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hda

hugh dutton ASSocIES


Incheon
International
airport
design Competition for Passenger Terminal II
Building Envelope
June 2011
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
D e p a r t u r e h a l l
S e a t i n g a r e a
E - c h e c k ( 1 0 )
E - c h e c k b a g d r o p p o s i t i o n s ( 4 )
A P M M a i n t a n c e A r e a
D e p a r t u r e h a l l
A P M P l a t f o r m
T i c k e t c o u n t e r p o s i t i o n s ( 3 2 ) T i c k e t c o u n t e r p o s i t i o n s ( 3 2 )
E - c h e c k b a g d r o p p o s i t i o n s ( 4 )
S e a t i n g a r e a
S h o p
A P M M a i n t a n c e A r e a
G r o u p t o u r z o n e
O f f i c e
E - c h e c k ( 1 0 )
A P M P l a t f o r m
S e c u r i t y c h e c k ( 6 ) R e t a i l R e t a i l
B u s l o u n g e B u s l o u n g e
D u t y f r e e
D e p t . i m m i g r a t i o n ( 1 7 )
D e p t . i m m i g r a t i o n ( 1 3 ) S e c u r i t y c h e c k ( 1 0 )
D e p a r t u r e h a l l
T i c k e t c o u n t e r p o s i t i o n s ( 3 2 )
C I Q
S e c u r i t y c h e c k ( 6 ) R e t a i l
D e p a r t u r e h a l l
D e p t . i m m i g r a t i o n ( 1 7 )
D e p t . i m m i g r a t i o n ( 1 3 )
C I Q
C I Q
A T O
S e c u r i t y c h e c k ( 1 0 )
R e t a i l O v e r s i z e
T
D u t y f r e e
O f f i c e
R e t a i l
A T O
O f f i c e
O f f i c e
T
C I Q
T
T T T
T
T T
R i q . & T a b . P r e s t i g e B o u t i q u e I T & E l e r o n i c
G e n a r a l s h o p
C o s m e t i c s
W a t c h & J e w e l r y
G e n a r a l s h o p
K i d s p l a y r o o m F o o d & b e v
G e n a r a l s h o p
G e n a r a l s h o p
E v e n t - p l a z a
R i q . & T a b .
T r a n s f e r l o b b y
P a c k a g e d G e n a r a l s h o p
R i q . & T a b .
W a t c h & J e w e l r y
R i q . & T a b .
G e n a r a l s h o p
C o s m e t i c s
E x h i b i t i o n
R i q . & T a b . K o r e a n
R e t a i l
C i t y T e r m i n a l
C I Q
K o r e a n G o o d s
F o o d
F o o d
G o o d s P a c k a g e d
K o r e a n
C o s m e t i c s
T
P r e s t i g e B o u t i q u e
F o o d G o o d s P a c k a g e d
P a c k a g e d
P a c k a g e d
C o s m e t i c s
F o o d
K o r e a n G o o d s
F o o d
F o o d & b e v K i d s p l a y r o o m
T r a n s f e r
T
l o b b y
G e n a r a l s h o p
R i q . & T a b .
C o s m e t i c s
I T & E l e r o n i c P a c k a g e d
R i q . & T a b .
R i q . & T a b .
E v e n t - p l a z a
K o r e a n
G e n a r a l s h o p W a t c h & J e w e l r y
G e n a r a l s h o p
G e n a r a l s h o p
E x h i b i t i o n
W a t c h & J e w e l r y
R i q . & T a b .
P r e s t i g e B o u t i q u e
C o s m e t i c s D u t y f r e e
C o s m e t i c s
G o o d s
F o o d
F o o d
G o o d s P a c k a g e d
P a c k a g e d
F o o d
P a c k a g e d K o r e a n G o o d s F o o d
P a c k a g e d
K o r e a n G o o d s
F o o d R e t a i l T
T
C I Q
O v e r s i z e
R e t a i l T
T
D u t y f r e e
T
T O f f i c e
R e t a i l
A T O
T T
O f f i c e
T
C I Q
T
T T
O f f i c e
R e t a i l
C I Q A T O
T
R e t a i l
T T
C o n c e s s i o n s
T r a n s f e r
p o i n t
C o n c e s s i o n s
O f f i c e T r a n s f e r
O f f i c e
O f f i c e
p o i n t
T T
T T
T T
T T
C o n f - 1
O f f i c e O f f i c e
O f f i c e
W a i t
O f f i c e
T T
T T
T C o n f - 3
C o n f - 2
T C o n f - 4
P r e s s
H a l l
O f f i c e
W a i t
C o n f - 1
O f f i c e O f f i c e
O f f i c e
T T
T T
F & B
A P M M a i n t a n c e A r e a
C o n f - 3
C o n f - 2
C o n f - 4
P r e s s
V i p - 2
V i p - 1 H a l l
T
T
p o i n t T r a n s f e r
T T
F & B
R e t a i l
A P M M a i n t a n c e A r e a
T r a n s f e r
T
A P M M a i n t a n c e A r e a
T
T
p o i n t
T T R e t a i l
Sustainability Maintenance human Centered design
Energy capturing double layer roof system to increase
the heat build-up inside and reduce heat loss of the
envelope in winter, which will lead to saving energy
cost and an environmentally friendly system
In consideration of change of temperature and
subsequent expansion and contraction of the
structure, Expansion Joints are planned accordingly
Roof structure naturally guides the users of the airport
through an effcient journey towards the boarding
gates through the inspection points and retail zone
Cable Facade Structure
along the entrance,minimal tensile system
of facades welcome the public on the
landside and opens up the view for the
passengers on the airside while louvers
protect from sun and modulate light
double Layer Roof
Fluid geometry of meshes leads the
passengers gently while the two
wings expressed in double layer roof
beating and pushing towards the sky is
energy capturing and light fltering
Phoenix Wing - Series of Vaults
Effcient vault structure lightens the roof
structure to provide maximal natural light
through delicate texture of the structure
Gridshell Structures
Optimal and minimal tonnage which makes
the structure economic while also creating
pleasant space for retail zone
Building Envelope design overview
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Series of Vaults
double Layer Mesh
Shell
Single Layer Mesh
Lobe
double layer mesh
Concourse
double Layer Mesh
general Roof Structure - Plan
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
general Roof Structure - construction considerations
Mobile Prefab Platforms
Construct Roof Columns
delivery for Preassembly
Preassembly Zone
Construct Tree Columns
direction
Crane Rail
with scaffolding
with scaffolding
of concourse construction
Construction of ticketing vaults in prefabricated
segments as per transport constraint
on scaffolding on mobile work platform
equipped with lifting equipment.
ladder prefabrication concept
ladder prefabricated
Infll pieces in situ
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Concourse Facade
Vertical Cable System
Ticketing hall Facade
horizontal and Vertical Cable System
Concourse
double Layer Mesh
Series of Vaults
double Layer Mesh
Lobe
double layer mesh
Shell
Single layer mesh
Roof Structure - axonometry
Facade Structure axonometry
Infll Facade
Cablenet Facade
general Roof Structure - types of Structure
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
general Roof Structure - generals sections
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Roof Structure typical Bay
Glass
Skylights
Structural frame
Perforated Ceiling
or Etfe
Waterproofng and insulation
on roof decking
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Roof Structure typical Bay
Single Glazing
or Etfe
Structural frame
Waterproofng and insulation
on roof decking
Skylights
Blades
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Roof Structure typical Bay
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Roof Structure typical Bay
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Roof Structure typical Bay
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Blades
Roof Structure typical Bay
Insulation
I-Beam
Single Glazing Or Etfe
Structural frame
External skin Framing
Steel decking
Water Proofng
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Blade
T-section
Vertical Cable
Facade Structure typical Bay (concourse)
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
Expansion Joint
Roof Column
horizontal cable
Struts
Back Cable
double Layer Mesh
to cc the curvature
Vertical Cable
horizontal cable
Struts
Vertical cable
Facade Structure typical Bay (ticketing hall)
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
aPPLICaBLE BUIdLING COdE
The structural design standards that have been used, or referred to are as follows:
Korean Building Code 2009-Structure and International Building Code
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC): AISC-LRFD, Latest Edition
American Concrete Institute (ACI318): Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
aPPLIEd LOadINGS
The following is a summary of the loadings that have been considered in concept design for the roof, faade and
substructure.
1. dEad LOad : Self-weight of the structures
Glass, claddings and secondary element weight = 1.5 kPa
Floor fnish and MEP = 1.5 kPa

2. LIVE LOAD : Uniform roof load = 0.8 kPa and foor load = 5.0 kPa

3. SNOW LOAD : Sf = Cb x Ce x Ct x Is x Sg = 0.7 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.2 x 0.8
= 0.67 kPa where Sg = 0.8 kPa
Note: Unbalanced and snow drift load shall be incorporated.

4. WINd LOad
Wind load, corresponding to a return period of 100 years,
shall be determined by wind tunnel testing based on
following design parameters specifed by the code.
Basic Wind Speed V0=30 m/sec
Exposure d
Importance Factor I =1.0
Gust Factor G=1.9
at this concept stage, the following values have been considered:
Roof Downward (Wy): -1.00 kPa
Roof Upward (Wy): +1.50 kPa
Faades (Wx): +/-1.50 kPa

5. SEISMIC LOad
Zone Factor S = 0.22
Soil Class Sd
Importance Factor I =1.2
design Category d
Modifcation Factor R = 3.5
Amplifcation Factor Cd = 3.0
Lateral System Intermediate Steel Moment Frame
(Performance Based Design shall be implemented as needed)

hdA calculation Report


NCHEON NTERNATONAL ARPORT TERMNAL 2
DESGN COMPETTON, NCHEON, KOREA MAY 20, 2011 | Project # N11027.00


B. DESIGN CRITIERA
APPLICABLE BUIDLING CODE
Korean Building Code 2009-Structure and nternational Building Code
American nstitute of Steel Construction (ASC) : ASC-LRFD, Latest Edition
American Concrete nstitute (AC318): Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary
APPLIED LOADINGS
The following is a summary of the loadings that have been considered in concept design for the roof, faade and substructure. (kPa= kN/m2)

1. DEAD LOAD : Self-weight of the structures
Glass, claddings and secondary element weight = 1.5 kPa
Floor finish and MEP = 1.5 kPa
2. LVE LOAD : Uniform roof load = 0.8 kPa and floor load = 5.0 kPa
3. SNOW LOAD : S
]
= C
b
C
c
C
t
I
s
S
g
= 0.7 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.2 x 0.8
= 0.67 kPa where Sg = 0.8 kPa
Note: Unbalanced and snow drift load shall be incorporated.

4. WND LOAD
Wind load, corresponding to a return period of 100 years, shall be determined by
wind tunnel testing based on following design parameters specified by the code.

Basic Wind Speed V0=30 m/sec
Exposure D
mportance Factor =1.0
Gust Factor G=1.9

At this concept stage, the following values have been considered:
Roof Downward (Wy): -1.00 kPa
Roof Upward (Wy): +1.50 kPa
Faades (Wx): +/-1.50 kPa
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00
E
L
E
V
A
T

O
N

(
M
)
WINDPRESSURE (kPA)
WINDPRESSURE (kPa)


NCHEON NTERNATONAL ARPORT TERMNAL 2
DESGN COMPETTON, NCHEON, KOREA MAY 20, 2011 | Project # N11027.00

5. SESMC LOAD

Zone Factor S = 0.22
Soil Class S
D
mportance Factor =1.2
Design Category D
Modification Factor R = 3.5
Amplification Factor Cd = 3.0
Lateral System ntermediate Steel Moment Frame
(Performance Based Design shall be implemented as needed)


6. TEMPERATURE LOAD
A reference temperature of 15C has been considered. -15C minimum temperature and +45C maximum temperature have been
considered, which means a gradient of +/-30C taken into account in the computation to check internal stresses of the steel structure.
LOAD COMBINATIONS

DL = Dead Load; LL = Live Load; T = Temperature Load; S= Snow Load
W = Code wind load (Load factor needs to be adjusted to 1.6W if wind tunnel test wind is used)
E= Seismic Load

Load Combinations
Allowable Stress Design
(ASD)
Ultimate Strength Design
(LRFD)
DL 1.4 DL
DL + LL + T 1.2 (DL + T) + 1.6LL +0.5LLr
DL + 0.7E 1.2DL + 1.0E
DL + LL+ W
DL+LL+0.7E
1.2DL+1.0LL+0.5LLr+1.3W or
1.2DL+1.0LL +0.2S + 1.0E
0.67DL+W 0.9DL + 1.3W
0.67DL+E 0.9DL + 1.0E
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
S
P
E
C
T
R
A
L

A
C
C
E
L
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
,
S
A

(
G
)
PERIOD (SECOND)
RESPONSE SPECTRUM - KBCS 2009
SD
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
6. TEMPERaTURE LOad
A reference temperature of 15C has been considered. -15C minimum temperature and +45C maximum temperature have been
considered, which means a gradient of +/-30C taken into account in the computation to check internal stresses of the steel
structure.
LOad COMBINaTIONS
dL = dead Load; LL = Live Load; T = Temperature Load; S= Snow Load
W = Code wind load (Load factor needs to be adjusted to 1.6W if wind tunnel test wind is used)
E= Seismic Load

The following possible load combinations have been considered. The potential distribution of patch application of each of the
loads has also been considered, chosen to create the worst effects for the particular structures (nonsymmetrical loadings). Snow is
considered to have been covered here by the live load allowance, which is higher.
MOdEL dESCRIPTION
For the structural computations of the airport roof and faades, we have considered four independent models extracted according
to the expansion joint localization.

The structures are mainly composed by a 3D double layer grid frame constituted by round hollow steel sections. A global optimization
has been performed to keep as much as possible a small variability on the hollow section external diameters and get a more
harmonious structure. Where higher strengths are needed (next to supports), bigger thicknesses or diameters are applied.
The structural optimization also allowed to remove unnecessary diagonal members (where low stress appeared) and to orient them
in order to obtain mainly tensile forces in these elements.

Other structural parts are constituted by a single layer triangulated grid shell with a structural funicular shape.

horizontal stability of the roof structure is ensured by moment connected columns.

The structural system is composed of shop prefabricated welded ladders to ensure geometrical control of the structural shapes.
These can either be welded or bolted with in situ infll steel elements.

The Ticketing hall faades are double glazed cable nets constituted by horizontal cables in a curved plane pre-tensioned to the
columns, vertical cables (straight ones in the faade plane and curved ones inside the building) pre-tensioned from the RC structure
to the steel roof. double pinned horizontal struts ensure the connection between the cable nets. The internally curved vertical
cables provide the component of horizontal force perpendicular to the facade that is necessary to ensure the horizontal cables
remain in a curved plane.
The secondary faades are double glazed cable nets constituted by only vertical cables pre-tensioned from the RC structure to the
steel roof.

Preliminary computations have been performed on Straus7 software, considering the load cases and combinations given previously.
hdA calculation Report
Load Combinations:
Allowable Stress Design
(ASD)
Ultimate Strength Design
(LRFD)
DL 1.4 DL
DL + LL + T 1.2 (DL + T) + 1.6LL +0.5LLr
DL + 0.7E 1.2DL + 1.0E
DL + LL+ W
DL+LL+0.7E
1.2DL+1.0LL+0.5LLr+1.3W or
1.2DL+1.0LL +0.2S + 1.0E
0.67DL+W 0.9DL + 1.3W
0.67DL+E 0.9DL + 1.0E

hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
calculation - 1. central Vault Roof Structure
Vertical Displacement under DL + LL + W - Disp = L/208 L/200 Vertical Displacement under DL - Disp = L/308 L/250
Stresses under DL + LL + W Axial Forces under DL + LL + W
The whole roof structure is composed of a double layer grid mesh. In the longitudinal part, a global vault
effect has been considered by restraining movements in these directions. In the current model, perfect
restraints have been considered for the supports.

The average roof weight in this part is 280 kg/m2.
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
calculation - 2. Vault Roof Structure + Facade ticketing hall
Stress under DL + LL + W Horizontal Displacement of the Facade under DL + LL + W
- Disp. = L/58 L/55
Vertical Displacement under DL + LL + W - Disp = L/203 L/200 Vertical Displacement under DL - Disp = L/290 L/250
The whole roof structure is composed of a double layer grid mesh. This model consider the connection of the
cable net faade on the roof structure and the vertical columns. horizontal stability is ensured by additional
inclined columns (moment connected inside the double layer mesh) at the front and by moment connected
single columns at the back.
The faade cables have been tuned to get more uniform horizontal deformations under wind loads.

The average roof weight in this part is 250 kg/m2.
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
calculation - 3. Lobe and Shell Roof Structure
Vertical Displacement under DL + nonsym LL + nonsym W
Disp. = L/223 L/200
Vertical Displacement under DL - Disp. = L/478 L/250
4. DL + LL + W 3. DL + LL + W
Stresses under DL + LL + W Axial Forces in the columns under DL + LL + W
Two parts can be considered in this model: a double layer grid mesh (lobe) and a single layer grid mesh
(shell).
The lobe is supported by 6 tree columns composed each by 4 arms pinned to the double layer mesh.
The shell is acting like a vault connected to the lobe. The lobe ensures its vertical and horizontal supports
all along the edge in order to obtain structural shell effciency. Additional cables under the shell have been
added to minimize horizontal deformations of the shell edge.

The average roof weight in this part is 220 kg/m2 for the lobe and 200 kg/m2 for the shell.
hda
hugh dutton ASSocIES
Incheon International airport Passenger Terminal II
calculation - concourse Roof Structure
Vertical Displacement under DL + LL + W - Disp = L/219 L/200 Vertical Displacement under DL - Disp. = L/288 L/250
Stresses under DL + LL + W Axial Forces under DL + LL + W
The whole concourse roof structure is composed of a double layer grid mesh. It is supported by multiple
moment connected columns.

The average roof weight in this part is 240 kg/m2