f/
Me, too. / Likewise. uRefawmfvJxdkYtwlygbJ/ awGU&wm0rf;omygw,f/
How are you? Fine, thanks. Very well, thank you.
Not very well, I'm afraid/ I'm sorry.odyfraumif;vSbl;/ 0rf;enf;ygw,f/
Are you free tomorrow? cifAsm; reufzeftm;ovm;/
I'm afraid not. I have an appointment.
uRefawmfrtm;ygbl;? csdef;xm;wmwck&Sdw,f/

113

Has/ Have / Had/ Having rSm odp&m/


He has a house. olUrSmtdrfydkif&Sd/ I have the responsibility. (wm0ef&Sd)
You don't have the authority. rif;rSmvkyyf ikd cf iG hf r&S/d
They have no real power. olwdkYrSmtmPmwu,fr&Sd/
I have(got) a headache/flu. (acgif;udkuf? wkyfauG;)
I have no doubt/ I have no idea/ I have no reason.
uRefawmfhrSm oHo,r&Sd? tMuHOmPfr&Sd? taMumif;jycsufr&Sd/
Have breakfast/ have dinner/ a snack/ a sandwich/ a hamburger/
a cigarette/ a swim/ a walk/ a stroll(at;at;aq;aq;vrf;avQmufjcif;)/
a ride/ a drive/ a rest/ a word/ a talk/ a bath/ a wash/ a shower /
a chat(a&mufwwf&m&m pum;prnfajymjcif;)/ a baby (uav;rD;zGm;)/ have a
party/ have mercy/ have consideration (udk,fcsif;pmjcif;) / have a
heart (pmemjcif;&Sdonf) ponfwdkYrSmHas/have/had oHk;&w,f/

Do/ Don't / Does/ Did/ Doing wdkYrSm odp&m/


Do you speak French? (jyifopfpum;ajymwwfvm;)/(ajymavh&Sdovm;)/
Don't bother ('kur&SmygeJY/) Don't fan the flame. (rD;avmif&mavryifheJY)/
Don't cry for the moon. (rjzpfEdkifwm rwrf;wygeJY)/
Don't break the wind in public. (vlawGMum;xJ avrvnfygeJY)/
He does look tired. (olwu,farmaewJhyHkbJ)/does onfydkrdkav;eufaponf
Do come early. (apmapmvmjzpfatmifvmyg)/
Do shut up! (yg;pyfyw
d jf zpfatmifyw
d yf g/)
She did write to you (olwu,fhudk pma&;cJhygw,f/)
I did my B.A in Mandalay University. (bDatbGUJ &cJw
h ,f)/
He's doing his B.Sc in Delhi. (olUbDtufpfpD udk a'vDrSm oifaew,f/)
She did a year at University. (olwuodkvfrSm wESpfwufcJhjyD/)
done hair (qHyiftvSjyif)? doing the flowers (yef;tvSjyif)/
done shopping, doing cooking, do this sum (aps;0,f? [if;csu?f *Pef;wGu)f /
doing his teeth, do the dishes, does writing (oGm;wdu
k ?f yef;uefaq;? pma&;)
do ironing, do the translation, (rD;ylwdkuf? bmomjyef?)
doing well (tajctaeaumif;)/ What do you do? (rif;bmvkyu
f ikd pf m;ovJ)/

114

Question Tags
Today is fine, isn't it? 'DaeYom,mw,faemf? r[kwfbl;vm;/
Yes, it is/ Yes, lovely. at;-[kww
f ,f/ Oh, do you really think so?rif;xifvYkv
d m;/
Oh, I wouldn't call it really fine. uReaf wmfwu,fom,mw,fvYkdr,lqygbl;/
Suu is coming with us, isn't she? Yes, she is. Yes, I think so.
Oh, I don't know. No, I don't think so. I am afraid not.
Ko Ko won't be late, will he? No, he's never late.
I'm late, aren't I? Yes, but never mind. No, you are just in time.

Thanks
Thank you. Thanks. Thank you very much. Thanks alot.
Thanks for your hospitality.{nf0h wfausr?I /concern ylyefr?I /reassuranceajzodrrhf /I
/compliment.cs;D usL;pum;? /encouragementtm;ay;rI? /everything. tppt&m&m/
I do appreciate your kindness. Thanka any way. Thanks all the same.
Nor at all. vH;k 0rvdt
k yfyg/ Don't mention it. az:rajymygeJYAsm/ Any time tcsed rf a&G;ygbJ/
I apologize awmif;yefygw,f/Pardon me cGiv
hf w
T yf g/ Excuse me MuKd awmif;yefygw,f/
I beg your pardon. rif;&JUcGiv
hf w
T rf u
I ikd gawmif;yefygw,f/ doesn't matter udpr &Syd gbl;/

mind, wish, had rather,


Do you mind if I sit here? ig'DrSmxdkif&ifrif;pdwfckrSmvm;/
Would you mind if I borrow your bike? igrif;pufb;D iSm;&ifrif;pdwcf rk mS vm;/
I wish I knew her name. olemrnfodcJh&ifaumif;rSmbJ/
I am short, I wish I were taller. iguykw,f? igt&yfydk&SnfvmcJh&ifaumif;rSmbJ/
I'd rather be rich. igcsr;f omcsiv
f u
kd w
f m/ I'd rather be healthy. iguse;f rmcsiv
f u
kd w
f m/
I'd rather read than sleep. tdyfwmxuf pmydkzwfcsifygw,f/
He'd rather bet than eat. olu pm;wmxuf avmif;wmudkydkvkyfcsifw,f/
Would you rather have tea or coffee. aumfzeD YJvzuf&nf b,f[mydak omufcsio
f vJ/

that's why, in case, may as well


I was standing there, that's why I saw the accident. (that's why = so = 'gaMumif/h )
In case of heart attack, take this medicine.
vd k & r,f & ESvHk;a&m*gazgufcJh&if'Daq;udkaomufyg/
You may as well eat a little food. Your temperature has gone.
rif;tzsm;rS r&SdawmhbJ? tpmenf;enf;pm;vdkY jzpfygw,f/
++++++++

115

Humorous Idioms [moOmPfygaom tD'D,rfrsm;


Sound Ridiculous toHjzifhajymifavSmifoa&mfaom tD'D,rfrsm;

arsy-versy uajymif;ujyef/ A adv. Backside foremost; upside down;


contrariwise; perversely. B adj. Contrary; perverse.
curly-wurly wGefYwGefYvdrfvdrf/ A n. A fantastically curling ornament.
B adj. Twisting and curling.
dilly-dally Za0Z0g? rydkifrEdkif/ A n. Trifling hesitancy, dilly-dallying.
B v.i. Vacillate; dawdle,
girly-girly rdef;uav;[ef? (uEGJYu,)/ A adj. Exaggeratedly or
affectedly girlish; effeminate. B n. A girl; a little girl.
gully-gully rsufvSnfhpum;/ OHKzG? tcsavmuf... . A conjurors catch word.
hully gully 1960 qDrsm;u tuwrsdK;/ A dance that is a modification
of the frug, popular in the 1960s.
hurly-burly 0&kef;okef;um;? okwfoD;okwfjym? em;ylrsufpdaemuf/
An. Commotion, uproar, confusion; struggle, strife;
B adv. In commotion or confusion.
C v.t. Hurl about; throw into confusion. Make an uproar.
D adj. Characterized by commotion, uproar, struggle, or confusion.
ym(q&mwufwdk;t*FvdyftD'D,rfrS)/
hurry-scurry earmferJh? okwfoD;okwfjym
A adv. In disorderly haste, in hurry and confusion.
B adj. Characterized by hurry and confusion.
C n. Hurry and confusion; disorderly haste, rush.
D v.i. & t. (Cause to) move or act in confusion and hurry; rush.
hootchy-kootchy npfnrf;aomtu/ n. An erotic dance
lilly-pilly Mopaw;vs tjrJpdrf;opfyif/ An Australian evergreen tree.
pully-hauly wtm;ukefqGJ/
A n. The action or work of
pulling and hauling; pulling with all ones strength.
B adj. Involving or characterized by pulling and
hauling; requiring all ones strength of arm.
roly-poly wefbdk;rJhaomol A n. 1 A worthless person;
shilly-shally csDwHkcswHk/ Hesitate to act or choose, be irresolute or
undecided, vacillate.
tilly-vally t"dyg,frJhaompum;/ Nonsense! Fiddlesticks!
topsy-turvy azmufxdk;rdk;arQmf? uajymif;ujyef? uarmufur(jrefrmtbd"mef)
adv/adj 1. children turning topsy-turvy on the climbing frame
upside down, wrong side up, head over heels. 2. turn the house
topsy-turvy looking for the documents in disorder, in confusion,
in a muddle, in a jumble, in chaos, in disarray, in a mess, upside down.

116
trolly-lolly (t"dyg ,fr&S)d Used as a meaningless refrain in a song.
upsy-daisy xxjrefjrefx (uav;i,frsm;twGuf) int. colloq. Also
oops-a-daisy /upsdezi/, ups-a-daisy, upsidaisy. encouragement to a
child being lifted or being helped up after falling.
wibbly-wobbly - caemfceJY? caemfeD caemfeJY? cEdk;ceJY/
Wobbling badly, showing great unsteadiness.
wiggly-waggly w,drf;w,dkif/ so-so tawmf t oif h /
willy-nilly pdwfygyg rygyg/
A adv. Whether one likes it or not; willingly or unwillingly. Also,
haphazardly, anyhow, at random.
B adj. Existing or occurring whether one likes it or not.
f vke;f In NWAustralia, a cyclone or dust-storm.
willy-willy Mopaw;vsqikd u
wimbly-wambly w,drf;wEGJU/ Shaky, unsteady; feeble, effeminate.
wishy-washy aygh&Twf&Twf? ayghwdayghysuf(t&om)? ra&r&m(q&mwufwdk;)/
1 Feeble or insipid in quality or character; indecisive; trivial, trashy.
2 Of drink or liquid food: weak and insipid; watery, sloppy.
yaw-haw waomaom wa[ma[m?(wa,ma,m)/ A v.i. Laugh noisily;
guffaw. Also, speak in an affected manner. B n. A loud laugh; a guffaw.
h &J (jrefrmt*Fvyd t
f bd"mefrS)?
helter-skelter upOfu
upifu
h vsm;?z&dzk &J (q&mwufw;kd tD'D,rfpmtkyfrS)/
whipper-snapper ta&;ygovdkvdkESifhbmrSt&mra&mufol /
(q&mjroef;wifh\bmomjyef)/
Creepy-crawly- vGefYvGefY vGefYvGefY? wGefYwGefY wGefYwGefY/ (q&mwufw;kd pmtkyrf )S
fifty-fifty w0ufpD tnDtrQ/ (q&mwufw;kd tD'D,rfpmtkyfrS)/

Harum-scarum tawG;tac:r&Sdaom? OmPfwdrfaom?


wnfjidrfonfhpdwfr&Sdaom/ (q&mwufw;kd tD'D,rfpmtkyfrS)/
Jiggery-pokery r&dk;om;aomoabmjzifhodk0Sufaom/(q&mwufw;kd pmtkyrf )S
&/(q&mwufw;kd pmtkyrf )S
Riff-raff uav u0 vlpk/ clap-trap aygufwwfu&/
ding-dong bwjyef usm;wjyef/(q&mwufw;kd pmtkyrf )S
Nit-wit wHk;wHk;tt/ (q&mwufw;kd pmtkyrf )S
slipshod ua&mfur,f? jzpfuwwfqef;//(q&mwufw;kd pmtkyrf )S
fuddy-duddy t,la[mif;rsm;&Sdol/ chin-chin aysmfaysmfpm;aomufpdkY/
hotch potch( hodgepodge) aomif;ajymif;axGvm/
mumbo-jumbo rtyfr&m/ (t"dyg,fr&Sdonfh&GwfzwfoH)/
numby-pamby (awG;vGe;f aqG;vGe;f )/ a,mufsm;ryDoaom? tawG;aysmhnHhaom?
t"dyg,fr&Sdaompum; ta&;tom;/
pooh-pooh ypfypfy,fy,f/ slapdash tvsifpvdk? owdvufvGwf/
tit for tat yg;udkufvdkY em;udkuf/ Tittle-tattle twif;tzsif;pum;/
whodunnit(Who done it) vlowfw&m;cHb,folvJ(b,folvkyfwmvJ)/
odds and ends wdkvDrdkvD? wdkvDrkwfp? wdkYwdkYwdwd/ (xdk&mrdk&m [if'D)/
mumble jumble (life) ryDro? rxdwxd? &Iyf&IyfaxG;axG;/
++++++++++++++

117

Some Abbreviations
abbr.
AC
AD
AM, PM
AI
Approx.
ASEAN

abbreviation
twdkaumufpmvHk;/
Air Condition. avat;ay;puf/ a/c account aiGpm&if;/
Anno Domini(in the year of the Load) - AD 2010
Ante Meridiem-before noon reuf/Post Meridiem-after noon nae/
Amnesty International Edik if w
H umvGwjf idr;f csr;f omcGit
hf zGUJ /
Approximately. teD;pyfq;kH / Ave. Avenue. &dyo
f mvrf;/
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ta&SUawmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;toif;/
BA, MA Bachelor of Arts. 0dZmbGJU/ Master of Arts. r[m0dZmbGJU/
BSc, MSc Bachelor of Science odyb
H UJG / Master of Science r[modyb
H UJG /
BBC
British Broadcasting Corporation jAdwo
d QtoHviT ahf umfyakd &;&Si;f /
VOA-Voice of America tar&dueftoH/RFA -Radio Free Asia
vGwv
f yfwt
hJ m&StoH/ DVB -Democratic Voice of Burma'Dru
kd &uf
wpfjrefrmhtoH/ BBS -Burma Broadcasting Service jrefrmhtoH/
BC
before Christ c&pfawmfray:rS/D British Council jAdwo
d Qaumifp/D
Capt.
Captian
oabFmuufywdef? AdkvfMuD;? toif;acgif;aqmif/
CC, CD Chief Commissioner r[mrif;MuD;/ Compact Disc pD'"D gwfjym;/
CE
Civil Engineer jrKdUjytif*sief ,
D m/Christian Endeavour c&pf,efMuKd;yrf;ol/
cent.
Century &mpkEpS /f
Chapt. Chapter pmtkyfwGifygonfhtcef;/
Chem.
Chemistry, Chemical "gwkaA'? "gwkypnf;? "gwkaA'ESifhqdkifaom/
Co
Company ukrP
/D C/o Care of rSwqif/h Col Column twdik /f
CV
Curriculum Vitae ud,
k af &;tcsut
f vufrsm;/
Dictionary tbd"mef/ Dist. District c&dkif/ Div. Division wdik ;f /
Dict.
doz.
Dozen 'gZif(12-ck)/ Dr. Doctor q&m0ef/
Dy.
Deputy ud,
k pf vS,/f 'kw,
d ta&;ygol/ Deputy Director 'kneT rf LS ;/
Ed.
Editor t,f'w
D m/ Edition wnf;jzwfjcif;/ Education ynma&;/
e.g.
for example (exmpli gratis) Oyrmtm;jzif/h
esp.
especially txl;ojzifh/ Estd Established. wnfaxmifonf/
etc.
et cetera, (and the other) ponfjzifh/
EU
European Union Oa&myor*/ET Extraterestrial wjcm;urmrSj*Kdvo
f m;/
Fig
Figure yH/k
ft. foot, feet ay/
gm
gram *&rf/ Govt. Government tpdk;&/
hrs
hours em&D/ Hi-fi High fidelity toHuakd umif;pGmzwfEikd af om/
Hist
History ordik ;f / Hon. Honorary; The Honourable *kPjf yKtyfaom/
HM
Her/His Majesty's ol\bkef;uHt&/ HQ Headquarter XmecsKyf/
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency Edik if w
H umtEkjrLat*sifp/D
ICJ
International Court of Justice Edik if w
H umw&m;&Hk;/
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross Edik if w
H umMuufajceDtzGUJ /
ID
identity xyfwljzpfjcif;/ ID card rSwfyHkwifu'f/
i.e.
that is, such as, too say (id est) qdkvdkonfrSm/

118
International Labour Organization Edik if w
H umtvkyo
f rm;tzGUJ csKy/f
inch vufr/
IOU I Owe You rif;udkigay;p&m&Sdw,f/
Kilogram uDv*kd &rf/ km kilometer uDvdkrDwm/
pound(in weight) [ libra] aygif(t*Fvyd t
f av;csed )f /
Military Intelligence ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;/ Maj. Major Adv
k rf LS ;/
maximum trsm;qH;k / , min minute rdepf/ minimum tenf;qH;k /
Member of Parliament vTwaf wmfu,
kd pf vS,/f Military Police ppf&/J
miles per hour wem&Drikd Ef eI ;f /
tdrfaxmifusjyD;(trsdK;om;-rpwm)/-(trsdK;orD;-rpfppf)/ Ms rpf(tysdK)/
North Atlantic Treaty Organization ajrmuftwvw
H w
d pf mcsKyt
f zGUJ /
National League for Democracy trsdK;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzGUJ csKyf/
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
a&eHa&mif;EdkifiHrsm;tzGJU/
Ph.D
Doctor of Philosophy a'gufwmbGUJ /
PM, CM Prime Minister, Chief Minister 0efMuD;csKyf/ acgif;aqmif0efMuD;/
PO
Post Office pmwdu
k /f GPO General Post Office A[dpk mwdu
k /f
POP
Plaster of Paris ausmufywfwD;/ Prof. Professor ygarmu/
Ref.
Reference ud;k um;jcif;/ Rev. Reverend ax&fMuD;0gMuD;? bke;f awmfMuD;/
RIP
Rest In Peace jidrf;csrf;pGmvJavQmifjyD? (uG,fvGefjyD)/
SOS
Save Our Souls. wdkYtoufudku,fMuyg/
SPDC
State Peace and Development Council
EdkifiHawmfjidrf;csrf;om,ma&;ESifhzGHUjzdK;a&;aumifpD/
St.
Saint olawmfpif? &[Em/
TB Tuberculosis wDbt
D qkyef m/
TA
Travel Allowance c&D;p&dw/f TV Television &kyjf rifoMH um;/
Unidentified Object trsdK;trnfrodt&m0wK/ yef;uefjym;ysH/
UFO
UK
United Kingdom jAw
d o
d QEikd if /H UN United Nations urmu
h v
k or*/
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees
ukvor*'kuonfrsm;qdkif&mr[mrif;MuD;/
UNO
United Nations Organization u
h v
k or*tzGUJ tpnf;/
UNSC
United Nations Security Council ukvor*vjkH cHKa&;aumifp/D /
US, USA United State (of America) tar&duefjynfaxmifp/k
VD
Venereal Disease umvom;a&m*g/
VIP
Very Important Person tvGefta&;MuD;yk*dK vf/
viz
namely(Videlicet) trnfpm&if;/ vol. Volume pmtkyt
f wG/J
VPP
Value Payable Post wefzdk;ay;a&G;pepf/
WHO
World Health Organization, urmu
h se;f rma&;tzGUJ /
WTO
World Trade Organization, urmu
h ek o
f ,
G rf t
I zGUJ /
X'mas
Christmas c&pfprwf/
YMCA(YWCA) Young Men's(Women's)Christian Association
Yr.
Year
===========
ILO
in
kg
lb
MI
max
MP
mph
Mr, Mrs
NATO
NLD
OPEC

119

STRUCTURES, VERB PATTERNS


Pattern 1

Pattern 2

Pattern 3

Pattern 4

Subject + Intrasitive Verb


Birds
fly.
Fire
burns.
The moon
is shining.
The baby
is crying.
Ma Ma
is singing
The bell
has rung.
The sun
rose.
Subject
+ Verb + Subject Complement
This
is
a pen.
His brother
become a soldier.
It
is
me.
That book
is
mine.
Sa Sa
looks
sad.
My father
grew
angry.
The children kept
quiet.
The milk
turned
sour.
Subject + Verb + Direct Object
I
know
his address.
The boy
has lost
his pen.
Ko Ko
opened
the door.
Who
broke
the jug?
Mr. Phyu has bought a car.
You
must wash yourself.
We
should help the poor.
Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
I
lent
her
my pen.
The teacher gave
us
homework.
We
have paid
him
the money.
The old man told
us
the whole story.
You
must tell
the police the truth.
I
have bought my sister
a watch.
He
didn't leave us
any.
__
Show
me
your hands.

120
Prepo. Object
a friend of mine.
all of us.
the proprietor.
everybody in the
town.
promised the money to me (not to you).
have bought a watch
for my sister.
sold
his car
to a man from Delhi.
made
coffee
for all of us.

Pattern 5 Subject + Verb + Direct Obj + Prepo+


I
lent
my pen
to
The teacher gave
homework to
We
have paid the money to
He
told
the news
to
He
I
Mr. Win
She

Pattern 6 Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Adj


The boy pushed
the door
open.

aumifav;onf wHcg;udk yGifhatmif wGef;cJhonf/


The smith beat

it

flat.

yef;yJorm;onf ,if;udk jym;atmif xkcJhonf/


She

washed

the plates

clean.

olronf yef;uefudk pifatmif aq;cJhonf/


The thief broke
He
turned
You
have made
I
like
We
found
(Verbs used in this pattern include
leave, turn, find, like, wish.)

the safe
open.
the lamp
low.
your shirt
dirty.
my coffee
strong.
the trunk
empty.
get, keep, beat, drive, make, paint,

Pattern 7 Sub + Verb


+ Prepo + Prepositional Object
We
are waiting for
Ma Ma.
He
agreed
to
our proposal.
You
can't count on
his help.
These books belong
to
me.
His uncle
met
with
an accident.
She
complained of
his rudenness.
He
failed
in
hisattempt.

121
Pattern 8 Sub + Verb
+ to-infinitive, ect.
She
want
to go.
I
forgot
to post the letter.
He
fears
to speak in public.
They
intend
to postpone the trip.
Yu Yu
proposes
to go into business.
We
would like
to visit the museum.
I
hoped
to get a first class.
He
decided
not to go there.
( The commonest verbs used in this pattern are: like, love, prefer, begin,
start, agree, try, attempt, choose, continue, intend, propose, desire,
wish, want, hate, dislike, hope, expect, promise, refuse, fear, remember, forget, offer, learn.)
Pattern 9 Sub + Verb +
Noun/Pronoun + to-infinitive
I
would like you
to stay.
We
asked
him
to go.
He
helped
me
to carry the box.
She
advised
him
to study medicine.
The doctor ordered
Ni Ni
to stay in bed.
They
warned
us
not to be late.
I
can't allow Thin Thin
to smoke.
Who
taught
you
to swim?
( The chief verbs used in this pattern include ask, tell, order, command,
persuade, encourage, urge, want, wish, request, intend, expect, force,
tempt, teach, invite, help, warn, like, love, hate, allow, permit, remind, cause, mean, dare.)
Pattern 10 Sub + Verb
+ Gerund, etc.
She
began
singing.
He
has finished
talking.
I
hate
borrowing money.
You
mustn't miss seeing him.
Daw Suu
loves
teaching.
My brother enjoys
playing cricket.
I
suggest
burning that letter.
____
Don't keep
saying that.

122
( In this pattern the gerund is the object of the verb. The chief verbs used
in this pattern include begin, start, love, like, hate, stop, finish, enjoy,
prefer, fear, remember, forget, mind, miss, suggest, practise, try, understand, keep, help, advise, admit avoid consider, intend, delay,
deny.)
Pattern 11 Sub + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Present Participle
I
saw
him
crossing the bridge.
We smell
something burning.
We noticed
the boy walking down the street.
She caught
him
opening your letters.
They found
him
playing cards.
She kept
the fire
burning.
____ (Please) start the clock going.
(The verbs used in this pattern include see, hear, smell, feel, watch, notice, find, observe, listen, get, catch, keep, leave, set, start.
Pattern 12 Sub + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Plain Infinitive
I
saw
him
go out.
She
watched him
steal the watch.
We
heard
her
sing.
The thief felt
someone touch his arm.
___
Let
me
go.
We
made
Tom
behave well.
He
bade
them
leave the house.
(The verbs use are: see, watch, notice, observe, hear, listen, feel, make,
let, help, bid).
Pattern 13 Sub + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Past Participle
I
heard
my name
called.
I
want
this letter
typed.
She felt
herself
lifted up.
You should get that tooth
pulled out.
He
had
his suit
cleaned.
We found
the house
deserted.
( The verbs use are: see, hear, find, feel, want, wish, like, make, prefer, get, have.)

123
Pattern 14 Sub + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + (to be +) complement
I
consider the plan (to be) unwise.
We
thought
him
(to be) foolish.
People
supposed him
(to be) a patriot.
They
reported Robert
( to be) a reliable person.
The court appointed her
guardian of the orphan child.
The club chose
Mr Win treasurer.
She
called
him
a fool.
(appoint, choose, elect, make, call, name, nominate, crown, christen.)
Pattern 15 Sub +
Verb + that-clause (object of the verb)
I
suppose
(that) he is not at home.
I
expect
(that) it will rain.
We
hoped
(that) you would succeed.
He
says
(that) he has met your uncle.
The teacher said
he was very busy.
Pa Pa
suggested that we should go to the park.
He
admitted
that he had written the letter.
They
complainedthat they had not been fairly treated.
(That is often omitted, especially after say, think, suppose, hope, expect. Use with imagine, know, believe, admit, confess, declare, suggest, complain, hope, expect, fear, feel, hear, intend, notice, propose, show, understand, wonder.)
Pattern 16 Sub + Verb + Noun/Pro + that-clause
He
told
me (that) he was coming on Sunday.
I
warned him thattherewerepickpockedsinthecrowd.
She has assured me that she is ready to help.
U Nu promised us that he would be here at five.
We have informed him that we are leaving this afternoon.
He
satisfied
me that he could do the work well.
(Chief verbs: tell, inform, promise, warn, remind, teach, assure, satisfy.)
Pattern 17 Sub + Verb
+
Interrogative+ clause
I
asked
where he was going.
Nobody knows
when he will arrive.
I
wonder
what he wants.
She
showed
how annoyed she was.
Tom
could not decide what he should do next.
I
can't imagine
why she has behaved like that.
___
Find out
when the train is due.

124
( say, ask, wonder, know, believe, imagine, decide, discuss, understand, show, reveal, find out, suggest, tell (especially in the interrogative and negative).
Pattern 18 Sub + Verb
+ Noun/Pro + Interrogative+ clause
She asked
me
when you had gone.
___ Tell
us
what it is.
I
showed
them
how they should do it.
___ (Please) advise me
what I should do.
___ (Please) inform me where I should turn off the road.
Can you tell
me
where he lives?
( The chief verbs are tell,ask, show, teach, advise, inform.)
Pattern 19 Sub + Verb
+ Interrogative+ to-infinitive,etc.
I
don't know
how to do it.
I
wonder
where to spend the weekend.
She
knows
how to drive a car.
He
forgot
when to turn.
Min Tun couldn't decide what to do next.
We
must find out
where to put it.
___
Remember
how to do it.
(The commonest verbs used in this pattern are know, understand, wonder, remember, forget, decide, settle, find out, enquire, see, explain,
guess, learn consider.)
Pattern 20 Sub + Verb + Noun/Pro + Interrogative+ to-infinitive.
I
shall know
you how to operate it.
He
has taught
me
how to play chess.
They informed
us
where to turn off the road.
__
(Please) advise me
what to do.
__
(Please) tell
us
how to get there.
We
asked
him where to get tickets.
MORE STRUCTURES
(1)

There + be +
Subject, etc.
There is
a book on the desk.
There was
someone at the door.
There are
plenty of pins in a drawer.

125
(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

126
Sub + Verb + Adjective + to-infinitive,etc.
We were
glad
to see him.
She is
afraid
to go home.
They are
impatient
to start.
It+be
+ Adj
+ of N/Pro +to-inf etc.
It is
kind
of you
to help us.
It was
careless
of her
to make a mistake.
It is
wicked
of him
to say such things.
Sub + Verb
+ Adjective + to-infinitive,etc.
This book is
easy
to read.
The subject is
hard
to understand.
This medicine is
pleasant
to take.
It+be + Adj
+ to-inf etc.
It is
easy
to learn English.
It will be
difficult
to give up smoking.
It may be
difficult
to get the job.
It+be+ no good, etc. + Gerundial Phrase
It is no good
asking him for help.
It's no use
worrying about it.
It is worth
seeing the film.
It is worthwhile
seeing the exhibition.
It is amusing
watching monkeys.
It has been a pleasure meeting you.
It+be + Adj / N + Noun Clause.
It is
strange
that he should have behaved like that.
It is
doubtful
whether he will be able to come.
It+to take+me, him,.. + time phrase +to-inf etc.
It took me
15 minutes to reach the stadium.
It has take me
one hour to write my composition.
Sub + Verb + too + Adj /Adv + to-inf etc.
She is
too weak
to carry the box.
I am
too busy
to attend the party.
She is
too proud
to listen to me.
Sub + Verb + Adj /Adv + enough + to-inf etc.
She is
strong enough to carry the box.
He is
tall enough
to reach the picture.

(11)

Sub + Verb + so + Adj /Adv + that-clause


It is
so dark
that I can see nothing.
He was
so furious
that he couldn't speak.

(12)

Patterns of exclammatory sentences


(i) What + (adj +) noun ( + subject + verb)
What a charming girl
(she is) !
What a lovely garden
(it is)!
What a good idea!
What a terrible noise!
What a fool
you are!
What a (large) nose
he has!
What beautiful music
they are playing !
What a pity!
(ii) How + adj / adv
How charming
How lovely
How clever
How sweet
How tall
How well
How quickly

+ subject + verb
she is!
the garden is!
you are!
the song is!
you have grown!
she dances!
the holidays has passed!

(13)

Conditionals : Type 1
(open condition) (See page 98)

(14)

Conditionals : Type 2
(improbable or imaginary condition) (See page 98)

(15)

Conditionals : Type 3
(Unfulfilled condition) (See page 98)
+++++++++

127
+

References &nf n T e f ; ud k ; um;


OXFORD POCKET ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Thomson & Martinet

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Prospect Burma New Delhi

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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

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THE EASIEST ENGLISH GRAMMAR


SAYA AUNG HTET HEIN
Collins COBUILD "Learner's Dictionary".
The THALUN ENGLISH - MYANMAR POCKET
DICTIONARY
CHIN - ENGLISH POCKET DICTIONARY
Compiled by A. Ngun Ceu
HOW TO SPEAK GOOD AND SIMPLE ENGLISH
CONDUCTED BY SAYA U CHIT KO KO (ST. XAVIER)
"LANGUAGE IN USE " BEGINNER AND
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ADRIAN DOFF & CHRISTOPHER JONES
High School English Grammar and Composition
By--P.C. WREN. and H. MARTIN,
Revised by --N.D.V. PRASADA RAO.
Many Articles of TOP ENGLISH, GLOBAL ENGLISH,
THE LIGHT OF ENGLISH, ENGLISH FOR ALL
CAMBRIDGE English Pronouncing Dictionary CD-ROM
OXFORD DICTIONARY CD-ROM
NEW CUTTING EDGE INTERMEDIATE CD-ROM
http://www.voanews.com/burmese/learning-english/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/
ESL: ENGLISH STUDY AND LEARNING MATERIALS!
http://www.eslgold.com/
http://www.english-the-easy-way.com/
http://www.englishclub.com/learn-english/language-skills.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVZBdzp9qKo
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The English Burmese Chin Dictionary

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Some youtube English songs and Video, ect...


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www.encyclodict.blogspot.com

OD;pyfp\
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Dictionaries and Encyclopedia(s)

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