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Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 29 April 1951) was an Austrian philosopher who held the

e professorship in philosophy at the University of Cambridge from 1939 until 1947.[1] He is known for having inspired two of the century's principal philosophical movements, logical positivism and ordinary language philosophy, though in his lifetime he published just one book review, one article, a children's dictionary, and the 75-page Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921).[2] In 1999 his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations (1953) was ranked as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy.[3] Born into one of Austria-Hungary's wealthiest families in Vienna at the turn of the century, he gave away his inheritance, and was at one point forced to sell his furniture to cover expenses when working on the Tractatus.[4] Three of his brothers committed suicide, with Wittgenstein and the remaining brother contemplating it too.[5] Bertrand Russell described him as the most perfect example of genius, "passionate, profound, intense, and dominating", while Richard Rorty wrote that he took out his intense selfloathing on everyone he met.[6] He grew angry when his students wanted to teach philosophy, and was famously overjoyed when G.E. Moore's wife told him she was working in a jam factorydoing something useful, in Wittgenstein's eyes.[7] He tried to leave philosophy himself several times, serving during the First World War on the front lines with the Austrian Army, and commended for his courage; teaching in schools in Austrian villages, where he found himself in trouble for hitting the children; and working during the Second World War as an orderly in Guy's Hospital, London, where only a few of the staff were told that the new porter was the professor of philosophy at Cambridge.[8] His work is often divided between his early period, exemplified by the Tractatus, and latter period, articulated in the Philosophical Investigations. The early Wittgenstein was concerned with the relationship between propositions and the world, and hoped that by providing an account of this relationship all philosophical problems could be solved; these problems arise, he thought, because the logic of language is not evident in our ordinary use of language. The later Wittgenstein rejected many of the conclusions of the Tractatus, arguing that language is a kind of motley of language-games in which the meaning of words is derived from their public use. Despite the differences between his early and later work, the similarities include a conception of philosophy as a kind of therapy, a concern for ethical and religious issues, and a literary style often described as poetic. Terry Eagleton called him the philosopher of poets and composers, playwrights and novelists.[9]
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Contents
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1 Background

1.1 The Wittgensteins 1.2 Early life 1.3 Family temperament; brothers' suicides 2 19031906: Realschule in Linz o 2.1 School years o 2.2 Jewish background and Hitler o 2.3 Loss of faith o 2.4 Influence of Otto Weininger 3 19061913: University o 3.1 Engineering at Berlin and Manchester o 3.2 Arrival at Cambridge o 3.3 Moral Sciences Club and Apostles o 3.4 Relationship with David Pinsent 4 19131920: World War I and the Tractatus o 4.1 Work on Logik o 4.2 Military service o 4.3 Completion of the Tractatus 5 19201928: Teaching, the Tractatus, Haus Wittgenstein o 5.1 Teacher training in Vienna, the Prater o 5.2 Teaching posts in Austria o 5.3 Publication of the Tractatus o 5.4 Visit from Frank Ramsey, Puchberg o 5.5 Haidbauer incident, Otterthal o 5.6 Haus Wittgenstein 6 19291941: Fellowship at Cambridge o 6.1 PhD and fellowship o 6.2 Anschluss o 6.3 Professor of philosophy o 6.4 World War II and Guy's Hospital 7 19471951: Final years 8 1953: Publication of the Philosophical Investigations 9 Works 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading
o o o

[edit] Background
[edit] The Wittgensteins

Karl Wittgenstein was one of the richest men in Austro-Hungary.[10] Further information: Karl Wittgenstein According to a family tree prepared in Jerusalem after the Second World War, Wittgenstein's paternal great-grandfather was Moses Meier, a Jewish land agent who lived with his wife, Brendel Simon, in Bad Laasphe in the Principality of Wittgenstein, Westphalia.[11] In July 1808, Napoleon issued a decree that everyone, including Jews, must adopt an inheritable family surname, and so Meier's son, also Moses, took the name of his employers, the Sayn-Wittgensteins, and became Moses Meier Wittgenstein.[12] His son, Hermann Christian Wittgensteinwho took the middle name "Christian" to distance himself from his Jewish backgroundmarried Fanny Figdor, also Jewish, who converted to Protestantism just before they married, and the couple went on to found a successful business trading in wool in Leipzig, far from their Jewish origins.[13] Ludwig's grandmother, Fanny Figdor, was a first cousin of the famous violinist Joseph Joachim.[14] They had 11 childrenall forbidden by Hermann to marry Jewsamong them Wittgenstein's father, Karl, who by the late 1880s was one of the richest men in the Austro-Hungarian empire, with a fortune in iron and steel.[10] Thanks to Karl, the Wittgensteins became the Austrian equivalents of the Krupps or Rothschilds; as a result of his decision in 1898 to transfer all his investments overseas, the family was shielded from the hyperinflation that hit Austria after World War I.[15]

[edit] Early life

Ludwig's sister Margaret, painted by Gustav Klimt for her wedding portrait in 1905 Further information: Piano Concerto for the Left Hand (Ravel) and Works associated with Paul Wittgenstein Wittgenstein was born to Karl and his wife, Leopoldine KalmusJewish on her father's side and Roman Catholic on her mother'sat 8:30 in the evening on 26 April 1889 in the Palais Wittgenstein at Alleegasse 16, now the Argentinierstrasse, near the Karlskirche.[16] Karl and Poldi, as she was known, had nine children in all. There were four girls: Hermine, Margaret (Gretl)who was analysed by Sigmund Freud in the early 1930s Helene, and a fourth daughter who died as a baby; and five boys: Johannes (Hans), Kurt, Rudolf (Rudi), and Paul, who became a concert pianist despite losing an arm in the war, and for whom Maurice Ravel wrote his Piano Concerto for the Left Hand. Ludwig was the youngest of the family.[17] The children were baptized as Catholics, and raised in an exceptionally intense environment. The family sat at the center of Vienna's cultural life, with Bruno Walter describing life at Palais Wittgenstein as an "all-pervading atmosphere of humanity and culture".[18] Karl was a leading patron of the arts, commissioning works by Auguste Rodin and financing the city's exhibition hall and art gallery, the Secession Building. Gustav Klimt painted Wittgenstein's sister for her wedding portrait, and Johannes Brahms and Gustav Mahler gave regular concerts in the family's numerous music rooms, though Alexander Waugh writes that the firstborn, Hermine, was so nervous of Brahms that, when once invited to sit with him at dinner, she spent most of the evening in one of the bathrooms.[19] For Wittgenstein who highly valued precision and discipline, contemporary music was never considered acceptable at all. "Music", he said to his friend Drury in 1930, "came to a full stop with Brahms; and even in Brahms I can begin to hear the noise of machinery."[20]

[edit] Family temperament; brothers' suicides

From left, Helene, Rudi, Hermine, Ludwig (the baby), Gretl, Paul, Hans, and Kurt, around 1890 Ray Monk writes that Karl's aim was to turn his sons into captains of industry; they were not sent to school lest they acquire bad habits, but were educated at home to prepare them for work in Karl's business empire.[21] Instead, Anthony Kenny writes, three of them committed suicide, Paul became a concert pianist, and Ludwig a philosopher after a brief period as an engineer.[22] The Irish psychiatrist Michael Fitzgerald argues that Karl was a harsh perfectionist who lacked empathy, and that Wittgenstein's mother was anxious and insecure, unable to stand up to her husband.[23] Whatever the reason for it, the family appeared to have a strong streak of depression running through it, or what Anthony Gottlieb called bad temper and extreme nervous tension. He tells a story about Paul practicing on one of the family's seven grand pianos, when he suddenly shouted at Ludwig in the next room: "I cannot play when you are in the house, as I feel your skepticism seeping towards me from under the door!"[24] Fitzgerald and the Swedish psychiatrist Christopher Gillberg argue that Wittgenstein showed several features of highfunctioning autism; German psychiatrist Sula Wolff suggests he suffered from schizoid personality disorder.[23]

Ludwig (bottom-right), Paul, and their sisters, late 1890s The eldest brother, Hans, may also have suffered from autism. Alexander Waugh writes that the boy's first word was "Oedipus". At the age of four, Waugh writes, Hans could identify the Doppler effect in a passing siren as a quarter-tone drop in pitch, and at five started crying "Wrong! Wrong!" when two brass bands in a carnival played the same tune in different keys. He was hailed as a musical genius; he died in mysterious circumstances in May 1902, when he ran away to America then disappeared from a boat in Chesapeake Bay, likely a suicide.[25] Exactly a year later, aged 22 and studying chemistry at the Berlin Academy, Waugh writes that Rudi walked into a bar on the Brandenburgstrasse, asked the pianist to play Thomas Koschat's "Verlassen, verlassen, verlassen bin ich", then mixed himself a drink of milk and potassium cyanide, dying in agony. He left several suicide notes, one to his parents that said he was grieving over the death of a friend, and another that referred to his "perverted disposition". It was reported at the time that he had sought advice from the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, an organization that was campaigning against Paragraph 175 of the German Criminal Code, which from 1871 until 1969 forbade homosexual sex. His father forbade the family from ever mentioning his name again.[26] Monk writes that Kurt did become a company director briefly, but shot himself on 27 October 1918 at the end of the First World War, when the Austrian troops he was commanding refused to obey his orders and deserted en masse.[21] According to Gottlieb, Hermine had said Kurt seemed to carry "the germ of disgust for life within himself". Paul also considered suicide, as did Ludwig.[24] The latter told a friend, David Pinsent, that when Bertrand Russell first encouraged him in his philosophy in January 1912, it had ended nine years of loneliness and wanting to die, though Russell was so worried about his state of mind that he predicted Wittgenstein would kill himself by February 1914.[27]

[edit] 19031906: Realschule in Linz


[edit] School years

The Realschule in Linz After the deaths of Hans and Rudi, Karl relented, and allowed Paul and Ludwig to be sent to school. Alexander Waugh writes that it was too late for Wittgenstein to pass his exams for the more academic Gymnasium in Wiener Neustadt; he failed his entrance exam and only barely managed after extra tuition to pass the exam for the more technically oriented K.u.k. Realschule in Linz, a small state school with 300 pupils, and according to Brian McGuinness a stronghold of German nationalism.[28] In 1903, when he was 13, he began three years of schooling there, lodging nearby in term time with the family of a Dr Srigl, a master at the local gymnasium, the family giving him the nickname Luki.[29] Historian Brigitte Hamann writes that he stood out from the other boys and was bullied; he spoke an unusually pure form of High German with a stutter, dressed elegantly, and was sensitive and unsociable.[30] His first impressions of the school, recorded in fragmentary form in a notebook, indicate there may have been an early romantic relationship with Dr. Stigl's son, Pepi, who died in August 1914: "Mist! [Rubbish!] Relation to the Jews. Relation to Pepi. Love and pride. Knocking hat off. Break with P. Suffering in class."[29] According to Waugh, Wittgenstein was a misfit at the school, insisting the other children address him with the formal German "Sie", and was often absent.[28] Monk writes that the other boys made fun of him, singing after him: "Wittgenstein wandelt wehmtig widriger Winde wegen Wienwrts"[31] ("Wittgenstein strolls wistfully Vienna-wards due to adverse winds"). In his leaving certificate, he received a top mark only once, in religious studies; a 2 for conduct and English, 3 for French, geography, history, mathematics and physics, and 4 for German, chemistry, geometry and freehand drawing. He had particular difficulty with spelling and failed his written German exam because of it. He wrote in 1931: "My bad spelling in youth, up to the age of about 18 or 19, is connected with the whole of the rest of my character (my weakness in study)."[29]

[edit] Jewish background and Hitler

Further information: Austrian Jews There is much debate about the extent to which Wittgenstein and his siblings, who were of 3/4 Jewish descent, saw themselves as Jews, and the issue has arisen in particular regarding Wittgenstein's schooldays, because Adolf Hitler was at the same school for part of the same time.[32] Laurence Goldstein argues it is "overwhelmingly probable" the boys met each other: that Hitler, vicious and aggressive, would have hated and envied Wittgenstein, a "stammering, precocious, precious, aristocratic upstart ..."[33] Other commentators have dismissed as irresponsible and uninformed any suggestion that Wittgenstein's wealth and unusual personality may have fed Hitler's antisemitism, in part because there is no indication that Hitler would have seen Wittgenstein as Jewish.[34]

Adolf Hitler (top right) at the Realschule in Linz. There have been claims that the boy on the bottom left is Wittgenstein, though the photograph seems to have been taken before Wittgenstein's time.[35] Vienna was at that time one of the most antisemitic cities in Europe, and any hint of a Jewish heritage had the potential to weigh heavily on a family. Certainly the Wittgenstein children were aware of their ancestry. Paul had created a family tree showing their descent from the Chief Rabbi Samson Wertheimer (16781724), the banker Samuel Oppenheimer (16781724), and the composers Giacomo Meyerbeer (17911864) and Felix Mendelssohn (18091847). There was nevertheless a streak of antisemitism among them. Wittgenstein famously compared the Jewish people to a Beule (boil or tumour) on Austrian society.[36] His grandfather, Hermann Christian Wittgenstein, himself a Jew, had refused to allow his children to marry other Jews, and Wittgenstein's father had said that "in matters of honour one does not consult a Jew." McGuinness argues that Wittgenstein saw himself as completely German[32]Ray Monk writes that when Ludwig and Paul wanted to join a gym in Vienna that was restricted to those of Aryan origin, Ludwig was willing to lie about his background, whereas Paul was not.[31] Wittgenstein and Hitler were born just six days apart, though Hitler had been held back a year, while Wittgenstein was moved forward by one, so they ended up two grades apart at the Realschule.[37] Monk estimates they were both at the school during the 19041905 school year, but says there is no evidence they had anything to do with each other.[38] Hitler referred in Mein Kampf to a Jewish boy at the school, but there were 17 Jews there at the time: "At the Realschule I knew one Jewish boy. We were all on our guard in our relations with him, but only because his reticence and certain actions of his warned us to be discreet. Beyond that my companions and myself formed no particular opinion in

regard to him."[39] Several commentators have argued that a school photograph of Hitler (see above right; Hitler is on the top right) may show Wittgenstein in the lower left corner,[35] but Hamann says the photograph stems from 1900 or 1901, before Wittgenstein's time.[40] In his own writings[41] Wittgenstein frequently referred to himself as Jewish, albeit often in an apparently negative sense. For example, while berating himself for being a "reproductive" as opposed to "productive" thinker, he attributed this to his own Jewish sense of identity, writing: "The saint is the only Jewish genius. Even the greatest Jewish thinker is no more than talented. (Myself for instance)".[42] While Wittgenstein would later claim that "[m]y thoughts are 100% Hebraic",[43] as Hans Sluga has argued, if so, "his was a self-doubting Judaism, which had always the possibility of collapsing into a destructive self-hatred (as it did in Weininger's case) but which also held an immense promise of innovation and genius."[44]

[edit] Loss of faith

Arthur Schopenhauer (17881860): Wittgenstein turned to his work when he realized he had lost his faith. It was while he was at the Realschule that he decided he had lost his faith in God, or rather had had none to begin with, and that he could not believe any of the things a Christian was supposed to believe. He nevertheless clung to the importance of the idea of confession, something he engaged in several times throughout his life, where he confessed to friends and family that he had lied, or had said or done something that meant he had not been true to himself. He wrote in his diaries about having made a major confession to his oldest sister, Hermine, while he was at the Realschule; Monk writes that it may have been about his loss of faith. He also discussed it with Gretl, his other sister, who directed him to Arthur Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation. Schopenhauer's idealism is a version of Immanuel Kant's: that the world of the senses is mere appearance, and the ethical will the only reality, a view that Wittgenstein adopted until he abandoned it when he began to study Gottlob Frege and logic, just before he went to Cambridge, though Monk writes he returned to it in the Tractatus, where his views on idealism and realism collided.[45]

[edit] Influence of Otto Weininger

Otto Weininger (18801903): Wittgenstein was greatly influenced by his suicide. During Wittgenstein's first term at the Realschule, on 3 October 1903, the Viennese philosopher Otto Weininger rented the room in the house at Schwarzspanierstrasse 15, Vienna, that Beethoven had died in, and shot himself. His book Geschlecht und Charakter (Sex and Character) had been published to mostly terrible reviews a few months earlier, but it had received a great review from August Strindberg; that and his suicide turned Weininger into a cult figure, and someone Wittgenstein came to admire. Monk writes that Wittgenstein was ashamed that he had not also killed himself, seeing Weininger's suicide as an ethical deed in a rotten worlda world that Weininger saw composed of superficial anarchy and a materialist interpretation of history, where there are no great philosophers or artists, and where genius is a form of madnessand recommended to everyone that they read Weininger's book.[46] Weininger argued that the concepts male and female exist only as Platonic forms, and that the essence of woman is sexual. Whereas men are basically rational, women operate only at the level of their emotions and sexual organs; Jews are similar, saturated with femininity, with no sense of right and wrong, and no soul. Wittgenstein saw in this argument the answers to issues he had been struggling with. Weininger argues that man must choose between his masculine and feminine sides, consciousness and unconsciousness, Platonic love and sexuality. Love and sexual desire stand in contradiction, and the love between a woman and a man is therefore doomed to misery or immorality. The only life worth living is the spiritual oneto live as a woman or a Jew means one has no right to live at all; the choice is genius or death. Monk writes that Wittgenstein's thoughts of suicide, which receded to some extent only when Russell began to admire his work in 1912, suggest he had embraced Weininger's bleak outlook.[46]

[edit] 19061913: University


[edit] Engineering at Berlin and Manchester

The old Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin He began his studies in mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin, on 23 October 1906, lodging with the family of a professor there, Dr Jolles. He attended for three semesters, and was awarded a diploma on 5 May 1908, after developing an interest in aeronautics.[47] He arrived at the Victoria University of Manchester in the spring of 1908 to do his doctorate, full of plans for aeronautical projects, including designing and flying his own plane. He conducted research into the behavior of kites in the upper atmosphere, experimenting at a meteorological observation site near Glossop, and living nearby at the Grouse Inn, a pub on Chunal Road, Derbyshire, where he was one of only two guests, along with a Mr. Rimmer. He told Hermine he loved the isolation of the Grouse Inn, but was less enamored of the toilet facilities.[48] He also worked on the design of a propeller with small jet engines on the end of its blades, something he patented in 1911 and which earned him a research studentship from the university in the autumn of 1908.[49]

Wittgenstein stayed at the Grouse Inn in 1908 while engaged in research near Glossop.[48] It was around this time that he became interested in the foundations of mathematics, particularly after reading Bertrand Russell's The Principles of Mathematics (1903), and Gottlob Frege's Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, vol. 1 (1893) and vol. 2 (1903).[50] Wittgenstein's sister Hermine said he became obsessed with mathematics as a result, and was anyway losing interest in aeronautics. He decided instead that he needed to study philosophy, describing himself as in a "constant, indescribable, almost pathological state of agitation".[49] In the summer of 1911 he decided to visit Frege at the University of Jena to show him some philosophy he had written, and to ask whether it was worth pursuing; the work did not survive, perhaps because, as he said, Frege wiped the floor with him.[51] He wrote: "I was shown into Frege's study. Frege was a small, neat man with a pointed beard who bounced around the room as he talked. He absolutely wiped the floor with me, and I felt very depressed; but at the end he said 'You must come again', so I cheered up. I

had several discussions with him after that. Frege would never talk about anything but logic and mathematics, if I started on some other subject, he would say something polite and then plunge back into logic and mathematics."[52]

[edit] Arrival at Cambridge


Wittgenstein wanted to study with Frege, but Frege suggested he attend the University of Cambridge to study under Russell, so on 18 October 1911 Wittgenstein arrived unannounced at Russell's rooms in Trinity College.[53] Russell was having tea with C.K. Ogden, when, according to Russell, "... an unknown German appeared, speaking very little English but refusing to speak German. He turned out to be a man who had learned engineering at Charlottenburg, but during this course had acquired, by himself, a passion for the philosophy of mathematics & has now come to Cambridge on purpose to hear me."[51] He was soon not only attending Russell's lectures, but dominating them. The lectures were poorly attended and Russell often found himself lecturing only to C.D. Broad, E.H. Neville, and H.T.J. Norton, so he was quite pleased at first when Wittgenstein turned up, though less so as the weeks wore on.[51] Wittgenstein started following him after lectures back to his rooms to discuss more philosophy, until it was time for the evening meal in Hall. Russell grew irritated; he wrote to his lover Lady Ottoline Morrell: "My German friend threatens to be an infliction."[54]

Bertrand Russell in 1893 Russell revised his opinion, and in fact came to be overpowered by Wittgenstein's forceful personality. He wrote in November 1911 that he had at first thought Wittgenstein might be a crank, but soon decided he was a genius: "Some of his early views made the decision difficult. He maintained, for example, at one time that all existential propositions are meaningless. This was in a lecture room, and I invited him to consider the proposition: 'There is no hippopotamus in this room at present.' When he refused to believe this, I looked under all the desks without finding one; but he remained unconvinced."[54] Three months after Wittgenstein's arrival he told Morrell: "I love him & feel he will solve the problems I am too old to solve ... He is the young man one hopes for."[55] The role-reversal between him and Wittgenstein was such that he wrote in 1916, after Wittgenstein had criticized his own work: "His criticism, 'tho I don't think he

realized it at the time, was an event of first-rate importance in my life, and affected everything I have done since. I saw that he was right, and I saw that I could not hope ever again to do fundamental work in philosophy."[56]

[edit] Moral Sciences Club and Apostles


Main article: Wittgenstein's Poker In 1912 Wittgenstein joined the Cambridge Moral Sciences Club, an influential discussion group for philosophy dons and students, delivering his first paper there on 29 November that year, a four-minute talk defining philosophy as "all those primitive propositions which are assumed as true without proof by the various sciences."[57] From that point on he dominated the society, to the point where special starred meetings had to be organized which dons were not to attend, though everyone knew the arrangement was directed only at Wittgenstein. He had to stop attending entirely in the 1930s after complaints that he gave no one else a chance to speak.[58] The club became legendary within philosophy because of a meeting on 25 October 1946 at Richard Braithwaite's rooms in King's, where Karl Popper, another Viennese philosopher, had been invited as the guest speaker. Popper's paper was "Are there philosophical problems?", in which he struck up a position against Wittgenstein's, contending that problems in philosophy are real, not just linguistic puzzles as Wittgenstein argued. Accounts vary as to what happened next, but Wittgenstein was apparently infuriated and started waving a hot poker at Popper, demanding that Popper give him an example of a moral rule. Popper offered one"Not to threaten visiting speakers with pokers"at which point Russell had to tell Wittgenstein to put the poker down and Wittgenstein stormed out. It was the only time the philosophers, three of the most eminent in the world, were ever in the same room together.[59] The minutes record that the meeting was "charged to an unusual degree with a spirit of controversy".[60] John Maynard Keynes also invited him to join the Cambridge Apostles, an elite secret society formed in 1820, which both Russell and G.E. Moore had joined as students, but Wittgenstein did not enjoy it and attended infrequently. Russell had been worried that Wittgenstein, with his literal-mindedness, would not appreciate the group's humour or the fact that the members were in love with one another.[61] Lytton Strachey wrote to Keynes on 17 May 1912 about an Apostles meeting where Wittgenstein was present, calling him Herr Sinckel-Winckel: "Oliver and Herr Sinckel-Winckel hard at it on universals and particulars. The latter oh! so brightbut quelle souffrance! Oh God! God! "If A loves B""There may be a common quality""Not analysable that way at all, but the complexes have certain qualities." How shall I manage to slink off to bed?"[62]

[edit] Relationship with David Pinsent


It was Russell who introduced Wittgenstein to David Hume Pinsent (18911918) in the summer of 1912. A mathematics undergraduate and descendant of David Hume, Pinsent became what Wittgenstein called his first and only friend,[63] and is widely regarded as

the first of three or four men Wittgenstein fell in love withfollowed by Francis Skinner in 1930, Ben Richards in the late 1940s, and to a lesser extent Keith Kirk in 1940 though Pinsent and Kirk did not respond in kind.[64] The men worked together on experiments in the psychology laboratory about the role of rhythm in the appreciation of music, and Wittgenstein delivered a paper about it to the British Psychological Association in Cambridge in 1912. They also travelled together, including to Iceland in September 1912the expenses paid by Wittgenstein's father, including first class travel, and new clothes and spending money for Pinsentand later to Norway. Pinsent's diaries have provided researchers with a wealth of material about Wittgenstein's personality, and what comes across strongly is how sensitive and nervous he was, attuned to the tiniest slight or change in mood from Pinsent, with Pinsent regularly writing that Wittgenstein was in a huff about something.[65] He wrote about shopping for furniture with Wittgenstein in Cambridge when the latter was given rooms in Trinity; most of what they found in the stores was not frugal enough for Wittgenstein's taste: "I went and helped him interview a lot of furniture at various shops ... It was rather amusing: he is terribly fastidious and we led the shopman a frightful dance, Vittgenstein [sic] ejaculating "NoBeastly!" to 90 percent of what he shewed us!"[62] He wrote in May 1912 that Wittgenstein had just begun to study philosophy: "[h]e expresses the most naive surprise that all the philosophers he once worshipped in ignorance are after all stupid and dishonest and make disgusting mistakes!"[62] The last time they saw each other was at Birmingham train station on 8 October 1913, when they said goodbye before Wittgenstein left to live in Norway. Despite the physical distance that had grown between them because of the warPinsent's last letter to Wittgenstein was dated 14 September 1916when Pinsent died in a plane crash in May 1918, Wittgenstein was distraught to the point of being suicidal, and three years later dedicated the Tractatus to him.[62]

[edit] 19131920: World War I and the Tractatus


[edit] Work on Logik

The original manuscript of Wittgenstein's Notes on Logic (1914) in the Wren Library, Trinity College, Cambridge

Karl Wittgenstein died on 20 January 1913, and on receiving his inheritance Wittgenstein became one of the wealthiest men in Europe.[66] He donated some of it, initially anonymously, to Austrian artists and writers, including Rainer Maria Rilke and Georg Trakl. Wittgenstein came to feel that he could not get to the heart of his most fundamental questions while surrounded by other academics, and so in 1913 he retreated to the village of Skjolden in Norway, where he rented the second floor of a house for the winter. He later saw this as one of the most productive periods of his life, writing Logik (Notes on Logic), the predecessor of much of the Tractatus.[53] At Wittgenstein's insistence, Moore, who was now a Cambridge don, visited him in Norway in 1914, reluctantly because Wittgenstein exhausted him. David Edmonds and John Eidinow write that Wittgenstein regarded Moorean internationally known philosopheras an example of how far someone could get in life with "absolutely no intelligence whatsoever". In Norway it was clear that Moore was expected to act as Wittgenstein's secretary, taking down his notes, with Wittgenstein falling into a rage when Moore got something wrong.[67] When he returned to Cambridge, Moore asked the university to consider accepting Logik as sufficient for a bachelor's degree, but they refused, saying it wasn't formatted properly: no footnotes, no preface. Wittgenstein was furious, writing to Moore in May 1914: "If I am not worth your making an exception for me even in some STUPID details then I may as well go to Hell directly; and if I am worth it and you don't do it thenby Godyou might go there." Moore was apparently distraught; he wrote in his diary that he felt sick and could not get the letter out of his head.[68] The two did not speak again until 1929.[67]

[edit] Military service


The outbreak of World War I the next year left Wittgenstein in deep shock. He volunteered for the Austro-Hungarian army, first serving on a ship and then in an artillery workshop. In March 1916, he was posted to a fighting unit on the front line of the Russian front, as part of the Austrian 7th Army, where his unit was involved in some of the heaviest fighting, defending against the Brusilov Offensive.[69] In action against British troops, he was decorated with the Military Merit with Swords on the Ribbon, and was commended by the army for "courageous behaviour, calmness, sang-froid, and heroism".[70] In January 1917, he was sent as a member of a howitzer regiment to the Russian front, where he won several medals for bravery including the Silver Medal for Valour.[69] In 1918 he was promoted to reserve officer (lieutenant) and sent to northern Italy as part of an artillery regiment. For his part in the Austrian offensive of June 1918, he was recommended for the Gold Medal for Valour, the highest honour in the Austrian army, but was instead awarded the Band of the Military Service Medal with Swords.[71] Throughout the war, he kept notebooks in which he frequently wrote philosophical reflections alongside personal remarks, and in them he records his contempt for the baseness of soldiers in wartime. He discovered Leo Tolstoy's The Gospel in Brief at a bookshop in Galicia, and carried it everywhere, recommending it to anyone in distress, to the point where he became known to his fellow soldiers as "the man with the gospels".[72]

Russell said he returned from the war a changed man, one with both a more mystical and more ascetic bent.[73]

[edit] Completion of the Tractatus


In the summer of 1918 Wittgenstein took military leave and went to stay in his family's summer home, Neuwaldegg, in Vienna. It was there in August 1918 that he completed the Tractatus, which he submitted with the title Der Satz (The Proposition) to the publishers Johada and Siegel.[74] A series of events around this time left him deeply upset. On 13 August, his uncle Paul died. On 25 October he learned that Johada and Siegel had decided not to publish the Tractatus, and on 27 October his brother Kurt killed himself, the third of his brothers to commit suicide. It was around this time he received a letter from David Pinsent's mother to say that Pinsent had been killed in a plane crash on 8 May.[75] Wittgenstein was distraught to the point of being suicidal. He was sent back to the Italian front after his leave and was captured on 3 November in Trent, spending nine months in prison. He returned to his family in Vienna on 25 August 1919, by all accounts physically and mentally spent. He apparently talked incessantly about suicide, terrifying his sisters and Paul. He decided to do two things: to enroll in teacher training college as an elementary school teacher, and to get rid of his fortune. In 1914 it had been providing him with an income of 300,000 Kronen a year, but by 1919 was worth a great deal more because it had been invested in the United States and Holland. He divided it among his siblings, except for Margarete who was already wealthy in her own right, insisting that it not be held in trust for him. His family saw him as ill, and acquiesced.[74]

[edit] 19201928: Teaching, the Tractatus, Haus Wittgenstein


[edit] Teacher training in Vienna, the Prater
In September 1919 he enrolled in the Lehrerbildungsanstalt (teacher training college) in the Kundmanngasse in Vienna. His sister Hermine said that Wittgenstein working as an elementary teacher was like using a precision instrument to open crates, but the family decided not to interfere.[76] He moved out of the family home and into lodgings in Untere Viaduktgasse in Vienna's third district, and it was during this period that, according to William Warren Bartley, a professor of philosophy at Stanford, Wittgenstein engaged in a series of casual homosexual encounters in an area of the city called the Prater, within walking distance of his lodgings. It is a controversial claim, one that Bartley first made in 1973 in his biography Wittgenstein, and denied at the time by Wittgenstein's executors and friends in England.[77] Bartley writes that he obtained the information from Wittgenstein's friends, and it was this activity, he argues, that Wittgenstein was referring to when he wrote to the architect Paul Engelmann in May 1920: "Things have gone utterly miserably for me

lately. Of course only because of my own baseness and rottenness. I have continually thought about taking my own life, and now too this thought still haunts me. 'I have sunk to the bottom'. May you never be in that position!"[78] The literary executors threatened legal action to suppress publication of Bartley's book, according to an afterword he included in a 1985 edition. Bartley writes that a whispering campaign began against him, with one British literary critic writing, "The general line here is that you are to be drummed out of the trade and that no academic invitation of any kind will be extended to you from the United Kingdom henceforth ..."[79]

[edit] Teaching posts in Austria


In 1920 Wittgenstein was given his first job as a primary school teacher in Trattenbach, a village of just a few hundred. His first letters describe it as beautiful, but in October 1921, he wrote to Russell: "I am still at Trattenbach, surrounded, as ever, by odiousness and baseness. I know that human beings on the average are not worth much anywhere, but here they are much more good-for-nothing and irresponsible than elsewhere."[80] He was soon the object of gossip among the villagers, who found him eccentric at best. He did not get on well with the other teachers; when he found his lodgings too noisy, he made a bed for himself in the school kitchen. He was an enthusiastic teacher, offering late-night extra tuition to several of the boys, something that did not endear him to the parents, though some of the boys came to adore him; his sister Hermine occasionally watched him teach and said the students "literally crawled over each other in their desire to be chosen for answers or demonstrations".[81] To the less abled, it seems that he became something of a tyrant. The first two hours of each day were devoted to mathematics, hours that Monk writes some of the pupils recalled years later with horror. They reported that he caned the boys and boxed their ears, and also that he pulled the girls' hair;[82] this was not unusual at the time for boys, but for the villagers he went too far in doing it to the girls too; girls were not expected to understand algebra, much less have their ears boxed over it. The physicality apart, Monk writes that he quickly became a village legend, shouting "Krautsalat!" when the headmaster played the piano, and "Nonsense!" when a priest was answering children's questions.[83]

[edit] Publication of the Tractatus


Further information: Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
"The main point is the theory of what can be expressed (gesagt) by prop[osition]si.e. by language(and, which comes to the same thing, what can be thought) and what can not be expressed by pro[position]s, but only shown (gezeigt); which, I believe, is the cardinal problem of philosophy." Wittgenstein, letter to Russell, 19 August 1919.[84]

While Wittgenstein was living in isolation in rural Austria, the Tractatus was published to considerable interest, first in German in 1921 as Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, part of Wilhelm Ostwald's journal Annalen der Naturphilosophie, though Wittgenstein

was not happy with the result and called it a pirate edition. Russell had agreed to write an introduction to explain why it was important, because it was otherwise unlikely to have been published: it was difficult if not impossible to understand, and Wittgenstein was unknown in philosophy.[85] But Wittgenstein was not happy with Russell's help. He had lost faith in Russell, finding him glib and his philosophy mechanistic, and felt he had fundamentally misunderstood the Tractatus.[86]

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (19031930), a mathematics undergraduate, was under 18 years old when he translated the Tractatus. An English translation was prepared in Cambridge by Frank Ramsey, a mathematics undergraduate at King's commissioned by C. K. Ogden. It was G.E. Moore who suggested Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus for the title, an allusion to Baruch Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Initially there were difficulties in finding a publisher for the English edition too, because Wittgenstein was insisting it appear without Russell's introduction; Cambridge University Press turned it down for that reason. Finally in 1922 an agreement was reached with Wittgenstein that Kegan Paul would print a bilingual edition with Russell's introduction and the Ramsey-Ogden translation.[87] This is the translation that was approved by Wittgenstein, but it is problematic in a number of ways. Wittgenstein's English was poor at the time, and Ramsey was a teenager who had only recently learned German, so philosophers often prefer to use a 1961 translation by David Pears and Brian McGuinness.[88] The aim of the Tractatus is to reveal the relationship between language and the world: what can be said about it, and what can only be shown. Wittgenstein argues that language has an underlying logical structure, a structure that provides the limits of what can be said meaningfully, and therefore the limits of what can be thought. The limits of language, for Wittgenstein, are the limits of thought. Much of philosophy involves attempts to say the unsayable, and by implication the unthinkable: "what can we say at all can be said clearly", he argues. Anything beyond thatreligion, ethics, aesthetics, the mystical cannot be discussed. They are not in themselves nonsensical, but any statement about them must be.[89] He wrote in the preface: "The book will, therefore, draw a limit to thinking, or rathernot to thinking, but to the expression of thoughts; for, in order to draw a limit to thinking we should have to be able to think both sides of this limit (we should therefore have to be able to think what cannot be thought)."[90]

The book is devoted to explaining what a meaningful proposition is (what is asserted when a sentence is used meaningfully). It is 75 pages long"As to the shortness of the book, I am awfully sorry for it ... If you were to squeeze me like a lemon you would get nothing more out of me", he told Ogdenand presents seven numbered propositions (1 7), with various sub-levels (1, 1.1, 1.11):[91] 1. Die Welt ist alles, was der Fall ist. The world is all that is the case.[92] 2. Was der Fall ist, die Tatsache, ist das Bestehen von Sachverhalten. What is the casea factis the existence of states of affairs. 3. Das logische Bild der Tatsachen ist der Gedanke. A logical picture of facts is a thought. 4. Der Gedanke ist der sinnvolle Satz. A thought is a proposition with a sense. 5. Der Satz ist eine Wahrheitsfunktion der Elementarstze. A proposition is a truth-function of elementary propositions. 6. Die allgemeine Form der Wahrheitsfunktion ist: allgemeine Form des Satzes. The general form of a truth-function is: a proposition. . Dies ist die

. This is the general form of

7. Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darber mu man schweigen. What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence.

[edit] Visit from Frank Ramsey, Puchberg

Frank Ramsey visited Wittgenstein in Puchberg am Schneeberg in September 1923. In September 1922 he moved to a secondary school in a nearby village, Hassbach, but the people there were just as bad"These people are not human at all but loathsome worms", he wrote to a friendand he left after a month. In November he began work at another primary school, this time in Puchberg in the Schneeberg mountains. There, he told Russell, the villagers were one-quarter animal and three-quarters human. He was miserable. He had no one he could discuss philosophy with, which was particularly frustrating given that the Tractatus was now the subject of much debate in Cambridge and among the Vienna Circle.[93] Frank Ramsey arrived to visit him on 17 September 1923 to discuss the Tractatus; he had agreed to write a review of it for Mind.[93] He reported in a letter home that Wittgenstein was living frugally in one tiny whitewashed room that only had space for a bed, washstand, a small table, and one small hard chair. Ramsey shared an evening meal with him of coarse bread, butter, and cocoa. Wittgenstein's school hours were eight to twelve or one, and he had afternoons free.[94] After Ramsey returned to Cambridge a long campaign began among Wittgenstein's friends to persuade him to return to Cambridge and away from what they saw as a hostile environment for him. He was accepting no help even from his family.[93] Ramsey wrote to John Maynard Keynes: "[Wittgenstein's family] are very rich and extremely anxious to give him money or do anything for him in any way, and he rejects all their advances; even Christmas presents or presents of invalid's food, when he is ill, he sends back. And this is not because they aren't on good terms but because he won't have any money he hasn't earned ... It is an awful pity."[93]

[edit] Haidbauer incident, Otterthal


Main article: Haidbauer incident He moved schools again in September 1924, this time to Otterthal, near Trattenbach; the socialist headmaster, Josef Putre, was someone Wittgenstein had become friends with while at Trattenbach. While he was there, he wrote a 42-page pronunciation and spelling

dictionary for the children, Wrterbuch fr Volksschulen, published in Vienna in 1926 by Hlder-Pichler-Tempsky, the only book of his apart from the Tractatus that was published in his lifetime.[87] A first edition sold in 2005 for 75,000.[95] He continued to be the object of gossip and mistrust, in part because he was very demanding of the children. The dnouement came in April 1926 during what became known as Der Vorfall Haidbauer (the Haidbauer incident). Josef Haidbauer was an 11year-old pupil whose father had died and whose mother worked as a local maid. He was a slow learner, and one day Wittgenstein hit him two or three times on the head, causing him to collapse. Wittgenstein carried him to the headmaster's office, then quickly left the school, bumping into a parent, Herr Piribauer, on the way out. Piribauer had been sent for by the children when they saw Haidbauer collapse; Wittgenstein had previously pulled Piribauer's daughter, Hermine, so hard by the ears that her ears had bled.[96] Piribauer said that when he met Wittgenstein in the hall that day: "I called him all the names under the sun. I told him he wasn't a teacher, he was an animal-trainer! And that I was going to fetch the police right away!"[96] Piribauer tried to have Wittgenstein arrested, but the village's police station was empty, and when he tried again the next day he was told Wittgenstein had disappeared. On 28 April 1926, Wittgenstein handed in his resignation to Wilhelm Kundt, a local school inspector, who tried to persuade him to stay, but Wittgenstein was adamant that his days as a schoolteacher were over.[96] Proceedings were initiated in May, and the judge ordered a psychiatric report; in August 1926 a letter to Wittgenstein from a friend, Ludwig Hnsel, indicates that hearings were ongoing, but nothing is known about the case after that. Alexander Waugh writes that Wittgenstein's family and their money may have had a hand in covering things up. Waugh writes that Haidbauer died shortly afterwards of haemophilia; Monk says he died when he was 14 of leukaemia.[97] Ten years later, Wittgenstein appeared without warning at the homes of the families whose children he had hurt saying he wanted to apologize personally. He visited at least four of the children, including Hermine Piribauer, who apparently replied only with a "Ja, ja", though some of the other children were more forgiving.[98]

[edit] Haus Wittgenstein

A plaque on the house, now the cultural department of the Bulgarian Embassy

Main article: Haus Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein worked on Haus Wittgenstein between 1926 and 1929. In part to distract him from the Haidbauer incident Wittgenstein's sister Margaret invited him to help with the design of her new townhouse in Vienna's Kundmanngasse. The architect was Paul Engelmann, someone Wittgenstein had come to know during the war when they'd been in the trenches together. Engelmann designed a spare modernist house after the style of Adolf Loos: three rectangular blocks. Wittgenstein poured himself into the project for over two years. He focused on the windows, doors, and radiators, demanding that every detail be exactly as he specified, to the point where, as Waugh writes, everyone involved in the project was exhausted. One of the architects, Jacques Groag, wrote in a letter: "I come home very depressed with a headache after a day of the worst quarrels, disputes, vexations, and this happens often. Mostly between me and Wittgenstein."[99] When the house was nearly finished he had a ceiling raised 30mm so that the room had the exact proportions he wanted.[100] Waugh writes that Margaret eventually refused to pay for the changes Wittgenstein kept demanding, so he bought himself a lottery ticket in the hope of paying for things that way.[99] It took him a year to design the door handles, and another to design the radiators. Each window was covered by a metal screen that weighed 150 kg, moved by a pulley Wittgenstein designed. Bernhard Leitner, author of The Architecture of Ludwig Wittgenstein, said of it that there is barely anything comparable in the history of interior design: "It is as ingenious as it is expensive. A metal curtain that could be lowered into the floor."[100] The house was finished by December 1928, and the family gathered there that Christmas to celebrate its completion, but it was not greatly admired. Wittgenstein's sister Hermine wrote: "It seemed indeed to be much more a dwelling for the gods." Paul disliked it, and when Margaret's nephew came to sell it, he reportedly did so on the grounds that she had never liked it either.[99] Wittgenstein himself found the house too austere, saying it had good manners, but no primordial life or health.[101] He nevertheless seemed committed to

the idea of becoming an architect: the Vienna City Directory listed him as "Dr Ludwig Wittgenstein, occupation: architect" between 1933 and 1938.[102] After World War II, the house became a barracks and stables for Russian soldiers, and in the 1950s it was sold to a developer. The Vienna Landmark Commission saved it and made it a national monument in 1971, and since 1975 it has housed the cultural department of the Bulgarian Embassy.[100]

[edit] 19291941: Fellowship at Cambridge


[edit] PhD and fellowship
At the urging of Ramsey and others, Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge in 1929. Keynes wrote in a letter to his wife: "Well, God has arrived. I met him on the 5.15 train." Despite this fame, he could not initially work at Cambridge as he did not have a degree, so he applied as an advanced undergraduate. Russell noted that his previous residency was sufficient for a PhD, and urged him to offer the Tractatus as his thesis. It was examined in 1929 by Russell and Moore; at the end of the thesis defence, Wittgenstein clapped the two examiners on the shoulder and said, "Don't worry, I know you'll never understand it."[103] Moore wrote in the examiner's report: "I myself consider that this is a work of genius; but, even if I am completely mistaken and it is nothing of the sort, it is well above the standard required for the Ph.D. degree."[104] Wittgenstein was appointed as a lecturer and was made a fellow of Trinity College.

[edit] Anschluss
Further information: Anschluss, Nuremberg Laws, and Mischling test From 1936 to 1937, Wittgenstein lived again in Norway,[105] where he worked on the Philosophical Investigations. In the winter of 1936/37, he delivered a series of "confessions" to close friends, most of them about minor infractions like white lies, in an effort to cleanse himself. In 1938, he travelled to Ireland to visit Maurice O'Connor Drury, a friend who became a psychiatrist, and considered such training himself, with the intention of abandoning philosophy for it. The visit to Ireland was at the same time a response to the invitation of the then Irish Taoiseach, amon de Valera, himself a mathematics teacher. De Valera hoped that Wittgenstein's presence would contribute to an academy for advanced mathematics. While he was in Ireland in March 1938, Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss; the Viennese Wittgenstein was now a citizen of the enlarged Germany and a Jew under the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws, because three of his grandparents had been born as Jews. The Nuremberg Laws classified people as Jews (Volljuden) if they had three or four Jewish grandparents, and as mixed blood (Mischling) if they had one or two. It meant inter alia that the Wittgensteins were restricted in who they could marry or have sex with, and where they could work.[106]

After Anschluss, Paul left almost immediately for England, and later the United States. The Nazis discovered his relationship with Hilde Schania, a brewers daughter he had had two children with but had never married, though he did later. Because she was not a Jew, he was served with a summons for Rassenschande (racial defilement). He told no one he was leaving the country, except for Hilde who agreed to follow him. He left so suddenly and quietly that for a time people believed he was the fourth Wittgenstein brother to have committed suicide.[107] Wittgenstein began to investigate acquiring British or Irish citizenship with the help of Keynes, and apparently had to confess to his friends in England that he had earlier misrepresented himself to them as having just one Jewish grandparent, when in fact he had three.[108] A few days before the invasion of Poland, Hitler granted Mischling status to the Wittgenstein siblings. In 1939 there were 2,100 applications for this, and Hitler granted only 12.[109] Anthony Gottlieb writes that the pretext was that their paternal grandfather had been the bastard son of a German prince, which allowed the Reichsbank to claim the gold, foreign currency, and stocks held in Switzerland by a Wittgenstein trust. Gretl, an American citizen by marriage, was the one who started the negotiations over the racial status of their grandfather, and the family's foreign currency was used as a bargaining tool. Paul had escaped to Switzerland and then the United States in July 1938, and disagreed with the negotiations, leading to a permanent split between the siblings. After the war, when Paul was performing in Vienna, he did not visit Hermine who was dying there, and he had no further contact with Ludwig or Gretl.[24]

[edit] Professor of philosophy


After G. E. Moore resigned the chair in philosophy in 1939, Wittgenstein was elected, and acquired British citizenship soon afterwards. In July 1939 he travelled to Vienna to assist Gretl and his other sisters, visiting Berlin for one day to meet an official of the Reichsbank. After this, he travelled to New York to persuade Paul, whose agreement was required, to back the scheme. The required Befreiung was granted in August 1939. The unknown amount signed over to the Nazis by the Wittgenstein family, a week or so before the outbreak of war, included amongst many other assets 1.7 tonnes of gold.[110] At 2009 prices, this amount of gold alone would be worth in excess of US$60 million. There is also a report that Wittgenstein went on to visit Moscow a second time in 1939, travelling from Berlin, and again met the philosopher Sophia Janowskaya.[111] After work, Wittgenstein would often relax by watching Westerns, where he preferred to sit at the very front of the cinema, or reading detective stories.[112] Norman Malcolm wrote that he would rush to the cinema when class ended. "As the members of the class began to move their chairs out of the room he might look imploringly at a friend and say in a low tone, Could you go to a flick? On the way to the cinema Wittgenstein would buy a bun or cold pork pie and munch it while he watched the film."[113]

By this time, Wittgenstein's view on the foundations of mathematics had changed considerably. Earlier he had thought that logic could provide a solid foundation, and he had even considered updating Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica. Now he denied that there were any mathematical facts to be discovered and he denied that mathematical statements were true in any real sense. He gave a series of lectures on mathematics, discussing this and other topics, documented in a book, with lectures by Wittgenstein and discussions between him and several students, including the young Alan Turing.[114]

[edit] World War II and Guy's Hospital


Monk writes that Wittgenstein found it intolerable that a war was going on and he was teaching philosophy. He grew angry when any of his students wanted to pursue philosophy, and was famously overjoyed when the wife of philosopher G.E. Moore told him she was working in a jam factorydoing something useful, in Wittgenstein's eyes. In September 1941 he asked John Ryle, the brother of the philosopher Gilbert Ryle, if he could get a manual job at Guy's Hospital in London. John Ryle was professor of medicine at Cambridge and had been involved in helping Guy's prepare for the Blitz. Wittgenstein told Ryle he would die slowly if left at Cambridge, and he would rather die quickly. He started working at Guy's shortly afterwards as a dispensary porter, meaning that he delivered drugs from the pharmacy to the wardswhere he apparently advised the patients not to take them.[115] The hospital staff were not told that he was one of the world's most famous philosophers, though some of the medical staff did recognize himat least one had attended Moral Sciences Club meetingsbut they were discreet. "Good God, don't tell anybody who I am!" Wittgenstein begged one of them. Some of them nevertheless called him Professor Wittgenstein, and he was allowed to dine with the doctors. He was lonely. He wrote on 1 April 1942: "I no longer feel any hope for the future of my life. It is as though I had before me nothing more than a long stretch of living death. I cannot imagine any future for me other than a ghastly one. Friendless and joyless."[115] He had developed a friendship with Keith Kirk, a working-class teenage friend of Francis Skinner, the mathematics undergraduate he had had a relationship with until Skinner's death in 1941 from polio. Skinner had given up academia, thanks at least in part to Wittgenstein's influence, and had been working as a mechanic in 1939, with Kirk as his apprentice. Kirk and Wittgenstein struck up a friendship, with Wittgenstein giving him lessons in physics to help him pass a City and Guilds exam, but Wittgenstein seems to have fallen in love with him. During his period of loneliness at Guy's he wrote in his diary: "For ten days I've heard nothing more from K, even though I pressed him a week ago for news. I think that he has perhaps broken with me. A tragic thought." Kirk had in fact got married, and they never saw one another again.[116]

[edit] 19471951: Final years

"Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death. If we take eternity to mean not infinite temporal duration but timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present. Our life has no end in the way in which our visual field has no limits." Wittgenstein, Tractatus, 6.431

He resigned the professorship at Cambridge in 1947 to concentrate on his writing, and travelled to Ireland in 1947 and 1948, staying in Ross's Hotel in Dublin and a farmhouse in Red Cross, in County Wicklow, where he began the manuscript volume MS 137, Band R. Seeking solitude he moved to Rosro, a holiday cottage in Connemara owned by Maurice O'Connor-Drury. Drury told his servant, Tommy Mulkerrins, that Wittgenstein had had a nervous breakdown and needed looking after.[117] He also accepted an invitation from Norman Malcolm, a former student, to stay with him at Ithaca, New York. He made the trip in April 1949, but told Malcolm he was unwell: "I haven't done any work since the beginning of March & I haven't had the strength of even trying to do any." A doctor in Dublin had diagnosed anaemia and prescribed iron and liver pills, but he fell ill again in America, and told Malcolm he was afraid of dying there. "I don't want to die in America. I am a European. I want to die there. What a fool I was to come!"[118]

A plaque at "Storey's End", 76 Storey's Way, Cambridge, where Wittgenstein died. He returned to London, where he was diagnosed with an inoperable cancer of the prostate, spread to his bone marrow. He was prescribed oestrogen, which gave him diarrhea, hot flashes, impotence, and swelling of the breasts. He spent the next two months in Vienna, where his sister Hermine died on 11 February 1950; he went to see her every day, but she was hardly able to speak or recognize him. "Great loss for me and all of us", he wrote. "Greater than I would have thought." He moved around a lot after Hermine's death: to Cambridge in April 1950, where he stayed with G. H. von Wright; to London to stay with Rush Rhees; then to Oxford to see Elizabeth Anscombe, writing to Norman Malcolm that he was hardly doing any philosophy. He went to Norway in August with Ben Richards, then returned to Cambridge, where on 27 November he moved into "Storey's End", at 76 Storey's Way, the home of his doctor, Edward Bevan, and his wife Joan; he had told them he was scared of dying in hospital, so they said he could spend his last days in their home instead. Joan was at first afraid of him, but they became very close.[117]

By the beginning of 1951 it was clear that he had little time left. He wrote a new will in Oxford on 29 January, naming Rhees as his executor, and Anscombe and von Wright his literary administrators, and wrote to Normal Malcolm that month to say, "My mind's completely dead. This isn't a complaint, for I don't really suffer from it. I know that life must have an end once & and that mental life can cease before the rest does."[119] In February he returned to the Bevans' home to work on MS 175 and MS 176. These and other manuscripts were later published as Remarks on Colour and On Certainty.[117] He wrote to Malcolm on 16 April, 13 days before his death: "An extraordinary thing happened to me. About a month ago I suddenly found myself in the right frame of mind for doing philosophy. I had been absolutely certain that I'd never again be able to do it. It's the first time after more than 2 years that the curtain in my brain has gone up.Of course, so far I've only worked for about 5 weeks & it may be all over by tomorrow; but it bucks me up a lot now."[120] He began work on his final manuscript, MS 177, on 25 April 1951. It was his 62nd birthday on 26 April. He went for a walk the next afternoon, and wrote his last entry that day, 27 April:

Wittgenstein's grave at the Ascension Parish Burial Ground If someone believes that he has flown from America to England in the last few days, then, I believe, he cannot be making a mistake. And just the same if someone says that he is at this moment sitting at a table and writing. But even if in such cases I cant be mistaken, isn't it possible that I am drugged? If I am and if the drug has taken away my consciousness, then I am not now really talking and thinking. I cannot seriously suppose that I am at this moment dreaming. Someone who, dreaming, says "I am dreaming", even if he speaks audibly in doing so, is no more right than if he said in his dream "it is raining", while it was in fact raining. Even if his dream were actually connected with the noise of the rain.[117] That evening, he became very ill; when his doctor told him he might live only a few days, he reportedly replied, "Good!". Joan stayed with him throughout that night, and just before losing consciousness for the last time on 28 April, he told her: "Tell them I've had a wonderful life." Norman Malcolm writes that this was a strangely moving utterance, given how unhappy his life seems to have been.[120] Four of his former students arrived at

his bedsideBen Richards, Elizabeth Anscombe, Yorick Smythies, and Maurice O'Connor Drury. Anscombe and Smythies were Catholics, and at the latter's request, a Dominican monk, Father Conrad Pepler, also attended. They were at first unsure what Wittgenstein would have wanted, but then remembered he had said he hoped his Catholic friends would pray for him, so they did, and he was pronounced dead shortly afterwards. He was given a Catholic burial at St. Giles's Church, Cambridge. Drury later said he had been troubled ever since about whether that was the right thing to do.[121]

[edit] 1953: Publication of the Philosophical Investigations


Main articles: Philosophical Investigations, Language-game, and Private language argument

Illustration of a "duckrabbit", discussed in the Philosophical Investigations, section XI, part II The Blue Book, a set of notes dictated to his class at Cambridge in 19331934, contains seeds of Wittgenstein's later thoughts on language, and is widely read as a turning-point in his philosophy of language. The Philosophical Investigations was published in two parts in 1953. Most of the 693 numbered paragraphs in Part I were ready for printing in 1946, but Wittgenstein withdrew the manuscript. The shorter Part II was added by his editors, Elizabeth Anscombe and Rush Rhees. Wittgenstein asks the reader to think of language as a multiplicity of language-games within which parts of language develop and function. He argues that philosophical problems are bewitchments that arise from philosophers' misguided attempts to consider the meaning of words independently of their context, usage, and grammar, what he called "language gone on holiday".[122] Philosophical problems arise when language is forced from its proper home into a metaphysical environment, where all the familiar and necessary landmarks and contextual clues are removed. Wittgenstein describes this metaphysical environment as like being on frictionless ice: where the conditions are apparently perfect for a philosophically and logically perfect languagethe language of the Tractatuswhere all philosophical problems can be solved without the muddying effects of everyday contexts; but where, precisely because of the lack of friction, language can in fact do no work at all.[123] Wittgenstein argues that philosophers must leave the frictionless ice and return to the "rough ground" of ordinary language in use. Much of the Investigations consists of examples of how the first false steps can be avoided, so that philosophical problems are

dissolved, rather than solved: "the clarity we are aiming at is indeed complete clarity. But this simply means that the philosophical problems should completely disappear."[124]

Mera naam Rajjjj hai log pyar se mujhe Raja bhi kehte hain. 28 saal ka hu aur thoda sa handsome aur stylish bhi hu. Gora rang. Broad shoulders, Muscular body aur Hairy Chest. Mai ek Electronic company mai Maintenance Engineer hu. Hamari company Electronic components bhi banati hai jiski Industrial Area mai ek medium size ki factory bhi haiYah job join kar ke mujhe bass 3 hi months hue hain. Hamari factory sheher se takreeban 25 kilometer ki doori pe hai. Hamari company ka ek showroom aur maintenance section ka ek office sheher mai bhi hai jaha mujhe daily jana padta hai to mai daily 25 kilometer ka up and down apni Yamaha Bike pe hi karta hu. Mujhe Bikes ka bohot shuok hai aur mai 1 ya 2 saal mai Bikes badalta rehta hu. This sotry is written by The Great Warrior Industrial area mai factory workers aur staff ke liye chote chote housing colonies bane hue hain jo factories se thodi door ke distance pa hain. Mai bhi aisi hi ek colony ke ek independent ghar mai rehta hu. Mere Daddy aur Mummy dono alag alag MNC mai kaam karte hai aur doosre city mai hi rehte hain. Meri abhi shadi nahi hui hai aur mai yaha apne ghar mai akela hi rehta hu. Abhi house maid ki search kar raha hu jo mere liye khana bana de aur kapde dho ke iron kar de aur ghar ki safai waghaira kar dia kare par abhi tak koi housemaid nahi mili. Mai daily routine ki tarah se 9 baje ghar se nikla. Abhi shaed 50 meter bhi nahi aaya tha ke ek ladki ne hath hila ke mujhe rukne ka ishara kia to mai ruk gaya. Ek nazar mai dekha ke who ek bohot hi cute ladki hai. Hogi shaed koi 18 saal ki. Mai usko dekhta hi reh gaya Bohot Gora rang itna gora ke mano hath laga te hi maila ho jaye bass malai lagti thi malai, laal kashmiri seb jaise gaal, badi badi hirni jaisi light brown colour ki aankhein, cheeks mai dimple, light brown hair, medium height, Bhare bhare badan wali ladki thi aur uske Blue Skirt jo uske knees se thoda upper tha jis se uski shapely aur wonderful sidol thighs nazar aa rahe the lagta tha ke wo sports girl hogi uske skirt ke ooper white aur thodi si tight shirt mai se uske chote se seb ( Baby Apple ) ya chote size ke santre (orange) jaise chuchian ubhri hue dikh rahi thi. Uski Tie dono chuchion ke beech mai latak rahi thi. Mai Bike rok ke khada ho gaya aur uski khubsurti mai doob ke reh gaya aur usko dekha to dekhta hi raha bohot hi khubsurat thi jaise koi aakash se utri hui apsara. use dekh ke yeh khayal bhi nahi raha ke usne mujhe ishara kar ke rukaya hai. Mai soch raha tha ke yeh ladki nahi yeh to qayamat hai qayamat aur abhi iss umar mai iski khubsurti ka yeh haal hai to jab yeh badi ho jayegi to kia hoga sadak pe chalte log mud mud ke dekhege iski mast jawani ko. Wo meri taraf thodi der tak apni badi badi shararati aankhon se dekhti rahi aur phir mere hath pe apna hath rakh ke kaha uncle kaha kho gaye aap !!! mere muh se ek dum se nikal gaya Oh WOW you are the most beautiful girl I have seen tum bohot hi sundar ho to wo thanks uncle keh ke muskura di phir mujhe ehsas hua ke mai ne yeh kia keh dia aur phir suddenly mai apne

khayalo se wapas aaya aur poocha kia bat hai to usne Kaha uncle aaj meri bus miss ho gai kia aap mujhe school tak drop de sakte hain ?. Mai ne poocha kounsa school aur kaha hai Tumhara School to usne kaha ke wo St. Marys Convent High School mai padhti hai aur 10th class mai hai. Uska school mere office ke kareeb hi tha isi liye mai ne kaha ke aao peeche baith jao. Usne thanks uncle kaha aur peeche ki seat pe uchak ke baith gai. Usne khud hi baat shuru karte hue kaha ke mera naam Geeta Sharma hai. Mere daddy Steel Factory mai senior sales director hai hai aur mummy plastic factory mai accountant hain. Subah dono mere se pehle hi offices ko chale jate hain. Daddy aur mummy ke jane ke bad hamari house maid aati hai aur uske aane ke bad hi mai school ke liye nikal jati hu par aaj thodi der ho gai aur bus miss ho gai aur ab koi doosri bus bhi nahi hai. Daddy bhi office ke kam se baher gaye hue hai aur mummy apne job pe subah hi chali jati hai to mujhe koi lift nahi milti aaj aap aa gaye thanks uncle nahi to mera school miss ho jata. Mai ne kaha koi baat nahi you are most welcome. Kounsi class mai ho to usne bataya ke who 10th mai hai aur apni class ki captain bhi hai aur sports ki secretary bhi hai isi liye usko school attend karna bohot important hota hai. Mai sochne laga ke sports mai hai isi liye itna sidol badan hai iska wonderful thighs aur ek dum se healthy aur active lag rahi thi. Colony khatam hone ke bad main road pe aa gaye. Main road pe utni ziada traffic nahi rehti aur yaha se town tak road ke tono taraf bade bade neem ke pedh (trees) hai aur dooor dooor tak khet bhi hai jaha se kheton ki madhur sugandh aati rehti hai especially shaam mai aur raat mai. Ab colony se ham main road pe aa gaye. Usne bataya ke uncle hamara school 10:30 baje se start hota hai to mere pas time hai aap itmenan se bike chaliye. Who bike ke dono taraf apne pair rakh ke baithi thi uske back pe uska school bag laga hua tha aur usne hath mere pet pe lappet ke mujhe pakda hua tha. Meri Yamaha ki seat thodi si slanting thi peeche se uthi hui thi aur samne se jhuki hui thi isi liye wo mujh se chipak ke baithi thi aur mujhe mere back pe uske chuchian lag rahe the jis se mere shareer mai electricity doud rahi thi aur mujhe bohot maza aa raha tha. Mai bike speed se chala raha tha aur wo mujh se poori tarah se chipki hui thi aur uske chuchian mere back se press ho rahe the aur jab bike jhatka kahti to uski chuchian mere badan pe hi ooper neeche jate the. Isi tarah se raasta guzar gaya ham takreeban 35 ya 40 minutes mai sheher mai enter ho gaye. Pehle mera office aata tha mai ne Geeta ko bataya ke dekho yah mera office hai to usne kaha ke uncle mera school

bhi to yahi hai yeh signal ke peeche wali road pe hai. Mai usko uske school pe drop kia to pata chala ke school aur mere office ke beech mai hardly 5 minutes ka walking distance hai. Mai ne kaha ke kabhi bhi koi zaroorat ho ya kuch bhi ho to mere pas office ko aa jana. Usne thanks kaha aur meri taraf hath hila ke bye karti hui muskurati hui school ke gate mai doudti hui chali gai mai bohot der tak uske dance karte chuchian aur uski latakti hui pony tail aur uske malai jaise gore aur shapely sexy thighs ko dekhta hi reh gaya aur phir palat ke office aa gaya. Office mai kisi kam mai dil nahi laga baar baar uske chuchian, uski moti sexy thighs aur latakti hui pony tail hi dimagh mai ghoomti rahi. Sham ho gai aur wo nahi aai shaed bus mil gai hogi. Mai office khatam hone ke bad ghar aa gaya. Bus stop dekh ke mujhe Geeta ki yaad aai par thodi der mai hi bhool gaya aur apna khana kha ke TV dekhne laga. Thodi der chatting kar ke so gaya. Doosre din mai ready ho ke bike pe nikla to dekha ke Geeta wahi khadi hai. Mai bike uske kareeb le gaya aur rok ke poocha ke aaj kia hua ? kia fir se bus miss kar di ?? to wo muskura ke boli ke sorry uncle aaj mai ne jaan boojh ke bus miss ki hai. I wanna go with you Kal aapke sath bike pe baithna mujhe bohot acha laga mujhe bohot maza aaya. Tell me uncle can you take me to my school aap mind to nahi karoge na uncle ? wo bohot achi English bol rahi thi. Mai ne kaha My pleasure come on sit on my pillion seat. Wo uchak ke mere peeche baith gai aur bike chalaane se pehle hi mujhe zor se aise chipak gai jaise mujhe apne chuchian feel karwana chahti ho. Aaj ham idhar udhar ki batein kar rahe the. Uske friends ki, School kim Uske teachers ki. Wo bohot interest le ke mere sath batein kar rahi thi. Aise hi baatein karte karte rasta guzar gaya. School aa gaya aur Geeta bike se utar te hue boli ke uncle aaj meri special class hai. Probably mai aapke sath hi wapas jaugi. Agar mai aapke office khatam hone tak nahi aaii to aap office ke bad bhi thodi der mera wait karlena please. I have already informed my mom and told her about you. She is very happy that you are giving me lift. Iss weekend pe mai aapko apni mummy se milwaugi. Mai ne bola ke koi bat nahi tum itmenan se apni special class attend kar ke mere office aa jao dono mil ke wapas chalte hai mei tumhara wait karuga yeh bol ke mai office aa gaya aur bechaini se sham ka wait karne laga. Mai office ke daily routine work mai busy ho gaya isi mai sham ho gai. Geeta ka school khatam ho gaya aur wo mere office pa aa gai but mujhe abhi thoda aur kaam baki tha mai ne kaha ke abhi thodi der mai chalte hain. Usne apne ghar phone karke uski mummy ko bata dia ke wo mere sath hai aur mere sath hi wapas ayegi. Uski mummy ne advance mai thanks kaha aur kaha ke uncle ko pareshan nahi karna jab unka kaam

khatam ho tab hi aana usne kaha ok mummy dont worry I wont trouble him. Office se kam khatam karke nikalte nikalte late evening ho gai thi thoda thoda andhera bhi hone laga tha. Bike start kia aur Geeta uchal ke peeche baith gai. Sheher se ham baher nikal aye. Baher aate hi dono taraf ke kheto se thandi thandi hawa aa rahi thi mousam bohot acha ho gaya tha. Kheton ki yeh madhur sugandh mujhe bohot achi lagti hai aur mai bike ko dheere dheere chalata aur kheton ki sugandh ka maza lete hue bike chala raha tha. Geeta bhi bike ke foot rest pe pair rakh ke khadi ho gai aur mere neck pe apne hath dal diye aur riding ka maza lene lagi. Wo thodi thodi der mai uth jati thi aur baith jati thi jis se uske chuchian mere back pe ragad kha rahe the aur mera lund pant ke ander se baher nikalne ko bechain ho gaya aur akadne laga. Yeh road pe koi traffice nahi rehti thi kiyonki yeh road sirf Industrial area ki housing colony ko hi jati thi. Sirf related log hi iss road pe aate jaate the. Kabhi kabhi koi car ya bike bazu se chali jati. Mai bike bohot dheemi gati se chala raha tha Geeta ki chuchion ko apni peeth pe feel kar ke maze le raha tha aur koi jaldi bhi to nahi thi ab to Geeta ki mummy ko bhi malum ho gaya tha ke wo mere sath hai. Uske hath mere pet se slip ho gaye aur mere thighs pe aa gaye. Mere badan mai electric ke jhatke lagna shuru ho gaye. Baher ki mast hawa thi ya Geeta ki ragadti chuchian ya uski chadti jawani ka nasha ke Geeta ne apna hath aur kareeb kar lia aur mujh se chimat gai jis se uske hath mere jhang pe aa ke ruk gaye. Position aisi thi ke bas 2 ya 3 inch aur uske hath neeche utar jata to seedhe mere Lund pe hi uske hath hote. Apne Lund ke itna kareeb uske hath ka sparsh mehsoos karke mera Lund bohot hi zor se akad gaya aur pant ke ander se baher nikalne ko machalne laga. Geeta mere kan ke kareeb apna muh la ke mere kaan mai dheere se boli aap bohot ache ho uncle you are really very very sweet and wonderful you have a powerful body aur jo mujhe zor se hug kia to uske hath mere lund se takra gaye aur usne apne hath mere lund ke pas se nahi hataya wahi lund se lagaye hi rehne dia. Aaaaaaaahhhhhhhhhh mere muh se siskari nikal gai. Usne poocha kia hua uncle to mai ne kaha kuch nahi aaj riding mai bohot maza aa raha hai.-This story is written by The Great Warrior Usne shararat se muskurate hue kaha mujhe bhi bohot maza aa raha hai uncle aisa maza mujhe pehle kabhi nahi aaya aur kabhi kisi ki bike pe bhi nahi baithi phir ek hug aur kia to uska hath direct mere lund ke ooper hi gaya usne apna hath waha se nahi hataya aise hi mere akde hue lund pe rehne dia. Mujhe yakeen ho gaya ke usne mere akde hue land ko mehsoos kia hoga aur jaan boojh ke apna hath waha se nahi hataya.

Abhi ham sheher se hardly 4 ya 5 kilometer hi aye the abhi takreeban 20 kilometer aur distance baki tha. Geeta ka mast badan, Baher ki halki thandi hawa aur kheton ki madhur sugandh se mujhe to nasha jaisa ho gaya tha aur mai apne akde hue lund pe Geeta ke hathon ke sparsh se jaise deewana ho gaya tha. Gehri gehri saansein le raha tha Geeta mere se bohot zor se chipak ke baithi thi aur aise khamosh thi jaise ham dono ke beech koi khamosh rehne ki ankahi understanding ho. Thodi hi der mai usne apne hath se mere lund ko pakad lia aur mere badan mai 2000 volts ke current ke jhatake lagne lage aur muh ooooooohhhhhh ki ek siskari nikal gai. Mujhe yakeen ho gaya ke ab tak to shaed bina jane hi uska hath mere lund se lag raha tha par iss time pe to sure usne jaan boojh ke lund pakda tha. Aaaahhhhhhh mai to deewana ho gaya aur ek zor ki siskari mere muh se nikal gai. Thodi der tak aise hi lund ko pakadne ke bad Geeta boli uncle acha lag raha hai kia ? to mai bola ke aaaaahhhhh haa bohot hi acha lag raha hai. Mera itna bolna tha ke usne mere Lund ko achi tarah se apne hath mai pakad lia aur pant ke ooper se hi daba ne lagi. Mai Geeta se poocha ke tum brassier pehenti ho kia to usne kaha haa uncle kabhi brassier pehenti hu kabhi banyan pehenti hu. Meri saansein tezi se chal rahi thi bas itna hi pooch saka kia size ki bra to usne kaha 28 C mai sochne laga ke wo din kab ayega jab mai yeh 28 C size ki chuchian ko kab apne hatho se dabauga aur kab apne muh mai le ke chooosooga.. Mera aur mere Lund ka bura haal tha. Pant se baher nikal ne ko machal raha tha laikin mai apni taraf se kuch start nahi karna chahta tha. Mai soch raha tha ke wo hi kuch kare par us din aur kuch nahi hua bas wo mera lund pakde rahi aur dabati rahi. Ghar a gaya aur usko ghar pe drop kia to usne kaha uncle mummy se mil lijiye na to mai ne apne lund ki taraf ishara kar ke kaha ke aisi position mai tumhari mummy se mila to wo mujhe mar hi dalegi to wo hasne lagi aur kaha theek hai weekend pe mil lena aur thanks ka ek kiss mere gaal pe kar ke ander chali gai. Mai raat bhar tadapta raha aur 2 time muth mar ke sogaya. Subah Geeta phir se wahi khadi mili ab wo jaan boojh kar apni bus ko miss karne lagi thee taa k mere sath chal sake. Mujhe bhi koi problem nahi tha to mai daily Geeta ko le ke aane aur pane sath hi wapas laane laga. Wo daily raste mai mere lund ko pant ke ooper se hi pakad ke dabati rehti aur bohot time to meri cream nikalte nikalte reh gai. Din isi tarah se guzarte rahe aur Geeta ko mere sath aate jaate ek week ho gaya tha. Daily routine ban gaya tha mere sath aati aur sham mai school ke bad office aa jati aur phir ham dono raat mai wapas aate aur hamare sheher se baher nikalte hi mere lund ko apne hath mai le ke aise daba ne lagti jaise hamare beech ek silent agreement ho aur mujh se chipak ke apni chuchion se mere back se ghisti rehti aur mujhe mehsoos hota ke wo seat pe aage peeche hoti rehti hai jis se uski choot seat se ragad khate rehti aur jis se shaed usko maza aata

aur shaed uska juice bhi nikal jata hoga yeh uske choot ka massage aise hi karti hogi. Ek sham mere dimagh mai ek khayal aaya Geeta bike pe peeche baithi thi. Uski choot ka pedu utha hua tha aur uski choot pe bohot halka halka brown colour ka rua jaisa tha lagta tha abhi jhatein bhi sahi tarike se nahi aai hai par kuch hi dino mai aane wali ho.- This Story is written by The Great Warrior Thodi der tak uski mast malai jaisi chikni choot ko dekhta raha aur niharta raha aur phir uski choot pe ek kiss kia to uske muh se nikal gaya aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh hhhhhhh unnnccccuuuulllllll le bohot acha lagta hai aur mere sar ko zor se pakad lia aur apni choot ko mere muh pe ragadne lagi. Mai uski choot ko chatne laga uski choot mai meri tongue lagte hi uski legs khul gai aur uske muh se nikla ooooooooooooooohhhh hhhhh unccccllllllllle aaaaahhhhhhhhh aur apni choot ko mere muh pe zo zor se ragadne lagi uski choot mai se kuwari choot ki madhur sugandh aa rahi thi jis ne mere Lund mai toofan macha dia tha aur mera lund spring ki tarah se ooper neeche hone laga jaise Geeta ki choot ko pranaam kar raha ho aur lund ke surakh pe pre cum ke drops aane lage. Geeta mere muh mai apni choot ghused rahi thi aur apni gand zor zor se aage peeche karke jaise mere muh ko chod rahi ho aur immediately uski aankhin band hogai aur uske muh se uuuuuuuuuhhhhhhhh sssssssssssssiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiii aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaahh hhhhhhhhhhhh oooooooooooooohhhhh hhhhhhhh nikla aur uska badan hilne laga aur uski grip mere sar pe dheeli ho gai uska badan kaanpne laga aur wo jhadne lagi aur uska badan dheela padne laga aur uski choot mai se kuwara juice nikal ta raha aur mai uske juice ko choosta raha bada mast meetha taste tha uski kawari choot ke kuware juice ka. Uske orgasm ke sath hi mano uske badan se jaan hi nikal gai ho aur wo table pe gir si gai aur gehri gehri sansein lene lagi uski aankhein band ho gai thi aur wo table pe chitt padi thi mai uske choti si chuchion ko ooper neeche hote dekh raha tha aur soch raha tha ke Geeta ka badan kitna pyara hai aur kia ya KACHI KALI ki choti si chikni aur Kacchi Choot mere itne lambe aur mote musal jaise sakht Lund se chud payegi aur jab mera lund poore ka poora uski choti si chikni choot mai ghuss jayega to iss nanhi si choot ka kia haal hoga yeh to phat hi jayegi aur shaed stiches bhi lagwane pade aur ek hi chudai mai yeh choot se bhosda ban jayegi yehi soch ke thoda sa fikarmand hua par chodna to tha hi isi liye socha ke dekhehge kia hota hai aage aage.

Mera naam Rajjjj hai log pyar se mujhe Raja bhi kehte hain. 28 saal ka hu aur thoda sa handsome aur stylish bhi hu. Gora rang. Broad shoulders, Muscular body aur Hairy Chest. Mai ek Electronic company mai Maintenance Engineer hu. Hamari company Electronic components bhi banati hai jiski Industrial Area mai ek medium size ki factory bhi haiYah job join kar ke mujhe bass 3 hi months hue hain. Hamari factory sheher se takreeban 25 kilometer ki doori pe hai. Hamari company ka ek showroom aur maintenance section ka ek office sheher mai bhi hai jaha mujhe daily jana padta hai to mai daily 25 kilometer ka up and down apni Yamaha Bike pe hi karta hu. Mujhe Bikes ka bohot shuok hai aur mai 1 ya 2 saal mai Bikes badalta rehta hu. This sotry is written by The Great Warrior Industrial area mai factory workers aur staff ke liye chote chote housing colonies bane hue hain jo factories se thodi door ke distance pa hain. Mai bhi aisi hi ek colony ke ek independent ghar mai rehta hu. Mere Daddy aur Mummy dono alag alag MNC mai kaam karte hai aur doosre city mai hi rehte hain. Meri abhi shadi nahi hui hai aur mai yaha apne ghar mai akela hi rehta hu. Abhi house maid ki search kar raha hu jo mere liye khana bana de aur kapde dho ke iron kar de aur ghar ki safai waghaira kar dia kare par abhi tak koi housemaid nahi mili. Mai daily routine ki tarah se 9 baje ghar se nikla. Abhi shaed 50 meter bhi nahi aaya tha ke ek ladki ne hath hila ke mujhe rukne ka ishara kia to mai ruk gaya. Ek nazar mai dekha ke who ek bohot hi cute ladki hai. Hogi shaed koi 18 saal ki. Mai usko dekhta hi reh gaya Bohot Gora rang itna gora ke mano hath laga te hi maila ho jaye bass malai lagti thi malai, laal kashmiri seb jaise gaal, badi badi hirni jaisi light brown colour ki aankhein, cheeks mai dimple, light brown hair, medium height, Bhare bhare badan wali ladki thi aur uske Blue Skirt jo uske knees se thoda upper tha jis se uski shapely aur wonderful sidol thighs nazar aa rahe the lagta tha ke wo sports girl hogi uske skirt ke ooper white aur thodi si tight shirt mai se uske chote se seb ( Baby Apple ) ya chote size ke santre (orange) jaise chuchian ubhri hue dikh rahi thi. Uski Tie dono chuchion ke beech mai latak rahi thi. Mai Bike rok ke khada ho gaya aur uski khubsurti mai doob ke reh gaya aur usko dekha to dekhta hi raha bohot hi khubsurat thi jaise koi aakash se utri hui apsara. use dekh ke yeh khayal bhi nahi raha ke usne mujhe ishara kar ke rukaya hai. Mai soch raha tha ke yeh ladki nahi yeh to qayamat hai qayamat aur abhi iss umar mai iski khubsurti ka yeh haal hai to jab yeh badi ho jayegi to kia hoga sadak pe chalte log mud mud ke dekhege iski mast jawani ko. Wo meri taraf thodi der tak apni badi badi shararati aankhon se dekhti rahi aur phir mere hath pe apna hath rakh ke kaha uncle kaha kho gaye aap !!! mere muh se ek dum se nikal gaya Oh WOW you are the most beautiful girl I have seen tum bohot hi sundar ho to wo thanks uncle keh ke muskura di phir mujhe ehsas hua ke mai ne yeh kia keh dia aur phir suddenly mai apne khayalo se wapas aaya aur poocha kia bat hai to usne Kaha uncle aaj

meri bus miss ho gai kia aap mujhe school tak drop de sakte hain ?. Mai ne poocha kounsa school aur kaha hai Tumhara School to usne kaha ke wo St. Marys Convent High School mai padhti hai aur 10th class mai hai. Uska school mere office ke kareeb hi tha isi liye mai ne kaha ke aao peeche baith jao. Usne thanks uncle kaha aur peeche ki seat pe uchak ke baith gai. Usne khud hi baat shuru karte hue kaha ke mera naam Geeta Sharma hai. Mere daddy Steel Factory mai senior sales director hai hai aur mummy plastic factory mai accountant hain. Subah dono mere se pehle hi offices ko chale jate hain. Daddy aur mummy ke jane ke bad hamari house maid aati hai aur uske aane ke bad hi mai school ke liye nikal jati hu par aaj thodi der ho gai aur bus miss ho gai aur ab koi doosri bus bhi nahi hai. Daddy bhi office ke kam se baher gaye hue hai aur mummy apne job pe subah hi chali jati hai to mujhe koi lift nahi milti aaj aap aa gaye thanks uncle nahi to mera school miss ho jata. Mai ne kaha koi baat nahi you are most welcome. Kounsi class mai ho to usne bataya ke who 10th mai hai aur apni class ki captain bhi hai aur sports ki secretary bhi hai isi liye usko school attend karna bohot important hota hai. Mai sochne laga ke sports mai hai isi liye itna sidol badan hai iska wonderful thighs aur ek dum se healthy aur active lag rahi thi. Colony khatam hone ke bad main road pe aa gaye. Main road pe utni ziada traffic nahi rehti aur yaha se town tak road ke tono taraf bade bade neem ke pedh (trees) hai aur dooor dooor tak khet bhi hai jaha se kheton ki madhur sugandh aati rehti hai especially shaam mai aur raat mai. Ab colony se ham main road pe aa gaye. Usne bataya ke uncle hamara school 10:30 baje se start hota hai to mere pas time hai aap itmenan se bike chaliye. Who bike ke dono taraf apne pair rakh ke baithi thi uske back pe uska school bag laga hua tha aur usne hath mere pet pe lappet ke mujhe pakda hua tha. Meri Yamaha ki seat thodi si slanting thi peeche se uthi hui thi aur samne se jhuki hui thi isi liye wo mujh se chipak ke baithi thi aur mujhe mere back pe uske chuchian lag rahe the jis se mere shareer mai electricity doud rahi thi aur mujhe bohot maza aa raha tha. Mai bike speed se chala raha tha aur wo mujh se poori tarah se chipki hui thi aur uske chuchian mere back se press ho rahe the aur jab bike jhatka kahti to uski chuchian mere badan pe hi ooper neeche jate the. Isi tarah se raasta guzar gaya ham takreeban 35 ya 40 minutes mai sheher mai enter ho gaye. Pehle mera office aata tha mai ne Geeta ko bataya ke dekho yah mera office hai to usne kaha ke uncle mera school bhi to yahi hai yeh signal ke peeche wali road pe hai. Mai usko uske school pe drop kia to pata chala ke school aur mere office ke beech mai hardly 5 minutes ka walking distance hai. Mai ne kaha ke kabhi bhi koi zaroorat ho ya kuch bhi ho to mere pas office ko aa jana. Usne thanks kaha aur meri taraf hath hila ke bye karti hui muskurati

hui school ke gate mai doudti hui chali gai mai bohot der tak uske dance karte chuchian aur uski latakti hui pony tail aur uske malai jaise gore aur shapely sexy thighs ko dekhta hi reh gaya aur phir palat ke office aa gaya. Office mai kisi kam mai dil nahi laga baar baar uske chuchian, uski moti sexy thighs aur latakti hui pony tail hi dimagh mai ghoomti rahi. Sham ho gai aur wo nahi aai shaed bus mil gai hogi. Mai office khatam hone ke bad ghar aa gaya. Bus stop dekh ke mujhe Geeta ki yaad aai par thodi der mai hi bhool gaya aur apna khana kha ke TV dekhne laga. Thodi der chatting kar ke so gaya. Doosre din mai ready ho ke bike pe nikla to dekha ke Geeta wahi khadi hai. Mai bike uske kareeb le gaya aur rok ke poocha ke aaj kia hua ? kia fir se bus miss kar di ?? to wo muskura ke boli ke sorry uncle aaj mai ne jaan boojh ke bus miss ki hai. I wanna go with you Kal aapke sath bike pe baithna mujhe bohot acha laga mujhe bohot maza aaya. Tell me uncle can you take me to my school aap mind to nahi karoge na uncle ? wo bohot achi English bol rahi thi. Mai ne kaha My pleasure come on sit on my pillion seat. Wo uchak ke mere peeche baith gai aur bike chalaane se pehle hi mujhe zor se aise chipak gai jaise mujhe apne chuchian feel karwana chahti ho. Aaj ham idhar udhar ki batein kar rahe the. Uske friends ki, School kim Uske teachers ki. Wo bohot interest le ke mere sath batein kar rahi thi. Aise hi baatein karte karte rasta guzar gaya. School aa gaya aur Geeta bike se utar te hue boli ke uncle aaj meri special class hai. Probably mai aapke sath hi wapas jaugi. Agar mai aapke office khatam hone tak nahi aaii to aap office ke bad bhi thodi der mera wait karlena please. I have already informed my mom and told her about you. She is very happy that you are giving me lift. Iss weekend pe mai aapko apni mummy se milwaugi. Mai ne bola ke koi bat nahi tum itmenan se apni special class attend kar ke mere office aa jao dono mil ke wapas chalte hai mei tumhara wait karuga yeh bol ke mai office aa gaya aur bechaini se sham ka wait karne laga. Mai office ke daily routine work mai busy ho gaya isi mai sham ho gai. Geeta ka school khatam ho gaya aur wo mere office pa aa gai but mujhe abhi thoda aur kaam baki tha mai ne kaha ke abhi thodi der mai chalte hain. Usne apne ghar phone karke uski mummy ko bata dia ke wo mere sath hai aur mere sath hi wapas ayegi. Uski mummy ne advance mai thanks kaha aur kaha ke uncle ko pareshan nahi karna jab unka kaam khatam ho tab hi aana usne kaha ok mummy dont worry I wont trouble him. Office se kam khatam karke nikalte nikalte late evening ho gai thi thoda thoda andhera bhi hone laga tha. Bike start kia aur Geeta uchal ke peeche baith gai. Sheher se ham baher nikal aye. Baher aate hi dono taraf ke kheto se thandi thandi hawa aa rahi thi mousam bohot acha ho gaya tha. Kheton ki yeh madhur sugandh mujhe bohot achi lagti hai aur mai bike ko dheere dheere chalata aur kheton ki sugandh ka

maza lete hue bike chala raha tha. Geeta bhi bike ke foot rest pe pair rakh ke khadi ho gai aur mere neck pe apne hath dal diye aur riding ka maza lene lagi. Wo thodi thodi der mai uth jati thi aur baith jati thi jis se uske chuchian mere back pe ragad kha rahe the aur mera lund pant ke ander se baher nikalne ko bechain ho gaya aur akadne laga. Yeh road pe koi traffice nahi rehti thi kiyonki yeh road sirf Industrial area ki housing colony ko hi jati thi. Sirf related log hi iss road pe aate jaate the. Kabhi kabhi koi car ya bike bazu se chali jati. Mai bike bohot dheemi gati se chala raha tha Geeta ki chuchion ko apni peeth pe feel kar ke maze le raha tha aur koi jaldi bhi to nahi thi ab to Geeta ki mummy ko bhi malum ho gaya tha ke wo mere sath hai. Uske hath mere pet se slip ho gaye aur mere thighs pe aa gaye. Mere badan mai electric ke jhatke lagna shuru ho gaye. Baher ki mast hawa thi ya Geeta ki ragadti chuchian ya uski chadti jawani ka nasha ke Geeta ne apna hath aur kareeb kar lia aur mujh se chimat gai jis se uske hath mere jhang pe aa ke ruk gaye. Position aisi thi ke bas 2 ya 3 inch aur uske hath neeche utar jata to seedhe mere Lund pe hi uske hath hote. Apne Lund ke itna kareeb uske hath ka sparsh mehsoos karke mera Lund bohot hi zor se akad gaya aur pant ke ander se baher nikalne ko machalne laga. Geeta mere kan ke kareeb apna muh la ke mere kaan mai dheere se boli aap bohot ache ho uncle you are really very very sweet and wonderful you have a powerful body aur jo mujhe zor se hug kia to uske hath mere lund se takra gaye aur usne apne hath mere lund ke pas se nahi hataya wahi lund se lagaye hi rehne dia. Aaaaaaaahhhhhhhhhh mere muh se siskari nikal gai. Usne poocha kia hua uncle to mai ne kaha kuch nahi aaj riding mai bohot maza aa raha hai.-This story is written by The Great Warrior Usne shararat se muskurate hue kaha mujhe bhi bohot maza aa raha hai uncle aisa maza mujhe pehle kabhi nahi aaya aur kabhi kisi ki bike pe bhi nahi baithi phir ek hug aur kia to uska hath direct mere lund ke ooper hi gaya usne apna hath waha se nahi hataya aise hi mere akde hue lund pe rehne dia. Mujhe yakeen ho gaya ke usne mere akde hue land ko mehsoos kia hoga aur jaan boojh ke apna hath waha se nahi hataya.