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. .

- 2003

517 (07)
22.11
-49

:
. , - ,
- ,
. , -

-49

. .
:
. 3 .: . 3. .: , 2003. 476 : .
ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0769-8 . 3

,
,
, ,
, ,
, .
517(07)
22.11

ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0769-8 . 3

. . , 2003

21

21.1.
21.2.
21.3.
,
21.4.
21.5. .

13
17
22
25

22

31

22.1.
22.2.

22.3.
22.4.
22.5.
22.6.
22.7.

22.8.

38
48
52
58
60
66
76

23


79
23.1. - ( )
23.2. - ( )
23.3.

23.4.

84
92
100

24

24.1.
24.2.

24.3. -
24.4.
24.5.
24.6.

. 109

25
.

25.1.
25.2.
25.3.

25.4.
25.5.
25.6. .

25.7.
25.8. .
25.9.
26

26.1.
26.2.
26.3.
26.4.
26.5.
26.6.
26.7.

26.8. ..

116
124
127
133
143

157

163
165
167
173
177
180
181
182

185

188
190
193
197
199
200
207

26.9.
26.10.
26.11.

26.12.

214
224
231
235

27

245
27.1.

27.2.
254
27.3.
258
27.4.
265
27.5. . ... 267
27.6. ,
282
27.7. .

284
27.8.
287
28
^
.. 303
28.1.

28.2.

304
28.3.
310
28.4.

319
28.5.

321
28.6.

324
28.7.

331
28.8.

336
28.9.
340
28.10. .
- ( )
347
28.11.
350

28.12. -
28.13.
-
29

29.1.
29.2.
29.3.
29.4.

353
357

361

365
370
373

30

375

30.1. ()...
30.2. .
377
30.3. .

383
30.4.
388
28.5.
391
28.6.
395
30.7.
401
30.8.
405
30.9.
408
30.10. ""
412
31

31.1.
31.2.
31.3.
31.4.
31.5.
31.6.
31.7.
31.8.

417

422
427
431
439
443
444
449
465
466

21

21.1.
1. ,
.

.
.



.

, ,
,
.
.
,,
db ^0, . . .

21

= 7,

6=^-,

dxb

=^

(1)

cBOjpcTBa
,
~ _

aa=zr--a
abc

E-d = ^ ^ ' a = l;
dbc
z -.

dxb

= \; ab=0;

ca^rr-a^X;
dbc

S-b=l;
z r

::: -

-=0;

E'C=0;
^

cb=0;

z ^

(2)
,

cc=l,

T. e.
.
2^. .

^.^^^, ( 21.1).

. 21.1
eiej=g,j

(g,j=gj,;

I,/= 1,2,3/

X , X , X - ,
=^| -^^-^^ -'.^.

(3)


, ,
, .

\ , ^ .

'-'=/

(g''=g'\-

/,/ = 1.2,3;.

2, -,
-
=..\
(4)
,
(1), (2), . .

5! - .
(3) \ ^,^,
1

-* 2

X = - , X = - , = - .
, (4) ,, ^, ,
(4),(3) ,
, . ',

e,=g,-ei;

e'^g^'-e^.

(5)

21

,
,
.' = '. ,

^
^' = ^-; ^i^eij^'-

(6)

(5), (6) ,
,
. , ,
,

.
3.
.
.
.

e.'e^'=g!;

e'-e.^=gi,

g,f=gfi; / = g ^ \ - gi^^f^
, (5),

ei=giie^=gire^'=g!ej^;
e'=g'-ej=g}'e^'=g'^'e.;
er=gn''e''=gjre'=gre,;

-
= ' ,. = X; ^ = -^ ' = ^ .

(7)

11



,
x'=g'-x^=g'rx>^g"-x.;
h=eii-x'=g'-x.=g,.-x>;
' = g''' X,. = g[ '= g''' X,;

(8)

Xi'=gir-x'=g}-x,=gjrx'.

,
,
,
, .
, ,
, . .
,
x'-g'-x^.


.
1.1. a,b,c,p,qj

[-(?)][.(^)]:

'

'

aq

bq

c-q

a-r

b-r

'

.
,
3-

21

12

[()][(^)] =

'

'

. + a^qy + a^q,
a r +a r +a r
'^x X

^z

, .
6, ^
, , .

b^q, + b^q^ + b,q^


+/-^/

c^q^ + c^q^ + c^q^

^.+^,+

axq

bxq

cxq

axr

bxr

cxr

.
,, , p,qj
, ,
= (- ) + ( b ) + (' ),
q =(q- d)d + (q b )b + (q 'C)c,
r =(r -dja-^fr-b)b

-h(r c)c,

p-(qxf)

\p-d

p-b

'

= \q'd

qb

q-c d-lbxc)

f-d

f'b

r-c

13

(1), (2),
() =

=:

()
-)

[ - ( ^ ? ) ] [ . ( ^ ) ] = d-q
d'f

'

'

bq

c-q

b-r

C'f

21.2.

1"^.
^,2,^ [,\,^
^2, ^3 \, [, .
(7, . 1)

^ / = ; ^/=eff^

^-,/ = 1,2,

gii ,
.

,
(8, . 1),
h^ei/r

^j=Sij^i'

(1)

.,
(1) ,
, ,
.

14

21

,
.
.,
X.
Pi=gijPr'

Pi=SijPi

(2)

p'j, x'j,
.
2^.

7 = ejpj+e2P2+e3p3.

(3)

p^^Pi^P^'

==^1+12^2+^/
2=2-+-22^2+23^3/

=+2^2+^-

pij
,

7 = 21

23

32

31

Pl3

(5)

. (4) (3),

= ,,,, +,2?,?2 +Pl3^I^3 +21^2^1 +


'^Pii^i^i +2^2^ "^1^^1 ^ ^^ ^ ^^ "^ Pij^i^j-

(6)

^.,

15

, ,
, , .
4.
= 22 - - =^0(1^ j) ,

1

/ =

1 } = ^^ +^2^2 +^3^3

(7)


Pij = pji,
.
7^,
, , :
f.

31

32

(8)

,
, . .
f^-f,

=""7 (0~2,3),
.
, ,
, .. ^ = -..

=^

-)2

-
0

(9)
0

>, =2 = -> = \=-\' ) = = - p l 2 -

21

16

, ,
, .
^

(10)

= ^ + S- = 2^Pii + Pji) ^-^(Pii - Pji )'

2,1.
. ,
.
. (10)
.
,
5 = -( + ) = -( + ) ,,

-(^+

-(^+^)

-(a,b,+a,bj
1

(,+^

-(^ + ^) -(, + ^)

(9)

^=1^(-) = ^(^^-'^)

-ft).

ft).

={

-,

-),

(,

ft),,^,
S), = co^i + (Ojj + (.
, =^2' ^i-Pw
^i~p2i>

17

^ = [(^3^2-^2)^ + (^-^)7 + 1 - 1 ) ^ ]

/
=

,
1

Cj

yfe

1=bxd.
(h 2
^3

21.3.
1^. ^ -
,

Pij=Pij+Pir-

(1)

2. ^
, ^pij.
f
b . (6, .21.2),
= .^

+,(,,, + .^ + ^^^) = p,ja.e, = ,,,

(2)

- = . .
,
.
f = ..

= - .- = = -,
J = a.p.j

18

21

,
- ^f -.
b (2)
, . . b =. (
) . (2)

--

,+,2^+,^=^;

1^1+2^2+^='^

,

-^
2\

I
23

-^

31

32

=0-

(3)

-^|

(3)
'-/,/2-/=0,
/ /2, / ,
=11+22+'*

22

4-

4-

Pi\

191

, /j = ,
.
. f
,

+,,,(,)

= p..e.(ejXd),

, f

= ..(.)..

(5)

4. = ^^.^
= b^je^ej f

= ' = --,(^ ^)^ = a.XjS^Jfi. =

(6)

p,j = a.,b,j + a.^b^j + a.^b^j = ^ a.^^

(i, j = 1,2,3;, . . -

/1=1


.


,+2; = 4-2-,

()' = ('),
()'

= (')

'.

20

21

f~^ f,

f-'f

= 7,

(7)

f (3, .2).
, (1, .1) ^,^2*^3'
_ 22 . _ ^ . _ ]^^!

' [' ' [,]' ' [

-'=,,+22+,,,

(8)

, 7"^ (8)
f (7).

f-'f = fr'=I;
(')-'=-''-\

(9)
(10)

, (9)
(7), (8), (10) , (9),
. .

.^=^. = 1,

()

.
(11) (9) ,

2_

%=\

(12)

3.1. , , 5,
fd = d\ fb = b\ = c\
_d'-(bxc)

b''(cxd)'{-c''(dxb)
d-(bxc)

d-(b'xc ) + b '(cxa ) + c
d'(bxc)

h=

-(axb')

^a-(b'xc)
d'(bxc)

. f = ad + +yc
, ff = Xf, .
f(ad + pb+ ) = X(ad + pb -)

ad'+'+'= X(ad-{-+ )

a(a-Xd)+p(b''-Xb)
+ y(c'-Xc) = 0 d'-Xd, b'-Xb,
'-

(a--Xa)\(b'-Xb)x(c'-Xc)'\

= Q.

- ,

X' '-X^]^a\bxc)

+ d\b'xc)

d\bxc)^d\b

^]^\')-\)-\')^^
-[^('')][.()]"'=0.

22

21

(3),

1=-

h-

a'(bxc)^a'(b'xc)^-a-(bxc')
d-(bxc)

a'(b'xc

)^ '(bxc )^

-(b'xc)

d-(bxc)
_a-(b\c)
d'(bxc)

21.4.
V.
= (^,^,^),

(1)

,, ^2,
- f . -

/

./1 C i

/''

^V-JCT ^

Xj = -,; 2=^*^2'* -^~^*^ (1),


= ().

- .

-

l"". , ^.^^ -

23


,
(^,^,^) = ^()^ -f ^()2 + ^()^ = ().
(2)
(2)
. -
, -.
-
dr da . -

,
, ,
, ,
, ,
da, =-r-^dx, +-^-^dx^ +^-^dx.;
,
2

da. =-dx, + ^^Lrf;, ^^dX

(3)

da^ =^rfx, +-dx^ +-dx^.


,

da^, da2, <^


da , dx^, dx^, dx^
dr , (2, .2), (5, .2)
(3)

,
da

1?

,
2

,
^ 2
, 2

(4)

24

21

(4) ,
.
4.1. dr
.
. , (4)
,

^
,
Vd =
^
^

^
^
^
^

^
^
^

da


da
~dr

(da

+ Va
~dr

\(dd
-Va
dr


da^
,
lldr

+ Va

- ,
- + ^
, , .
(. , ^
1 + L

1 _^ ^ ^ 2 "1
2 ,
.
.
.
.

.
,

, ,
, ( ) ,
.

\(da
\
lydf

25

^^^
Va

-.

-(Or,

(,

, ,
1

=rota.
2

21.5. .

V.
\^,...,''
\^,...,",

*J/.A

x^=x^(x\x\....)

(i = l2

).

(1)

(1) \ ^,.,.,''

' ='(\\,..^'')
/ = 1,2,...,/
(2)
'
', '
. (1)

=^'

'

^- = 1,2,.,

(3)

^ .
'
., ' , -

26

21


= | ^ (1 = \....),
(4)


.
2. .
'
^^, (1)

^ ~7^^ '

^^^

^^
.
, ;

(2)
,
., ' J 1 ' 2
' ' , k
dx' = - r f x 4 - d x ^ ^-... + rfx" = - d x ^
(7)
^
'
"
'
^^
dx^, (3),
.



dS''=Y,dxj=g..(x\x\...,x'')dx'dx'^

(8)

27

g,(x\x\...X)

= Yfr^4l

( = 12,....)

(9)

,
g^j = gj^.

.'.

(10)

(10)
,

^'=^4,

()

g'^ = -^ g
; G^j gij
g

g--

Sw

g\2 "'

S\n

ell

Sn

Sin

'"

(12)
Snl

Snl

Sni

3.

^gnk_

+
k.mn

n,mk>

(13)

28

^g.km
"

21

+
m.nk

k.nm'

\5 (13)

^ife,mn=^Mm'

n.km

"

"

(14)

(14)
.
(14) g^^,

rL=g'"n,r.>

(15)

.
(15) g^i,

n,km

Snl

(16)

km'

, \ .
5.1. : )
; ) .
.

x = pcos(p, y = psin(p,

z-z.

t / Y [ \
>

"

+ "

+ "

. =0.

29

,
1, 2 3, , ,
.


, ,

2
pi ^

L ^ ^ - _ n
2^11
/-2.1 _

2^22
2.2 _

^ ^g22 _ ^
2^22

1.2 _ _ _ _ ^ _ 2 1 = : ^ ^ _

2,,^22

'

) , , z
, (,
= pcoscpsinO,

= psincpsinO,

z-pcosd.

^11= ^ 2 2 = ' ^ g 3 3 = P ' s i n ' 0 .

1, 2 3
,,(.
, ,
^ 2,12

^ 1.22

;^

^'^ ""

^'^^ ~ 9

- ,

30

21

3,23

2,33 2 0

2g

''

^2,2 ^

"

^ ^g;2 ^ _1_
2|22
3,3 _

3.3 ^

2^33 de
1 3g33
2^3-3

1
phm-e

1^^_^80^

2^33 0
1 -1

2g,, de

''

p'

2g dp

-^

" =-"
'

-/

p^sin^e'
-2^2^^^_ - '

9g33^ctg0

2^33^22

'

22

22.1.
1. .
, . . - .
, ,

\-\<,
, . .
.
= - < < + .
,
, = 14141 0,0001.
2. S

32

22

5 .

5 =

5=,

A = yj2

= 1,4142

= 0,00007.

.
100%, 5
.
3.
:
)
5, ;
)
5, ;
) 5
,
;
) 5, -'
,
, , ,
.
4. .

, .
.

,

. ,
0,03040 .
> .

33


- . , 212,64
213,00
, |212,64-213,00| = 0,34<10.

=
2k

1 1 Y
, 5. <.
,
2 10
.
,
-

^ =

- .

, ,
.
5. .


.
,
,
, .

.
,
.

34

22


.


. .


. ,
k -
k -
, k - 1
- k
,
6. Afl^,..., ^
..., ^.
S = S(a^,a^,...,a^)

AS =

Aai+...+

5
.
.

, ,

\S\
AS 8S ,
,

.
1.1.
,
: ) 427,3; ) 0,072; ) 37,81 ;

35^

) 25053"; ) 15,1 .
, )
, ,
, -
. , = 0,05.

427,3
,
,
, - . ,
= 0,1.

1,
) ,

= 0,0005,

5 = ^^55^i55^ = 0,694%.

0,072
,
= 0,001;
^^0.0000%^,^,
0,072
) , :
= 0,005 ;

= 0,0132%.
37,81

= 0,01/;

9i

>%

^^^./

= 0,026%.

37,81
) , :
=0,5";

5=^^^-^^=0,00055%
90113

36

22

: = ;

8 = ^'^^^^=0.0011%.
90113
) ,
= ^
^.0/

0,05 ; ^- 0,05100% = 0,331%.


: = 0,1 ;

S = ^^^'^^^^ = 0,662%.

1.2.
: ) 425627
1%; ) 11,2930 2%.
, ) 100%
, 1%,
= 4256. 430000
,
1
--
|425627 - 430000| = 4673 < 0,5 10^
430000 4000.
) 2%,
100%,
= 0,22586. 11,3000
, |l 1,2930-11,3000| = 0,007<0,5-10'\
, 11,3 + 0,2.
1.3.
, : ) 172,36+23,7+0,413;
) 161,4-43,217; ) 6,3-1,147; ) 0,421:1,6; ) 32,4^; ) .
, )
,
,
, , -

37

172,3(6) + 23,7 + 0,4(1) = 196,5.


) 161,4-43,2 (1) = 118,2.
)

, , ,
,
5 = - ^ 0 , 1 + 0,001-0,0088.
2-6
21
,
6,3-1,147 = 7,23 6,3-1,147 = 7,220,06.
)
5 = - 0 , 0 0 1 + 0,1-0,050125.
2-4
21
,
0,421:1,6 = 0,26 0,421:1,6 = 0,3 0,1.
)
5 = 1 . 0 , 1 = 0,03.
3
32,4^ = 1049,76 ,
= 31.
1040 31.
)
V7,16 = 10"^ =0,0007;
= 2,676 - 0,0007 = 0,002. , ^ = 2,676 0,002.
1.4. 1( + ^[), = 15,7; = 21,4
, .
.
AS . S = ln(a + \/b),

38

22

1
1 6
AS = + r = . :
a-\-4b\
24b
= 0,05; = 0,05. ^/21~4 = 4,6 S-

1 1

10 '

0,025;

= 4,63 0,025 = 0,1


,
AS:

1
V05+' "-"^^ 0,05 (1 + 0,11) = 0,003.
15.7 + 4,6 V
2 4,6 / 20,3

, ,
In (l5,7+ 7214)== 3,01.

26*2*

1. :
(1)

^ + ^ + + = 0.

x = z
^ + + ^ = ,

z = Ll+A^^^+J-l-A^^^=u

+ v.

(2)

= - + - .
> , Zi=Ui + D,; 2^ 3 = , +, /

^1-^1

39

W,, , .
= , 2, = , Z, = 2, = 2 . .

2
2 < 0 , z,=2J-cos, 22 3=2.1-cos
cos(p =

~ 3

1--^\.

2. .
f(x) = 0. b
^ (,), [() f(b) ,
. . f(a)'[(b)<0, f(x) [ci,b]
f(x) f''(x),
.
[, 6] ?iiec .
[() =
,
= f(x) .
f(x) - () = \ff(x).

= (() = \1/().
3. .
f(x) = 0. = f(x)
(. 22.1) [, 6].
f(a) < f(b) >Q
, f(a) f(b) < .
. ^
Xj

(b-a)f(a)
f(b)-f(a)'

X, = ~ -

(3^

22

40

, 22.1

f(xj < ,
\^\ ,


(b-x^)f(x^)
'
' f(bhf(x,)
^"^^

^ ( = \,2,...). ,
,
. . .
- .
^
-^

l^-^nl

min \f'(x)\'

(5)

a<x<b

n .
4. ( ),
(. 22.2) [,6] ^
[() = , f(a) f(b) < f(b) f'(b) > .
^ -

41

^2

X. b X

. 22.2
y = f(x)
B(b.[(b))
^.=-.


(6)

f'(b)

^^^

(7)

r(xj

. . ^ ( = \,2,...)
.
^
-^
(8)

= mini/'(:)
<<.
f(a)f''(a)

> ,

: ^=,

f(x
!(-)

x=x_,

^^''^

( = 1,2,...)

42

22

5. .

1() = [, 6]. 1(a) ) <
f(x) 1"()
, ^ [,6] 1(^)'1"(^)>^.

,
Xjj = -

(-)'1() ^

}-)
^\1 ~ -^0

(9)

JC,pX,2 ,
, 1(^^)' ^) <

^^'^^--^'
f(h2)-f(hl)

(10)

--^ ~~* /]

^21 ^22
x^j ^2, f(x^^)'l(x22)<0.
,
X j j , 21, 3 ..., ^ ...

-^12' "^22' ^ 3 2 ' *' - ^ 2 ' '

,
.
x^j < ^ < 2 -^ ^2 *^ ^ ^ ^\ ' ^
> ,
, x^j ^2 .

43^

6. . f(x) -
X -((), |j| < < 1 ( )
X [, ]. ^ [, ],


- ^

\^-

1~

x^^j ^ ,

^ -j
.
S

7. .
, , . ,

, . .
,

.
2.1. :
) 1 8 - 1 9 = 0; ) 9 + 4 = 0; ) 2 ' - 6 - 4 = 0.
, ) ,
(2). ,
= 18, ^7 = -19, = - ^ + ^ - = 306,25>0, >^ = 17,5.

44

22

^^^f-'^^'^-'^f-^^'^^^-^'
3-2_^./ + 2

-115/

) x = z = 2 - 2 ,
( ^ 2 - 2 / + 6 ( ^ 2 - 2 / + 9 ( ^ 2 - 2 ; + 4 = 0 2 ' - 3 2 + 2 = 0.
= - 3 , <7 = 2, , = 11 = 0.
3-2
^
1
1 ^ ^> , ^
2, = ^ =
= - 2 , 2, = 2, = 2 , = ( - 2 ) = 1. '
-3
'
^
2
2
: , = - 2 - 2 = -4, 2==1-2 = - 1 .

= -6, ^ = -4,
)

,
6^
-4 1X7 y/l
= 4 - = 4-8 = -4<0. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ^ " ^ = '
= 2 , / - - cos- = 2/2 cos = 4cos45'' cosl5 = 1 +/;
' V 3
3
12
. , -6
;,, = 2 . 1 c o s

[!^]-^-(^^}


,
5

4 COS COS
:1-V3.
COS + COS2,3
12" 3
4
6
2.2. 0,001
^ - 2^ + - 1 = : ) ; )
; ) .
, ) 1, ,
f(x) , /(^) = - 1 < 0 ,

45

/(^1^ = 1 > 0.

/("0,5^ > ,

/(^0,5^ = > ,

, '^) ^ ^- ,
4'2
(3)

. , = 0 , 2 5 - " " ^ - " " " ^ ^ =0.49001.


'
0,0156 + 0,3748
l(Xy^) - 0,0038 > ,
\;^ ] = [0,25; 0,49001]

^2 = -

f(xj-f(a)

0,0038 + 0,3748

Xj, ,
/(^0,481^ =-0,0074 < , . . ,

,,= 0,48146-:?t^M12 = 0,4874.


'

0,0038 + 0,0074

-^ f(x^) = 0,0005,
, (5),
|<^-:|<0,00041.
, 0 , 4 8 7 4 < | <0,4879, . .
1=0,4874 + 0,0005.

46

22

) ,
[0,25; 0,5].
(6).
X, = 0 , 5 - ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ = 0,48686.
'
1,1875
(7)
X, =0.48686--''"^ =0.4870.
'
1,2167
(8)

'

"

0.000006^
1,21638

, ^ = 0,487,
, ,
.
) . (9)

''

5_ 0 2 5 ( ^ 0 3 7 4 8 ; ^ < , ^
0,0156 + 0,3748

X = 0 , 5 - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ = 0,48686.
''
1,1875
^^ ^2,
,
f(^\\)'f(^\i) > ,

^1\

~^\2

rirt^,o.48686-;^^^^H55^^ii!=o4873;
f(x)-l(x,J

0,0036+0,00017

' ^~ / |

12

^// ^ ^ \ = 0,48686-

47

-0,00017
= 0,487.
1,2167

,
.
2.3.
" = 4.
. ,
i/ = 2"" // = 4 (. 22.3). ,
XQ 0,5;
4.

, 22.3

(11),
1 ^
^ = - 2 , =0,5.
, , ^-^l""'^ =0,3535; ^ =-2^'^^^^ = = 0,3192 5;
1
J^=-2'''^^^ =0,311925,- ,=-2'''"'^ =0,310375; =-2''''^''=0,310001.
4
4
4

.

48

22

22.3.
1. .


\f(x.y) = Q;
\((.) = 0,

(^^

= ^1 ^^
, , ,
f(x,y) = 0 11((,) = 0
.
/ =

(,)
= XQ , ^^.
^=^^+^
^-^ ^ TjicaQ,pQ

f(4>yJ^ccX(x^,yJ-\'pJy(x^,yJ=^{);
(p(Xo^yo)'^^o<Pjx^>yJ^Po%(4>yJ = ^ ^^^-^,
2=\'^ \> J,
f(x,,y,)-^ajjx,,y,)

+ l3jj(x,,yj

(p(x,.yJ+a,(pJx,,y,)+p,(Py(x,,yJ

= 0;
= 0.

,
.
2. . (1)

49

(2)

\ = (,),

(^, ^)

F. (^'

. (^.)\ < < 1; (^'

(,)\

< / < ! ,


( = \,2,...)
X, = F(Xa,yJ,

x^=F(xyJ,
= (\-^'

=(^,^;
^=(,);

- )>

(,^)

(3)

= (-. )

(1) (2)

X = x + af(x,y)

+ P ((,) = F(x,y);

= + ^^) + 8((,) = (,),

ibQ, ,,,5
7 S
, F(x,y) (,)
= ^, = ^,,,

l + afJx^,yJ-hp(pJxQ,yJ

= 0,

YfJ^o>yo) + S(pJx^,yJ

= 0.

^-^Yfy(^o^yo)-^S(pJx^,yo)

= 0.

50

22

3.1. | ^ __

.
(. 22.4).

. 22.4

, X Q = 1 , 4 ;
1/0=17.

f(x,y) = x^+y^-A

= Q, ((,) = '-

= 0, / / = 2 ,

(^'=3\ %=1 [(xyj = 0,85; (p(x,,yj = \,(m; [JxyJ

[ =2,
= 2,S;

!(.) = ^- (pJx,,yJ = 5.SS; (p(x^,yj = \.


^^+^, i/, = +

|5,88 + /5=-1,044,
=-0,157; jS^ =-0,121; , =1,243; /, =1,576.

x^,y^. [{Xi,yJ = 0,029; (p{x^,yJ = 0,344;

51


2,486^1 +52 =-0,029;
[4,635^1 +

=-0,344.

, =-0,087,- =0,059; ^ =1,156;


2 =1,635.
^ =-1,156; ^ =-1,635.
,
.
3.2.

Jx' + i/-4 = 0,
\\--\ = 0.
. ^/ = 4-^:^, ^/ = 1 + 1
(. 22.5).

. 22.5

XQ =1,6; ^ =1,2.
(3),
, .

52

22

^1 = / 4 - ^ = 167; i^j=l + lnXo=l,47;


^1 = V^-^i = 159; i/2 = 1 + li^i = 1463;
^3 = /4-^2 == 592; i/ = 1,466.
,
.

22.4.
1. .

X

X,

/ = . = .^^ - . (i = ,..., ); ^, ^,..., ^


.
= f(x),
.
., . .
^ (- ,.).
XX

: = ^; ^-- ^/^; ^-^^ ^,,


..., --! ^^-\ ,
Af/i - / = ^^; ^2"" Ai/j = ^ i/j; ...,
, '^',-'-',='',;
-'^--',^,,
...
- .

X

53^

2!

/i!

/2 = 1 ;
/2 = 2 ,
- , (1) .

(1)
. , f(x)
f''^^^(x) ,
XQ , X,,..., ^,

^ , ,

K(x)=^-f-0(q-l)...(q-n).
/,
(1)
( ).
jo)_y-yo
. 4 , 1 1 V jjiai /

^()

= 9^"^

^ ]

f>(q">. -IMVo
2!

Ai/o

''''^--\)...(q'^>- -1
\

=,2,...;.

Ai/o

(2)

54

22

x x^-\-q-h ^ q
JrnW)
(()
2. ,
, = 1(),
-. /. (^/ = 0,1,...,AZ^.

(x-x,)(x-x^)..,(x-xj
(x^-x,)(x^-x^)...(x^-xj
(x-xj(x-xj...(x~xj
+ (x,-xj(x,-x^)...(x^-xj

1/,+...

^ (x-xj(x-x,)...(x-x^_,)(x~x,^,)...(x-xj
(x,-xj(x^-x,)...(x,-x,_,)(x,-x,j...(x,-xj

_^

(3)

(x-xj(x-xj...(x-x_,)

\RJx)\<-^--^ \(x-xj(x-xj...(x-xj\,

(4)

(n + l)\
M^,,=max\f"'''>(x)\, [a.b].

4.1.
,
X

12

28

51

84

= 4,5.
.
y,-y^=Ay,=l2'-4
= S; i/2 ~i/, =Ai/, = 2 8 - 1 2 = 16;

55

,-,_=,_ = 5 1 - 2 8 = 23; ,-, =/ = 8 4 - 5 1 = 33.



/,-^/=^ = 1 6 - 8 = 8; /^-/, =A-f/i = 2 3 - 1 6 = 7;
/ - /2 = ^2 = 33-23 = 10.
A^y^ - ^/ = ^/,, = 7 - 8 = - 1 ;

-/2-^,=^, =10-7 = 3; ',-',=',=3-(-1)


, : h = .^, - , = 2 ; g =

-1

= 4.
.

(1),
x-lfx-l
/ = 4^ + -^-1 8 +

x-lfx-l
+-1 -1

2
2!

/ - 1

-1
3!
\/

-1

!lO +

-2

Y-U+

JX

-1

-1 -3
4,

4!

/ = -S-f'x' - 1 8 x 4 224' - 318 + 495/


^ 96
= 4,5, ,
/= 24,68.
4.2.
X

1,4

1,6

1,8

2,151

2,577

3,107

22

56

X, = 2,3.
.

XQ =1,4; i/^ =2,151,

Ai/o =^1-^0 =0^426; Ay, =^-^=


; ^ i Z ^ ^ 2,3^2,151^
,
0,426

0,53; '^ = (/^-// =0,104;


;^^

0,2.
'

'

(2),
_ ; q'"'a-q'"')^"yo_Q25
^"=
2!
/
q<'>=q''>

0.35fO,35-U 0,104 _Q 3^5


2
0,426
'

'

^ ' Y ? ^ ' ^ - ^ Q 35 0'3220,322- 0,104 ^ ^ ^.^


2!
/
'
2
0,426
'

q- = 0,376
, : = + <7 / = 1,4 + 0,376 0,2 = 1,475.
4.3, /
X

-5

20

135

288


: = 1,5 .
.
(3),

(-\)(-3)(-5)(-6)
(-\)(-3)(-5)(-^)
Jx-0)(x-\)(x-5)(x-6)
3-2Y-2X-3;

^^(-0)(-3)(-5)(-6)
\.(-2)(-)(-5)
^^-0)(-\)(-3)(-6)
135+
20+5-4-2-f-i;

(-0)(-\)(-3)(-5)
6-5-31

288.

57


() = , ^ - 0,087' - 3 , 2 1 6 x 4 6,807 + 0,99;
/5>) = 6,764.
4.4. = 2''
^ =0, Xj =1, 2 =2, 3 =3.
= 2,5 .
. ^

1^

(3) ,
= 3,

(-1)(-2)(-3)
(-\)(-2)(-)

^ ^ {-2)(-3)
\(-\)(-2)

, xf^x-l^x-S; . , (-\)(-2)
2-1Y-U

4+-

3-2-1

2^

1. ,

8 = - ( ' x ' + 5 x + 6;.


6

= 2,5
y(2,5) = -(2S
6

+5-2.5 + 6) = 5,%1.

(4)
p'^^'>(x) = 2'\n'2;

^, =max|rV^.>| = 2Mn'2 = 8-0,21 = l 6 8 ;

\RJx)\<-^^\(x-xJ(x-x,)(x-x,)(x-x,)\
(-\-\)\
(
+ \)\
1,68
\(2,5-0)(2,5-\)(2.5-2)(2,5-)\
24

= 0,066.

58

22

22.5.

1"^. ,
. h - .-._^ -const

^l-(2q'-^9q'+nq-3)A'y,+.);

(1)

y''^^(A'y,+(q^\)A'y,+-l^(6q'-\Sq-^n)A'y,+

(2)

q = '-(x-xj.

2.
y'^Ay(xQ,xJ

+ ((x-xJ

+((X-XQ)(X-X^)

+ (x-xJ)Ay(xQ,x^,xJ
+ (X-XQ)(X'-'X2)+

i-(x-xJ(x-X2))Ay(xQ,x^,X2,x^)

(3)

+ ...,

(,.,)='

^^'
XQ

XJ

Ar/K,xxJ = M V f J z M ^ ^ L ^ .
XQ

(^,^,2^)=

"
XQ

XJ

"^-^^-^
X^

5.1. y = f(x)

1 ^

1 ^

59

20

86

253

547

f(x) f'(x) = 3,5.


.
i

X,

^,

AV,.

A^i/,

AV,

A'i/,-

0
1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4
5

1
4
20
86
253

3
16
66
167
294

13
50
101
127

37
51
26

14
-25

-39

547

, / = 1, (1), (2)

^ ^^;=+^^ +
Z

^+

+ :lf29^-994ll9-3M4 +
H-f^S*?" - 40q' +105<7' - 1 0 0 ^ + 2 4 ;

^-^;

+ ( ^ 2 0 ^ ' - 1 2 0 ^ 4 210<7 -1;


5!

; = 3,5
q' = 3,5-1 = 2,5
/,5; = 1 + 27 + 35,458-0,583-0,183 = 61,692;
/73,5; = 13+ 55,5+ 4,083+ 4,062 = 76,645.

60

22

22.6.


[ f(x)dx .

[ci,b] XpX2,...,x^_i
h=

, JCQ = , x^=b


= !(^)> = !(^h = 1(^1 - . . - = ^^ h = f(b)^


,
.
1.

/=0

/'
R^=: (b- u)f^'^ (t,)
; /^^ (^) -
[, 6].

(. 22.6), ,

. (1) . 22.6, -

61


. (2) . 22.6,6
.

^.

rj

CL Xj Xj ^

X^,_j

Xj 2 ^

x^^_j^ X

. 22.6
2.

\f(x)dx = h +. + 1+2+

(3)

+.

1=1

\+ =

= h ^^+1,1
R=h

+ -\

[(^) ,

^[,].

(. 22.7)
.

1%

. 22.7

62

22

3. ( )
b

jf(x)dx = -[y,+y^+4(y,+y,+...

+ y_,)+2(y^+y,+

+-

+ -2)]

+ ^=^(++'^^.2^-1+^1,2)
k=l

k=\

'

R^ =h

fma^^(^) ; n
1 oO
;^[,6].


(. 22.8), . . = f(x)
y = x^-{-px + q,
.,.^^,.^2

^" -{- px+q

. 22.8
, ,
.
,
.
> , h
|/? | < .

-

. n = kii k =

63

, -

J^, k .
= 2 h2=

, J^. l^ -^i | < ^,

. .
6,1. i^JS + x^dx,

10 , :
) ; ) ; ) .
.
, ) [0,1] 10
,
= ]5 + ^ :
XQ

= 0,

X, :=

/ = 7 5 = 2 , 2 3 6 1 ,

0,1,

/, =^/5,001=2.2363,

= 0,2,

/2 =/5,008 =2,2378,

h = 0,3,

/ =75,027=2,2421

X,

X,

= 0,4,

i/4 = 75.064 = 2,2503,

X,

= 0,5,

(/5=75,125=2,2638,

= 0.6.

/ =75,216 =2.2839,

X,

= 0,7.

^7=75,343=2,3115,

= 0.8.

1/8=75,512=2,3478,

= 0,9,

/9 =75,729 =2,3935,

= 1,

/,=7 =2,4494.

Xg

-^10

22

64

h =

= 0,1. -

(1) /^ := 0 , 1 ^ ^ ^ = 2,2803 .

] f(x)^

,
2V5 + x'

/Vi; = 0,6124.


R, =1,0716 = 0,0004.
(2)
10

/^ = 0,1Y /^ = 2,3016.
I

/? = 0,0004.
) (3)
/ = 0,1

f 4,6855 ^
^

"1
= 2,291.

1=1


= M i 1,0716 = 0,0009
"
12
)
/ = (^2,2361 + 2,4494+411,4472 + 2-9,1198; = 2,2905.

/^,^ =1,6244.
"

^ 00001
180

0000009.

65^

6.2. \smxdx

1
0,0001.

{ +1
. ,
[, :].
10"^,
180' """
/ j ^ =0,039; = 0, = = ,\\59, 4

:'0,039 10''

>

^^,
> 5,1.

18
= 6. ,.
[ =sinx
+1
=0,
/=0.
/, =0,3283

^2 - .

/, =0,4235
f/ =0,3891

/4 =0,2803

/5 =0,1382

^=.

/=0-

(4),
10"^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ = 0.1744(^4 , 8556 + 2 , 7038; = , 84235.

66

22


,
.

22.

V. .
' - f(x, ). [XQ , ^ ]
,
^ = (^).
2,...,^_1
.
[XQ , ^ ]
(^,^)

-=(>)(^-)'
X = Xj
^ ^
=+(^1-^)(^^)'

(1)

, [^, ^2 ] ^2
2=+(^2-^)(^>)

(2)

/ -

- = + (^i - ^i-x )y(h-x' 1-) = 1- + hy(x._,, //._,;


(3)
X X

h = -^

. ,
,
.

67^


.
2. -, [^, ]

' - f(x,y), ^ = (^).
[^^^] ^^ ^
X X

h = -^

, h"^ < . -

h "*. . (i = 0,\,...,n)
X. =XQ+ ih .
. = (.) -

^. = -(. + 26. + 2. + d.);

a,=hf(x,,y,);

1 zy

b. .

c. = hf(x,-^-,

--^);

d.=h[(x. + h,

y^+c-).

-
R = 1//2^-^^|, 2>
h 2/, = 2 .
-

' = [(, , t); X = ((, ),
(5)
: ^, t^t^.

68

22

3. . [^-^] ^"
if = f(x,y),
^ = y(xQ). -

=(^)>

2=(^2)>

=(^)

(, -)
. .
. (i = 4,5,.,.,n)

4/
1 = 1-4+yf'^ts - L2+L *
(6)

"^^^ fi=f(Xi>yi) = yl'

Ji=ff(^i^yi)'

. = W^ - ^ .
. < 10""", ,
, ^ ^.
//.^,. ^ > "'", ,
, .

/^ <10""'.

(5).
x(t) [/("^^.
.
4. . [:,]
' = f(x, ), -

69

^ = (^). - (
- . .)

yi=y(^il

2=(^21

=(^)'


= % = hf(x^,yj,

q, = hy\ =

hf(x,,yj;

Ri = hy[ = hf(x^, y^;,

^3 = hy^ = hf(x^, y^)

(7)


q (
).
X

= ^^-

=
= f(x.y)

=
=

Aq =

y'h

!(,)

<7

^ \

^1

/,

f(Xi,yJ

<?i

^,

^.)

^ \ . '
^

Q2

^2

^2

!(^')

\.

^ fi^A'yJ

Us

/5

^6

f(xys)

.-\

'^.-'
''^'7.
\

.. - ' ^ 7
?4

(8)

70

22

, q^, Aq2, A^q^, A^QQ ,


, (8) = 3
1
5
3
^/ = ^3+ ^ 2 + ^ ^ 1 + - .
2
12

,=, + ,; f(x,,yj
q^=hf(,,J
.R^tt

^3' ^^Qi' ^q'j,


^4 .
, /2 = 4, ^, ^, [(^, ^), q^
Aq^, A^q^, A^q^y . .
() ( )
10""",
/^ < 10""".
h , ^^. ^^-^,
-
.
7.1. ,
^^-},

(\) = 1, [1,2], 10 .
0,001.
. X - X
2-1
h - -^
^- =
= 0,1
10
.
X, = 1,1; ^2 = 1,2,*..., 10
. ' = ^ - ^
' ^ = 1, ^ = 1 ,
. . ^ Y b U = 0 . (1)

71

X,.

'

f^y'i

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9
2

1
0,979

-0,21
-0,502

-0,021
-0,050

0,929
0,840

-0,888
-1,367

-0,089
-0,137

0,703
0,513

-1,903
-2,428

-0,190
-0,243

0,270
-0,017
-0,341

-2,870
-3,24
-3,65

-0,287
-0,324
-0,365

10

-0,706

JCj,i/,,
y{(x^,yj = l-(\,l/
=-0,21 (2)
//2 = /, + hy'^ = 0,979. .
(3).

.,. .
7.2.

dy_ -
-
dt
t
dt
t
x(l) = \, (\) = \,
t G [l, 2], / = 0,2.
.
. t^ = 1;
^1 = 1,2;....
\' ^0 =1, XQ, f/o , dx
~dt

72

22

(1) Xj = XQ + /ZXQ, 1=+ hy^,


^(^^'^ \(^>>^)-
{,{ , (2),
^2,^/2 . .

/

ii

0
1
2
3
4
5

1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2,0

1
1
1,067
1,172
1,302
1,450

1
1,4
1,8
2,21
2,633
3,07

/
X.
0
0,333
0,524
0,649
0,739

hx'i

hy-

2
2
2,048
2,114
2,186

0
0,067
0,105
0,130
0,148

0,4
0,4
0,410
0,423
0,437

7.3. -
' =

(0) = 1 [0,1]
+
/ = 0,25.
. = 0 = 1
0,25, ,
X. (i = 0X2,3A) (4)
. ^ :
=0,^=1
= 0,25, '^ = f(x^,yj

K^hf(x,^^^
'
'^ '

^+>> = 0,25
^'^^^
=0,2;
2 ^' 2
1,125 + 0,125

73

c. = hf(x,^,
, + ^ ; = 0 , 2 5 l ^ ^ b ^ : i ^ = 0.199;

' ' 2 ^^ 2
1,1 + 0,125
1 199-0 25
d.=hf(x.+h,
y.+cj = 0,25 '
' =0.164;
0 / ( 0
f/o /
1J99 + 0.25
/ =-(^00+ 26+ 2+^>> = -("0,25 + 0,4+0,398+0,164; = 0,202;
6
6
/, = / + / = 1,5 + 0,202 = 1,702.
t/j.i/a ^ (. .).
^ :
, ,
^ ,4^^1702-0,25 ^ , ^
, = hf(x.,y.; = 0,25 ^
^ = 0,186;
^
' '
1,702 + 0,25
UZ. h
, ^ ^ ^,702+0,093-0,25+0,125; ^ , ^ ,
6, =/z/(^x + - , , +-!-) = 0,25

^ = 0,164;
'
" ' 2 ' 2
1,795+0,375
UW ^^
^
1>702+0,082-0,25+0,125; . . , .
c.=hf(x,+, ,+) = 0,25
^
^ = 0,163;
'
" ' 2 ' 2
1,784+0,375
^ 1 .
,
. ^^^1,702 + 0,163-0,375 ^ , ^ ^
di=hf(x^+h, y^+c^) = 0,25-
= 0,166;
1,865 + 0,375
1
/,=-0,186+0,328 + 0,326+0,16; = 0,168;
6
/2 =1,702+ 0,168 = 1,870
/
0
1
2
3

L **

X,

0
0,25
0,50
0,75
1,00

1
1,702
1,870
1,998
2,099

0,25
0,186
0,144
0,113

6,0,2
0,164
0,178
0,101

hi'

.0,199
0,113
0,128
0,100

0,164
0,166
0,113
0,089

0,202
0,168
0,128
0,101

74

22

1.4. ' = -\-


(0) = \ []
h = 0,2.
.
,. (^/ = 0,1,2,3,4,5 j .
: ^ = 0, ^=1, '(^,) = 1 (1) t/, =1 + 0 , 2 1 = 1,2. /,,,/,; = 0,2 + 1,2 = 1,4
(2)//2 = l , 2 + ( ' 0 , 4 - 0 , 2 ; i , 4 = 1,48 .
i/2('x2,i/2 ^ = 0,4 + 1,48 = 1,88

(3)
= t/2 + -^ - ^ 2 ^ ( ' ^ 2 ' l / 2 ^ = l'48 + f 0 , 6 - 0 , 4 ; 1,88 = 1,856.
i/'=0,6+ 1,856 = 2,456.
(6)
^4 = /+2/;-/; + 2/'; = 1+2l,4-l,88+22,456; = 2,555,
=X4+^4=0,8+2,555=3,355,
E = /2+("+4/+i/2^ = 1.48+ 355+4-2,456+1,88; = 2,484;
/4 = ^4 + /4 = 0,8+2,484 = 3,284;
, =/, +(21 -y;+2yJ=l.2+(2-1.88-2,456+2-

3,284; = 3 299;

J = ^5+^5 =1 + 3,299 = 4,299;


=/+|+4/;+ /2; = 1856+4,299+4-3,284+2,45; = 3,182
, ^
^5
7.5. ' = +
(0) = 1 [0,1]

75

/ = 0,2 (7.4.).
.
, , (7.4.):
^=\,2;

^2=148; i/ =1,856,

(7) (7 =0,2 1 = 0,2;


^^=0,21,4 = 0,28; ^^ =0.2 1,88 = 0,376; ^ =0>2-2,456 = 0,491

Xi

Aq =

= f(x.y) = y'h
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8

1
1,2
1,48
1,856
2,413

0,2
1
0,28
1,4
0,376
1,88
] 0,557 1 2,456
3,213

0,2
0,08
0,016
,' '
0,28
0,096
0,01,9^ - ' ' 0 , 0 1 8
0,376
0,lj5.- ' '0,037
*

0,491.
0,642

[_ 1
^j =0.491; <72 =0,115,- ^<7, =0,019, ^<7 =0,003,
, (8) =

^ = +^^^2 + <7| + g ^ 9 =
= 0,491 + -0,115 + 0,019 + -0,003 = 0,5575
2
12
8
1/^= + ^ =2,413.
= 4,
1

76

22

= 0,642 + -052 +0,037 + ^0,018 = 0,740.


2
12
8
^/ =^4+^4 =2,413 + 0,740 = 3,153.
,
, .

.

22.8.


.

,
.
8.1. (. 22.9)
q(x)
EJw''^ ^q(x)^

(1)


= ' = X = , = ^' =
q(x)
V

-L
^'~4
W

-1

J^ ^

-2L

'^'~2 ^ ' ~ 4
/

. 22.9

-1,

(2)

77

. =
1,2,3
/ v \

u)=Y,^k

, k = 0,\X...,n.

W\

(3)

v^


(2) ,
(1).
, (3)

/^V
X
X
w(x) = aQ+a^-'+a2
+
,
+ ,
+ 3
(4)
+
Kh
(4) (2),

UQ

=0, aj = 0;

+ , + ^2 + ^3 + 4 + 5 + ^ = 0;

(5)

2+^-{-6^-{-\0^-\-\5^ =0.
(4) (1),
()1'
24^4 +1205 - + 3 ^ =
EJ
/
I'
I
I
31
X, = , Xj = , Xj =

24.+30,+22,5.=

EJ

xj/
24. + 60, + 90. = - ^ ^ ^ ^
EJ

(6)

78

22

244+90,+202,5,

q(h)l'
EJ

. (i = 0,\>''.6)
(5) (6).
q^

'

'

'

'

'

q^l"^
\6EJ ^

-Sq^l"^
48/

(4)
w(x) =

^
SEJ

/^XV V

^/ V

11 /
+ 3

Kh

'

qj"^
24EJ

23



23.1. -
( )
1. ,


.
du

= tg , /
dx
(. 23.1).
/
-

/ -

,-,
\-\
-
I h
-.

(1)

, ^-^
, Ui-u^ .

80

23

(2)

(1), (2)
.

, /
' ^_(^'')-(-)
:'

^^-^'^ .
'

(3)

_ -)-( -Uj) _ -2, +Uj


Ay'
Ay'
1. (. 23.2)
.
v^^^ .

^1

-i
-1
^,

. 23.2

81^

, , , ^,^

/,

' ^'m+l.n

^^-1, /'

2'
_ 1
-\
/^ .
(^.+\
^m,n-\J'
2'
'
1
/"m^l.-2",+Wm-l,J;
' '

'

'

1
( "m+l,n+l
4AxAy

"""m-l,n+l ~ " m + l . n - l "^^m-l.a-l

J'

= ^ ( " " ^ + 2 , . -"m^i, + 6 M - 4 M _ , + M . 2 , J ;

'
'

-1
Ay'

'

//

Ax'Ay'
m,n

( ^m+l,w+l "'"^m+l.n-l

m,n^\

m\,n

^^m+l,n

^^m./i+l "^

w1,+1 \,\^


,
. , . . ^ .
1.1.

82

23


F(x,y) .
. .
16
, (. 23.3).

0,

0,0

0,

, 23.3
.

. ,

F(0,Q), F(a,Q), F(a,a),

(0,Q), (,0), (,) .


= / = . m = , /i =
, i/^+i = F(a,0);
^ ^ = F(0,0);
".-. = f'(aM- u.n.i = .) = F(a,0); u_, = F(0,a) = F(a^O).
(4)
, (^0,0^
^

[F(a^ 0) - 2F(0^ 0) + F(a^ 0)] +

+ -^[F(a,(i)-2F(0,Q)

83

+ F(a,Q)] = -l

F(Q,0)-F(a,0)

= ^ .

(",; ^^^= F(a,0); ^^^_^=0;


"m+i,+i =F(0;CL); +,_! =F(a,a).
(4)
^[F(0.0)-2F(a,0)\
;
+-^\F(a,a)-lF(a,0)
Ay

+ F(a,a)\ = -l

4F(a,0)-F(0,0)-2F(a,a)

= 2a\

(,) : +,+! =F(a,a);


i^,n.n.i=f'(^.a) = F(a,0); ^2.n+, = 0 ; ^^^^=0

1
-[F(a,0)-2F(a,a)]+
'
1
+^[F(a,0)-2F(a,a)\
= -2

2F(a,a)-F(a,0)

= a\


F(Q,Q) -F(a.O)

Y'

4F(a,0)-F(0,0)-2F(a,a)

= 2a-,

2F(a,a)-F(a,0)

= a\

84

23


(^0,0;, (,^1 (',;, : F(^0,; = 2,25a^ F(^a,0^ = 1,75';
F(^a,a; = 1,375'.

, . . ^/ .

23.2. -
( )
( -
)

.
, . .

.
D(a <x<b, < <d)

^ ^
,.
" "

(, ) = ((); (, d) = (p/x)

(a<x<b)

u(a,y) = \l/(y):

(c<y<d).

u(b,y) = \i//y)


h ,
X .
y = c + kh (^/ = 0,l,2,...,A2j.

\
\=

= ^ ^^ .1) - ^(^^ - ) \ '

'
^=

85

'^W^^yk^x)'-^^(^>yk)^^(^>yk-x)\

,^() = (,1^)
X ^^,

+ [^kJ^)'^k-x ()] + () = 1()

(k = 1,2,...,/2;.


,
, ,
.
3.1.


(0,) = (5,) = (,) = (,3) = 0.
. / = 1, / = 1
= 2,
(. 23.4).
]

5 X

. 23.4

86

23

- ^ =[(, ,^,) - 2(, yj + (, ^_,)] (k = l2),

h
/z = 1,

-^^-22+--^-^;

(k = 2)

(1)


UQ(X) = (,0) = 0; ^() = (,3) = .
(1) ,
i/j =1, //2 = 2,

- 22+= + 2.

(2)

,

.

+-2^ = 0 ;
^- 2u2 + =
() = ^\' () = Be^"".
^"",

5 - 2 = 0;
' -2+=0

(^-2)

+ = 0;

+(^ -2)=0,

^-2
1

'~2|

87

= 0.


' - 2 / - 1 = 0,
\^\, 4~ /3.
Aj 2 = 1
- + = 0;
- = 0; ^ = 1 2 ; = = , .
4 ~ ^/^
+ = 0;
+ = 0; (-^) .=-.=,.
,



() = + ;

U2(x) = Cx-\-D.

(2)
,

- 2 = 1; -2 + = 1;
D-2B = \; - 2 D + B = 2.
4
: = -1, = ,
5
^
= - 1 , Z) = . ,
. () = -( + - ; ;

U2(x) = -( + - ; .

88

23

(2)
() = + ();

2() = -{'2()

^ = ^"" + ^'"" -^^"" -^"^"" -(--).


^^^2,^3,^4

(0) = u(0^yj = 0; (0) = (0^2) = 0;
(5) = u(5,yj = 0; U2(5) = ufS^y^) = 0.


4

\+-',+'\+-'^',=;
',+-',-'^',--'^',=.
(3),
yz=i = 2,
3.2.

^ _
'di'dx''^ '

(3)

89

i^(^o,jc;=o, u(t,o)=u(tj) = o (1 = ),
. [,/]
6 = 0,1,2,3,4. Ui^(t) kl ^
= .
X

= u(t, x^^i; - 2u(t, xj + u(t, Xf^^J. (k = 1,2,3>.



ul-U2+2u^ -UQ =1;
i/2 - ^ 3 + 2u2 - = 1;

u^-u^+2u^-U2

(4)

=1


UQ(t) = u(t,0) = 0; u^(t) = u(t,l) = 0.

(5)

(5) (4),

-^2+2^1 =1;

u^+2u^-U2

=1


u,(0) = U2(0) = u,(0) = 0,

(7)

,
(6), .

=^';

U2=Be^\' =^'.

(8)

90

23

(8) (6) ^,
- + ( ^ + 2 ; - = 0;

-+(^+2; = 0.
, , : ,
+ 2 -1
I
= | -1 + 2 -1 U o .

-1 + 2|

(^ + 2 / - 2 ^ + 2 ; = 0
, = - 2 , 2=/2-2,
7^=-^-1.
\,7^,^ (9),
, ,
, =1;

, = 0 ;

,-1;

S,

, = - 1 ;

/2;

, = \; - - / 2 ;

(10)

, = 1;

, = 1;

( = 1).
(10)

21 = 0 ;

= e^^-^^

, = yfle'^'-'";

3,

=-

= '

*32

;=/2/^-^^'-/2-'^*^^';

()

91^


= . = const. (6),

^*^1 = - /

^2=2;

(12)

^3 = - .


() (12), . .
2
^ = yflc.e'^'-'^' - 42,-<^'^'^' + 2;
, =-,-'' -,^^'-'>'

^,-^^^-'^'.

^,2^ ,
(7),
3
,+^ + = ~2'
/22- -72 =
= -2;
3
-, +<:'2 3 ~
2

: , =0, ^ = ( " 2 7 2 + 3 ; ,

^^-(1^-).

, = 1, = 2, = 3

u,rU = - - f 2 V 2 + 3 y ^ - ' ^ ' + - V 2 ^ / 2 - 3 ; e - ^ ^ ^ ' ^ - ;


w,rU = -r2^/2 + ^ - ' ^ ' - ^ r 2 ^ / 2 - X ' ^ ' ' ' ' + 2 ;
4
4
= - - 2 7 2 + ^ - ' ^ ' + - 2 7 2 - 3 ; - ^ ^ ^ ' ^ ' + - .
"

"

23

92

23.3.


1.

JI,
(1)
'^
/=1

a.j, b.j,c.
(,),..,,^(,)

,,,...,^.

(1)

D, . = ^-, q. - ^- '
'
L , D.
(1)

(2)

L
p.dx + q.dy = du. . , dx^O,
dy dup.=-q.-^
+ -'
(3)
dx dx
(3) (2), q.

J^(b,jdx~a,^dy)qj=c,dx-Y,aijdUj
/=I

(i = l,...,n).

(4)

y=l

(4)
b^^dx-a^^dy
=

b^2dx-a^2dy

b,dx-a,dy

feji^fxGji^// b22dx a22dy

(5)
b^dx-a^dy

b2dx-a^2dy

bdx-adu
nn

nn z/

93

^ , (4) Qi
. = (4) ,
, . . L
.(,) .
L YL23l2i cw:^tMbi{\)
L
1

dy

X = - -

bin

^21

. -^,

2-^^2

-^^

= 0.

(6)

(6)
, (1) .
,,..., (6),
,,
dy - ^{(^) ^^ . ,
.
, L
(1), (,) . L = ,
(4) , ,
/ - (4),

= 0, ^=0

(k = l..,,n).

(7)

(7)
,
.
2. = 2
.

94

23

dy-X,dx^Q

(i = \,2),

(8)

,-
6,1-

^12-^12

\^2\~^<h\

= 0.

(9)

^22 " - ^ ^ 2 2


=0

(10)

(X-A + Jcfu, + CrfM2 + Edx + Fdy = 0,

(11)

CjrfX Oj, CfU, 022^^2

^22 ~ ^ 2

A=

a,,

0,2

Oj,

O22

' '^"

bn

11

I c=i 6,2

0,2

^22

^ 1

622

CL22

c, 6,2
0^

L/''

^2

'

^ \ O22

^1

(12)

C2

3. Macco.

.
1,2 , (. 23.5)
VLV ,

,
-^ ,
,, + , + ,. + &12,
11 -

dx

dt/
.

1^ '^

dx

^ 2 i T - + ^ 2 i 4 " + ^22

dx

df/

+&

""^

(13)
= 2.

1 1-
, 2 2- .

95

21 (X,. ,)

Pi/c. 23.5
3. ^^^\^^^^
(8)
" - A i (^;3

(14)
"- (^: -^2
^^^*^
1; ^^^ 2,
(9) 1,2.
i/(^\^('^ ()

+ <:>(['^-,) + (['>-,)

= 0,

(15)

+ E['>(x['>-x,) + F<'>(y['>-y,) = 0,
4^^[^^C/^^[^^/^^^^ (i = \,2) (12) /.

, ,
3 [^^ ,v[^'.
,''^ ^'' 3

96

23

4V =\(Kl'^Kl^h KV =\(^^^^')

(16)

[2^=1(^1'^'0, 1^^=-('^;, 1'^=-1'('0,


1^^=1^ + ^' P?'-\(P?'^P?'h

(i = \.V, (17)

^'^5'^C('^4'^^^'^ A,B,C,E,F
([^\[^^,ii^^',v[^').
3 [^', [^',(^'*,(^''

\ - \ \ (h

~^\)'

- ^ 2 ih

^)'

+<''(4'>-,) + (</>-,) = 0.

.
4.
(13), u,v
L ,
. 1,2
7,8 . . (. 23.6).
u,v
(13), ,
, v ,
(. 23.7).

97

. 23.7

. 23.6
3.1.
^ 1

+V

- cos 2 = ,

[ )

dv _

u(0^y) = cos^,

v(0^y) = sin^

(^<<\).

.
(13). (9),

2
1

=0.

, = , 2 = ,
(8)

23

98

2-

1-

dy = 0

vdu + cos2xdy=^0

udu + vdu + cos 2x dx = 0.



,, v,-
i

X,

'

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

0,9689

0,9553

0,9394

0,9211

0,9004

0,8776

0,2474

0,2955

0,3429

0,3894

0,4350

0,4794

,
,
i, / +1,
.,()

,. _ '1()/^()

/.. ~,

()

_ ^() /Un)

/,,>1,-, -. -.^.

Uj

99

Dj.''Y"r'-"-v>+cos24"Yl/r'-i/,v' = 0.

4'^="/. =. =^",+=^(^^.+^">
cos24"Yi/r'-i/J
u;"^=u,./.

^=>. - .
x^.^\y^.^\u^-^\v^.^^
Xj ,yj \w. \Vj
, +1 .
., -, -, v.

i

10

11

X.

0,3916

0,3233

0,2739

0,2365

0,2069

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

0,6823

0,6852

0,6906

0,6925

0,6900

^i

0,2385

0,2878

0,3475

0,3815

0,4279

. 23.8 (.,-),
(u.,v.) .
.

23

100

0,5 0,6 07

0,8 0,9

1,0

. 23.8

23.4.
1.

, . . .
J{f{x, )) ,
/(jc, ).

L
-+
an

4s^

(2)

; q^^q^
,
D

J{Tix,y)) = \\

^' ^^'

-2qJ

dxdy +

(3)

101



_ _ ^ _ _ ^ 2 G ^ = 0,

(4)

F , G
, < , F^=
.
(3)

nx,y)=^J^aJ{x,y),

(5)

m=l

^ ,/^ (^,;;J
.
(5) (3)
,
^:.0
=0
(6)
,
^
^,
.
/^ (^,7J
. D ^
= ^^; = ^^
f^(x,y) ,
, .

(5)

=1

^ -
.

23

102


(8)
3t/


.


j - \
2

-IGcpF

dV,

(9)


1
-ig)'{D){g)-{2G(p)F

^-\

(D) = l,

dV,

(10)

(dF\
dx
(g) =
dF_

J no (u)

j;^l(B^"'fiD){B'"')dViu)=j;^l(f"'Y(2Ga)dV, ()
=1

=1

{f"') = {f) = {f^"\ ff\fl"^


...Jl"\ / - , () ,
(g("') = (5*'")()
f..

{'>)\
(g^"')

(12)

103

()

(^^"0 = (5^"0()

(13)

2^.
: ,
, . .

(. 23.9).

. 23.9


f(x,y)

= a + bx + cy.

(14)

/ / =.
=.; =^; f =Uj =^.; y=yj; f = =,,
y=yj^.

W. = + . +.,
Uj = + bxj -cyj,
a + bxi^+ cyj^,

(15)

104

23

= [(^, - X k y > i + (^tX - ^ / > j + ix^yj -Xjyi>k


b=^[(x

- )".+(

- yi>j+(^.

c = [(x,-Xj)u.+(x.-x,)Uj

- >'7)"* ] '

].
(16)

+ {xj -x,)u,],

25 = (Xjyi^ - x^yj + yjXi - JK^X. + x^y. - Xjy^)


.
(16) (14),
/{, ) = fi {, ). + fj {, y)Uj + / , (, ),,

(17)

/ (, ) = (, + , + .) lis,
fjix,y)

= iaj+bjX + Cjy)/2S,

(18)

fk ix, ) = {a, + b,x + c,y) I IS,


ai=Xjy,-Xi^yj,

aj=x^y.-y^x..

aic=Xiyj-Xjy,,

bi =

yj-yk.

^ = ^-

b,=yi-yj,

I Xi^ Xj,

J = X,. XJ,,

^k ~ ^j

(19)

"~^/-

4.1. .
. (. 23.10)
1/8 .

.

105

. 23
(Z)) =1
V

(5^^^) (F^^^)
>'.

_\_

^' ^' 0),


^"l
'is (I) (^'

fa/;<'> ^'> //'> ^^ 1

25

(1)

.(1)
(<

.(1)

(^^^)
1 (\'' ^'
('') = 2^0) ) ^(1)

'^'
(1)


2 2

25"^

^(1)

0).

106

23


? ^^-^^-^,,

,'" = - ^ = -0,5,

^" =-= -0,5,

'" = X, - = -0,5,

(5''^),
(5^") =

(-\
1
-1-1

0^
2 0

(5^")5*")

1 O^i
1 -1 \(-\
-1-12 0
2

-2

0^

-2

-2

-2

,
(5*'' )^ (5*''),
,
( \

(<'^) = (B<")^(5('>)J^F =(5'"f (5('^)5f'^

-1 0^1

0
1-10
-1-1
2 0
0 0 0 0

,
(11)

dv=^ll

J(/">)'2G(p^F = j2G(p

(I)

1
1

107

G I ^,
1

1 100 ,

(
\{f^^YlG<pdV

1
1

= ^^

, (11)

0

1 - 1 0

-1-1
0

0 - 1 0 ^u^

^ 1

G(p

2 0

0 0

v"v

v^


bvic

^'^"^"? ^""^ ^"^'^' ^''"^'^' ^"^' '^""^^' ''''"^'^



^0
{''') =

0 - 1 0 1
V

( 0\
1 - 1 (^0
(5(2))(^(2))^
-2

1 -2

-2

ij

2 -2

0 -2
0

-1

^
1
0

4 -2
-2

23

108

(^")

''
0 0 0"^

1 - 1 0
0 - 1
2-1
\^ -0,5 -1
\)

(11)

1 0
2 0

-1

0 (

2 -1

-1

.0 -0,5

-1

G(p
6

K'J
V"V

^ 1

2-1 - 2
(^ -0,5

-1 0\ /
G(p 1
2
0
6 1
4 -1
-1 1 "

^
VV

1
0 - 1
2 - 2
G(p 0
-1 -2
4
-0,5 -1
V

oTVO

v^y

24

24.1.

1.
Xj ^:
ajjXj-f ,22+6, >0;
a2iXjH-a22X2 +&2 ^ 0 ;

(1)
^.+^.2^2+^
^ ^
. ,
(1),
.
, , ,
. , ,
,
2 > kxj-^b 2 < kxj+b. .

110

24

a^pc-^a^^2'^^i~^^
, . ^2 ~ ,
Xj>b Xj<
Xj = b. ,
,
. ,
- , ;
. , ,
, ,
, .
(1)
,
S.
, .
(1) . , (1), S ,
.
, S, ,
, ,
, , ^
- .
2. F

a^^x^+a^j^^

+^23-^3 + ^ 2 - ^ ' *

(2)

,

.

111

1.1. ,
) ^ + 4x2 - 12 > 0; ^ - ^ > 0.
, ) ,
3x^+4x^-12=0
. 24.1.

. 24.1
3
^2 > Xj + 3,
,
^ + 2 - 1 2 = 0.
) (. 24.2) - ^ = 0.

. 24.2
^
2 < X,. ,
- ^ = 0.

112

24

1.2. :
) ^ - ^ + 1 >0; ^ - 6 ^ - 2 < 0; 4^ + 5^ - 20 < 0;
) ^ - 2^ + 4 < 0; 2^ - ^ - 2 > 0; 4^ + ^ - 12 < 0;

) ^ - ^ + 6 > 0; ^ + ^ - 4 > 0; 5^ + 2^ - 10 > 0; ^ > 0;


) ^ > 0; - ^ + 2 > 0; 5^ + ^ - 5 < 0; ^ - ^ - 4 > 0;
) 4^ + 5^ - 20 < 0; 16^ - 5^ > 0; ^ - 4^ < 0; ^ > 1;
4^ + 5^ + 2 > 0.
, ) ,
: -^+1=0; -62-2= 0;4 +5x^-20=0.
(. 24.3 ).

. 24.3
: ^ < 1 + ^; ^ > 6^ - 2;
4
^2 - ""T-^i """^ ,
.
,
.
) ,
:
;-2^ + 4 = 0; 2 x ^ ^ x ^ - 2 = 0; 4x^ + 3x^-12 = 0.
(. 24.4).

113

, 24.4
: ^^ ^ ^i + 4 ;
4
^
2 ^ 2 - 2; 2 < Xj + 4 .
,
. . 24.4 ,
. ,
.
) ,
: Xj - 3x2 + 6 = 0; Xj + 2 - 4 = 0; 5xj + 2x^ - 1 0 = 0;
X2 =0(. 24.5 ).

^..rf^^^^^^^^

^^^<^^^
\

^^^^/////////////^
^

-V,

, 24,5
: ^2 < - ^ + 2 ; :^ > - + 4;
5
^2 > JC, + 5; :^ > 0. , . 24.5 .

24

114


.
) : ^ > 0; ^< + 2;
^ < -5 + 5; ^ < - 4
(. 24.6).

. 24.6
,
, .
, .
) :
4

16

X. < + 4 2

X. < X , ;
, 2

X. > X , ; X, > 1 ; X. >


2

>

5 ^ 5

(. 24.7).

. 24.7

115

,
,
ABC, 4+ ^^ 2> \^ - 5^ >
,
, ABC ,
, . .
.
1.3. :
)^ >0;^<1; ^ >0; ^ -^ + ^ - <0; )^+x^ +;-6<0;
^ + 2^ - 12 < 0; ^ + ^ - 6 > 0; ^ > , ^ > 0.
, ) ,
(. 24.8 ).

. 24.8
, ,
,
, (. 24.8 ).
) ,
(. 24.9).
,
,
^ + ^ + ^ = 6.

, . 24.9 .

24

116

. 24,9

24.2.

1.

L (
).
. ,
^, ... , ^.
,

(1)
t

1 1

2 2

( )

'

L = CjXj+c^x^-^ ... + ^^

117

(2)

() .
,
L,
(2).
> , ^ > ,..., ^>0, (1),
,
2.
.
ajjXj

+ aj^x,

<

bj;


,
() .
L CjXj + -^2 ~
, 0(0^X2)-,
, ,
. ,
, L.
CjXj + >2 =
, L
,
, L .
L
.
(.
24.10 ) L
L, .

24

118

L
.
, ,
L () .

. 24.10
3. L =
J Xj-^C2 ^+ ^ Xj ,
(^,^,^),
L
+2^+ CjX^ -
,

^m7^7+^m2^2+^mi^i^*m^


, ,
L () .
4. ,
m,T.Q.n-m = 2. Xj

^. Xj, 2 ,
.
, ,
:

41 1

42 2

,=^+^,,+^.
Oxj, 0X2 ^, ^,
.
: ^ > , ^ > , ... , ^ > 0.

^ = ^^^+^2^2'^ -^
31X1 +0^32-^2 "^ ~ ^ ^ = .
^ = , ... , ^ = .
^,
, .
L = ^+^^^ ... + ^^
, L = / + 7i^i + 72-^2 ? ^^ 7 ^^^'
. L' = L-yQ. , L'
L ,
7 /jXj + 72^2 ~ - .
(^. 72 ,
.
, L ,
min , max.
5. 2 - m = 3, 3,
.
, .

24

120

6. .
1. , ,
, .
2. . ,
, .
3. ,
. , .
4. , ,
, L
.
5.
. , , ,
,
2.1.
L = Xy+2jc^ Xj - ^ < 0; 6xj + ^ - 12 > 0;
Xj + 5 x ^ - 2 5 < 0.
. ,
.
ABC
(. 24. ) .
%

. 24.11
=(\;2) +2-^=
(0,0).

121

(;)
.
L
_36 2 -
0/75 25.
^
(;),

L
^75
50
125
8
2.2.
L= = ?>Xj-^2x2 ^ + 1 > 0; :^ - ^ - 1 < 0;
^Xj - ^ + 12 > 0; ^ + 2^- 8 < 0.
. ,
,
,
ABCD (. 24.12).

. 24.12
-(;2)
3xj-^2x2 = .
, -

122

24

^ > , ^ >
(0,0)
L . = 3 0 + 2 0 = 0.
mm

^ ' '^ ^


, ,
.
Xj-X2= 1; ^ + 2^ =8,
7 .
(,'). ,
10 ^ 7 44
PaBH0L_=3 + 2 . - = .
2.3.
L = - ^ Xj > 0; ^ > 0; Xj - ^ + 2 > 0;
Xj - 2 x ^ - 2 <0.
.
, =(3,-1)
^ - ^= (. 24.13 )

,

(, 2). , L
,
=3-0-2 = -2.

. 24.13

123


, ,
,
. , L

, . .
.
2.4.
L = :4- ^ + 2^ Xj > 0; ^ - ^ > 0;
^- 1 > 0; ^ - 3 < 0; Xj + 2^ < 3; jc^ > 0.
.
(. 24.14 ).

. 24J4
=(1,1,2)
, ,
Xj+ 2 + 2xj = 0.
, F
. , L
F(0,1,0)


, ,

124

24

ABCDEFB CD,
, CD
L . ,
(3,3,0) ) , 3, 2
3
. L = 3 + 3 + 0 = 6 L = 0 + 3H-2 = 6.
2

24.3. -
1.
. min
L. , ,
,
--
. k

:

^k+2 ^^k+2.{^\ '^^+.

'^''^^k-\-2.k'^k '^ Pk+2*'

(1)
Xj = 0;
^2 =" ' ' = , ,^, =13,,,, ^k^2=Pk^2> -> ='
.
, J3y5.^.p ,^,2>"-* ^.
. ,
, L

125

, ^ = ^ = ...= ^ = L = /
7 72' ' , L
, .. , ^ . . > . .
7 < , . . , .
L . , , 7,
, ^. ,
, ,
^^^ , ^^2 ' 9 ^w (I).
, ^ .
Xj , Xj
L .
Xj /-

> . ^ = , ... , ^ = ,

, , .


^ = ^ = ...= ^, - X. = 0; ^^

^ ' -^k+J ' ^+2 ' '-^/-7 '^/+7 ' -^


L ,
L .
, . ,
.
2. L .
k
(1). L (2).

126

24

^ . .
:, L
, ^^^, ..., ^ .
3.
,
. ,
+ 2X2 + ... + ^^ < b
^^^ >
flyXy + ^ ^ + . . . + ^ ^ + ^ ^

=.

> Z?,
x^^j > 0.

, . . ,
.
3.1. L = -^+ ^ X I ' X J

Z,X

1,

Z,X J * X

^,

"

DX

J "i X

J.

. ^ = ^= , L- .
L ^ ,
^ . , ^
2, , 3.
, .
^ ,
L.
~~ ^~ - 1^ ^ ^ > ' >,

~'~ " ^ > "^ 1 ,

^ = ^= 0; L = 2 , . . .
L ^ ,
^.

127

^ -.
^ ,
' 5 ' 5 ' 5
__3 _2
2^
'
5 ' 5 ' 5

'

5 ' 5 ' 5
/ _il_i
-1
5 5 ' 5 '

^ ,
L 2==0
L

=^.

"""

24*4*

1. -

(1)

1^1+2^2+- + , =*m
Bee 1,2,-;
(1)
/ 2 = ^ 2 - ( ' 2 1 ^ 1 + 2 2 ^ 2 + - + 2^"

(2)
i/m =&m - r m l ^ l + m 2 ^ 2 + - + m ^ ^ J -


(2), (3)

128

24

X,

12

...

...

6,

21

0^22

ml

.2

72

\
...

mn

...

2. . .
f^ ^/.
:
1. a-j
= l/a^j.
2. .
3.
.
4.

.
5. , Xj <^ ..
2 ^
^2 <-^ ^/2, 22

X,

^.-^

X,

21

__L.

22

22

22

-^^

...

1.

22

22

*
ml

...

m22l

22

22

^\

122
22

...

...

22

^^

22

1 ^

3. ( )
, . . jc^ = ^ = ...= ^ = .
/?. ,
. ,
,
, . .
^,..., ^ > , j ^ ; > ,..., ^^ > 0.

. .
,
. , ,
.
,
.
,
.
,

.
,
.
,
L, .
4.1.
.
yj^\
-i-Xj-lx^-^x^))
y2 = -5-{-2xj-^
X2-Xj);
y^=2-(xj
+ X2);
y^ = l-(-X2 + x^);
.

130

24

X/

*,

-1

3
-5

-1

-^2

-2

-2

-1

-1

^i

1
-1

-1
0

1
-1

- 5 .
1- 3- . ,
-2, . . 1- .
2- 3- . : -5/-1 =2,5 2/1=2.
, 1 ^<^ ^.
= 1
(2.)
.

3
1

-1
2

^/

2
1

1
2
0

-1
3

2
2

Xj

^2

-2

1
2

-3

-,

1
1

0
1
1

-1

0
2

0
1

. .
.

. .
3/1= 3; -1/-1= 1; 1/1 = 1.
^<^ ^, = -1
.

131

^2

-^j

+2

^5

-2

-1

""l

+2

+2

bi

yj-2\x^l;Xj = 2;
4 ~ 0; j^3 = 0; 2 = 0; j;^ = 0. .
4.2. :
j^j = 2 - (xj + ^2 - 2x3);
^

1 -(A:I-X2

+^);

;; = 5-(2+);
;;4 = 2-(2xi-X2).
L = - (- Xj + 2'2 + .^).
. ,
, .. ^, ^ L .

X,

^2

X,

0-1

-'-2

2 3

' -1

2 4

1 3

' -1

1 1

'

-1 -1

'

-I

' 2

' -1

2 2

2 2

-^1

^3 .
2, ^
2 1/1 = 1; 3^3 5/1=5, ,
>'2 = 1/1 = 1.

24

132
X,

6,
-2

-1

3
I
2

-7

'

X,

^^

-1

-1

3
2

-1

-1

-1

3
2

-1

,
2

2.

^. , = - ,

X,

6,
L

-7

-9

'

^ 6

4
3

5
3

1
2

_ i
3

-2

i
3
3
2

7
3

3
- 2

1
2
1
2
1
2

1
^

_5
3

i
3
i
3
2
3

1
2

_ i
3

}
1
2

_i
3

1
"2

i
3

1
2
3

1
3

^ , 6 / = 4,
1
3
2 ^
3 / = 6 . = -

133

6,

X,

-9

4
3

1
3

2
3

1
3

7
3

2
3

1
3

5
3
1
3

5
3

~3

1
3

2
3

1
3

1
3

, L
min L = - 9 ^=^=^=0. :
1) L
,
L, .
2) L ,
,
.

24.5.
V. -,..., ^,

flfj, ..., <^jn . ,
5 ..., ^, ^, bj^
...,fej^. ,
.
(1)
/=1

/=1

.^
-^
( )

24

134

'12

'\

'21

'22

'2

'ml

'ml

,
, .
,

.
^^ ,
/- . - { = 1, ..., \] = 1, ..., ). ..^

:
1. ,
,
.
:
/=1

/=1

/=1

(2)

2. ,
,
, .
-
.

/=1

i=\

i=]

3. , . .
-J, c^j,

mm.
/=1 /=1

135

2. .^.
, (2) (3).
.^. ,
.
5.1, ;
; -^.
, ,
-^.. ,
..,
, .

.
.
/, j .
5.1
^1

-^

^,

^12

^21

':2

Cml

6.

mn

Cml

'^

/=1

/=1

3.

.
,
.

136

24

4. . ,
. , + (2), (3)
. , (2), (3),
(1), - - + -, , (2), (3)
= m + /2 - 1 , k = mn-r =
= (-\)(-1)
. 5.2,
.
5. .
m = 5 = 6 .
,
,
90. 5.2 (1,1),
(1,3),(3,3), (3,1) Cj^, Cj^, ^^, ^^, ^^, ^^, ^^, ^^ .
. +
, , ~
.
5,2

Bi

^2

,2

f
^2

Bs
^ ^ -

,,

^23

^3

| 1

^4

^,

42

43

As

Csj

52

'

^4

,5

^24 i 1

25
^

Cs4

44

\54

,
^!

r~cJ

1 "^
<^^1 ""
\

55\

137


.


Cjj- Cj^ + C^Q - C^j.
,
, , . .
.
,
. + .
5.1. 5.3.
.
5.3

^1

^'
^2

As
^4

bj

^2

^3

^5

^4

10

48

30

10

27

20

18

27

42

12

26

125

. - ,
. . .
J 18 ,
48, ^ ,
18 (1,1). 2 27
^
27 (1,2); 3
J ^. ^ -

138

24

39 ; 30
4^ , , 9
4^ . 18 ^ 12
^ , 6 ^ , 20
^ ^
(.5.4)
, .
.. ,
.

18-10+27-8+3-5+30-8+910+12-8+6-7+20-8 = 1039.
5.4

\\
\ \^ ,
^/
^2

^2

18 >

11

'

^4

^3

18

27

^4

'

30 '
9

'0
4
42

^5

48

30

'

27

20 '

20

12 '
6
12

26

125

.
(1,1) 18 (2,1) , ,
18 (2,3) (1,3)-
(.5.5).

27-8+21-5+18-6+12-8+9-10+
+ 12-8+6-7+20-8 = 913.

.

139

\ ^ \

^1

^2

10

8
27

^1
^2

^i

18

As

21

12
10

12

18

27

42

8
6

^4

^5

^4

12

5.5

48
30
27

20

20

26

125

5.2. 5.6.
.
5.6

\ ^ \

^2

^s

^4

^.

10

^2

30

As

25

10

20

35

10

75

. - ,
.5.7.
,
, = + - 1 = 8 .
- ,

.

140

\ ^ \

^2

^i

^3

10

30

25

25

^4

^5

5.7

10
20

^2

^.

24

20

35

10

10

10

75


, .
m + - 1
,
8,
.
10+8 25+8.
, 10-28 (. 5.8).
5.8

\\
,
\ \ ^
,

20-

^4

20

30

10+

^4

^
10+

25-

^3

Bs

35

Iz

25+

10-2

1(>-2

10

75

141

- ,
, . 5.8
, m + - 1 = 8.
.
5.3. 5.9.

5.9
,

1\
^'

^2

10

5
8

^4

^3

^2

As
22

34

41

31
48
38
117

20

.
(.5.10).
Lj = 2210+9-7+25-6+23-5+18-6+20-7=796.
5.10
^;

^2

10
^1

22

9
5

6
25

^2

8
22

5
23 , i

^3

Li_

^4

^3

34

1+

18 -1-

'
2

41

20

4
7

31
48
38
117

, (2,4)
4. , ^ ,
.5.10. =4- 7+6 - 5 = - 2.

142

24

20
, (3,4) .
, .5.11.
L^ = 22-10+9-7+25-6+3-5+20-4+38-6 = 756 .
5.11
,

Bt
10
22,

^2

-1

+ 9
'
'25

Bs
7

31

48

20

3
38

34

6
7

22

^4

'

41

38

20

117


(2.1) 5. +
.5.11 .
-1- 6+5 -10 = - 4. 22
,
L^ = 31-6+22-5+3-6+3-6+20-4+38-6 = 668 (.5.12).
5.12

^;
10

^1

31
5

^2

^4

^3

^2

22
8

^-^ J

20

3
6

^3

6
3

38
22

34

41

20

31
48
38
117

, ,
.

143

24.6.

1. .
, ,
().
(),
,
()
.

.

,
. ,
,
,
.
2. .
5,
. ,
S ^^ ,
U. t/
, .
W, . .
W = W(U).
, ,

w^=^^{w{u)}.
,
SQ

144

24

S^. , S^
SQ , S^^ S^ ,
S^e S^ .
,
:
/
, 5
S^^S^
S^ S^ , .
3.
.
1. ,
, .
2. w. / -
S U.
w.(S,U-) = w-.
3. /- ,
S S' f/.
4.
W,(S) = m^{w,(S,U,)

WU(p,(S,UJ)}.


U.,
.
5. ^(^)

WJS) =

m^{wJS,Uj}


U^(S),

145

6. W^(S)^^
,

^a^i ^u^h -. u,(S), u,(S).


7. SQ ,
, S^
8. ,
SQ 6 SQ ,

lF_=ma2c{tt^(S)}
, , .
6.1. .
^,
I II.
, ,
, . I
^ , f(X),
,
(() < X.
, Y,
, g(Y) Xj/fY) < Y,
/
I .
, .
,

.
. :

146

24

1.
X,Y .
. X,
:
)
;
) .
f/. /-
X.,Y., I, II .

V = (VU,

UJ,

.
2. / ,
/ - 1 . U- /- X. I , II Y-^K-X^

w,(K,X,)=^f(XJ + g(K-X,).
3.
'
' =

((,)+(-,).

4.
W,(K) = mm,{f(X,) +

g(K-X,)-vW,J(p(X,)+xif(K-X.,))]^

,-

5.
WJK)=^m2.x{f(XJ^-g(K-XJ}^
6. WJK) , (4)

147

W^_,(K)=x^{f(X_,)+g(K-X^_,)+WJ(p(X^_,)+xif(K-X^_,))l
^-2

W,(K) = rmx{[(XJ

+ g(K-XJ

+ W,(cp(XJ +

iif(K-XJ)}^


xJK),

,_,(),

...,

,().

7. KQ ,


K; =

(P(XJ+\I/(K^--XJ.

^2 = 2({) . .
/
K: =
(p(xJ+xif(Kl,-x,).
- = .('_^ ^ . . :

K,-^X,(KJ-^K:-^X,(K:)->...^XJK:_J-^K:.
'^ ,
. ,
I

, .
6.2. .
5 .

148

t(X) = \-e-\

24

g(Y) = \-e-''


(() = 05, (p(Y) = 0,3Y.
^=2
, .
. /-

2. K-X.=Y.,TO

K' =

0J5X,+0,3(K--X.).

3.
^:; = {2-(-'''+e-'^^-^'^)4-lJ^,, (05^^
4.
W,(K) =

m^x{w,{K,X,)}=msix[2--(e-''^+e-'^^-'''^)].

^,
^
^
=
,

'-'^-2''^'-'^^=0;

-X,=\n2''2(K-XJ;

,=(2-]2)/3.

(*)

> 12 / 2 - 0,347, max


(, ) ^() = (2-2)/3,
:<12/2,
max ^() = .
, , > 12 / 2,
(*), < 12 / 2,
, . .

'

\(2-\2)/

149

>\1/2

W,(K) = 2-{e-'^<'^-^e-'^'-^^<'^^}.

__

-2"

1-"'"

<\2/1

5. 4- .
6.3.
, f(X ) g(Y)
((), y/fY) .
, /-

(,(),

WY)

(i = \,2....,m).



W,(K) = m^x{l(X,)

g,(YJ+W,^,{(p,(X,)+xif,(K-X,))}.

WJK) = m^{fJXJ + gJK-XJ},


.
6.4. .
^,
, .

150

24

/- ^
li(^) (^().
,
,
.
, - II
, ,
) = 0; Wi(y) = y

(i =

\.2....,m).

,
.
,
(^() = , . . .

m 2, ..., ^,

X.

/=1



. ,

[,()=[,()=...=)=!(),

(p,(X) = (p,(X) = ... = (i>JX) = 0.
,
:
_

^ ^

| ^2 ... ^

151

6.5.
.
I, II,..., {),
: fl^^(X),
, X, /-
7- (\^-() < X,
, X /- j-u
.
(.
24.15).
/2 ^^^\ ^^\ ..., ^'^''^,
.
( ),
.

. 24.15
/-

^^>, Xj". ....

Xi''^=K-f^Xl'\
i=l


.
6.6.
. 1. ,
- .

152

24

. W
,

( )
, I - /-
F.(X), II G-(Y).

^JK,XJ

= FJXJ + GJK-XJ,

, .

W,(K) =

m^x{w,^,{F,{X,)^{K-X.S)],

, - .

WJK) =

mzx{F^{X^)^G^{K-X^)}.


, ,
.
2.
, ; .
,
+ ,
.
,

/^ (^) (pJX), ij/JY).

153

FJX) = fJX) GJY) = gJY).


.
3. ,
- ;
+ -
.
/ ^(), g- (Y)
(i = h2,.,.,m) (^(), y/^fY) (i = \,2,...,m).
r-(D)<D
(i = l,2,.,.,m), , D
, /+1 , .
/-
. /-

-
'

W/K) = max{r,(f,(XJ + g,(K-XJ) +


+%j9i(XiHi(K-X,)+l(X,)+g,(K-X,)^+na^(X,)+g,(K-XJ))}.
-

WJK)^m^,{!JXJ

gJK-XJ+(pJXJ+iifJK-XJ}.


.
6.7. ,
. 2,..., ^,
. -

154

24

/CQ , ,
.


^ ^ 2
. X.,
(Pi(X) .
,
.

KQ

/=1


W = ^w.

=max.

i=\

w. /- .
,
- < /^ , . .

\
XJK) = \

<
^
>^

WJK) = wJK) = cpJxJK)).


155

^:={(,,;+^,/:-;^,;}

.
6.8.
. ,

,
,

/=1

. - /- .
.

W/S) =

max{w,(S,U,)-W,J(p/S.U,))},

WJS) =

m^{wJS,Uj}.

, ,
.
.

. /- .
X, ,
. =[.().

156

24

.
/- pi =fi(X.), X. ,
/- .

P/K) = max{f,(XJ-P,JK-X,)}.
,
,

pJf<) = L(K).

^_^(),^_^(),

... ^x^fK)

^_^(), -2(^)> ^Pli^)


Px(^J

=^^^{fi(^i)'P2(f^o-^i)}

X,

=x,(KJ.

25
.

25.1.

1.

^ , ...
,
.
,

.
Am ( ) :,
,
, . .
.
.
,

158

25

/,
.
.
,

.
{) - ,
, ,
.
. g ,
, G.
G
G,
g.

G
,
.
{) = \.
, .
.

, ,
.
< (^) < 1.
2. .

,
^ = !.

159


, ,

" =

!( )!

3. .
,
- , , +
.
.

, (, )
.
1.1. 120
6 .
?
.
,
,
W = = 0,05.
120
1.2. 4 , 3 5 .
, : ) ; )
; ) ; ) .

160

25

. 12 . ,
: ) 4,
4 = 1- ;
=
12 3
3 1
) 3, = = - ;
) , ..
, = 0;
) 5, = .
1.3. .
, .
. 6,
-
=216.
, ,
.
( 1, 2,...) m = 6.

p ( ^ b ^ = - ^ = JL

216

36*

1.4. 7 : , , , ,
, . .
, :
) ;
) ,
.
, ) 7
^ =1! ,
.
.
, ,
(^) = = 0,0002.
) 5 . 7 5
^ . , ,

161

.
(5) = - ^ = 0,00039.
1.5. 16 , , 12
. , 8
6 .
. 8
16 16 8, .
. = \^. , , .
12 ^2 ,
8-6=2 16-12=4
\ . , 8,
6 2 ,
= \^ ]
,
_ Cf, ] _ 28
= =
Q
65
1.6. 100 , 10 .
5 . ,
: ) ; ) .
, )
, 5 100,
T.e.n = Cfoo.
, 5
, 90
5, . . W = ^.
, ,
,
Cfoo

5/85/ 100/

162

25

) , 5
, ,
5 10 , . . m = Cfo.
, ,
,
^ = j 10'
5^95' ^ 0,00000334
^ ioo.
u ^ ^^^
^
5/5/ 100/
1.7. 15 10 5 .
2 . ,
.
. 4 ,
.
: , ;
= ^^,
= ^^ ],
() =

10-5-2 10
1514 ~21

() = 1-()

=
12

1.8. R .
, , ,
,
.
. S^ = nR^,
S^^ = 4R^.

5..

4'

4-

163

25.2.
-^ ,
,
.
,
.
- ,
.

. ,, ,

+ =+; +^;
'=;

(-^) + =+(+);

--;
()=();

(1)

( '\') = + .
2.1. , ,
( ), ( ),
( ), :
) + ;) + ;) ;) + ?
, ) + ,
. . ,
.
) + ,
, , . .
.
) , . .
, .
) +
. . .
2.2. :
) - -h = AWC ;

6)- =

164

) ( + )('^
) '\-(-

25

) ( + ) = + + .

) + ( - ) = ^ + 5 +

, ) ^ + 5 + ,
, , , , . .
ABC,
) + ,
, . . .
)
, (1)
(AB+AC+B-^BCjfA-^-C) = ++++-^+
^-^ = ABC -^ + + ^ + -^,
.. ^5.
) + ( - ),
- ,

, + ( - ) = -\- .
- -\-( - ),
JB, -.
. ,
- + , .
2.3. :
) + ;
) -^(-)
-( - );
) ( + )( + );
) ( + ) + (),
, ) -
, , ,
- = .
) , -, -
, . -
, , -
, 1 . ,

165

-{-)^{-)^^^
) ( ^
) ( , ). Aunt
, ( + )( + ) = ,
) (1),
^^()
=-^ + =
.. ^5.

25.3.


, ,
.
(+)=()+().

(4+4+...+4,)=4)+4)+-+4) ^j,"2,...',
,

3.1. 24 . 12 , 8 4 .
.
.

{) = = .

, . ,

166

25


{ + ) = {) + {) = ^ = )-.
5

3.2. , , CvL D
. : (4) = 0,4; (5) = 0,3;
{) = 0,1. D.
. , , D
,
() + () + () + P(D) = 1,

P{D) = 1 - (() + () + )) =
= 1-(0,4 + 0,3 + 0,1) = 0,2.
3.3. 7 3 .
, 2 : )
; ) .
, ) ,
, ,
. () = 1 - ().
, 2
= 7+3 = 10 , ^^. 2 3 ^
. , 2
, () = ^ I Cf
10

PiA) =

l-C',/Cf,=

15'
) ,
, , .

PiA + B) = PiA) + PiB) = C^/Cf, +

-ClC},/C^,=j^+-^=^^.

167

25.4.
V. ,
,


, ,

() = {),().

{) = {){
2.
, . . .

() = (),{),,{);
P(ABCD) =

{)),,{),,,(

,
{) = {){)();
P(ABCD) = (){)()(
3^. ,
, /?,

P(A) = l-q\

= 1-.

, ^2' >
/{, /^,..., /^,

168

25

4.1.
, 15 5 , : )
; )
.
, )
^ , . AviB

AVLB ,
{) = {){) = ^.
)

1
4 2
() = -, ^.<(^) = 7~^3
14 7

P{AB) = PiA)PAB) = j - ^ .
4.2. .
1 0,2; 2 0,1 3 - 0,15.
.
. : =
0,2; ^2 = 0,1 ^3 = 0,15.
, , , ,
^ = 0,8; 2 = 0,9 = 0,85.
,

^ = P i ^ A = 0 . 8 0 , 9 0 , 8 5 = 0,612.
4.3. , 8 , 6 4 ,
. ,

1l69

, ,
.
. 18 .
8 4
{) = = --.
1 9
,
, { -
,
, ,
16 4

{) = P(A)PAB)P,,iQ

= ^^\

= ^-

4.4. ,
, .
. , ,
,
ABC, ABC
ABC. ,

= {) + () + {
,

= ()()() + (){){)

+ ()()().

3 9
() = ^;

() = ^.

3
10

170

P(B) = P(C) = j ^ ;

25

(5) = () = ^ .

P-LL1.
~ 310 10

11.JL 2 7 3 ^133
3 1010

3 1 0 1 0 " 300'

4.5. ,
, , 1 -0,9; 2-0,8; 3-0,7.
.
.
,
.
^1 = 1 - = ;

q2=l-

2=0,2;

q^=\-

^= 0,3.

, ,
9i 2 > ,

^ = 1 - = 1 - 0,2 0,3 = 0,994.


4.6. 5 . ,
, /? = 0,8.
,
?
. , ,
, /?,

P = l^q"

= 1 - 0 - / ? / = 1 - 0 , 2 ' =0,99868.

4.7.
0,973.
,
.

171[

.


= 1 - 9"

0,973 = 1 - ^ ' ;

q" =0,027;

^ = 0,3.

= l'-q = 0,1.
4.8. ,
, = 0,6.
, 0,8
?
.


P = l-q"
> 0,8; = 0,6; ^ = 1 - /? = 0,4.
1 - ^" > 0,8; q" < 0,2; 0,4" < 0,2.

nlgOA < lg0,2; .. IgOA <0,>

- ^ - ^ ; >2.
IgOA
4.9. 25 30 .
, ,
.
. , ^2> ^ ,
.

(,,,) = P(A,)PJA,)P,^,JA,) = 1 ^ 1 = 0,5665.


4.10. ,
, , , 0,7;

172

25

0,8; 0,9. , : )
; ) ; )
.
, ) ^4, J? ,
, , ,
: () = 0,7; () = 0,8; () = 0,9.
,
() = 0,3; () = 0,2; () = 0,1.

,
() = 0,7 0,2 0,1 = 0,014;
() = 0,3 0,8 0,1 = 0,024;
() = 0,3 0,2 0,9 = 0,054.
,
,
= () + () + () = 0,092.
)
,
() = ()()()

= 0,056;

() = ()()()

= 0,126;

() = ()()()

= 0,216.

,
,
= () + () + () = 0,398.
) , , ,
,
= ()()()

= 0,7 0,8 0,9 = 0,504.

173

25.5.

1.
( )
{ -)^ () + () - ()

.
.
,
( + + ) = () + () + () - () - () -() + ().
2.
P(B) =

P(A,)PJB)
1=1

,

. (i = 1,2,...,).
3.

() =

P(A,)PjB)

-
^ .
4 ,
.
5.1. 0,8,
0,7. ,
, .

174

25

.
, . .
.
() = 0,8; () = 0,1,

() = ()() = 0,56.

( + ) = () + () - () = 0,94.
5.2. 20 , 15 ;
12 , 9 .
.
() , , ,
.
.
^, ^2 . :
(,) = ^;(,) = ^.
4
4
,
, ,
, ^ () = .
,
, ,
, ^ () = = .

P(B) = P(A,)P,SB)

+ P(A,)P,^(B) = ^f^+^^

= ^.

5.3. 4 . ,
,
, 0,8; 0,85; 0,9; 0,95. ,

175


.
.
, , P(^i) = 0,8; P(v42) = 0,85;
(.4) = 0 , 9 ; ( ) = 0,9.

- ,
= 0 , 8 - + 0,85~ + 0 , 9 - + 0 , 9 5 ^ = 0,875.
4
4
4
4
5.4. 1 10 12 , 2 12 10 . 1 2
2 , 2 .
, .
. :
, 1 2 2 ,
^ 1 2 1 1 ,
1 2 2 .
2

~%\ /^\

Lz-^o

^Tj

,
,
V

1^ 24

'^

24

'

24

(^) = (,).(^/,)
^ ) = ^ ^ ( 1 < + 13,';, + 12,^,) = 0,538.

176

25

5.5. 5.4. ,
1 2 2 ,
, 2
.
. 2
, .
^ ^ (
2 )
'

{)

(1) = 1-(^) = 0,462; ( 1 / , ) = ^ ,


.. 2 2 14
10 .
1 ^ 10
( / ^ ) = 1 ^ = 0,176.
'
0,462 Q^ 14
5.6. . 1
50% , 2 30% 3 20%.
1
0,03; 2 0,02; 3 0,01. ,
: ) ; )
1; 2; 3 .
, ) ^ 1 ;
^2 2; ^ 3 . P(.4j) = 0,5; (^)=-0,3; (,) = 0,2,
,

,5) = 0,97; ,5) = 0,98; ,5) = 0,99.
,
,

177

= 0,50,97 + 0,30,98 + 0,20,99 = 0,977.


) ,
- ,
.

(^)^{) 0 5 0 97
=
' ^' ^ = " ' ^ "-^ =0,4964.
* '
()
0,977

P.(,,) = ^ W ^ ^ = MA?5 = o.3009.


^

{)

0,977


(,)=
'

(,)^{) 0 2 0 99
'
= '
' =0,2027.
()
0,977

,
^,(.4,) + (^2) + ^() = 0'4964+0,3009 + 0,2027 = 1.

25.6* *

1.
,
.


, =

178

25


; q = l-p.
2. ,
^ ^ ^-,
( ) ( )
^
+

q + C

q -{-.., + C^pq

+Cpq

+q = 1 .

6.1. 80%.
, 8 6.
.
/7 = 0,8. ^ = 1 - = 0,2.
^ 6 8 = Q W " ' =

0,8'-0,2'=0,17.

'''
'
6!(8-6)!
6.2.
0,9. , 4
?
. ,
/J)4 ,
,
( > 1 ) = 1-4=1~9'=1"'=0,9999.
6.3. , = 6
: ) ; ) ;
) ; ) ; ) , ,

0,7, m = 4.
, ) ,
,

4,='

79

= ^ 0 , 7 ^ 0 , 3 ^ =0,324.

) , 4 ,

( > 4) = ,, + ,, + ,, = '' + Clp'q + /.*= 0,744.


) , 4 ,

( < 4 ) = ,,+/>,+,,+,+=1-(^5,+^.) = 0,579^^^^

) , , i^ 6
, ,
( > 1 ) = 1-, =1-^^=0,999271.
) , ,

P(m>2) = l-(Po,,+/^_,) = 0,989.


6.4.
0,96.
.
. ,
q .
q^.
1-^^=0,96.
^^=0,04; ^ = 0,2; = 1 - ^ = 0,8.
,
4,5=>'^ = 0,8'0,2 = 0,2816.

180

25

25.

^

np-quniQ < + ,

; ; q = l- .
7.1. 20 5
.
8 .
.
= = - ; = -; = 8.
20

3 1^
4 4 '

/ 3 3
44

'

ITIQ = 6.
7.2. ,
= 0,8
15?
. /WQ =15; = 0,8; q = 0,2.

0 , 8 - 0 , 2 < 1 5 < 0 , 8 + 0,8.


0,8w<15,2; <19; 0,8>14,2; /2> 17,75.
, n = \S = \9.

181^

25.8. .


, ,
,
,

12

_
= Jnpq; =

(1)
.
1 -^
(() = -= ' -Jc) = (()

( (1)).
, , . .
pq. , . . ,

..=^^

(2)

= .
(2)
. < 10 , /?.
m

( = ) = -'^ !
( (2)).
8.1.
= 0,8. , 100
70 ?
. = 100; m = 70;/? = 0,8 ^ = I - =
= 0,2. ,
.

182

25

{) , - 2,5
, (2,5) = 0,01753.
^70 100 = ^

= 0,00438.

8.2. 1000 20 .
60 . , :
) ; ) ?
, ) = 60; /? = 0,02; q = 0,98.
= /? = 1,2 < 10, .
, w =
,,,=
^0,60
0.60

1 2V"
' "^

^0,32137.

Q,

)
/>,=(2-'''=0,385644.
,

( < 2) = , +^,60 =0,707014.

25.9.


/7, ,
<<
'~^\^~dx,

183

yfnpq'

-
yfnpq

{) =
dx,
2: '^
(3)

Pia<m<b)

= -^je~dx

= ^[{p)-{a)].

(j)

, . .() = - ( ) .

=aJ
\
/?, ,

,

<

(2)

9.1. 10%
. , 400
: ) 340 380; ) 380.
, ) = 400; = 0,9; q = 0,l;a = 340; b = 380.
.
j8
340-400 0,9
= V400 0,9 0,l = -3,33;

380-4000,9
74000,90,1

:3,33.

184

25

(340<<380) = -[(3,33)-(-,33)] =
= -[(3,33)+(3,33)] = (3,33) = 0,99913.
) ,
380, (0<<380) = ?
-4000,9
=-60, )3=3,33.
=
74000,90,1
(0 < / < 380) = - [ ( 3 , 3 3 ) - ( - 60)] =
= 1[(3,33) + (60)]=.1,
> 5 (:) - 1 .
9.2. , 400

0,05,
/7 =0,8.
. = 400;/? = 0,8; q = 0,2; = 0,05.
.
(
~^;- (2).
= = 2,5, | < 0,05) = (2,5) = 0,98758.
\
9.3.
0,8. ,

0,98785 2500 .
. = 0,8; q = 0,2; = 2500;

) = 0 , 9 8 7 8 5 . (2),

0,98785 =
0,98785 = (125).
(^) 125 = 2,5, = 0,02.

26


26.1.

,

.
X

jCpX2,...,JC Pi,P2^-->P-

X,

(,)

^,

(2)

p(Xi)

P(XJ

F(x)

4W//6ZX F{x) = ^{^\

{- < ), . .

, - < .

186

26

1.1.
.

, = 3,
/7 = 0,6. .
. :
Xj = 1 , ^2
= 3

=0,6;/72=^/7 = 0,4.0,6 = 0,24; P,=q^P + q'=q^ {p + q) =


= ^^ = 0,4^ = 0,16,
^

Pi

0.6

0.24

0,16

: J^j9,. =0,6 + 0,24 + 0,16 = 1


1=1


(. 26.1).
P(x)i
0,6

0,3 \

3 X

, 26.1

1.2. 4
= 0,4. -

187


.
.
m = , 1, 2, 3,4 .

X,

Pi

0,1296

0,3456

0,3456

0,1536

0,0256


0
0296
0,4752
F{x) =
0,8208
0,9744
1

-oo<jc<0
0<jc<l
\<<2
2<jc<3
3<<4

4 < JC <


(. 26.2)
.
Fix) i ,
10-

0,5-

op.

. 26.2

188

26

26.2.

( )

M{X) = X = a = Yj^,p,=x,p,+x^p^+.,,

+ x^p,

1=1

, ^^^^ = 1

,
/?,
{) = ,
1.
{) = .
2.

{) = {
3.

( + ) = () + (7).
4.

(^) = ( ) ( ) .
2.1.
8 , 2
/? = .

189

. ,

X,

Pi

1
6561

16
6561

112
6561

448
6561

1120
6561

1792
6561

1792
6561

1024
6561

256
6561



= () = ( 6 + 2112 + 3-448 + 41120 + 51792 +
+61792 + 71024 + 8-256)/6561 = 5,3.
2.2. 0,2.
10 .
. j[7 = l--^ = 0,8.
, () = /? = 10 0,8 = 8.
2.3. , 3
,
/7 = 0,01.
. ,

0,01
2.4. X Y

X.

yj

Pi

0,5

0,3

0,2

0,6

4
0,4

X + Y
XY :
) X + Y XY;

190

26

) .
, ) X -Y

^,+
Pi4i

1+2

1+4

2+2

2+4

3+2

3+4

0,5-0,6

0,5-0,4

0,3 0,6

0,3-0,4

0,2 0,6

0,2-0,4

( + ) = 3 0 , 3 + 5-0,2 + 4-0,18 + 6-0,12 + 5-0,12 +


-f7-0,08 = 4,5.
XY
XY

1-2

1-4

Pi4i

0,5 0,6

0,5 0,4

2-2

2-4

0,3-0,6 0,3-0,4

3-2

3-4

0,2-0,6

0,2-0,4

/(7) = 2-0,3 + 4-0,2 + 4-0,18 + 8-0,12 +


+6-0,12 + 12-0,08 = 4,76.
)
/ ( = 10,5 + 2-0,3 + 3 0 , 2 = 1,7;
() = 2-0,6 + 4-0,4 = 2,8.

(' +) = /() + (7) = 1,7 + 2,8 = 4,5 ;


() = ()-() = 1,7-2,8 = 4,76.

26.3

1.

D{X) = M{X-df=Y.^x,-dfp,=M{X')-a\

191

(1)


,
/7, D{X) = npq^
9 = 1-/?.
2. :
1) D{C) = 0.
2)
, Z)(Of) = C^D{X).
3)
D{X + ) = >() + /)(7).
4)
D{X - ) = D{X) + I>(F).
3"".
1 ^ - ^
(2)
1=1

= ),
3.1.
X,

Pi

0,15

0,2

0,3

0,2

0,15


.
.
() = 10,2 + 20,3 + 30,2 + 40,15 = 2.

192

26

|,-|

Pi

0,15

0,2

0,3

0,2

0,15

(2)
|jc.-X| = 20,15 + 1.0,2 + 0 0 , 3 + I 0,2+ 2 0,15 = 1.

u-^r

Pi

0,15

0,2

0,3

0,2

0,15


)=4.0,154-10,2+00,3+10,2+40,15=1,6.

a =

^D(X)=yll6=l29,

3.2. X 4.
: ) - 3; ) - 4 X; ) 2 + 1.
.
) D ( Z - 3 ) = D(X) + D(3) = 4;
) D{-4X)=:('-4fD(X)
= 64;
) D(2X + l)=^2^D(X) + Dil) = l6.
3.3. X
100 ,
0,6.
. q = \- = 0,4.
,

1 93

D(X) = Ai/7^-1000,60,4-24.
3.4. X
, ^, , <^. JC, W ^, ,
/7, =0,4; / ( = 3,6; D(X) = 0,24.
.

,/7, +22

-^^)\

(, - of , + (2 - af ^ = D{X).
p^^l ^,
0,4jc,+0,6x2 = 3 , 6 ;

0,4(, - 3,6)^ + 0,6 (2 - 3,6)' = 0,24.


x^ w ^,

2-7,22+12,8 = 0,
^2 = 4 ^ =3,2.
X, < 2 , =3; 2 = 4.

26.4.
1. . X
, 5 >

= (),
2. . 1 ,

5 > ,

194

26

Pi\X-a\<8)>\-^.

3. . ^.^.^.^.^
,
. 5
1

-1^.--1(,)

<5

> lim - I ^ , - - S1 M ( X , ) <5


,
X, +2+ + ^

- <6 > 1 - 5''

. .
.
4. . ,


>0,

<

> 1 - 2

, -^ ,
limP

<

= 1.

4.1. 600
. ,
630 ?

195

. { < 600),
. = 600, S = 630.
(-<630)>1-^ = .
630 21
4.2. 3 ,
0,15. ,
2,5 3,5 ?
. = 3; D(X) = 0,15,
2,5 < " < 3,5. | - <| < 0,5,
S = 0,5,

( | ^ ~ 3 | < 0,5) > 1 - ^ = 0,4.
'
'
0,25
4.3.
= 0,9. , 1500


50.
.
,
M ( Z ) = A2;7 = 1500 0,9 = 1350,
Z)(X) = /7^ = 1500 0,9 0,1 = 135. ,

{\-\<50)>1^^^
= 0,946.
'
'
2500
4.4.
,
= 0,8
0,04, 0,75?
. = 0,05; p = 0,S; qr = 0,2.

196

/1

- - 0 , 8 <0,04 >\)

26

2 *

7>0,75;

^1<0.25; > - .

0,04' 0,25

400.

4.5.
0,1. , 1500
5%?
. \

<
,

/? = 0,1; ^ = 0,9; = 0,05; = 1500.

0,0,9
:0,976.
-0,1 <0,05 >1
1500 (0,05)'

4.6.
2000 1^. ,

0,5 . ,

0,1 .
.
. : = 2000, 5 = 0,1,
/)() = 7'<0,25.

JC, +^ +... +
I

0,25
- <0,1 >1
2000 0,01

>1-0,0125 = 0,9875.

197

4.7. .
, , 9
,
5,
8?
. ,

>\- = 0 9

= 8, 5 =5.

1 ^ = 0,9; 2 = 3,2.
/225
, 2 - 4.

26.5.
-
X
{X-M{X)f:
,=[{-{))'\

(1)

{) = ,
v,=M{X').

(2)

,

v,=M(Xl

(3)


//^ =0() = {^())\
(4)

198

jU3=V3-3v,V2+2vf;

26

(5)

5.1. X

0,1

0,4

0,5

: ) ,
; ) , ,
.
, )
(3)
Vi=M(X) = 10,l + 2 0 , 4 + 4 0 , 5 = 2,9.
^
X'

16

0,1

0,4

0,5


V 2 = M ( ^ ' ) = 10,l + 4 0 , 4 + 160,5 = 9,7.
^
X'

64

0,1

0,4

0,5


= ( ^ ' ) = 1 0 , - 8 0 , 4 + 6 4 0 , 5 = 35,3.
) (1)

199

/ | , = (-~()) = ( ) - ( ) = 0.
,
(5)
Ai^ =9,7-2,9^=1,29;
^/ =35,3-3-2,9-9,7 + 2-2,9' =~0,312.

V 4 = M ( ^ ' ) = 10,l + 160,4 + 2560,5 = 184,5.

/i4=184,5-4.35,3-2,9+6-9,7-2,9'-3-2,9'=52,2977.

26.6.
()
,
.

t

\
(
).
:
) , . .

t ;
) , . .
,

200

26


;
)
.
6.1. ,
, . ,
4 : ) 3 ; ) ;
) .
, ) ,
/ = 2, ^ = 4, m = 3. (1)
/'4(3) = ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ = 0,028.

) , ,

/5(1<)=;',(0)+.(1)+/;(2)=

I!

2!

)
,
, 4 ,

> 3 ) = 1 - < 3 ) = 1-0,0135 = 0,9865.

26.

V, X ,
F(x) = { < ) ,
.

201


(
)
f{x)^r(x).

(1)

{) = J f{x)dx.

(2)

:
1)/W>0;
2) \f{x)dx

= \;

(3)
ft

) P{a<X<b)

= \f{x)dx.

(4)

2.

M{X)=]xf{x)dx;
D{X)=\{x-aff{x)dx
^\x~f{x)dx-a',

(5)
=
(6)

.


= ).

(7)

202

26

. MQ X
,
.
^ X
,
(<^ = (>

(8)

. . ,
, .
4"". -
X
li,^\{x-aff{x)dx

(9)

(2 = ,

v, = ]x'f{x)dx,

(10)

: = 1, v^=M{X) = a, 11^=0; = 2,
/^2 = D(X),
(26.5 (5)), . . ,
.
7.1.

f(x) =

jc<0;

asinx

0<<:;

>.

: ) ; ) ;
)
(0;).

203

^ , ) (3) | f{x)dx = 1 ,
\ smxdx = \.
""

1
-acosx\ =1; ~ ( - 1 - 1 ) = 1; = .

2
) X < f{x) = , F{x) = 0.
< < " (2)
f
f1
1
1 - cos x
F ( x ) = 0 ( i c + sinx(ijc = COSJC| =
x>K
0

(1 .
F{x)= \ 0'dx+\ sinxdx'\'\Odx

0
F(x) = \

= cosx| =1.

x<0;

1-COSJC

11

0<<;

>.

) (4)
I

{0<<j)

-1

" 1
/

= \ smxdx = cosx| =
2^0

'

7.2. "
[

< 0 ,

F(x) = 0 < < 2 ,


1

>2.

: ) (
); ) -

204

26

; ) ; )
.
, ) (1)

10 jc<0,
X

) =

< : < 2,

>2.
)
(5), ()
3

M(X) = \x^dx = U^ =^;


6

D(X) = J

2X

16 _ ^ |'

16 _ 2

^ 2 ^"'''?

)
(7)
2
\9

3 '

) (. 26.3)
(. 26.4)
F(x)

f(x)

. 26.3

. 26.4

205

7.3.

X < 0;

1-C0SJC 0<<;

F{x).

X >
: ) (
); ) X ; )
.
, )
(1)

< 0;

;
/U) = sinjc 0 < <
X>

)
(5), (6)
f
M{X)-\xs\x\dx--xQOSx\
0

D{X)-

i f
I
+J cosxd^ = sinjc| =1.
0

\x^ s\nxdx-\
T

= - x " cosjc| + 2 | jccosxJx-l =

= 2jcsinjc| ~2jsinx(ijc-l=^ + 2cosjc|

-\--.

) (. 26.5)
(. 26.6)

206

Fix)

26

f(x)

. 26.6

. 26.5

7.4. ,
: ) f{x) = cosx

(,),
/(:) = ;
) /(x)=Jc^-4x"-3 (1;3), /() = 0.
, ) f{x) = cos
/

^\

(U,-; , X .
(8) ,
X , /,
<<^) =
cosdx =
\
1 ^= sin. ^1 = ~. : ^ = arcsin
= .

2 6
)
= {x-2Y -1. ,
= 2, ^ - 2.

, = 2,
, ^ = 2.
7.5. X
/ ( ) = 4 (,),

207

() = 0. ,
, .
. (10):

16

V. = fjcMxd!x = ;
\
40'

v,-\x^Axdx^.
\
96


((5) . 5):
^^ =0; ^2 = v^ -V, = 0,0347; ^ = ^ - Sv.v^ + 2vf = 0,003;
|i4 = V4 -4V1V3 + 6VjV2 -3v,^ = 0 , 0 0 1 8 5 .

26.8.

1. ,

1

_il)i

, < . ^
/ ( ) ,

P(a<^<)3) = i

^-
V

-
)

(-^
V

(2)
yj

,

> ,

208

{\-\<)

\-

26

(3)

".

<' (,^),

, / ( ^ ) =
' ^ f{x) = 0.
3"^.
X /lo^-^jamey/b/zbiA/,

i
i

JC < 0;

.

O
<0:
X

(5)

--^'
>0.
^^^

,
X {,)
{<<) = -^''--^',
(6)
, ,
,
M{X) = j ; D{X) = ^ ; a^j.
(7)

,

Fit) = 1-6-"
(>0),
(8)

209

(
), /
.
t

(< 0 = 1-/?(/),
(9)
R{i) e~^ ,
.
4.
.

,
(. 26.7);
.
/)

. 26 J


=1^,^(7"^ -3

.
> , ,
, <0 .
= 0,4; = 0.

210

26

8.1.
(a,j3) X,
:
) = 6; /3=10; = 2; = 4;
) = 3 ; j8=9,
=8; =1.
, )
(2)
(6<<10) = -

j^i\^(^-^^
\

= 1[(2)-(1)].
/J


P ( 6 < Z < 10) = -(0,95450-0,68269) = 0,135905.
) (2)
<<9) = -

9-8

3-8

= ^[(1)-(-5)].

, (-5) = ~(5).
, (5) ,
1.
(3 < X < 9) = -(0,68269 + 1) = 0,841345.
8.2. ,

0,2, 0,4.
. = 0,2; ( = 0,4.
(3)
(|-|<0,2) =

^^= (0,5) = 0,382923


0,4

211

8.3. ,
^
{,).
.

M ( X ) = jjc/(jc)t/jc.


, / ( ) =

,
-
1 ,
^
{) =
\xdx =
2

D(X) =

jx^f(x)dx-(M{X))\

/()=-5-,

()^^

,
b-a

12 *


= yjD{X) = 1=-.
8.4. 8 .
, , ,
6 .
.
, , 7() =
8-0

= .
8

212

26

, 6 ,

P{2<X<S) = jf(x)dx:

4*
8.5. X
,
f{x) = Se'^"" X > f{x) = < .
X (1,5; 3,5).
. (6). ,
= 5; = 1,5 6 = 3,5,
(1,5 < ^<3,5) = ' " ' -''^^' = ''^' - " " ' = 0,00055.
8.6. ,
,

F(x) = l-e-'''^

(>0).

. = 0,2.
(7).
( = = 5; D ( ^ = - = 25; = = 5.
0,2
0,2'
0,2
8.7.
F{t) -1 - ~^'^'' (/ > 0).
, 1-\0:
) ; ) .
, ) F{t)^
- { < t)
/, , / = 10 ,

{< 10) = 1-"^'^^' - l - e " ^ ' =0,18.

213

)
t

8.8. ,
.
:
/^(/) = 1-"^'", Fj{i)-\-e^'^\

, / = 8 : )
; ) ; )
; ) .
, )
(9)

, ,

/ ^ ^ 2 = 0 , 5 5 0 , 0 1 = 0,0055.
)
q^ =z /?j (8) = "^'^ = 0,45.
q^ - R^{^) - ~^'^^ - 0,09. ,
, q^q^- 0,45 0,09 = 0,04.
) , (
, )
^ ^ 2 + ^2 ^1=0.0495 + 0,0045 = 0,054.
) , ,
= 1-^,-^, = 1 - 0 , 0 4 = 0,96.
8.9.
.

214

26

. : v, =
= {) = (7); v^ = [^"^""rfx, 0


\^ =

'^ = d\\

\du = 2xdx

v=

~^

Vo=-; v^=Mx^e'^''dx,
'
, ^=;

v^-X [x^e'^dx,

24 '

, V4 = ^


((5) .5):
^3

^ 4 ~ 4

Q l 2 " ^ ^ n 3

Q 3 '

l 3 Q ^ n 2 ' 3 2

^ 4 " " ' 4 '

(7) 1
,
^ "^ - , = ii^/o = 2,
= ii^/^- = 9- = 6,

26.9.
1. X

F, F
Y = (p(X),

215

X, Y
Z , Z

Z=(p(XJ).


:
) X
Y = (p(X), Y
) X
Y X ,
T,^,P(X = xJ = P(Y = y,);
) Y Y
, , .

. X
, f(x), = ( ()
, ,
= ^(), g(y)
Y
g(y) = f('V(y))\'(y)\.

(1)

X =
= q> () ,
, (() g(x) ^big(y) = \^g.(y).
(()

g(y) = f('V,(y))-\'i'\(y)\+f('i'2(y))-\V\(y)\,
^^() ^\()
.

(2)

216

26

2.

M(Y)^f^<p(xJp,

(3)

,

M(Y)=]
f(x)

yg(y)dy = ](p(x)f(x)dx.

(4)

D(Y)= ] y'g(y)dy-(M(Y)f

= J

(<p(x)ff(x)dx-(M(Y)f.^s)

3. X,Y
. Z = X + Y (
XY), Z .
() X
,
Z
X .
g(Z) Z = X -^- (
,
(-,) )
g(Z)=

I fi(^)f2(^-x)dx

(6)

g(Z)=]f,(z-^y)f,(y)dy.

(7)

yj,/^ .
{,) S

217

P(X^Y <Z)^G(Z)
(8)

P((X,Y)cLS) = G(Z} = \\f,(x)Ux)dxdy,

(9)


g(z)-G\Z)
2 = ^,
9.1.
Y ^, X

)

X.

0,1

0,3

0,6

:,.

-2

Pi

0,2

0,3

0,5

, ) Y:
\ - 4/ - 9/ 3^3 ~ ' 6. Y
1

16

Pi

0,1

0,3

0,6

) jc, = - 2 ; 2 = 2
^ - 4,
,
Xj. Y
1

Pi

0,5

0,5

9.2. X wY

218

X.

Pj

0,2

0,3

0,5

Pi

0,3

26

"4

0,7

: ) Z = X + F;
) Z = X7.
, ) z.
. .
z , = l + 2 = 3; z2=l + 4 = 5; 2=2 + 2 = 4 ;
24=2 + 4 = 6; 25=3 + 2 = 5; z^ =3 + 4 = 7.
jc., >^. ,


/^=0,2 0,3 = 0,06;2=0,20,7 = 0 4 ; = 0 , = 0,09;
^ = 0,30,7 = 0,21; ^5=0,50,3 = 0,15; , = 0 , 5 0 , 7 = 0,35.
Z2 Z5,

h

Pi

0,06

0,09

0,29

0,21

0,35

) z.
^ ^
Z, =1-2 = 2; 22=1-4 = 4; 23 =2-2 = 4;
2^=2-4 = 8; 25=3-2 = 6; 2,=3-4 = 12.
.,^ ,

/^=0,06; ^2=0,14; =0,09; ,^^\;

,^^\;

219

^6=0,35.

^2 Z3,

2/

Pi

0,06

0,23

0,15 0,21

12

0,35

9.3. X

(,). g(y)
Y = sin X.
. X
(^^),
X

f(x) =

2_

^-0
2

y = smx (,)
, , ^()

==

= arcsin .
^

g(y)

g(y)=

(1)

= sinx, < <, < ^ < 1-


g(y) = 0.

220

26

.
2 \

dy

b^'"'-h

arcsinj^ =1.

9.4.
(/2:
g(y)
= 2^.
. (~-,) = 2^
, : (^ )
(, ), .
f^(y) = Jj ^2()^^^'
^^"
.
^\()^

? = , ^'i(y)
2yj2y

= 7=
2yJ2y

,/"F/>';; = i=-e **'' /* fy))=:-Je

^^'

(2)
1
- 1
1
^
8() = ^2
7=^ '' yJ2y 2GyJny
= 2^, -^
g(y) = 0.
.
\g(y)dy
i
y = t^\

dy = 2tdt\

<X<OO^TOO<J;<OO

= --f=\j=-dy
2Gyj7t i yjy
1 7 -^ .

1{

V2cT 4bi

221


\e-''^dt =

9.5. X

X.

>

0.2

0.3

0.5

Y = ^ ^-.
. . - (/.) :
^=\-^\ = 2; y^=S + \=9; y,=27 + \ = 2S,
(3)
/(^; = 2 0,2 + 9 0,3 +28-0,5 = 17,1.
9.6.
Y = X", f(x) = COSX
X (0,;);

f(x)-0.
. (() = .
(4)

M(Y) = Ix^cosxdx = jc^sinjc] - 2 j jcsinjcrfx =


0

= 2xcosx| -2\cosxdx
0

= 2n.

(5)

D(Y) =

j((p(x)ff(x)dx-(M(Y)/=jx''cosxdx-4K\

222

D(Y) =

26

-AK(7l^'-6)-47t^=-4n(7l^+7l-6).

9.7. X Y
:

/2() = \-'''

(0<<).


Z = X + Y,
. ,
, (6)
Z

g(2) = jUx)f2(z-x)dx

= -je
ye-'"
2

6^0

- ^
3

dx =

2 > , .. Z F
. (,) g(z) = 0.
9.8.
X Y:

Ux) = ^

0<<3;; /2() = ^

(0<<3).

.

Z = X + Y. g (z).
. Z
0 < < 3 , Y < F < 3,
(,) 4
(. 26.8), 3 .

223

x+y =z
\

\1/\
\
\

. 26.8
(8)
x + y<z (,) ,
x + y = z,
, z.
X Y
, (9)

G(z) = llf,(x)f,(x)dxdy
S

= ^jldxdy,
^

S ,
x + y = z. < Z < 3,
z^l 2
G(z) =

=.
9 2 18
3 < Z < 6 OAMNC
z ^ = 9
^^, (6z/ /2. ,

G(z) = m-(6-z//2)

= \-

(6-zf
18

224

, z<, 5 = 0 G(z)^0;

26

2 > 6 ,

G(z)- S()^fj^ =9 = 1.

^;-

IzVlS

0 < z < 3 ;

l-f^e-z/ZlS

Z < 0;

3 < z < 6 ;

Z > 4.


[
|z/9

gr^;-

~(2
3

Z < 0;
0 < z < 3 ;
) 3 < z < 6 ;
3
AI/7W

z>4.

g(2)
. 26.9.

()

. 26.9

26.10.
1.
X ,
X,Y,Z,..., .

225

(X, Y),
X 7 .

.

M(X,Y,Z)
,
- .
2.
(X, Y)
(x^.yj)
P(^i>yj)

/ = 1,2,...,2;7=1,2,..., =1^ '^^

""^""^

^2

Plm

''

Jrnm

^^-^

...

Xi

^ j < X 2 < - < ^ m /

1<2<'"<-

3.
( )
F(x,y) = P(X<x^Y<y).

(1)

:
1)

0<F(x,y)<l;
2) F(x,y)

226

26

, . .: F(x2,y)>F(x^,y),
^^;
F(x,y2)>
>F(x,yJ, 2>13) F(x,y)
:
F(-oo^ ) = 0, F(x, -; = , F(-oo, - J = , F(oo, ; = 1.
4) =
: F(x,oo) = F^(x),
= , ,
Y:F(oo,y) = F,(y).
4.

(,<<2,

y,<Y<yJ

= [^(^2 ^)- F(x,,;; J ] - [F(x2 ,yj ^,;^2;:=^,;

=
F(x, ,yj\

(2)

= 2,

5.
f(x,y)

F(x,y)= I J f(x,y)dxdy.

(4)

:
1) f(x,y)>Q;

2) j

\f(x,y)dxdy--\.

{Xj) S

((, Y)cS)

= \\f(x,y)dxdy.

(5)

227


f(x,y) ,

f,(x)=[ f(x.y)dy:

(6)

f2(y)=^j^f(^'y)^-

(7)

10.1.
,

X,

^2

0,1

0,25

0,2

0,3

0,04

0,11

. ,
( = .),
/- : (^ ) = 0,4; (2 ) = 0,29; (^ ^ = 0,31.
X:
^

X,

^2

X,

>

0,4

0,29

0,31

: 0,4 + 0,29 + 0,31 = 1.


,
Y: P(yJ = 0,55; (2) = 05.
Y:
Y

0,55

0,45

: 0,55 + 0,45 = 1.

228

26

10.2. ,
^
X < 2 Y < 4,

8
. (1) jc = 2, j ; = 4,

P r ^ < 2 , y < 4 ; = Fr2,4; = i a r c t g ^ = i
71
8
4
10.3. ( ; )

71

, ^ =; ^ =,
_7
_71
^
^
J^i - " 7 ' ' -^2 - " 7 '

(^<<;
^<<),

__
_
. ^i = -/ ^2 = '" ^^' -^^2 ~ 3
2
6
4
(2),
(,)^%\\

2 "'7

4
(

. .
sinsm
2
4

V2

"'"

. . \ (. n . n . . K\
smsin =
sinsin - sinsm
2
3
6)
3
4) \

(/2

Ssll

2 2

S\\- 0 , 1 .

2 2

229

10.4.
f(x,y)
F(x, ) = cos cosy
0 < < ,

0<<.

. (3)
^.
, ^ ("cos : cos V J
f(x. ) =
^ ^ ^ = sm^ sin .

,
(5)
7t/2 /2

1/2

/2

= J J sinjcsin>;(ix:<iv=-J sinjccosj^l rfx =


0

?r/2

0
n/2

= j sinjct/x=-cosjc I =1.
10.5.

/(^x,>'^ = Csin(^x + >'^ x = 0;x = ;

j ; = 0,\ = ; f(x,y) = .
^

. ,
,

/2

/2

Csm(x + y)dxdy=^\,

j ,
f
( JC,
^
--
/2
f2
- c o s x c =
cos
JO

2
J
- C j QOs(x + y)\
dx^-C\
p;r/2

= CJ

n/2

(^sinx + cosjc^rfx = C(^-cos^: + sinx^|

=--.

=(\'\)-\,

230

26

(4)
^

1 ^

F(x,y) = \ J 1( + y)dxdy-

1^

J cos(x^y)\

Z,

\ ex

dx0

Z,

1^

= J (co^(x-\-y)-cosx)dy-(^(-)--'^)\
Z.

=
0

Z,

= f'sin X + sin >- - %\xv(x+y)).

K \

2J

10.6. x = 4, x = 6, ; = 10, j ; = 15,


/(^jc,;;j f(x,y) = 0
.
.
. f(x,y)
, ,

5 C V = 2 - 5 C = 1 = 0,1

(4)
F(x,y)=[

V QAdxdy = OA[ (y-\(i)dx


JA JlO

QMy-\0)(x-A).

J4

10.7.
(X, Y)

f(x,y)-

^ -\-^ < \,

jc^+y >1.

231

JSf Y.
. X
(6)
f^(x)^^\

1 >^
1 /
dy = -yl\-x

]_

Ux) = \

-yj\ x'

||<1,
\\'>1.


(7)
,
1 fVbV
1 I
2 i - ^

^ , ,

I --/

\\<\,
\\'^^-

26.11.

1.
,
Y = . ,
(,\,) =

(;)

(1)

P(yJ


X,
Y:

,
(^^=

P(x,yJ
p(^j

(2)

232

26

V. X,
>(\) Jf
F =

^()

(3)

\j(x,y)dx

f-^iy)
(.(7) . 10).
,

U")

(4)

I f(x.y)dy

3.
=
.

M(Y\x=jc; = yiP(yi

(5)


M(Y\X = x)=ll

y(p(y\x)dy,

(6)


Z =j;.
11.1.

1 =^

X, =0,1

^2=0,3

=0,6

0,05

0,25

0,30

0,20

0,14

0,06

: ) X,
, >^, = 2;

233

) , ,
, ) X
, j^, = 2,
(1)

(^)
(,) = (,)+(^.,)+(,)--0,05

^ .

+ 0,25 + 0,0 = 0,.

P(x,,yOJ_^^l_

" '

(,)

0,6

12

""^

(,)

0.6

12

^'-'"
>;,;
0,6 2

P(^J

0,1

0,3

0,6

1/12

5/12

1/2

, 1 5
1 ,
: X,=i^<^^' .) = + + - = 1.
'
12 12 2
) Y, Xj =0,3,
(2)
P(x^,yj)
(1 F2 ) =

(^) = (^.^)+(^,^) = ,2 + 0 = 0,9.


(\\2)-

pfxj

0,39

39'

234

ny2\X2J~

^^^^

26

0 39 39'

,
7

()

25/39

14/39

25

: Xy=i^<'^y

24 ^

39 39
11.2.

f(x,y)

'^""

^^^^^

.
.
X
f^(''^ = 1(^')^ =\y''''-'''''^'>dy = e-^^iy^' 'dy.
v ^ -W
-^)
'' '' d(-^2y) =

^2
2

= 29^

I
^-

J ~^ dt = \lK. Y

J00

J00

(3), (4),
:
^~('+2^')

^-(^-^)

((\) =
-(^+2+-)

2
4f+2v/

((\) =
2

235

11.3.

| ^ \ ^
X, = 2
^ ^ ^ \

1 >'2=4

-^

= 6

0,10

0,16

0,04

0,15

0,25

0,30


Y X = X, = 2.
. (^),
(^ J = + 5 = 0,25.
Y,
^ = 2, (2)
(} / =
''^^''
^'^^1'''^

p.^b,

P(xJ

^^
(
0,25

= :^fe^ =^

' '

= 0.6.

n2\^^)
p^^j
0 25

(5)
M(Y\x,=2)
= ,(,\,)^^(^\,)

= j;^y.P(yj\xJ

= -()^, = ,.

26.12

1.
XHY, ,

236

26

.=1 =1

M(Y) = y,p,..

(1)

1=1 7=1

D(X) =

2t.Py(x,-M(X)f:
1=1 =1

D(Y) = 2TPij(yj-^(Y)f'

(2)

1=1 j=i

a^=^D(X),

<^=4).

(3)

2.

M(X)=j

\xf(x,y)dxdy,

M(Y)=\\yf(x,y)dxdy

(4)

M(X)=\xf,(x)dx;

M(Y)=^\yf,(y)dy.

(5)



D(X)= ]

](x^M(X)/f(x.y)dxdy;

237

D(Y)^ \ \(y-M(Y)ff(x.y)dxdy

(6)

D(X)=\(x-M(X)fUx)dx

\x'f,(x)dx-(M(X))';

D(Y)=](y-M(Y)ff,(y)dy=]/f,(y)dy-(M(Y)/

(7)

D(X) =
M(X')-(M(X))\
D(Y) = M(Y')^(M(Y))\
(8)
3. ji^
. jU^

^ = I l r ^ / ''^())(,

-M(Y))p,j.

(9)

1=1 = 1

iU^ = j l(x-M(X))(y^M(Y))f(x.y)dxdy.

(10)


^ =M(XY)-M(X)M(Y).
Y

M(XY) = Y;^x,yjP,j,
1=1

(11)

238

M(XY)= j

26

jxyf(x,y)dxdy.

X Y ,
,
.
Y = + b
X :
' . . = ^^

-.^

(12)

, ^ = 0.
\-1- ,
\\ , .
,
X . M.vv~
= , JSf 7
.
4. X
7 {^\^\)^{^2'2)^--->{^')'
^ /1~1 ^ 3 ,
XHY.
X
- g(X) - -, , ,
. ,
, g(X),
X,

g(X)-m^=r^-^(X-mJ,
(13)

239

Y
<^

g(Y)-m^=r^,^(Y-m^.),
^=(),

^=(),

(14)

X^g(Y).

b(Y/X) = ^ X, b(X/Y) = ^ -~
JSf Y.
(13), (14) {^,

.
12.1.

X, = 0 , 1

2=0,2

Xj = 0 , 3

^-^

0,04

0,15

0,05

^'^

0,16

0,05

0,10

0,10

0,15

0,20

1 7=3

, Z .
. (1), :
() = 0,1(0,04+0,16+0,10)+0,2(0,15+0,05+0,15)+
+0,3(0,05+0,10+0,20) = 0,03+0,07+0,105 = 0,205;
M{Y) = 1(0,04+0,15+0,05)+2(0,16+0,05+0,10)+
+3(0,10+0,15+0,20) = 0,24+0,62+1,35 = 2,21.
(0,205; 2,21)
.

240

26



-0,105

-0,05

-0,095

-1,21
-0,21

0,04
0,16

0,15
0,05

0,05
0,10

0,79

0,10

0,15

0,20

(2)
D(X) = (-0,105)2+(0,04+0,16+0,10)+(-0,05)2(0,15+
+0,05+0,15)+(0,095)2( 0,05+0,10+0,20)=0,0082437;
D(Y) = (-1,21)2(0,04+0,15+0,05)+(-0,21)2 (0,16+
+0,05+0,10)+(0,79)2(0,10+0,15+0,20)=0,6459.
(3)
, = /, 0082437 = 0,09079; ^ = ^0,6459 = 0,803689.
12.2.
{X, ) . : )
Z ; ) (), M(Y), D(X), D(Y),
f^xv' 'V; ) .

I ^ ^ ' ^ " ^^ ^^ - - ^
1

^
4

\pi-P(x,)

0,1
0,05

0,3
0,2

0,2
0,15

0,6
0,4

0,15

0,5

0,35

^j=P(yj)\

, ) ,
X, ,

241

.
6) () = ^]^^,,=\-^5 + 1-.5 + -0,5 = 1,2:

^(^^> = 5=,^=2-0,6+4-0,4 = 2,8.

D(X) = Y,(x,-M(X)fp,=
= 1,2' 0,15 + 0,2' 0.5+0,8' 0,35 = 0,46

^}';=:,-/7;/^^.=,8',+1,2',4=,9
7=1

<, = yJDfX) = / = 0.6782329


^, = yjD(Y) = ^096 = 0,97979.
(9)
H:,,=t,t,(x,-M(X))(yj-M(Y))p,j=\,2-0.S-0.l

1=1 7=1

+1,21,20,05 + 0 , 2 0 , 8 0 , 3 - 0 , 2 1 , 2 0 , 2 - 0 , 8 0 , 8 0 , 2 + 0,81,20,15 = 0,04.


(12)
^ = - ^ = 0,06.

) b(Y/X) = ^ = 0,0577848, b(X/Y) = ^ = 0.0276889.
(7
"

<
"

, Y X :
>; = 0,058:+2,67287.

242

26

Z 7 :
^^^^(-);

jc = 0,0277>; +2,12247.

12.3.

f(x.y) = \

<0 <0.

: ( ) , M(Y), D(X ) ,
D(Y).
.
(5).
:

f(^>y) = \f(^sy)dy

fi(y)^y

='''' ^ ye'-'dy = -~'';

~^'' \ ^^~^^ dx = -y ''.

( X ) - - ^ ^ ^ ^""' dx = -\^ (2-'' dx)-= ('-

+\

dx) =

Jo

, , ,
J '"" dx =
, M(Y)

.
= \ ^'^' dy =

(7)

D(X)^-rx'e-'^'dx-\
2"

( /:
\

-\

\
=-rx'(2xe-''dx)

64 ~ 44'

Jo
'

/^4
^ 64

4^
4

16

243

,
'

'

2^^

64

16

12.4. 0 < < , 0<>^<


f(x,y)

= sin(^jc + j j ; f(x,y)=^Q.
: (), M(Y), D(XX D(Y), ,^, r,^,.
. X
(5)
M(X):=\''^^xf,(x)dx,
JO

Tjxtf^(x) ((5) . 10)


1 /2

fx(x) = \

f2

sm(x + y)dx = QOs(x-^y)\

c o s + JC - C O S X

1/f sinx

=
+ cosxy.
2

1 f^/2

M(^Xj = J

x(^mx - cosx) dx = .

M(Y) =

[''yf(y)dy.

:/2

1 /2

1
""^^ 1
= ^( + ) I =(^sin J^ + cos>^^;
2
2

244

1 ^/2
^/2

-Jo - - - - - " - - -

(7)
D(X)=r

/2

(x-M(X)/f,(x)dx

Jo
2

= f%'f,(x)dx-[M(X)f = "^+^-2.

-\l%'A(y)dy-W(Y)t = Y^+f-2.
(11)
71

1 ^^^ ^^

/ t ^ = M r j n r ; - - - = -J^ J,
1 f^/2

xysin(x+y)dxdy-~

/(-/

jc^

1 ff/z

.
7'^
Jo ^r->'cos('jc+>';+sm('x+>';;|
-;/'vcos/'x+v) + sin^x+v))
'o 16
1 rit/l

7t^

= x(%va.x-'rCosxs\nx)dx =
-*
2
16
= ((
\)xsm.x+xcQsx)ax
=f
\)(-xco%x+
2J0 " 2
16 2 2
'/^ 1
T^ :^ :
:^
' 2
' 16 2
16
(12)

^"" ^D(X)^D(Y)

^2
1 6 ^ 0.7369 _ Q,^g
^^.^_2
3,0023
16 2

26

27

27.1.

1,
.
()

.

,
. ,
.
,

.
, ,
,
( ).

246

27



.
.
.
() .,
,
.

( )
( ).

,
.
.
. n-/n=W.
.


.
2^,
( ) X.

F*(x),
< :

F*(x) = ^ ,

^ ,
, .
:
1) /^*(^xj ;
2) F^(x) [0,1];

MA

247

3) , ^. ,
F'^(x)- < ^ F'^{x)-\

,>^,
3.

: , ,
.

.,
^ ^. ,
(^.,?.), , ^zm^
vv.
^, ,
(x^,w^.), .

.
,
.
.
,
, ,
^./, ^ /-
; . Ih .
, . . .
w./h
, ,
,
.
.

, ^.

7/ {),
.

248

27

, (^) >
^,
, :., 7, (^) ? .
,
,
, (^ (), ^), .
1.1.
-\-

11

"/

. :
) ; ) ; )
.
.
^=1+3+7+5+4 = 20.
,

^1= = 0,05; ;2=:^ = 0,15; > = ^ = 0,35;


20
20
20
w,= = 0,25; W5= = 0,2.
' 2 0
' 2 0

x^

1 ^-,

0,05

0,15

0,35

05

2^^^jW,. =0,05 + 0,15 + 0,35 + 0,25 + 0,2 = 1.


) ^,
^ (. 27.1).
(^.,^) ,
.

MA

249

) :., w. (. 27.2).

12 ^i

{x.,w) ,
.
) 2, , F\x) =
<2.
Z < 4, = 2, ,
, F\x)-\l 20=0,05 2<< 4.
< 6, = 2, ^2= 4,
1+3 = 4 , , F\x) = 4/ 20 = 0,2 4< < 6.
< 9, ^- 2, ^2= 4, ^= 6,
1+3+7=11 , , F*(x)=l 1/20 = 0,55 6< < 9.

250

27

< 11, ^- 2, xf^ 4, xf^ 6 xf^ 9,


1+3+7+5= 16 , 7^*()=16/20 = 0,8 9< < 11.
= 11 , ,
, F\x)-1 > 11.
,
[
<2,
|,05
2<<,
F'(x) = \

0,2

<<6,

0,55
0,8
1

<<9,
9<jc<ll,
>\\.

. 27.3.

9 11 X

. 27.3
1.2.
^- x.^j

2-6

6-10

10-14

14-18

18-22

10

25

: ) ; )
.
, ) ,
= 4. -^ = 1; - ^ = 1,5; - ^ = 2,5;

h
h
h
h
h

MA

251

(. 27.4).

6.25
2,5
L5
2

6 10 18 22 X

. 27


,

, .
) = 2^. =4+6+10+25+5=50.
4
6 0,12;
= = 0,08; >^2 -
^ -^
'50
50
25
5
50
50
W.
0,08 = 0,02;
w^=
= 0,5; W5=-7T
= 0 ^ . :

3^

- ^ = 0,03;^ ^

= 0,05;

05

0,125; ^ = ^ = 0,025.
^
h 4
h
4
' 4
h

(. 27.5).
0,125

05

0,02
2

6 10 14 18 22 X

. 27.5

252

27

5

,
,

..
1.3.
40
41
39
41

37 39 42 40 39 38 40 41 36
41 40 39 41 40 37 43 40 39
38 40 37 40 38 42 41 40 42
40 38 39 41 40 41 41


.
. ( )

,

^'

1 "'

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

^,
.
. 27.6.

10
5-1

55

40
. 27,6

MA

253

1.4.
(). :
209 215 215 232 220 220 218 220 221
222 224 227 217 226 212 221 225 219
220 222 216 223 218 230 211 219 227
226 220 219 216 232 215 219 218 223
: )
; )
; ) ; )
.
, )
,
,

.-.^1

209- 212- 215- 218- 221212 215 218 221 224

22- 227- 230227 230 233

11

'

20

26

30

33

36

) . 27.7.
. ^

209 212 215 218 221224 227 230 233


. 27.7

)
// "^^ ==2; /^ =7+2 ~^'

254

27

=^'^2+^=9; ^ =20; ^ =26; ^ =30; =33; 7^=36.


, .
) ,
, (. 27.8).
7/
30
20

10
0\

210

220

230

. 27.8

,
, (. 27.9).

10

20

30

. 27.9

27.2.

1.

MA

^=^

(1^, = ^).

255

N- ..


^ =^^^,
(2)
N

^^Z,_^

- I-,

G,=.

(3)

=^^=^, .


= - X.
2.
, ,

w-min,
,
.
= ^ -/7.
X
.

.
, .
^ ,

256

27

, , . .
U = X-'-XQ.B

=^^-^-,
(4)

-

x^=Vx\

(,>0)

= 1 ; = 2
; = 3 . .
: = -1
.

5^.=/!, X. >0
/

2.1. ,

^'

1 "i

10

11

12

14

,
X = 6.
.
- ^
11-2 + 8-4 + 12-6 + 14-9 + 5 1 0 ^ ^,
X = ^==
=
= 6,04.

50

= - = 6,04-6 = 0,04.
2.2. 1000 126 .
100 14.
.

257

MA

.
126 , ^ ^ ^

=
= 0,126. w= =
14
^ 1000

100 = 0,14. ,
= 0,14-0,126 = 0,014.
2.3.
^,"'

4 1

nil

.
.
_ _ 3 - 1 + 7-2 + 5 - 4 _ 3 7
3+7+5
~15'
_ 2-1 + 4-3 + 4-6 . _
=
= 3,8.
2+4+4

37
1 5 + 10-3,8
Z = ^
= 3.
15 + 10
2.4.
,

150-154

174-178
178-182

158-162
162-166
166-170

1
4
7
9
12

13
10
5
2
2

170-174

15

154-158

182-186
186-190
190

258

27

.
. ,
170 . (4),

150-154
154-158
158-162
162-166
166-170
170-174
174-178
178-182
182-186
186-190
190

",
1
4
7
9
12
15
13
10
5
2
2

80


152
156
160
164
168
172
176
180
184
188
192

",
-18
-14
-10
-6
-2
2
6
10
14
18
22

.,.
-18
-56
-70
-54
-24
30
78
100
70
36
44
136

J = ^ ^ i ^ + Xo= + 170 = 171,7.

" 80

27.3.

1. & qxapero
= \Y^N,(X,-X,A/N

(1)

MA

259

D = 2^/:,-/ /

(2)

V '

(3)
J

2^.

G = 4D

(4)

s^


;?>30, (2) (5) .


5=(5^2.|.-|)/^2..

(6)

,
U^-X^-XQ .= ., = 10^,

^1={j,^i^f -(L^i^if ^^)/{^--^)^

(7)

s^ =sl s^ =sl /^.


3.

( ):

260

27


.
4^. ,

,

=(1,(^,-^ )/!,
,
, .

N ; N. .
, ^:

J .

=('^^/-'+'^/~')/(^ + '^)-

(8)

3.1.
X.

"-

25

20

10

: ) ; ) .

261

MA

, )
5 - 2 5 - 3 + 20-4+10-8

240

= 4.
5 + 25 + 20+10
60
(2)
X

_ 5 ( 1 - 4 ) ' + 2 5 ( 3 - 4 ) ' + 2 0 ( 4 - 4 ) ' + 1 0 ( 8 - 4 ) ' _ 23

60
6
, (3),

D=

5 - 1 2 5 - 2 0 - 4 1 0 - 8 ' .2 23
-4^=.
6
60

23
( = J =

= 1,95789.
)
(6)
5=

5|1-4| + 25|3-4| + 20|4-4| + 10|8-4| _ 4


60

"'

3.2.
.X.

1 -

5 1

1 "*'
3 1 1 '"/

: ) ; )
; ) .
, ) :
=(^..)/^.={\'1

+ 6-4-\-3 5)/{1 + 6 + 3) = 4;

= ('^)/1'^.=( + 3.3 + 2-4)/(1 + 3 + 2) = 3.

262

27

:
=(]^^-)')/1 = (1(1-4)%6(4~4)'+3(5-4)')/

^ ; - ( 1 ^ - ' ) / ^ = (1~3)^3(3~3)2(4-3)^)/6^
)
A,^=ri01.2 + 6 U / 1 6 = | .
)
_

+ 6-4+3-5 + + 3 - 3 + 2-4

++;+++2;

29
8


D..

2 \

11

29 \
10 4 - + 6 _29^' /16 =
8
8
64'

(8)

.=

V /
, 29^'2
29 V
+ 3 5 - ^ + 1 1+6 4
8
V
8
2 \
29
29 "i'
87
/16 =
+3 3 +2 48
8
64'
29 V

3.3.
80,
83, 87, 89, 91.
.
.
_ ^ 0+3+7+9+11 _,
=80+
=86

263

MA

, (2),

^ X (^i - ^>'' ^ ("80 - 8 6 / + (% - 8 6 / + 87 - 8 6 / ^

5
(^89-86/+(^91-86/
(5)

-\

3.4.

X,.

151

155

159

"i

. . =^-155,

"/

-4

"/


(7)
/

"

216 + 5 0 + 3 1 6 -

(2(-4) + 5 0 + 3 - 4 )
10

392
45


,
392
s'^sl
45 '
3.5.

264

X.

0,02

0,03

0,07

27

.

- = .
2

" '

"'


(7)
2-2 + 5-3+3-7/
40
52=1^2-4 + 5-9 + 3-499
9
10

)

40
1
9 100' 2250'
'
3.6.

2
S

"'

^
=-

170-190

190-210

210-230

230-250

250-270

10

11

12

,
.
.

w,.=Vr-220

170-190
190-210

10
11

180
200

-40
-20

-400
-220

265

MA

210-230
230-250
250-270

12
9
8

50

220
240
260

0
20
40

0
180
320
-120

=..+i^= 220-2,4 = 217,6.



101600+11-400+9-400+81600

D=

50
-2,4'=730,34.


=27,0248. ^ = 100% = 12,419,
R = x^^- jc^. = 270 -170 = 100.

27.4.
1. ,
. . .

,
=^+

^ ^^,

K-m-l)+K-m+l)'

(1)

^ , ^
, ^^ n^^j
.

266

27

2. ,
.

(2)

=X+

, y^j
^- , ^ - ,
7e-i <1
~

7+1 > ' ^ .


4.1.
8-11

11-14

14-17

17-20

20-23

23-26

32

18

17

.
. , = 32
1417. (1). = 3; : = 14;
-; = 11 ^^^ = 18,
32-11
= 14+18 = 15,8.
=14+3(32-11)+(32-18)

8-11

11-14

14-17

17-20

20-23

23-26

16

48

66

83

89

~ = 44,5,
14-17. (2)
44 5-16
,^14 + 3 ^
^16,67.
32

MA

267

27.5.
.
1.
.
.
, .
,

. ,
X
^ . .
, .
,
Y, ( ),
.




xtr=<a<x-)rtj=,

, /

() = - . t
,
,

d = ta/^.
(2)

268

27


X /7 >30

xt

^
^
F=^< < X +t =-,

'4^

'^

(3)

S ,
t (4).

Z

S
s(l-q)<G
<s(\-i-q)
q<l;
(4)
0<a<s(l + q) q>l,
(5)
q (5) .
2.
,
.

(\-\<6)

= 2\-\

(6)

X , ^
, :
1) ,
8;
2)
, X
X ;
3) ,
,

MA

269

.

ii
(7)

si ;

.2/

/i=V

(8)

\w(\-w)

(9)


\w(\ w)(^
1-^
(10)
N
WW 1-W
.

=2(), (7), (8)

=

()

Nt'sl
N5^+rs22

(12)

270

27

(9), (10)
,
=

^,

(13)


Nt^pq
=5.1.

0,95, =4, =36
jc=8.
.
(1). t

(() =
= 0,475 (3): t-1,96.

(1),
8 - 1 , 9 6 - - < < 8 + 1,96 ^
136
/36
6,794<<9,206.
5.2. (J = 3
.
0,95: ) ,

<5= 0,2; ) 5,
,
= 100.
, )
(2) =

. /=0,95, -

271

MA

(0=0,475 (3) t = 1,96.


2 ^2
1,96-3
1^96
=
= 869.
=
t 0,2
, 2 /
)

(2). 7 = 0,95
t =1,96, = 100

5 = 1,96

= 0,588.

5.3.
^z

",

0,99

.
.
. ,

(3).
= 5 ^ . > = ^2-2 + 3-3 + 6-5 + 4-8;/15 = 5.

44f8-5/;/14/'=2,1679.
(4) - 0,99 /? = 15 / = 2,98.

272

27

(3),

^ ^^^2,1679
^ ^^^2,1679
5-2,98 <fl<5 + 2,98j=r~;

Vl5

Vl5

3,3319 < a < 6,6681.


5.4. 7

J = 50,7
5" = 4,5.
- 0,99.
.
. ,

.
, ,
( )
(3).
(4) / = 0,99 = 7: / = 3,71.
(3),
5 0 , 7 - 3 , 7 1 ^ < < 50,7 + 3 , 7 1 ^ ;
/7
/7
44,389<<57,01.
5.5. = 12

5 = 1,2
X, ,
0,95.
.
(4) (5) q.

273

MA

= 0,95 = 12 (5) q = 0,55 < 1,


(4)
1,2-0,55;<7<1,2 + 0,55;;
0,54 <(< 1,86.
5.6. 0,99, 8
,
S = 0,25.
. <j .
, <
= 0,99. / = 0,99 nn = Suo (5)
^ = 1,38> 1, (5)
0<<0,25 + 1,38;;
< < 0,595.
5.7.
1000
.

10-12

12-14

14-16

16-18

15

20

45

20

: )
,
0,1 ; ) ,
0,9973 .
, )
,

_ .,
15-11 + 20'13 + 45'15 + 20-17 , ^ ^
=
- - "^
=
= 14,4;
1
15 + 20 + 45 + 20

274

27

'^(,-)

\2

15(^-3,5/ +20-1,5/ +45(^0,5/ +20f 2 , 5 /


= 2,53.
99

(6), 5 = 0,1. jJ..
(7), = 100,

2,53

'

= 0,16.


(\-14\<0,\)

= 2

^0,1 ^
= 2(0,625) = 0,468.
1,0,16

(8), (6) .
(3)
^

2,53
= 0,150897.
11000
100

-14,4 < 0,1; = 2

0,1
= 20,6627; = 0,49.
0,151

) (3)
Pf|X-3c|< 5 ; = 20(^3; = 0,9973
, = .
, 5 =30,16=0,48 ;
, 5 = 30,150897= 0,45269 .
,
0,9973
(3)

MA

-5<<+5;

275

14,4-~0,48< < 14,4 + 0,48;


13,92 < < 14,88;


14,4-0,45 < ^ < 1 4 , 4 + 0,45;
13,95 < ^ < 14,85.
5.8. 10000 1000
. 5% . :
) ,

0,01. ) ,
0,9836
.
, )
w=0,05
(9)
0,05-0,95^
V 1000

^= 10000
_

0,05 0,95
1000

1000
= 0,0065364.
10000

(\-0<0)

^ 0,01 "
= 0,853,
0,00689

= 2


('|/?-0,05|<0,01; = 2

^ 0,01 "1= 0,874.


0,006536;

276

27

) (3) , (2,4) = 0,9836;


, = i = 2,4.
,
, /I = 0,00689, , , \i = 0,0065364.
,
= 2,40,00689 = 0,0165;5 = 2,4- 0,0065364= 0,0157.
, 0,9836
,
0,5-0,0165 < < 0,5 + 0,0165;
0,4835 < < 0,5165,

0,5-0,0157 < < 0 , 5 + 0,0157;
0,4843 < < 0,5157.
5.9.
0,9836,
8 = 0,2, = 0,9?
. (6)
(^|-|< 0,2; = 20(^0 = 0,9836,
(3) t = 2,4. ,
-^^ (11)
2,4^ 0,9^
=

:;

^
= 117.

0,2'
5.10. 1000
. ,
= 0,9973 0,2,
: ) ; )
q = 0,2.

11

MA

. ,
(13) =

5'

/?^ = 0,25.
, ,
(6) / = 3, =

= 57.
, Z.

) P(\w-p\ < 0,2) = 0,9973 t - 3,


/7 = 1- ^ = 0,8. (14)
1000-90,82
=-1 0 0 0 0 , 2 9 0 , 8 2 = 34,749.
5.11. -
=12
1^: 19,5;16,8;17,1;17,5;
15,7; 15,5; 14,6; 20,0; 19,4; 18,2; 16,2; 19,2. : )
,
s(x) v ;
)
= 0,95.
, ) .
1

(^-)

fx,-j/

19.5
16.8

2.02

4.08

-0.68
-0.38
0.02
-1.78
-1.98

0.46
0.14
0.004
3.17
3.92

17.1
17.5
15.7
15.5

278

14.6
20.0
19.4
18.2
16.2
19.2

-2.88
2.52
1.92
0.72
-1.28
1.72

27

8.28
6.35
3.69
0.52
1.64
2.96
135.21

I 209.7

i
= - l - ; c . = ^ ^ ^ = 17,48/^
" X, 1 2 t r '
12

(. -J) 2.
3 (. - /
2^(x.-xf
=35,21.

v
,.

s(x) , _ /

1,79

100% = 10,24%.
X
17,48
) = 0,95
V = A I - 1 = 1 2 - 1 = 1 1 H 3 .4
t^(0,95; 11^-2,20. < 30

% =

= / ^ ^ , ; ^ = 2,2-^2 :=.l4/^
yjn
vl2
95% -
-

279

MA

- < < 4 - , 17,48-14< (<17,48+1,14


16,34< < 18,62. ,
16,34 1^ 18,62 /^.
5.12.


56-58 59-61 62-64 65-67 68-70 71-73
36
28
48
70
78
20

, ,

: )
\ )
, ^,
v ; )

= 0,9108, ,
X
: = 58 j8 = 66 .
, ) .

X w = 6
( 1). 2
Uj^
(x,-x)'w,\

,
1

"
2

^*
3

'
4

(^-)
6

56-58
5^-61
62-64

57
60
63
66
69
72

0.1

5.7

50.84

5.084

0.171
0.25

10.26

-7.13
^.13

17.06

-1.13
1.87
4.87
7.87

1.28

2.916
0.32

3.5

0.975

68-70
71-73

28
48
70
78
36
20

23.72
61.94

3.059
4.397

280

63-67

0.279
0.129
0.071
1,000

15.75
18.41
8.90
5.11
64,13

(x,-xf

16,751

280

27


X.
^ Z /-
^ = ':(^(^)^^(^))^
^{)<) ^(/:)
:- . ^
3.
w^ = - ^
X /- , ^
/- ; = ^ ^ .
w^. 4. X ^: ~ ^
. 27.10.

0,3
02

0,1
1
I

I
I

57 60 63 66 69 72

X,

. 27.10

) , ^
v "

=1

x^w^^, 5
X = 64,13.
^ - 6.
7 (^ - / . -

MA

(Xj^-xf'Wj^,

281

8 -

=16,751.
^ =^16,751 =4,09;
4,09 100%
= 6,38%.
="
64,13
) { >30),


= ^^ -, t 7% -
7 _ 0,9108

= ^ =

= 0,4554;

=1,7 .3.

= 1.742^ = 0,42.

/280


- - < < + 64,13-0,42<<
< 64,13 + 0,42. 13,71< < 64,55.
,
"
<J,
: = 64,13 7 = (^ =4,09.

(<<^)

= \

,
66-64.13 "i' _ ^("58-64,13^
'
4.09
4.09
(5%<<) =
= 0.46; + 5 ; = 0.1772 + 0,4332 = 0.6104.

282

27.6.

27

1. -
-\

v.=(X",(^,-C)*)/n,
X. ;. ; = ^ .
; .
= , .
,

= JC,

,
,
.

^ = V-v2Vl+2vJ^
li,=v,-Av,v,+evy,

-3v;.

(1)

2^.
= 11^/^

(]-,+[ )

(2)

X
. =
.

283

MA

3.

=^-3

([-3,)-

(3)


X
. =0 . > ,
,
; < ,
.
6.1. X
X,.

".

-2

-1

.
. , ,
,

X.

"i

-2
-1

1
3
7

0
1
3
5

6
2
1

20

.^

npcf

n,jc/

-2
-3

4
3

-8
-3

16
3

0
6

0
6

6
5

18
25

0
6
54

0
6
162

125

625

12

56

174

812

12 ^ ^
56 ^ ^
174 ^ ^
-^ ^
v,= = 0,6; v,= = 2,8; V3 = = 8,7; v, =40,6.
(1):

284

27

Ai2= 2,8-(0,6)2 =2,44;

= 8,7 - 30,6-2,8 + 2(0,6)3 = 4,092;


^ = 40,6 - 40,6-8,7+ 6(0,6)2-2,8 - 3(0,6)^ = 25,3792.
ju,
4,092
, ^^^
(2) = = =
-^ = ^>0/365.
>2
(72:44)
(3)
= ^% = ^ ^
= 4,2628.
^2 (2,44)^

27. .

1. ,

.
,
, = (,-)/,

(1)

.

, .
-
,

(2)

'

, ^,

..

v,=v\h\

MA

285


:
i"2=(v'2-(v',)')^
li,=[v\-v\v\v\)')h\

(3)

^i,=[v\-Av\v\+6v\{v\)'-^{v\)'\h\

, ,
x=v\h

+ C D = (v\-(v\f)'h\

(4)

2.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ,
(1), ,
;
4) 2^/., ^?,
.(+1)'.
5) , ..
1J .(.+1)^ = ZJ ^? + 2 X . + .
,
^^, n^f

S n.(ur^l)'^ = S nii/^ + 4 2 ^.^+ 6 2 n^u.^+ 4 S .. + .

, ,

286

27

,
.
.
,
.
7.1.

^,-

10

12

14

16

,.

16

50

18

10

. .
(10),
,
, ,
- 1 , - 2 ,
1, 2, 3.

X.

",

"/

,/

n^(u^l)^

,/

,^/

/.+;/

6
8
10
12
14
16

4
16
50
18
10
2

-2
-1
0
1
2
3

-8
-16
0
18
20
6

16
16
0
18
40
18

4
0
50
72
90
32

-32
-16
0
18
80
54

64
16
0
18
160
162

4
0
50
288
810
512

100

20

108

248

104

420

1664

= 4 2 0 + 4 1 0 4 + 6 1 0 8 + 4-20+100 = 1664.

MA

287


'

,.

20

/7

100

^^ 108
'

.] 104

/1

100

. 420

'

100
'

100

:

= ,04-3-1.080,2 + 2 - 2 ' ; - 2 ' = 3 , 2 6 4 ;


i"4=(v4-4v'3v',+6v',(v',)^-3(v',)')-/z^ =
= (4,2-41,040,2 + 61,080.2'-2')-2'=57,952.

Z) = ( V ' 2 - ( V ' , ) ' ) A ' =

(1,08-0,04)4 = 4.16.

= 4 = 42^1 = 0,38.
<7

/4,16'

]4 6'

27.8.
1.
JC ,
.
,

288

27

,
, .

iX,

"

"
"1

";

"2

"2.2
".
".2

"^

"./

"2


. (/= 1,...,),
v.(/=l,...,). ..
..

^ '^ij = Hi "^ "2,2 ++ = V


;^.

^ '^ = "2 + 2,2 *"+ "^,2 =

V -

2- ^ = iL - N.


X j^ .
^ ( ) ^, >^(
)
.

()

MA

289


.
M^(^Fj =f (),
Y
X - , Y
X, . X
: .

.
,
.

, , .
2.

^ =ax'hb ^, =cy-\-d,

(1)


b ,
,

\aY,n,x-bb^n^=^nJ^

?
X
\^ ^ + ^ ^ = X ^ ^'

3. . :

290

X.

^.^

"

iV

S ^

S ^^

^".-

^^

27

) .v.
;
)
,
, ;
) .
'^

^,
'^

^ . ,^
. \
)
, .

Y^n^x^Nx.

Y,n^x'^Nx\

Y.^'^y^^^y^

(4)

^n^xy^^Nxy,
1SS (2)
^ -\-= ,
\ - (5)
[-\- = .

- = /(-^1

(6)

MA

291^

^/^ =-^=
,
^-'^
,
^-^

= ./(-)^

(7)

-'
^/ = -=;;;;;

X ;

^-^
=^^-';
N

=^^=^-^
N

; = '^
N

; N^J^riy.

(8)

^^^-

<

(9)


. = ;

P^fy^r ,

(10)

(7^ = JC" - ^ , ^ = j;^ ~^


. < 0,4, ,

. || ,
.
3.
. Aj;
,

X-XQ

^ ^

292

27

XQ,
( ).


W t; (
).
1
- __ IV-

<^/^

-
"

' -'

(^u^v

uv-uv -^2sLr

- _
^/

/ -

UV -UV

-v'

(12)

^^

, v ,
, :,
.

= 0,4 ~ 0,6,
.
4.
,

^=^ +'\',

(13)

, ,

-^^^ +^

=Y,^\y^,

MA

293

5.

= + -^

(15)

, b

X

(16)
(14), (16)

.
8.1.
: \^

15
20
25
30
35
40
"

11

21

31

41

51

2
-

3
4
4
2
-

6
10
16
8
-

3
10
12
8

5
7

"*
5
10
17
28
25
15

13

40

33

12

100

: ) >^ ; ) .
, )

L^
15
20
25

"

5
10
17

^
75
200
425

1125
4000
10625

"-

17

85
270
516,97

1275
5400
12924,25

27
30,41

294

30
35
40

28
25
15

840
875
600

25200
30625
24000

33,86
39,8
45,66

948,08
995
684,9

2:

100

3015

95575

193,74 3499,95

(4) = -^=*
2

J'=909,0225;

_ X M L - = 34,999;
=
[00

-7= 1055,23; = '^

'

1^
100

27

28442,4
34825
27396
110262,65

= 30,15;
= 955,75;

" " =1102,63.


100

j ;
/=- 1102,63-1055,23 = 1,014.
''" 955,75-909,0225
, (6)
^-34,999 = 1,014('-30,15; ^ =1,014 + 4,4269.
) >-

^

242

^
15

30

330

5733

21,923

284,999

38440

28,25
33,788

5984,98
37510

1115,004

45715,164

30,333

363,9996

18563,979

131,29

3004,0026

108104,12

".V

11
21
31
41
51

2
13
40
33
12

22
273
1240
1353

612

55473
31212

100

3500

131100

-^

\ ^

(8) = -^^ ^v^v = 30,04;


100

MA

= ^ ^ ^ - ^ = 35;
100

v'=1225;

/ =^

295

""^ =1311;
100

-57 = 1051,4; ^-^'^^^^^ =1081,0412.


,x n o j
1081,04-1051,4
^/

1311-1225

= 0,34465.

jc j^ (7)
^.-30,04 = 0,34465(^>'-35
;. =0,34465;;+ 17,97725.
8.2. 8.1,

.
.
uwv, , XQ = 30, j ^ = 31.

-3
-2
-1
0
1
2

-2

-1

11

21

31

41

51

3
4
4
2

15
20
25
30
35
40

6
10
16
8

3
10
12
8

">

13

40

33

.V

5
7

5
10
17
28
25
15

12

100

296

"

""

-3
-2
-1
0
1
2

5
10
17
28
25
15

-15
-20
-17
0
25
30

45
40
17
0
25
120

-7
-4
-1
8
22
22

21
8
1
0
22
44

1.1

100

247

40

96

27

""

n^v

-2
-1
0
1
2

2
13
40
33
12

-4
-13
0
33
24

8
13
0
33
48

100

40

102

. ^ .

: /" = 100;
ir = 2 ^ = 0.03; = 2 ^ = 0,04; ^ = !!^ = 21;
N
N
N
- ^
,
,
,
'=^^^-^^ = 1,02; '=0,0009; =0,16; "^ = ^ = 0,96.
N
N
, = 5, = 10
= 0,03, v= 0,4,

=+ = 30+0,03-5 = 30,15;
= 7+^^ = 31 + 0.4-10 = 35.

J ,
8.1.,

MA

297


.

( =1^-^ =^/2,47-0,0009 =1,571337;
= /^-' = Vl, 02-0,16 = 0,9273618.

uv-Uv
=

0,96-0,030,4

<^<^<,

1,571337-0,9273618

= 0,6505635,


10 0,9273618

<^

5 1,571337

..

,.=-

5 1,571337
=

<

0,6505635 = 0,7678909,

0,6505635 = 0,5511626.

10 0,9273618

:
y , - 3 5 = 0,7678(^jc-30,15; , =0,7678+11,85,
: '

^-30,15 = 0,5511626(^7-35; ^ =0,5511626^+10,859.


8.3.

1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5

10

2
-

4
7
2
1
-

7
13
4
1
-

8
5
5
-

5
6
1
-

2
-

2
1

1
2

298

27

,
.
.
(14) ,

4

".^ .^'

^-:

^-^

13

13

13

13

13

44

44

44

1,5 28

42

63

94,5

141,75

169,5

254,25

2,0

16

32

64

128

256

77

154

308

2,5

13

32,5

81,25

68

170

425

3,0

18

54

162

486

45

135

405

3,5

14

49

171,5

600,25

36

126

441

772,25 2004,8125 383

798,5

1877,25

X.

80

151,5 324,25

203,125 507,8125


:
2004,8125 + 772,1256 + 324,25 = 1877,25;
772,125+ 324,25^7 +151,5 = 798,5;
324,25a + 151,5Z? + 80c = 383.
, , - 0,47, =-1091,45,
= 2069,82.
,
^ = 0,47' -1091,45 + 2069,82.
8.4.
JC ^

299

MA

0-2

2-4

4-6

6-8

8-10

10-12

15

12

12

11

10

"

.
. '^
. 27.11, ,
(15).
(16) .

1
3
5
7
9
11

15
12
12
11

7
6
8
6
4
2
33

10
9

105
72

105
24
19,2

7
2

0,6666

1,6

0,32

0,856

0,122

0,444

0,049

0,182

0,016

96
66
40
18

12,083

8,174

397

9,428
4,444
1,636
164,9

:
33 + 12,083 b = 397;
12,083 + 8,174 Z>= 164,9.
, : = 10,122; b = 5,21.

7^=10,122 +

5,21

300

27


. 27.11.
.
14 \
12 \
10
I

'

'

< *

. 27.11

8.5. }^ (. .)
(.
.) = 10

^i

80

55

75

85

70

40

100 50

95

4,4

4,0

3,7

5,7

4,2 3,8 3,1 4,3 3,8

5,0

, IA
,
,

.
xviy.
,
X* = 60 . .
. (. 27.12).
,
.

MA

301

:,

^1

80
55
75
110
85
70
40
100
50
95

4,4
4,0
3,7
5,7
4,2
3,8
3,1
4,3
3,8
5,0

6400
3025

19,36
16,00

352
220

5625

13,69

277,5

12100

32,49
17,64

760

42,0

10000
2500

9,61
18,49
14,44

9025

25,00

627
357
266
124
430
190
475

62400

181,16

3318,5

7225
4900
1600

14,44

', . . 11
6

^^'^

4 3.

'''

'

11

60

30

90

X, . .

, 272

,

^

1^

760
10

^^

1^
^

42
10

^^

, = 2 ^ j c ' ~ - ( ^ ] x / =62400-57760 = 4640;

302

27

=/--7/=181,16-176,4 = 4,76;

^^
~'^/(^^'^)
= 4,2;

, ^126,5
^/^,=-^ = _ 1 - . . 0 , 0 2 7 ;
'^/> ^
4640

^ _
126,5
_ 126,5
-0,85.
^^^. 74640-4,76 148,61

jT^ ZZ 4,2 + 0,027(^ - 76; ^ = 0,027 + 2,15.
.
,

.
( = 0,85)
* = 60 . .
,

60 . .
=0,027-60 + 2,15 = 1,62 + 2,15 = 3,77 ..

28


28.1.
1.

.
^ () ,
, ,
^.

.
, ,
, .
,
- 0,05 = 0,01.
2.
, ,
,
. ,
, .

304

28

,
, ,
,
.
.
3.
( ).
{>^) = , ^ ,
,
,
.
>^, ^ > ,
.
{< ^)= (^ <0),
.
P(K>kJ=^
(^> 0) {< -J = ^ ,
.

28.2.

. Uj
^,
X, , ^ ^ s^.
, ,

^: D(X) = D(Y)
) Hj:D(X)>D(Y)\Q)
H/.D(X)^D(Y),
) F^

305

^ =-- - (.6),
=-1, ^-^-\,
^ (, kj, /^). F< ^
, F> ^ .
)
. ^ {/2, ^,^
all
J ^. F^< ^
, F> ^ .

().
2^. ()
1,

s^ -- .

^
], HQ\G^ = CTQ :
) , . ^ ><7; ) ^:^]; ) ^: <].
^

2 (n-\)s^
)
i
. X (. 7)
--\

(^'^) < ,
2

> .
) . 7
;i:^^,(',A:^ XIKP(^'"Z*^)

306

28

. , < ^ . ,
')

^ . ^ . .
) . 7
(^'~^^^^) 1 ^ 2

, ^
.
3. , >30,
1 (^> ^) -

.V (3) ,
() = (\- 2).
2.1. ^-\\
^~\,
F, ^^=21,5
si =7,6. = 0,01
^: D(X) = D(Y)
^ : D(X) > D(Y).
.
D(X) >D(Y), .
F ='.
'7,6
=11 -1 = 10 ^=14-1 = 13. (6) - ^^(^0,01; 10; 13^ = 4,1.
F^< ^,
.

^1

2.2.
:
) ^-%,1\ JC^=9,4; ^^^; ^=10,7; ^ 9,6;
) -=^\^,\\ ^= 9,8; ^= 9,3; >^^=10,5.
,
, = 0,\
?
.
. ( )
HQ : D(X) = D(Y)
. ^ : D(X) D(Y),
. .

/2 = 0,05.
sl^s].
. = 1 . -100; V. = 1 Oj;^ -100

-18

-6

-2

-7

-4

V.
1

S"'"~(S"-)

(324 + 36+49 + 16)441

sl =

^'

^84,2;

5-1

-\
">

(^/)"
2 - 1

(1 + 4 + 49 + 25)--9
4 _
4-1

25,58.

10^ .
F^ = - ^ , . . -

308

28

84,2
3,29.
25,58
/:^= ^-1=5-1= 4 = - 1 = 4 - 1 = 3 . 6
/:^(0,05;4;3) = 9,12. F^<k^,
, . . ,
.
2.3.
= 18
5-^=15,3. ,
CJQ=13,1. 0,05
HQ :^ =<^'
, .(^ >13,1.
. ^ :^ >\ 3,1,
F^ =

2jn-\)s^

_ 8-15.3
13

^0

= 19,585. : = - 1 = 18-1 = 17.


7 1 (^> 05; 17 j = 27,6.
^>
0*0 =13,1
. , ^=15,3
^ =13,1 .
2.4. ,
^ = 0,15.

1

X.

5,6

6,0

6,4

5,8

6,2

10

.
1

309

0,05?
.
cf
CTQ, ^ :^ =(1 =0,15, , :^ ^ 0,15,


= 0,025.
2

.
W. = IOJC,. - 60
.

-4

-2

10

I,f--(!,",)

(32 + 160+16+4)--^26
20

-1

:9,38.

19

^2=-%-= 0,0938.
10'
,
-'
/in

do'

19 0,0938
0,15

= 11,88.

= -\=20-1=
19.
7 ;|f^^^ (0,025; 19) = 32,9
;|^^^^^ (0,975; 19) = 8,91 .
1 ^1^ 1.*
.

310

28

2.5. ,
0,3.
/2 =124 s^- 0,2,
0,05 ?
. &
^
^ ;^ -\ =0,3.
| ; (7^ > 0,2, . . .

, _ r - i y _ 1230,2 _

^"

" 0,3

/: = 123
30, (1). , 0^ = 0,05,
() = (\-1)-^'^

. (3)

, -=1,645. :
(1),

1(;) = 1

+1645J
9123

-150,7.

V9123

1 "^1>
.

28.3.

1. X VL Y
D(X) D(Y),
>30 >30 -

311

j ; . ,
,

^: (X) = M(Y)
: ) ,:()();
) ,
:()>M(Y);
)
,:()<().

2 ^ '^-
" (D(X)/n

+ D(Y)/m)''^^

^^^

.
) . (3)
^(^)-~(^''^)

z^^.

\^ \^^ , |Z ^ \^ ^ ^"
.
)
(2^ ) = . (3).
Z^ < z^p , Z^ > z^^
.
) z^^ ).
Z^, > -z^^ , Z^^ < -z^^
.
2. < 30,
m < 30 ;;
s ^ w s^. , .


^ :M(X)-M(Y)
:
) ,: () M(Y); ) : () > M(Y); ) ,: () < M(Y).

312

28

= + -2 .
) (8)
^^^^,/ / |7'|</^^^
, |7 | > t^^^
.
)
(8) t^^^^ .
|^|</^,^^, ,
|^ I > t^p^ .
)
),
t^^^ =~V-/> T^>-tp,,p,
, ^ < -t^^^p .
3^. X
, cf .
.


^,^: = ^ : )
^:^;
) ^:>^; ) ^:<^,

) (3)
(^ ) = (1-)

^^.

31^

1^/1 " , |/ | > "^


.
)
Of'w^^ ) =
(3).

^ <^ ,

^ > ^ .
) ^^
). ^>-^
,
^ <-^ .
4. X
, .
.


UQ, HQ :=^GQ : )
^:^;
) ^:>^; ) ^:<^.

T.Jl^^^.

(4)

1
Y^n.x]{^.)
S =

.
) (8)
=-1
t^^p(a,k). |71|<^^...
, |^| > t^^^ .
) . (8)

t^^^^ .
^ <t^p^p , >tnp.Kp.
.

314

28

)
)
/, ,^ = '.. ^ > -/,^.,^
, 7^, <-.. .
5. X
, .
,
X. .,
d. = .-..

d =\^d.,

2"'

S =



X ,. . HQ :M(X) = M(Y)
, ; () M(Y) .

7-.=^.

(5)

(8)
--\

t^^p(a,k). \^^ | < t^^^
, | I > t^^p .
3.1. = 20
m = 30 , ,
X =^ 95 , j^ =105 . :
D(X) =15 ^, D(Y) =21 ^. , -

315

X , ,
0,01, ^: () = M(Y)
^ : () ^ M(Y).
.
, ; () (), .
(1)

z.=4ilL=-8,53.
20^30
(3)
(2 )-(1-)

= ^-^ = 0,495 -

z^^=2,58. | z j > z^ ,
, . . .
3.2. = 8 m =10
X.

2,3

2,4

2,6

.
1

2,8 1
2
1

2,1

2,4

2,5


Q : (X ) = ( )

^ : ( X ) M(Y) , =0,1
X, .
.
j c = - y . j c . =-(^4,6 + 2,4 + 7,8 + 5,6; = 2,55;

8
y = - I ' ^ . J ^ / = : ; ^ r 8 , 4 + 12,0 + 2,5; = 2,29.
^
10

w. = 1 . - 26, v. = 1 Qy. - 24.

316

28

S,f-^(I,,)' 3o-ii6

s" =

-\

2.,..f-l(Xm...,.)^
si =

^
m-1

= 4-

37-I12I
=

^^
9

= 27,7.

, sl^-^ = QA; sl=^ = X 11.


' 1 0
^10
,
(2) , ,
^: D(X)
().
-,
.
F=^

si

= 0,144.

2,77

= 0,05
^= -\= 1; = -1=9 (6)
F^p(0,05;l;9) = 3,29. F^< F^,
.
(2)

^ ^
2,55-2,29
81016^^^^
" /7-0,4 + 9-2,27 V 8 + 10

^: () (7) , .
= / =16
(8) t^ ^^ (0,1,-16^ = 1,75.

317

^ < t^^py
.
3.3.
<J = 3
= 10 ^=15,1.
^: = ^=\
^:^\,
= 0,05.
.
^, . (3)

,

>> = ^1->> = ^1-0,05; = 0,475
. (3) ^ =1,96.
, f/>w^^,, ,
.
3.4. 16

:.
.

2,9

3,0

3,1

3,3

0,05, ,
^ 3
HQ :a = aQ =^3,0,
,:^
.
=-;.2.=(^2,9-3+3,0-4 + 3,1-5 + 3,3-4; = 3,09.
"^
16

318

28


. - IOJC. - 3 ,
1

11476-11449
15

5.S

1,8.

,
,2

2 = 0,018, 5' =;;-^


W
^ = .^0,018 = 0,134.
(4)
034
^: ^^ =
= 3,0, .
= 0,05
= n-l = \6-l = l5 (8) t^^^(0,05; 15^ = 2,13.
^> t^^,
.
3.5. 7

X.
f

>

2,1

2.2

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.8

2.9

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.6

2.7

2.9

3.0


HQ : M(X) = M(Y),
= 0,05.
. d = 0,1;
d = 0;d = 0,Ud = - 0,Ud = - 0,\;d = - 0,\;d = - 0,1

319

028.

1
V
0,06- - 0 , 4
7
= 0,022.
S -\

I<'-^(Z'',)

(5)
-0,02877 _
3^^
0,022

, : () ^(Y),
.
- 0,05 = - 1 = 6 (8)
t^^ (0,05;6) = 2,45. | | > t^^,
.

28.4.



.

, ,

^, . . ^: - ^
: ) ^:^;
) ^ :>^;

,:<^.

320

28

) (3)
".>' = '"~^>' ^^.
|^ \^^ , |^ | > w^^
.
)
(^ ) =

(3). ^ < ^ .
^ > ^ - .
)
).
^>-^ ,
^ < "~"^ .
4.1. , ,
, 0,015. 300
6 .
?
.
.* /7 = = 0,015.
^ .* /7 > 0,015, . . .
= = 0,02.
, ,
^,= 1-/?^=1-0,015 = 0,985

^ ^>02~,015;_^^^^
V0,9850,015
0,05 w

321

0(<t/^j = l - a = 1 - 0 , 0 5 = 0,45.
^ 2
2
(3) ^^ =1,645.
^ < ^, , . .
0,015. ,
.

28.5.

1. . ,
, Xj,X^,...,X^
.
s^ ,sl,...,sl^

--\.
, ,

H,:D(X,) = D(X,) = .., = D(XJ.



,

/^

max

,^ .

(9)
G^p(a,k,m), G < G^^
, G^ > G^^
.
2. . w,
, Xj,X^,...,X^
. ( >4)

322

28

s\,s\,...,s\. , ,

; D(X,) = D(X,) = ... = D(XJ.
,
V
^.= 7^.
(2)

V = 2,30l(klgj'-Y',JJgs]);

= 1 + ^^

X1: , f
t

(-\)
.= .-1 ; : = V .
; s^ ~ TAi^^t^i^f

,
.
2

(7) X
/ = m -1
B^^(aJ). ^<^ ,
^ ^ ^ .
, V <^^, ^
^, .. >1, ,
.
5.1.
=11,
, 1,2; 1,6; 2,1;
2,5; 2,7. 0,01, : )
; )
.
, ) (1).

27
G, =

= 0,267.
" 1,2 + 1,6+2,1 + 2,5 + 2,7

323

(9)
/c = w-l = l l - l = 10
/ =5 G^ (0,01; 10;5) = 0,4697.
G^ < G^p ,
.
) ,


D=-

1,2 + 1,6 + 2,1 + 2,5 + 2,7

= 2,02.

5.2. = 8, =\2,
^=13,
, ,
, 2,2; 2,6; 4,1. , 0,01:
) ; )
.
, ) .

1

^,

si

Ksl Igs] kjgs]

1
2
3

8
12
13

7
11
12

2,2
2,6
4,1

15,4 0,334 2,338 0,143


28,6 0,404 4,444 0,091
49,2 0,613 7,356 0,083

=30

93,2

14,138 0,317

s^ =^k.s] =\; /g^^ =0,486;

324

28

= 2,303(^^/g5'-]^t./g5f; = 2,303(^30 0,468-14,138; = 1,018.


(7) 0,01
/ - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2
4 0 , 0 1 ; 2 ; = 9.2.
V < 1, > 1
(2) ^ ^
.
) ,


]_

D,=s'=-J^k,sf=3M,

28.6.

V.

X.
1

.
1

'^2

^7

, ,
, X
.

,_^(^^
/LH

-((^)

/ {

; -

325

; h ,
9()-'-^^

"

. (1);

.=-^-;

^ ; ^ .
2

X
= -3, ,
(^> ^)'
^ ,
.
2

> .
2.


(,,,) (,,,) ... (x^^x^J
,
, X
.

(1).
* ^, ]
*=-^^ ',
X, Z,

X X

JC

z^ = -^^, z^^j = -^^



, 1 * Zj ~,
2^ .
.=(2.^^-(.)

X (x.,x.^J, (^7^ -

326

28

, ' = -.,
, . . .
X
--,
, (^>^) 1 < 1 ?
.
1 > 1 .
6.1.
=100:
X.

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

13

13

15

13

11

12

10

.
1

0,05,
.
.
^ ^.

1

X.

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

3
4
13
13
15
13
11
12
10
4
2
=100

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5

1 (

5
.1 ^.
1

-15
-16
-39
-26
-15
0
11
24
30
16
10

75
64
117
52
15
0
11
48
90
64
50

,,=-20

,,'=586

327

'

^ ,.

20
\00

* ^ ri.u^ 586
^

100

/ = 6 - 4 = 2
= 14,
^ = ; + = : - 0 , 2 - 2 + 1 4 = 15,6.

, . 1,
- = ((.)
.
/

X.
1

'

-'"'''''
.

((.)

'
'

100-2 . .
4,82 ^ '

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22

-2,41
-1,99
-1,58
-1,16
-0,75
-0,33
0,08
0,50
0,91
1,33

0,0219
0,0551
0,1145
0,2036
0,3011
0,3778
0,3977
0,3521
0,2637
0,1647

0,91
2,29
4,75
8,45
12,49
15,67
16,50
14,61
10,94
6,83

11

24

1,74

0,0878

3,64

(1)

328

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

3
4
13
13
15
13
11
12
10
4
2

0,91
2,29
4,75
8,45
12,49
15,67
16,50
14,61
10,94
6,83
3,64

(,-')'

2,09
1,71
8,25
4,55
2,51
-2,67
-5,50
-2,61
-0,94
-2,83
-1,64

4,37
2,92
68,06
20,70
6,30
7,13
30,25
6,81
0,88
8,01
2,69

[_I

28

4,80
1,28
14,33
2,45
0,50
0,45
1,83
0,47
0,08
1,17
0,74

; f ' = 28,10

, ;t;^ = 28,10 .
')(^ (. 7) = 0,05
- - 3 = 11-3 = 8

40,05;8; = 15,5.
2

^ >
.
8.2.
=100:
^i

'-^i^l

1-1

7-12

12-17

17-22

22-27

27-32

16

50

15

10

0,025,
.
.
.
-

329


* 1,
. = --(^ + ^^,)

*
X.

4,5

9,5

14,5

19,5

24,5

29,5

16

50

15

10

*
*^.
*

.
1

4,5
9,5
14,5
19,5
24,5
29,5

4
16
50
15
10
5
/1=100

"/",'

-8
-16
0
15
20
15

16
16
0
15
40
45

5;,,=26

X,f=132

-2
-1
0
1
2
3


M ; = S ^ = ^ = 0.26; ; = 2 ^ = 1 ^ = 132.

100
'
100
= 9,5 - 4,5 = 5 =14,5,
];=; + = 0,26-5+ 14,5 = 15,8.
<^<,= J [ ^ 2 - ( < / ] ^ ' =^(l,32-0,26')-25 =5,123.
^/ = ^;;, ^,>i "^

- -

(^z.,z.^,^, , -

330

28

-,
+ 00.
-
.. .
/

1 2
2 7
3 12
4 17
5 22
6 27

2,-

%1


7
12 -1,72
17 -0,74
22 0,23
1,21
27
32 2,19

(,)

;=100

^,,;

-\,11

-0,5000 -0,4573

0,0427

4,27

-0,74
1,21
2,19

0,091
0,3869

0,3869
0,4853

0,187
0,3613
0,2959
0,0984

18,7

0,23

-0,4573 -0,2703
-0,2703 0,091

36,13
29,59
9,84

0,4853

0,5000

0,0147

1,47

;-"/

1
2
3
4
5
6

I..A

4
16
50
15
10
5

(n-n\f

4,27

-0,27

18,7
36,13

-2,7
13,87
-14,59

212,87

0,16
3,53

0,03
12,46

29,59
9,84

100

1,47

100

0,07
7,29
188,22

(n-n'f
0,016
0,39
5,209
7,194
0,003
8,476
=21.29

, ;[;^ = 21,29.
^^ (. 7) = 0,025
/: = - 3 = 6~3 = 3

40,025;3; = 9,4.

331

1 > 1 >
.

28.

.
.

.

X
1

"

"/

"2

. , .
.
^ = '^'"'''
/
' = -, = ^. .
,
,
/

(1)

: = /, /
,
. , = I1, / .
2

X ,
, . (7) (^*^).
2

^ -

332

28

.
2

^ .
2.
.
^
= ^.
.^
/!

/ . .=.,
f^^^J^i ,
(1)
-1-1,
^
, , .(7)
XjOL'k).
2
2
^ ,
2

. ^ .
3. .

jc. - x.^j
.
^,

*

^ + Xj-^j

Xi = - .
^ = zr^ X
. = (^ <<.^.,) = "^""' -e'^""'^'
' = ^, = ^-
.

(1).

333

-1-2,
/
, , .(7)
1 (^> ^)
2

^ , 2

; > .
4. , . .

1
[,]
f(x) = i

x[a,b]'
. - .^^
.
^ ^.
(3* = 3^-/3(7^, Z?* = jc^ + v3cj^ .
= ^ _ ^ (^ - * 2==...=
*-*
1
:(b*-x^_J, w = ^ . '^^= ^ = -6*-*:(x,-x._J,
'
"
*-'^
, (1)

= - 3,
, . (7) (^*^).
2

^ , 2

; ^ .
7.1. 100

; . , /-
1+}

0-10

10-20

20-30

30-40

40-50

37

24

15

10

50-60 60-70
5


, -

334

28

- 0,05.
. op^ms^
*. = (^. + .^^),
/ 3 7 - 5 + 24-15 + 15-25-0-35 + 7-45 + 5-55 + 2-65;
= 19,9.
100

1
1
=
01 Q ^ ' ^^ ? . = (. < < x^^j) =
'^""'^' X

-AJC:

. , Z
,=(0<<10)

= ""'"^" _^-.">iu = 1 ^^-.^ = 0,39.

2=0,24; ,=05; P,=0,OS; ,=0,06; ,=0,03; , =0,02.


' = . :
n; = n/J=1000,39 = 39; ^=24; =\5; n',=S; ,=6; ,=3; =1

1
i

",-'

(,-<)'

(,-')'/"/

2
0
0
2
1
2
0

4
0
0
4
1
4
0

0,10
0,00
0,00
0,50
0,17
1,33
0,00

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

37
24
15
10
7
5
2

100

39
24
15
8
6
3
2

1=10

335

. (7)
= 0,05 = 1-2 = 1-2 = 5
xL ^, 05; 5^ = 9,5.
2

^ ,
.
7.2, , =100
, .
,
X.

53

34

10

.
1

. ()
. ,
I


= 0,05.
. ^^ = ^ -./

_ _53-0+34-1 + 10-2 + 2-3 + 1-4; = 0,64.


100

= ^ = 0,64, /^ = :
/^ / ^ 100
^^
n^^Wff
^ 0 34;
!
1!
64^6"""
64^""'^
^04_
p-!^i2l
= 0,0233;
2!
3!
^^^1_
= 0,0037.
4!

336

28

\ = . :
1000,53 = 53; { = 34; ^=; ;=2,33;
:0,37.

.-,

(,-')'

53
34
11

0
0
-1

0
0
1

2,33
0,37

0,67

0,45
0,40

0
1
2
3
4

53
34
10
2
1

100

0,63

(n,-n;)Vn;
0
0
0,091
0,193
1,08
Z'=1,365

. (7) X
= 0,05 = I 2 = 5 - 2 = 3
2

^ ,
.

28.8.

{X, Y)
.
^ ^ .
, ,

HQ :^=0 ^ : ^^,

337

: =

(1)

--2
. (8)

t^p(cc,k) . |7'|<^,,,
, . . X Y. | I > t^^, , . . " Y
( ).
8.1. =100,
{X, )
.

40
45
50
55
60
65
70
X

14

24

34

44

54

64

74

4
2

1
6
2

10
7
1
5

4
25
8
4

2
6
2

10

23

41

12

1
6
7

5
18
15
26
16
11
9

=100

0,05

.
.
.

;-
U;

338

28

\ = ^1 - ; h^ = v-^^^ - v. ()
; ,, ^ .
,
, . . , =44, 2=55.
/Zy=10; ^=5, ,
( ),
.
^^
W, ^^ v.
(. .).

Y,\,uv-nuv
^^u(^v

100

- X V
5r-3;+18f-2;+15('-i;+26-0+161+ll-2+9-3
^^,
V -^=^-

= -0,01,

100
"
6-9 + 10-4 + 23 + 12 + 7-4+1-9 , ^^
-^===
= 1,66,

100
"
5-9 + 18-4+15-1 + 16-11-4+9-9
^ ^,
V =^^
=
= -2,73,

100
= / ? ^ = / ^ ^ / = 1,25,
o,=^v^-(vf

= ^ 2 , 7 3 - ( ^ - 0 , 0 1 / =1,65.

,
, U.

-3

-2

-14

42

"~

-28

56

-9

-1

-5

-5

16

17

51

10

-12

-7

-2
0

25

-5

-2
1

8
2

-4

-3
-1

-2

0
2

2
1

6
2

12

12

2
3

uV

18

V=J,n,.v

^f^uu^

-20
-4

-10

-12

-6

-1

-3

-12

-2

-2

-12
4

-3

vU

-1

1
3

-16

-16

-22

12

18

20

^vU=\e9

48

32

22

18

40

^uV=\69

340

28

v ,
^^~^"^ -i/y=169. ,
, ,
V.
, 2 ^ ^ = 169.
,
169-1000,3201_^^_.
1001,251,65
(1)

. = " # ^

= 14.19.

. (8)
- 100 - 2 = 98
= 0,05
^^^(^0,05,98^ = 1,665 .
^ > t^p,
^ = 0 , . . X
Y .

28.9.

1. .
, ^,^..,^

, . ,
F,
F^,Fy...,F^ X, . .

341

HQ : M(XJ = (2) =... = (^),



. x^j
, / (/ =1,2,..., ), j
(/=1,2,..., w)

P^

^12

^22

...

...

ep.j

^2

^.1

...

^.

^o6u,=YiL(^4-^)'>

(1)

1=1 /=1

Vm^^E^'^^p/-^/

(2)

342

=S

-S

/=1

i=\

28

i=]

1
^

~ ^ ^ ' " "

=1

/=1

(3)

/='

=1

^ =]^^ ^1
/^; Rj=^"'_ X.J
Fj.
x.j /
, y^j = 10 x^j -
,
10 x^j.
10' , .
x.j
,
yij - ^ij " ^ 9 x.j.
(3)
5o.. = l Q y - S T ;
/=1
/=1

/=i

(4)
/=1

343

2
__ "^

^ *

2
_

^
/

-\

i \'

()

(-\)

/1-1 (-1) .
- (28.2),

F^^ . 6. / ; < F^^


,
F^ > F^p .
2. .
F^ ^, F,
^,..., F^ ^.

.

V
(6)

/=1

= ^+ ^+.,.+ ^^ .
S^^^ =
= ^ - ^ .

COOTBCTCTBCHHO

S
2

_.

'<^

_ . ^

/^

\')

,
.

344

28

9.1. F
5 (.). ,
,
^^.^,
=0,05.

F.

1
2
3
4
5

38
56
64
65
70

51
58
60
55
11

55
59
64
65
67

^.}

48,6

60,2

62

.
/, = .-~ = .^.-56, - 56
.
F

1
2
3
4
5

-18
0
8
9
14

324
0
64
81
196

-5
2
4
-1
21

25
4
16
1
441

-1
3
8
9
11

1
9
64
81
121

Ti=Y.y4

13
665

Qi=^yl

21

196

441

IT;.=64

30
487

276
900

XQ/=1428

5^7;.'=1537

345

(.) ,
= 3,
m = 5, (4)

5-.=lQ/-f7
^;.

= 1428-64'=1154,93;

/=1

/=1

= -1537-64^=34,33.
=^--,
5
15

/=1

,
^ "= ^ "" ^ ~ ^ 1 2 0 , 6 .

, w-l =
=3 -1=2; AZ (m -1) = 3 (5 -1) =12, (5)

34.33

rt-1 ~

= 17,16;

1154,93

(-\)

^96,24.

12

,
2

F=-

= 5,61.

= 0,05
:^=2, =\2 . (6)
/;('0,05;2;12^ = 3,88. / ; > 7;^,
.
9.1. 12 , 5
, 4 3 (.). ,
-

346

28

,
^.}^ =0,05.

i
1
2
3
4
5
^ep.j


^
0,21
0,23
0,31
0,38
0,41

^3

0,37
0,39
0,41
0,45

0,32
0,35
0,37

0,308

0,405

0,347

. ijij = lO^x.j - , = 35,



i^

/
1
2
3
4
5

/=^.7

^3

yf.

-14
-12
-4
3
6

196
144
16
9
36

2
4
6
10
-

4
16
36
100
-

-3
0
2
-

9
0
4
-

-21

=11

JL.^

441

22
401
484

1^=0

-1
156

13

SQ-570

, : = 12
(6),

347

So.. = 1 ^ - ^ ( 1 7 ; ) ' = 5 7 0 - 0 = 570.


S ^ _ = l l - + - l l - 4 - ^ - 1 ( 7 . ) = + - ^ + - - 0 = 209,53.

,
^ - ^ ^^ "=570 - 209,53 =360,47. ,
: ^= w -1 =5 -1 = 4; ^= - =12-5 = 7,
(7)
7
^

\ _ 209,53
-1
4

, i . = ^ , M i Z = 51,5.

'

^-
7
,

f^=^

= ^l:^ = l02.
^

= 0,05
/:^= 4;
/:^= 7 . (6)
F^p (0,05;4;7) = 4,12. F^ < F^^,
.

28.10.
. -
( )
V. -
X,

.
()

348

28

, .
,
,
.


, ,
,
, . . ,
. .
2. "
Xi.
X
X

X,

Pi

Pi

R
(0,1). fj (j = 1,2,...^
( ). (0,1)
Pi, + 2, + 2 "*" ^^ ^
. /-
,
^.
,
/?,
1 - , /} <
, /} > .
10.1. 7
X,
X

3
0,21

6
0,17

14
0,62

349

.: 0,65; 0,48; 0,11; 0,76; 0,74; 0,17; 0,36.


. (0,1) 0,21; 0,38 3
( - 0,21), (0,21 - 0,38), (0,38 - 1).
^ = 0,65
,
^ =14. ^ =0,48
, , ^ = 14 . :
^3 = 3; ^ = 14; ^ = 14; ^ = 3; ^ = 6.
10.2. 5 ,
0,63,
: 0,61; 0,19; 0,69; 0,4; 0,06.
. , <0,63
, . > 0,63 .

10.3. ,
:
, = ; = 0,24; , = 4 ; = 0,15; =^>> = 0,61.
5 ,
,
: 0,68; 0,93; 0,59; 0,14; 0,16.
. (0,1)
( - 0,24), (0,24 - 0,39), (0,39 - 1).
^ = , 68 ,
3. .
, :
^^ ^^

^,

/\^.

10.4. .
5 ,
0,4, 0,7,
: 0,02; 0,29; 0,53; 0,68; 0,70.

350

28

. . 4
: = ; = ; = ; = .
,
, :
() = ()' () = 0,4.0,7 = 0,28;
() = ()()

= 00,3 = 02;

() = () () = 0,6 0,7 = 0,42;


() = ()- () = 0,6 0,3 = 0,18.
(0,1)
( - 0,28), (0,28 - 0,40), (0,40 - 0,82), (0,82 - 1).
Tj = , 02 ,
,.
. ,
: ^^^^^.^^

28.11.

1. "
F(x) .
X.
.,
F(x.) = . ..
2. Z
f( ),
X. -
^

jf(x)dx = r,,

(1)

351

3. X

F(x)^C,F,(x)-\-C^F^(x)^
, >0, 2>0, q + C 2 = l .
,
^\\i ^ ;
Z

Z

Z= 1, /) = 2,
Z=2, 2() = .

.
11.1. 4
X,
(3, ), ^ : 0,73; 0,05;
0,38; 0,52.
.
F(x) = (-)/(-).

= 3, 6 =11, F(x) = (x-3)/S.


,

(x.-3)/S = r. x.^Sr.-\-3. ;;.,
Xj =8-0,05+3 =3,4; 2=6,06; =7,16.
11.2. X

F(x) = 1 - '^"" ( > 0). 3
, = 5, . : 0,28;
0,35; 0,54.

352

28

. ,
\-'^''^ = : .
-^: e'^''^ = 1 ~; ^/ = ~1-.), ;.,
: ^1 =

In 0,72 = - 0 , 0 6 5 6; Xj =

In 0,65 =

= -0,086; =---1,46 = -0,155.


11.3. '
[() = 1 /(^1 - axf
0<<1/(1-);
f(x) = 0.
X,
. (1)
.

I dx
i(l--ax/

= :.

,
11^..
,_,...
.

{(l-ax)-^d(l-ax)

'

\
1-

(-)

1 =;., - =\-,

11.4.
X,
^; = 1---'"+2-";, 0<<.
. , 1
_
2
_
F(x) = ~f 1 - e'^"" ) + (l-e~'').
^
1 2
, F^(x) = 1 -e''^\ F^(x) = 1 -e'\' C, = - ; = ~.

353


Z,
Z

2
2/3

1
1/3

^ ^ Z
|. (0,1) 1 1
1
^1
(, ") ( - , 1). ^i < - , Z = 1, ^i ^ ,
Z = 2.
, JSf

1

\-

-2.

=., <-;
2

1
1- "" =,, . >

1 1 /1
^
1(1-2^,

= -\(\-2),

1
^ 1 < ~ '

rj>.

28.12.
-
1. 5
7 : J^ - | < 5 j = 7,
*
,
5 = /^.

(1)

354

28

, t
(1)- /1,
2. '
,

= t^s /4,

(2)

S ,
t^ . 4.
3. ,
/?,
, (
/7 , 5 >

(\(-\< 5 ) = 2

(3)

v2/

(\

(4)

-l2

,
V2/
. 11
.

355

4.
, ,

8

(\-\<5

)^2

(5)
\

G, , , ,

, X

5
7,
f^^4
-

\^

J.

(6)

12.1. 7 = 0,97
5 ,
X
= 0,4 49
X
. (1). : = 49;
7 97
= 0,4; (t) = = -^ = 0,485.
(. 3) = 2,18. , 5 = 2,180,4/749=0,1246.
12.2. 7 = 0,99
5 , -

356

28

X 64

5" = 0,3.
. (2). : = 64;
S = 0,3. (4) = 0,99 = 64 t^ -1,9985.
,
5 =1,9985 0,3/^64 =0,075.
12.3. = 100 ,
/? = 0,6.
,
5 = 0,02.
. , ^ = 1 - = 1 - 0,6 = 0,4,
(3)
f

..^\

(\(0 - , | < 0,02 = 2 0,02, - i ^

= 20,41; = 0,3182.

12.4.
/7 = 0,3.
, (
( ) / = 0,95 /? ,
5=0,01?
. (4).
{

. () 7 = 0,95

/.,\V

L.\\

=3,84.

^ = 1- = 1_0,3 = 0,7,
A2=-

0,30,7
3,84 = 8064.
0,01/

12.5. = 400 .
,
X -

357

5 = 0 , 0 1 ,
= 1,5.
. (5), . (3),
(\'-\<0)

= 2

0,020
= 20(0,13) = 0,1034.
15

, X
-0,0\ <2+0,01
-0,1.
12.6.

, / = 0,99
X Z
,
5 = 0,01, ,
, (J = 0,5.
. (11) / = 0,99
//\

, "

= 6,61. (6),

v2y
( 0,5 ^'
=

1,0,01

6,61 = 16525.

28.13.
-

,


.
.

358

28

\(p(x)dx. X ,
1
f(^) = '


[, ],
.

M[(p(x)]=\(p(x)f(x)dx

\(p(x)dx,
a

jQ=\(p(x)dx=(b-a)M[(p(x)].
a

,

1 '^
Jo=(b-a)-^(p(x.)^
^

(1)

1=1

^ X,
X
, X.
j f(x)dx =

j dx = r.,

x-=a-\-(b-a)r-.

(2)

13.L

, 1

,
7 = 0,95
5 = 0,1.

359

. = \; = 3; (() = ^ +1.


= 10. (2), ,
-=1 + 2.. 10 (. 10),

10

0,66 0,65

0,47 0,73 0,07 0,76

0,50 0,16 0,97

0,61

2/;.

1,32

1,30

0,94 1,46 0,14 1,52

1,00 0,32 1,94

1,22

\+

2,32 2,30

1,94 2,46 1,14 2,52

2,00 1,32 2,94

2,22

U/

5,38 5,29

3,76 6,05 1,30 6,35

4,00 1,74 8,64

4,93

'+1

6,38 6,29

4,76 7,05 2,30 7,35

5,00 2,74 9,64

5,93

X,. =1 +

Y,(p(x,) = 51M. / = -57,44 = 11,49.


3

/ = {(^ +\)dx = lO,67,T^o1

| / - / | = |10,67-11,49| = 0,82.
X
.
D(X) = (b-af

/12 = (3-1/

/12 = 1/3,

360

28

, 0,95
5=0,1

o^^D(X),

(2)

(28.12))

^""^"'

^^

^>> = ~- , (^^; = ^^^^ = 0,475;

.() ^ = 1,96; = - ^ ^ ^ = 128.


^^
0,1'-3

29

29.1.

1.
/,
.
,
t, X(t).
t ,
.
:
mjt),
/
mJt)='M(X(t)).


, .

DJt),
/ DJt)^D(X(t)).
-

362

29


.

: (Jjt) = yJDJt).


.
2.

X(t) =
X(t)-m/t).
K^=(t^,t2)
X(t) ,

t^Jj .. K(t^,t2) = M(X(t^)X(t2)).


Px(^\>h)
X(t) ,

t^, ^2

3.
Z(t)=X(t)-^Y(t)


, . .
,
.
1.1.
: ) X(t) = Us'm3t + e~'; ) X(t) = UcostVt^,
t / V M(U)=2;
M(V)=3;D(U)=5;
D(V)=OJ,

363

, )



,
M(X(t))

= M(U sin 3 0 + "= sin 3^ M(U) + e" = 2 sin ( + e"'.





,
D(X(t))^D(Usm3t

+ e-' ) = (^1) =

= sin'3/i)(^t/; = 5sin'3/.
)
M(X(t))

= M(Ucost-Vt^)

= costM(U)-t^M(V)
D(X(t))

=
2cost-3t\

= D(Ucost-Vt^)

=^cos^tD(U) + t'D(V) = 5cos^t + 0,lt\


,
.
1.2. : ) ; ) ;
)
X(t) = cos 2/, U ,
M(U)=2, D(U)=5.
, )
m/t) = M(X(t))

= M(Ucos2t)

= cos2t M(U) = 2cos2/


X(t)=X(t)-m/t)=Ucos2t-2cos2t=(U-'2)cos2t.

364

29

X(t, )^(U-

2;cos 21,; X(t^ ) = (U- 2;cos 21^.

,
K/t,J^)

= M(X(tJX(tJ)

= M((U-'2)cos2t,-(U-2)cos2tJ

= cos2 t^cos2 t^MffU -2/

) = cos2t^cos2 t^D(U ) =

= 5cos2^jCos2^2-

)

ty=t2= t, . . D^(t) = K(t^,t^),
Z)/^; = 5cos2^cos2^ = 5cos^2
)
X(t) , (1),
)
.

5 cos 2/.cos 2/.


/5 cos 2/j cos 2/, 5 cos 2 ^2 cos 2 ^2


, .
1.3. X(t)=(t-\-l)U Y(t) =t'V,
V ,
M(U)=2; M(V)=4; D(U)=3; D(V)=5. : a)
; ) ; )

Z(t)=X(t)-^Y(t),
, )

m/t) = m/t) + m/t) = M((t + l)U)+M(t^V)
= (t + l)M(U) + t^M(V) = 2(t + l)-h4t\

365

) / F
, M((U-2)(V-4)) = 0. ,
K/t,J,)
= (t,-l)t',M((U-'2)(V^4))
= 0. . .
X(t) Y(t) . ,

=^M(x(tjx(t,))+M(htjht2))
X(tJ = (t,^\)U-2(t,+\)

= (t,+l)(U--2);

X(t,) = (t,-\-l)(U-2);
Y(tJ=^tfV^4tf =tf(V^4);

Y(t,) = tl(V-^4)

,
K/tt,) = (t,+\)(t,+\)M(U-2/+ty,M(V-4f

= (t^+\)(t^+l)D(U) + tftlD(V) = 3(t^+l)(t^+l)+5tftl


)
D/t) = K/t,t) = 3(t + lf + 5t\
29.2.

1. X(t)

/ -^ :
Az-^O

^ ^

366

29


X(t)
m,(t)^m\(t).

(2)


X(t)

X(t)
X'ft) =
:
i?.rvU 3 ^ ,

^.rVU-;^-

(4)

2. X(t)


S.
max
t

^(0= }imj;^X(sJAs,=lx(s)ds.
max

(5)

Y(t)= \X(s)ds

X(t)

t

m/t) = jm/s)ds
^^^

s,
/.
Y(t)= \X(s)ds

367

X(t)

hh

K/t,jJ

= jJK/s,,s,)ds,ds,

(7)

Y(t)= \X(s)ds

(^^1

X(t)
RJhA,J

= \KJt,^s)ds;
0

RJt,jJ

= JK/sjJds.

(g)

2.1. m/t) = t^ -I
X(t). :
) ; ) Y(t) = t^X'(t) +1^.
, )
m^(t)=^m[(t) = (t'^\/ = 3t\
)
m^(t) = M (Y(t)) = t^M (X'(t))-^M
(t^).

M(X'(t)) = mJt) = Zt\ /1) = ''1'=\


2.2.
KJt^J^)= cos2^jCOs3/2 X(t), : )
R^ (t^ Jj) ^ ^ (h ^h ) 5 )
.
, ) (4).
t^ VL t^,
R^Jt^J^) = (cos2tJ'^cos3t2 =-2sin2/iCOs3^2>'
(h '^2) = cos 2^/cos 3 /2 X = ~3 cos 2 ^jsin 31^.
6)
(3)

368

K,(t.t.)=|-^^^^=|-rcos2r,cos3r,;;

29

= f-3cos2/jSin3/2>> = 6sin2/jSin3/2.
2.3. mjt) = t^ -ht
X(t),
t

Y(t) = jX(s)ds,

.
(6)

2. X(t) = Usin^t, U
, M(U) = 3.
Y(t) =

(t-l)\X(s)ds.

.
X(t)
mjt) = M(X(t))

= M(Usm^t) = sin'/ M(U) = 3sin'/.

Y(t)
(6)
m/t) = (t-l)J3sm^sds

^(t-\)j(\-cos2s)ds=:
^

3
2

1
-(t-l)(tsin2/;.
2

2.5.

KJt^,t2) =

= /fcos2/2 X(t). : )
Y(t)=\X(s)ds\

369

R^,(1^,(2)^ ^vx(^\ >h) t

^^/J

Y(t)^^X(s)ds.

, ) (7),
Y(t)
KJt^,t2)-\\slco^2s2ds^ds2

=sin2^2j'^f^'^i -

00

2
' 4 8 '
'
DJt) = KJt.t),

DJt) = U\\n2t.
6)
(8)
R^(h.t2)'=^\KJt^,s)ds=^tl^cQ^lsds

RyJt^,t2) =

= -tlsm2t2;

\KJs,t2)ds=cos2t2\s^ds=^-t'lcos2t2.

2.6. X(t) = Usm3t, U


, M(U)=3; D(U)=]. Y(t) - \

X(s)ds.

.
X(t)
mJt) = M(Us\nZt)^^mitM(U)
= ^smit.
,
(,) = (^-^^

^-^1,=(-)^,;

X(t2) = X(t2)-mJt2)

= Usmt2-smt2=(U')smt2.

370

29

^1,2) = (()(1,))
- sin3^jSin3t2M((U -/)

= ((-)^1,(-)^1^)
= sin3^, sin3t2D(U) = sin3^jSinit^.

Y(t)
(7)

0 0

0 0

= (cos3t2-l)\sin3s^ds^ =(^cos/J-lXcos/2~U
D^,(t) = K^(t,t),
D/t)

^(cos3t^\)\

293.

1. X(t)
,
,
= ^2 " ^ '^- ^
KJt,J2) = K(t2-tO = K(T).

(1)

X(t)
t
D/t) = K/t,t) = k/t-t) = k/0), . .
( = 0).
2.

p/r) = kjT)/kJO).
(2)

371

X(t) Y(t) ..
,
^ = ^2 ""^i
RJtvh)

= rJz)

(3)

3.1. , X(t) = ^in(t^-(p)


, ( ,
(", 2).
.
mJt) = M(sin(t + ()) = M(sin cos( + sin(p cost) =
=

sintM(cos(p)-costM(sm(p).

,
1

11

f2;r
27

M(cos(p) = J

cos(pd(p = 0
.

M(sm(p) = 2:
JJo sin(pd(p = 0.
, m^(t) = 0,
^
, X(t) =
= X(t) - mJt) = sin (t + (p),
KJt,jJ

= M(X(tJX(tJ)

= M(-(cos(u

-tJ-cos(t^

= M(sm(t,+(p)sm(t^-\-(p))
+t2+2(p))) = -'(cos(t2

Mcos(t^+t^ + 2(p)) = -cos(t2-tJcos(t2'^tJM(cos2(p)


+sin(t2-tJM(sm2(p)

=
-tj+

= cos(t2-tJ,

M(cos2(p) = M(sin2(p) = 0.
t^=t2=t, , D^(t) =

= KJtj) = ^cos(t--t) = -.

372

29



,
, X(t)
.
3.2. k/t) = ~^'
X(t),
.
.
(2)

/)

'

3.3. ,
X(t) = cos(2t + (p) (^^^ = sin(^2^ + <pj ,
( ,
(0,1),
.
mjt) = M(cos (2t + (p)) = M(cos It cos (p- sin 2 ^sin (p) =
= Qo^lt M (co^q>) -^mlt M (smq>) - 0;
m/t) = M(sm(2t + (p)) = sin2tM(cos(p)-cos2tM(sm(p)

= 0.


X(t) = X(t)-mjt)

= cos(2t + (p); X(t) = sm(2t-\-(p).

,
R^,(t^jJ = M(X(t,)Y(t^))^M(Q0^(2t,
= -M(sm2(t2-tJ-{-sm2(t^+t2+(p))

+(p)^m(2t^ +()) =
=

-sm2(t2-tJ,

373

,
.


, .

29.4.


1. X'(t)
X(t)
,
:

()^-':().

(1)


X(t) X'(t) =
^()

rjT)

= K(x)

rJx) = -K(T).

2. Y(t)=\X(s)ds

(2)

X(t)

K/ttJ =

j(t,-T)kjT)dT

- J (t^ -t, -r)k/T)dT

+ l(t, -T)kjT)dT.

(3)

Y(t) = j X(s)ds

X(t)

374

D/t) = l\(t-t)kJx)dx.

29

(4)

4.1. kjT ) = 0,5 '^^


X(t). : )
; )
X(t) .
, )
(1)
= ,
) (2)

4.2. /)=

/'+1
X(t). -

Y(t) =

\x(s)ds.

. (4)

D^(t) = l\(t-T)kJx)dT

= 2\-j^===dx =

V +1

'

'


t, Y(t) .

30

30.1.
()

, , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
. .

, , ,
. . .

, .

, ,
. :
1. , ,
.

376

30

2. ( ).
, , ,
.

ojtcudanueM, ,
,
- .

, . . ,
,
, . .
, .
1. ,

, Ot
.
2. ,
,
, ,
. ,
.
3. ,


. , , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, = const .
,
, =
(t), , .

Z11

,
.
,
.
, , ,
,
. ,
.

30.2. .

.
,
t>t^
t^t^
.

(),
.
,
.

(. 30.1),
S^ Sy.

>

S,

S, *v^

^' 3
^
> ^
'23

'5

34

. 30.1

^ Sj\

378

30

2.
/ /
,

.-

Ml

^12

^21

^22

^
2

i j ,
/^ =0.

(. 30.1).


= =^

(1)

=.=.^=^

(2)


^=^'^ ^ . .
.
,
; ,
.

S., -

379

^SP(k)

= 1, ..

/=1

.
0,8 0,2^1
0,6 0,4

2.1. ^

..,
^
. (1),
f0,8 0,2Y0,8 0,2^ ('0,80,8+0,60,2
=
0,6 0,4 0,6 0,4 '[,80,6+0,60,4

0,20,8+0,40,2'|
0,20,6+0,40,4J

f0,76 0,24^1
0,72

0,28

(2),
(0,% 0,2^1 '0,76 0,24^1
0,6 0,4 0,72 0,28
("0,608 + 0,144
0,456 + 0,288

(0,152
0,744

0,192 + 0,056
0,144 + 0,112

0,248
0,256

2.2. .
. 30.2.

N?

0,
>

0,4^^\>^ \,^

|3

380

30

: Sj ; S2
; S3
S^ .
.
. .
^^ =0,5; ^^ =0,3; ,^^^^\.

, /^1 = 1 -(^/^2 + /^3 + ^4>' = 1 "0,9 = 0,1.
:
= 0 ; =0^4; 24 =0,3; P^i =0^3;
^31=0; 2=0; /^34=0,6; =0^4;
=0- =0- =0* =1
^41

^42

^>

^43

^'

^44

,
(^0,1 0,5
,=

0,3

0,0

0,3 0,4
0,4
0
0

0,3
0,6
1^


S,, PJ^^) 1.
() ^(\) = 0,1;
^(\) = 0,5; ,(\) = 0,3; /\) = 0,1. (3)

^;2;=/^;/^,=,1,1=,1;
22; = ^;;/^2+^2>^22=0,1.0,5 + 0,5.0,3 = 0,20;
,(2) = ,(\),,^,(\),,

+ ,(1),,=

= 0,10,3 + 0,50,4 + 0,30,4 = 0,35;

381^

=0,1 +..++ 1=0,44.


: ,(1)^^(1)^^(1)+^(1) = \.

/ > n ; = f | ( ' 2 ; / ^ , =0,01 =0,001;
2; = /^(^2;/^2+^2('2;22=0,01-0,5 + 0,20,3 = 0,065;
,() = ,(1),,+,(1),,-,(2),,

= 0,010,3 + 0 , 2 0 . 4 + 0 , 3 5 0 , 4 = 0,223;
,() = ,(2),, +,(2),,+,(2),,

+,(2)^ =

= 0,01 0,1 + 0,20,3 + 0,350,6 + 0,441= 0,711.



^(4) = ^(3),, = 0,001 0,1 = 0,0001;
(4) = /^ (3),2 + ^ (),, = 0,001 0,5 + 0,065 0,3 = 0,02;
,(4) = ,(3),,+,(3),,+,(3),,

= 0,001 0,3 + 0,0650,4+0,2230,4 = 0,1155;


/4) = ,(3),, + ,(3),, + ;4 + P/VP^ =
= 0,0010,1 + 0,0650,3 + 0,2230,6 + 0,7111 = 0,8644.
,
f} (4) = 0,0001; ^ (4) = 0,02;
^(4) = 0,1155 ^(4) = 0,711.
2.3. ,
.

382

(0,\ 0,4
0,2
' ) =

0
0

0,3 0,2^1
0,5 0,3
0,4 0,6
0
1

(0,1
0
("?)- 0
0

0,3
0,4
0,3
0

0,2"!
0,2
0,7
1 ,

(0, 0,4 0,2


0,5 0,3
(ef')= 0,2
0
0
0

0,0
0,2
0,8
1

0,3
0,4
0
0

30


, S^.
.
, .
^(\) 0,1;
P / i ; = 0.4; ,(\) = 0,; ,(1) = 0,2
/^ (^2; =/^ n ; / ^ f ^ = 0,1 0,2 = 0.02;
/ 2 ; =/^fU^^z'^ + ("^^22^^ = 0,1 0,3 + 0,4 0,4 = 0,19;
/2) = ,(\)!,'> + ,(1)<,'>+,(1)^,'^ =
= 0,10,3 + 0,40,4 + 0,30,3 = 0,28;
,(2) = ,(\)<:> + ,(\)<^> + ,(\)<^> + ,(\)^> =
= 0,10,2 + 0,40,2 + 0,30,7 + 0,21 = 0,51.

383

f!(^3; = f|r2;/^^'^=0,02 0,3 = 0,006;


/ 3 ; = /^(^2;/^^//2;//^=0,024 + 0,19 0,5 = 0,103;

=-00,2 + 090,3 + 0^'0,2 = 0;


,() = ,(2)<:> -^,(2)^> -^',(2)1

^,(2)^^^

= 0,020,1 + 090,2 + 0,280,8 + 0,511 = 0,774.


,
:
/^(^3; = 0,006; / 3 ; = 0,103; ; = 0,117; / 3 ; = 0,774.

30.3. .

1. S- Sj
,
t.
.
P^j
.^,
,
.
().
2. (. 30.3)
, /
P/t).
,
.

30

384


.
, ,
.
^
,
, ,
,
. (. 30.3)

--(^Aj2+Ai3>>/^;

dt
dP.2 _
dt
dP, _
= '.'.'
-.'...
'2V 2
'\ V
dt
, , P^-vP^-^P^^l,
. ,

, :
^^^(
^\=^^\(0> ^ii^^2z(^) ^ = Q
Sj, ,
fj = 1; 2 = ^3 ~ ^ '
.

385

. S
,
,
^ _>
.
.
,
,

. 2 ^ ^ " ^ '

.
,
,
.
3.1.
: Sjj ;
Si2 , ; 5*21
, ; S22
(. 30.4).
, ,
, ^ ,

.

s
,

^X

^.

/
$2)

X .<>1^22

1^">^

. 30.4

386

30

. ,
:/^^, /^2> ^21' -^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^*^^^

dP,11
dt

dR12

,+,;/^,+/^,+-

-+,;^2+^^1+^^22/
dt
dP,
^=-+,;,,+^/^,+,,;
dt
dP.22 _
- - 222 + \P\2 + ^^!
dt
/ = ,
: ^^=\: ^2- ^ix == ^22 == ^
3.2.
.
X/k
, .

,
.
. (. 30.5).
SQ , ; Sj
; $2 ,..., S^ .
, : ^* ^> ...,^9

. .

Ss
. 30.5

MA

387

at
^ = -lpP^^XpP,;
at

dt
dt

= -^+^;

^ '

,
: ^=\; ^=2=... = =0 ^ = .
3.3. (3.1.)
(. 30.4)
.
. ,


-(X,+X,)P,,+XP,,+?iP,,=0;

,,,-( +

1,),,+,=0;

^^2+^^21-2,,=0.

/^ i, /^2' ^2 ^22
,

388

\\

\2

2\

12

30

'

30.4.
V. .
,
(. 30.6).
^12

^25

,._;,.

^ij^l

^-1,

5.-;

S,
,.

,,

Ai^i^i

/+/

, 30.6

, ,

.=

(1)

^-1, - ^ 2

'

,=\/
2,

2^1

^-1---^1

^-1-^1

389

2^. .
,
(. 30.7) .
\l2

S,

,.

^23
W

5,

Sr

^-

. 30.7

Pv

,=

= ^'2

=2Jl.p.
' \

,=\/

1
1 + ,2

1
+

1
+ ... +
'\

X-j J.
S^ (^/ = 1,...,Azj,
(2)

(i = \,...,n).
(3)

30

390

4.1. (. 30.8).
.
;,=3

K=J

^25-^

1*

Ss

=1

izzs
,,=

. 30.8
. , ,
,
. (1), ,
.
3

=\/

R=

3 1
18

^2-18

8'

3-2-1

2-3 1 _ ^

= ; ^3

1-2-3

2-3

1+- +
1 2-1

_2-3

3-2-1 8

4.2.
:
S, , ^ = 19^;
Sj , ,

J^=\ti\

53 , ^^ = 3^;
54 , ^ = .
,
.
. (. 30.9).

t,1

5.

t.

. 30.9

Ss

sA

391


,

(3)
^ =

/, + ^2 + ^3 + ^4

1'

19

19

'

19 + 1 + 3 + 1 24

24'

'

24'

28.5.

1.
= X(t).
, ,
. (. 30.10).
: SQ ; S, ; PQ(t) P/t)
; ,
SQ S,; i"
.

5;
/^

. 30.10

P,(t) + P,(t) = \

(1)

392

30

i^:=-XP

+ IXP,

(2)

(2) ,
'

-11

^^^

^ ,
q / > , . .


, , t, .
,

2. - .
. SQ
; S, ,..., Sj^ : ,...,
S . . 30.11.

. 30.11

393

/\1 = ,
.
30.11. ,
( )

=^;

(k = \,2....,n)

ft=

1! 2!
\
(7)
V
1! 2!
\
^, fJ,...,P
, ,
, .
,
. ,

" ,..!....,:

\
, , . .
,

(7 = 1- = 1 - 4 ^ 0 ,

(9)

q .

A = :iq = X(l-PJ.
_
(10)
k .

^ = 0 ^ 0 + 1 / ^ + 2 ^ 2 + + ^-^ ,
,

394

30

5.1.
. = 0,8
( ).
t^^ = 1,5 . .
( ^ ^) : )
; ) .
. /I
^1 = 1/^^ =1/1,5 = 0,667.
(4)

0.667
^^..
=
= 0,455.
0,8 + 0,667
(5)

= (7 = 0,8 0,455 = 0,366,


. . 55% .
5.2. 3 - . = 0,8
, = 0,667 .
,
,
.
.
= /1 = 0,8/0,667 = 1,2.

2

z=: =^
,=12;

2=0,72,;

' =-
=0.288;

395

\
=
^
= 0,312.
" " 1 + 1,2 + 0,288
1 + + ^^+ ^^
2! 3!
(8) ^^^ = 0 , 0 9 .
f; =1,20,312 = 0,374;
P^^^Jl0,312 = 0,22; 3 =0^2880,312 = 0,09.
^ = 1 - = 0,91.
= -^ = 0,80,91 = 0,728.
^ = - ^ = 1^20,9 = 1,09.

28.6.
V. , . .
. ,
.

iCl-

. 30.12
;
ji. ,
. . , , ,
.
SQ ; S, , ;
S^ , ;... S^ ,
k-X ; S^^j ,
. (. 30.12).
,

396

30

p,=(i/ii)P

(1)

,=(//,.

=-

"

1+(Vfi)+(X/^f

+...+/ju/^'

/ = ,
/> = . , = ^,..., , = *.-.^... = '"^';
=
"

(2)

\
l+p+p^.-.+p""*'

^-

...

2. .
, . .

- ^-^^ -

(^^)

...


(5)

A = Xq.
(6)
,

397

p'[l-p'"(m + l-mp)]
(1-'"")(1-)

^^^

k

)
^=^+^ =^ + 7 1 ^ -

(8)


,
_ F _ p [ l - p " ' ( m + l-mp)]
----

^,(1--)(1-)

(9)



l=l^+q/^,

(10)

3"^. .
.
/ > .
= / > 1 . < 1
.

= 1 - ; ,=; , = '(\-).....
, = '(1-),...
(11)

, . . ^
^ = 1.
A = Xq = X,

(12)

(7) m > >


9

^=1^-

03)

398

30

A;=/-+p=-tl_+p = - t l - .
1-
1-

(14)
^ '

^'^^

''^ -; -/

6.1. .
3 ,
. = 1 (
.). 1,25 . :
; ;
; ;
, ;
.
. 1,25, =

= 0,8

= - = = 1,25.

1-
1-125
_.^.
(2), (3) = ] ~ ^ " i^n 2 5 / "
'
^!==1,250,122 = 0,152;
=' =0,238;

^=

p^P,=0,\9l;

, = ' =0,297.

(4) ^^^ = 0,297.


{ = ^- =0,703.
= ^ = 0,703.

399

(7)
=

1,25'fl-1,25'(3 + 1-3,75)1
i-^^
^J -1,56.
(l-l,25')(l-l,25)

7 ,

1 25-1 25'
1-1,25'
(8)
^ = " + = 2,44.

(9)

L = ^ = 1^56 ().

^ = L + ^ / M = b56 + 0,88 = 2,44(MHH).
6.2.
= 2 ( ). ,
, 0,4 .
,
. . ,
, . :
, ( ,
); ;
; ,
.
. = 2 ; 1
2
=
= 2,5. = = -- = 0,8<1.
0,4
2,5

400

30

( )
1-

1-0,8

0,2

: ^
, 1 ; ^
. .; ^ { >5) {-) .
, ,

= \- ^+2- ^ + ...+(k-A)P^+ ...=


= \(\-p)p'

+ 2(\-p)p'+...

= p'(l-p)(\

(k-A)(\-p)p'+...=

+ 2p + 3p'+... + (k-A)p'-'+...)

='-

.. _

1 -,

. 2

'

1-

1-"'+-)

(1->

(^-p)

=1,64.
, ,
,
, . .
, + ,+, + ... = (1-)'+(1-)'+(\-)'
+ ...=
= (1-)\\

(\-)'-^=:'=0,\.
1-

/

fj,

fU,

+ + '+...) =

fX

=lri-p;ru2p.3p4...>''Vi-p;i-p7H>.-mp;^
}1

(l-pf

'
^(\-)

401^

^ _ 1 _ = ,82 ().
2.50,2


J"

=1[(1-)+2(1-)((1-)(1-)(1-)...)]=
= - [ ( 1 - ) + 2(1-)^(1-+(1-)+(1-)...)] =

= 1[(1-) + 2(1-)^] = 1( + ^) =
-

~ =0,78().
1-
,
, \ =0,82+0,78+0,4=2(^^^.
.
1. /2- ,
;
//; . :
SQ ;
Sj , ;
S^ k , ;
S ;
S^^j , ;

402

30

S^^^ , ;
\+ , .
,
1/11 = \

=.-

--

^1

=11 ^ /1+1
\I '
=

. =R^p

+2

'

=11

-* +2

2
^\

'

"

1!

2!

'

.
'

'

^ +

+\

(1)

-1

'/-{/)
\

1-/

2.
. ,

=11

(2)
\

?=1-^..=1-

..

(3)

"'\

"'\ ~"

(4)

z .
/ .
.

^--

= 1-
"'\
"'\ "

(5)

403


, ..

/ =<^,

' ^ \ '

(\-3Bf

^^^


k = + .

t

=
njl

n/Ll

nfl

= = ^

njj^nl

-.

/1

\2

V'/

(i-ce)


// .
3"^. ,
.

/ < 1 / > 1, ..
. / < 1 m > ,

.
\

-
.
\

=11 \

404

30

n =,

'
1! 2!

"
n!

"" 1
\ n-pj

^^^

,
:
..=0;

q = \; A^Xq = L


+1

(9)

-^^

_ _',
1

njxn\ (1 -gsf

()


k=r+z.

(13)

7.1. ()
= 2 = 0,8 (
).
^^g = = 2 . , . .
. = = 0,5; = = -^= 1,6; = 2;
= ^ = 0,8.

<< 1, .
.

405

n-i
^0

l+^ + ^-H-

1!

2!

2\(-)

1 + 1.6+1,28+

1.6^
20,4

= 0,111;

/^=-^=60,111 = 0,178;
1!

= - ^ , = 1 , 2 8 0 , 1 1 1 = 0,142;
2!

==014 ..
3!
,

^ = 0,5; = ^ = 0,8; 2 = = = 1,6.
/i 0,5

Po + fl + P^ =0,111 + 0,178 + 0,142 = 0,431.

=

1,6'

1,'0,111 = 0,71.

^ = + = 2 , 3 1 .


^ = + ^ = 0 , 8 9 + 2 = 2,89.;.

30.8.

V. ,
, .
, , . -

406

30

, , ,
.
,
,
t^^, . . v = 1/ (,,.
, fi = v/ji,
, rv
,
^

.2

'

.2 =

=-

=^-1! "' '


2! "

^^^.
(1)

(n^+v)(nii-\-2v)

. =\ (nfi+v)---(nfj.
,+ rv)

'

"

2!

"^

+
-1

'
+...+( + )( + 2)
( + )--( + ) / J

2. t -^
, .. ^
, ^^^
. , .

2
'='^-.^+^-.2++ -.
(2)

v ,
, vT . ,

A = ^.'Vr.
(3)

407

v_



2=/^+2P,+...+rt[i-rn+^+-+^-i;]

_

X-vT

^_

8.1.
. = 3
/; t^^^^ = 1/^ = 1.;
,
, 0,5 . ,
, 0,001.
:
q,A,Y,Tj^^J^,
. : AZ = 2; = 3; ^u = 1;
1

(1),
, 0,001.
^0

, ^ 3' 3'
3
9
27
81
1 + 3 + 2 +
(
+
+
+
2 2 + 2 4(^2 + 2-2; 4-6-8 4-6-810

243
4-6-81012

729
2178
. . ^
,J
4-6-8101214 + 4-6-8-10-12-1416
2

/^==0,208; ,=^,=0,\\;

= 0.0692;

P,=^^P,=0,2A:

408

30
4

, = - ^ =0,117; =77^0 =0,044; , = ^ =0.013;


4!

J!

= - ^ =0,003; = - ^ =0,001.
7!
8!
=^-'1(\-^-^) =

- 2 " 3-1,654 , = 1,654; =
=

= 0,673;
j3
2

1,654
(3), (4) = 3 - 2 0 , 6 7 3 = 1,654; =
3

= 0,551; t^^ = = 0,224;


^ ^ k
ife=2+r =2,327; ^, = ~ = 0,776.

30.9.
1. ,
, .
. - ,
.
.
,
^ = ~ ' \1 .
, ,
, . .
.
.
2.

,=,: ,=(--1)',;
...; ,=(^1)..'',;

409

Po=[l + AZp+A2(^/2-i;p'+... + n(^AZ-l>...-lp"]"\

(1)


,
. , ^^^ -\-^,
II ,

= (\-,)11,

(2)

,
^ = I. ,

^=1-^.=1-1 + =^0(3)

, .
, , w=^\-P^.

= - = - ^ - 1 - ^ = 2~-/'>>1 + ->>. (5)

L = wl,
/ .
. .
(<).

^^.
__(-\)' 2
" ^
l-2ju^
"'

^^

'

1 ^/^
^/^'
1
(-\)(-2)
1-2-3
^

i-

_(-\)...(1-)^
l-2-...-m

.-

410

('-\)...(-)
=
l-2-...-m-m

'm+2

(I

n(n-l)---l
\-2---m-m"

\m+l

l^J

P.;

(6)

( T""^

n(n-\)...(n-m-\)
1-2-... mm

P =

30

P.:

( 1 Y

Po;
^)

Po = 1 +
li

n(n-\)(X^
n(^n~lX^"-2^"Y^~^+U
+...+
1-2
l-2-m

n(n-\)---(n-m)
1-2-...-m-m

l^

f . Y+i

l^

nfm-lJ-'-l
+...+
l-2-...-m-m"

/^Q

UJ

v^y

(7)


=1-/^+2-2+... + / ^ - ^ - ^

-111

-.-,;

(8)

(9)

w=n

(10)

9.1. .
3 .
20 .
: ;
;
;
.

411

. : = 3; = 3;
1
1 1.
/ ! = = - = = 3; = ^ (1)
1

= 0,0625.
3-2-

.= 1 + 3 + 3-2-1 +

^. =1-^0 =0,9375.
(2)
= 0,9375-3 = 2,81.
(4)
9375
^ = 3 - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ = 2,0625.
1


w/n = 0,6875.
9.2. .

.
20 . :
;
; .
. :
= 2; fi = ^

= 3;

= 4; = 2;

(7), (6)
,

/oV

4-3-2 / 2 ^ ^

1-2

1-2-2

2 4-3
= 1 + 4-- +

4-3-2-1
1-2-2^

= 0,115;

412

30

= 4 - 0 , 1 1 5 = 0,306.
'
3

2 = l f J + 2 n ~ P o - ^ > * = 0,306 + 2 n - 0 , 4 2 i ; = l,464.
(9)

= 1,464-3 = 4,392.
(10)

) = 4 - ^ ^ = 1,804.

30.10. ""

1. ,
. .
. :
1. ,
.
2. , . .
.

, . .

. ,
.
2^.
, .
:

MA

413

'^^,
"^-

(1)

(2)

nnn\(i-as)


^=+-.

(3)

^ = ^ ; 4 1 + ^ + ^ + .-. + ^

' L 1! 2!
\
> ,
.
X
* =

^
^
= = =; =
;

jU*

nil

(4)

l-cO

3.
. ,
, ;
,
.., ,
.

.^(--^.

(5)

414

30

A = Xq = X j ^ ,

=/(11).

(7)

4.
. ,
iJ,(k) = k/j..

-'"*"'

g=^_^..m..'

(9)

1 /jQ^^"^

^"^^"^l^^"-^-'-

(10)

10.1. 3- .
= 4.
t^ = 0,5; lJ.(k) - kfi.
,

?
?
, ) ; /2=3; = 4; /1 =

= 2;

= 2. 30.5.

= - ^ ^ - ^ = 0,158; _==|. =1^0.158 = 0.21.


1+-+ +
1! 2! 3!

= \-

-^

=0.79.

V/, / ^ .

= ^ = 0,79 4 = 3,16.

45


i^=^.^^ =0,79 0,5 = 0,395.
) : * = 1; = 4; ^"^-Zii-

1 3

1+
1!

1+2
3

2
5'

6;

23

' 3 ^ 3 5

^..=^^=0,4; ^ = 1 - _ = 0 , 6 ; = ^ = 0,6.4 = 2,4;


F = = 0,4 - = 0,0667.
'

^3/1

,
, .. , , ,
.
, , ..
.
10.2. 3-
; = 4 .
t^^ = 0,5 .
li(k) - kfi.
, : ;
;
.
.
, (1), (2), (3).
= ; = 4; ^^ = ^=- = 2; = = 2; = = -;
' 2 2' 2'
2'
= 1 + - + + + 1! 2! 3! 3.Y3-2;

-1

~9^

416

30

>4 1

3-3! 1--

= 0,889; =0,222;

t = +^ =0,722

(4)

2
* = 1; = 4; |* = 3/ = 6; * = =i^=;
^*
3
2

1
=

-1

I'll-

1-2"
3

'

2
3

:0,333; 4 =0,333 + - = 0,5

,
,
.

31

31.1.

1.
,
.
^ ,
.

/
1

^
,
.
,
6

a^, 02, ^

1
2
1
3
4

0-2 ^^

bs

1.^

, , Oj.Oj

^^

.
.

418

31

1- ,
.
,
. .
t. -,

7:=,+/,,

(1)

. = |7^., 7^, ^ j
-, ^, a^^Uf^
, ,
.
.,
,
. ,
, , .,
. ;
. , .
.. ^
Tj,T^,Tf^, max.
. .
2. = ^1^
()

^. ,
.
X. .
t- f.=f.(x-).
7'= ^

/ / j c J < 7 .

: = ^ ^ = min 1.2.
3.
. ,

419

X > , ,
t. t' = f.(x), ,
^,
t-'= (pj(x) . , - ,
, ,

X,+2+... + =0.
(2)
,

4.
.
, ,
,

] ^ /- .
, ,

^'=JZ^''

(5)

^
/- .
(4), (5) ,
^

(<,) =

(-,

+ 0,5,

V
.

(6)

420

31

1.1.

,
,

^2

10
5
15
18
19

^
^4

1 ^5

a^Mj

^,,

.
0-6

,
^

.
^,^
^,^,.

18
8
25
30
8

^9

,0

a^,ag

.
. :
^=:0;2=0;=0;7;=/, =10;2=/2=5;=^=15.
^ Oj, , . .
,
4 =max{7J,72} = max{10,5} = 10.
^ 7^ =T^+t^ =10+18 = 28.
3:
5={72,7} = {5,15} = 15; T^=r^+t^=l5 + l9 = 34,
^: ={74} = 28; T^=T^+t^=2S'hlS = 46.
,:^ ={^,%}={34,46}=46;
Tj=i:,+t^=46-hS = 54,
*. Tg = max{73,75,7g} = max{15,34,46} = 46;
7=8 + ^=46 + 25 = 71.
o^: T9=max{77} = 54; 79 =9 + /9 =54+30 = 84.
O^Q', TJO = max{75,7g} = max{34,71} = 71;
Tio-^10 + ^0=71 + 8 = 79.

= 84 .
;, cij.
, , ^,

421

, , ^ , ^,.^
Oj. , ^, ^, ^, ^, ^ .
. 31.1.

. 31.1
1.2. -

,
20

Oj , ^2 ,

10

10

^.^.

^6

^,^

20

^4,0^5'^

10

: 7] = 20; Tj = 10; 7^ = 8;
T,=T,+t, =40; T,=T,+t, ^30;T,=T,+t,=25:
T,=T,+t, =30;
7, = 7 ; + ^, =50.
: ^, ^, ^.
7 = 7] + 7^ + Tg = 50.
^ = 40. , , ^, ..
,<,,

(1)

422

31
t:=t,(\-b,xj.

&, =0,2; ,=0,3; &8=0,1;
L/J

Z,

Z,

Cg

(2)

J.

(1)
JCi-2<0; 4 - 2 < 0 ; 5-5<0.
(3)
(2)

r=^;+^;+/;=^/i-o,2xj+^/i-o,3xj+^gn-o,ixj =
= 50-4Xi -6X4-Xg.
7Q = 40, 50 - 4^ - 6^"~ ^8 ^ 40,
4x,+6x4 + Xg>10.

(4)

L = , + ^4 + Xg
(3), (4), . .
.
, , L^.^ = 5/3
4 = 5/3 ^.

31.2.

1"^.
,
(,
, , . .).
(), (Bj, 2),
(7) {) (. 31.2).

. ^^
; Nj
; ^ .

423

',

^3

h.

,
X,

Xj

'.

'

,
^

^/

1 ''

^2

. 31.2
2.
.
.
^
; ^ ;
. /j 1^ .
, ,
Lj = IN^x^ + N^x^ + ^^

XI+A:2

>/i+/2;

Xj+X3>/2;

:2+>/,.


.
. ^
1 ; ^ ; ^
; ^ 2 .
, ,
L^=N,(y,+yJ + N^y^+N,y,,

424

31

,
/ij, /^, /^3,

y^+y^>h,+h^.
-.

L = Lj+L2,
., - .
2.1. . ^, = 10; ^2 = 8; ^ = 6; /j = 4 ;
= 8/;/Zj = 5;^2 = ; 1 =4. L^..
.
X
Lj =20X1+8X2+6X3;
Xi+X2>12; Xi+X3>8; 2+>4.
4,5,^

L =0~(-20,-82-6);
4=-12-(-,-)^; = - 8 - ( - , - ) ; ^ =-4-(-2-).

X,
X,

[_

^6

6,

X,

'

-20
96

-12

-12
-1

12
-8

-4

-1
0

[^

0
' -1

-1
-8

-'

-6

" ^

Kd

' -1

425

-1 Xj <-> JC^.

X,

&,

^
X,

-12

96

-8

120
12

X,

X,
-8

-6
1

-1

12

-1

" ' ( ^

-'( "' ' rd


8

-1

-1

._:'^

^ <^ ^
6,

^1

X,

X,

144

-6

-8

-6

12

-1

-1

-1


, ^i = 144 Xj = 0; ^2 = 12; 3 = 8.

L^=l0y,+Sy^+6y^+\0y^;
,+^>15; ,+,>10; ^+,>6;
y,+y^>U.

L2=0-(-10i/,-8i/2-6i/3-10i/,),

426

/5 = - 1 5 - ( - / / , - / 4 ) ;

31

^=-10-(-^1-^)/

-10

-1

-10
4

-8
0

fio
-6
-6

-1

^..-^

-11

-1

1
^ -1

-1

-1
0

-1

[ 0
0

-1

-1

1
-10

0
0

-5
-10 ^ ^ . . ^

-6

-8

-15

^ . ^

100

-1

0
-1

-1

/, <-> i/^
6,

100

-10
150

-5
^5

[5
10
-6

-11

1
-1

-1
-1

^ <-^ ^

'^
1

-1

-6

0
0

-6

^^.^

-1

-6

^7

^8

-1
10

^1

-8
0

-8
0

-1
0

-1

-1

O^J

0
J

-'d

-1

V
-6

2
0

-1

-1

V
-1

1
0

i/5
-10

11
10

-8
0

186
5

150
^

427

-10

- ' ( <

-'^
V
%

-.^

-1
0

01

"

^, <-> y-j
6,

L,

186

-2

-6

-10

11

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

ys

: L = 186 ^ = 4; ^ = 0; ^=(>;
^=\\.
,
L = 144 +186 = 330 .

31.3.

1 .
,

31

428

.
, , ,

.
-^ ,
/ - , I), /- ,
; .,
, / - /- ,
, .
:
L = Xj + 2 +... + ^
:

^,. +^.^ +...- > .


ml 1
ml L

2.
,

X,

X,

6,

^4

100

80

40

60

429


^2 + 4 + ^ > 100; ^2 + ^3 + > 80;
Xj + + Xg > 40; X, + 4 + 5 > 60; ^- > 0.

, -
/, = - 1 0 0 - ( ~ 2 - 4 - , ) ;

/2 =-80-(-2-~5);

^ = -40 - (-, - - ); 4 = -60 - (-Xj - 4 - 5);


L = ) v^"~Xj 2 ~ 3 ^ 3 Xg j .


X,

6.
L

-100

-80

-80

-40
-60^.^
|0

-1

- f ^

-1

- 1 -"^ 0
|-1

-1

-1
0

-1

-40

-1

-1
-1

-1

-1
-1

X,

- I

-1

-40

-1

- 1
60

-1

I'n:: ^ 1.

"
V
(^)

-1 1
-1

-1

0
0

-1

-1
-1

^ ^

"l^

, = - l
^/4 4.
, ^<^ ^.

430

60
120
-40

-80

1 ^4

^.^
40

60

1 -^

-1

-1

[-1

(3

-1

60

-1

-1
0

1
-1

-1
-1

0
-1

"V

-1

"^

X,

^4

-1
-1

-40
-40

-1

-40

\1

'

X.)

X,

31

1
0

-1
0

. ' ^

1 0

-'^
0

,
^3 <-^ ^3

.
L

X,

140
-40
0

1 40
40
40
60

^4

X,

-1

-1

-1

-1^^

-1

100

\1

X,

60

1
1

1
-1
1

' [ ^ )
1

-1

^ ^

f^

-1

-1

,
^ <-> ^2

431

X,

X,

^6

140

-1

-1

^2

40

-1

-1

-1

-1

J^3

40

-1

^4

60

-1

],

L^.^ =140 ^2 = 40, ^ = 40, ^ = 60,

31.4.

V.
{^^^..., ^^) (/ ,..., /^),
. ,
, ,
.
, .
{ctidj), - , ^
.
,
.
, ,
..
.

432

31


,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, .

.
2.
.
. 1) ^,

, i = /
. ^
, . UJ .

fe= 1.
2) i^i^k j^k

C..: = min{Q..,

Q+QJ.

3) k = m, , . 4.
4)fe:= ^ +1 2.
.
3. .
.
: ^. ^; I'.
., I. -\
.
:
1. 4=0, ( = ^ / = 1,..., ; i ; k-1; p^s.

433

2. ^

/; = min(^/;,/^+C^J.
3. , ,
/^ =minl',
4. = , k: = k + l. k = m,
, 2.
4.1. (. 31.3).
.

. 31.3
.
1

>

k = l ,
, k = 2'
Cj3 = min(^C,3, Cj2 + 23 >) = min(^oo, 1 + 3 j = 4;

434

31

Ci4 = min(^Ci4, Q2 + Q4 >> = min(^oo, 1 + oo^ = oo;


Cj5 = min(^Cj5, C,2 + C25 J = min(^oo, 1 + 6^ = 7;
Cj6 = rmn(C^^, Cj2 + C26; = min(^5,1 + 2 ; = 3.

^^ = min(^C2i, 22 + 2 J = min(^l, 1^ = 1;

--

22 ~

23 = min(^C23 > ^11 + Q3 >^" min(^3,3^ = 3;


24 = m i n ( ' C 2 4 , 22 + 24 >) = m i n f ' o o , ^ = o o ;

25 = min(^C25' Q2 + Qs >^" min(^6,6^ = 6;


C26 = min('C26' ^22 + ^26 >* = min("2,2^ = 2.

1 = (^1, 2 + 21 ^ = min(^oo, 3 +1^ = 4;
32 = (^2, 2 +^22^ = min(^3,3^ = 3;
=0;
4 = ('4, 2 + 24,) = min(^5,3 + 00^ = 5;
35 = (^5' Q2 + ^ 5 >^ = min(^l, 3 + 6^ = 1;
36 = (', 2 +^26^* = m i n p , 3-f 2 ; = 3.

41 = min(^C4i, 42 + Q J = min(^oo, 00 +1^ = 00;
C42 = min(^C42, C42 + C22 >) = ^ ;
C43 = min(^C43' Q2 + ^23 >* = min(^5,00 + 3 J = 5;
^44=0;
C45 = min('C45, C42 +025^ = m i n n , + 6 J = 1;
C46 = inin('C46, Q2 + ^26 >> = min(^oo, 00 + 2 ; = 00.

435


Cj, = minf'Cj,, 52 +Cj^) = min(^co, + \) = 7;
C52 = minf C52, C52 + C22 ^ = min(^6,6^ = 6;
C53 = minfC53, C52 + C23 ^ = minf'l, 6 + 3 j = 1;
C54 = minfC54, C52 + C24 j = mm(\, 6 + 00; = l;
Q,=0;
^56 = minf C5,, C52 + C2 J = min(^3,6 + 2 ; = 3.

Q, = minf'Q,, Q2 + C2,; = min('5,2-\-\) = 3;
Q2 = ^10(^^2, Q2 +^22^ = min(^2,2; = 2;
Q3 = min('Q3, Q2 + C23; = (, 2 + ; = 3;
4 = minf'C^, Q2 + C24; = minf'oo, 2 + 00; = 00;
Q5 = minf'Qs, Q2 + C25; = minf'S, 2 + 6; = 3;

, ,
1

, k = 3

436

31

,=,,,+; = 4;
Ci4 = (',4, , +4>) = minf'oo, 4 + 5 ; = 9;
,5 = min(^Cj5, Q3 + 35 >) = min(^7,4 +1^ = 5;
, = mini'C,^, , + J = mini's, 4 + 3 ; = 3.

2=('2,2+>> = 3;
24 = min('C24, 23 +^34^ = minf'oo, 3 + 5^ = 8;
25 = min('C25, 23 + Q5 >^ - minf^e, 3 + 1^ = 4.
,

4 = ('4, + 4>> = mini's, 5^ = 5;


41 = (^^' Qs + Qi >> = niinf'c, 5 + 4 ; = 9;
42 = min('C42, C43 + C32 j = mini'oo, 5 + ; = 8;
C43 = m\n(C^^, C43 + C33; = 5,C46 = rmn(C^, C43 + C3 J = minf'oo, 5 + ; = 8;
C51 = min('C5i, C53 + C3 J = minf 7,1 + 4J = 5;
C52 = mm(C^^, Q3 + C32; = mini'e, 1 + 3^ = 4;
C^ = min('C64, Q3 + C34 J = minf'oo, 3 + 5^ = 8.
, ,

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
1
4
9
5

2
1
0
3
8
4

3
4
3
0
5
1

4
9
8
5
0
1

5
5
4
1
1
0

6
3
2
3
8
3

437

/^ = 5 ,

^4 = min('C,4, ,5 + 54 ) = min('9,5 -h I; = 6;
24 = min('C24, 25 + 54 j = min(^8,4 -h i ; = 5;
C34 = 1('4, 5 + C54 ^ = (, 1 +1^ = 2;
C41 = min(^C4j, C45 + C5 J = min(^9,1 + 5 J = 6;
C42 = min('C42, C45 + C52 ^ = min(^8,1 + 4 J = 5;
C46 = min(^C46, C45 + C5 J = min(^8,1 + ; = 4.
,
1

4.2. , . 31.3,
Oj .
. .

00

438

31

,
,
, .
, ,

. .
1.
/j = , 1.=,
2. ^ 02 ^.

/2=1, = 2, / = 1.
3. 2
^,^,^.
/; = minf^oo, 1 + 3 ; = 4; /; = min(^oo, 1 + 6; = 7;
/;=min(^5,l + 2 ; = 3.
/^ /^ == 3 = 6.
4. ^ ci^,ci^.
/ = min(^4,3 + 3 j = 4; /5 = (1,3 + 3^ = 6.
/ / = 4 = 3 .
5. ^
^,^.
/;=min(^oo,4 + 5; = 9; /; = min(^6,4 + lj = 5.
1^ = 5 4 = 5 = 5.
5. ^ ^,
/^ = min(^9,5 + 1^ = 6, 5 = 4.
,


.

439

31.5.

1. ^
*5 ..
. fl^y, -.^
. .,
6, = ^ . ^
^ .,
, ,
-t;, / = 0,

&/-^/.= ,

/ -t , ,

< X.J < b.j; v>0 ,


2. .
, , .
.
1. ^ ^
,
. ^
, ,
.
2. ,
..
3. ^, b.j > ,
(i,j) . UQ
. ^ ,
^ .
2.
, .

440

31

4. (a^.a-ij, (^,^),.,., (.^^,^) .


(^^, .^^^), ,
:
^k^k+\

h^k+i

^k+\ h

^k^k+l

^k^k+l

h+\ *A

1.
,
.
5.1. ,
. . 31.4.

, 31.4
(,, ^) -
( ) ,
^, fly
, aj ^.
,
^ ^.
. ^ = ^2 ==
= ^25 = ^56 ~ ^ ( ).
- .

441

^-^^-^ ^-^^, 0 = 3 .
,

v=5^3=8


^ --> aj > 02 - ^ ^4 - ^ ^, 0 = 1,

v=8+l=9

442

^-^^-^^^^,

=^2

v=:9+2=ll

^ --^ ^ -^ ^ ^> ^ --^ ^, = \

v=im=i2

^ -^ ^ -^ 2 -^ ^ ^ ^, = 1

v=12-^l=13

, ^ -^ ^ -^ ^ -^ 2 -^ ^ -^ ^, = \

31

443

v = 14

,
.

31.6.
S .
(, . .)
(1, 2,..., ^,..., ). ,
t Q .
. S^.
, Q S^ t

C,=a,(e"-l);

S,=V"'"-

Y(t)=(S+J^Q-SJ/t,
(=1

Y(t) = (S + ao(e^' -\)-bae-'")/t

= (ao(e^' -\) +

dY _ (a,Xe^ + /-"' )t - a^(e^' -\)dt~


f
,

S(\-e-^'))/t.

S(\ - e'"') _^

444

31

; = ^(^' -^' ^\) ^^ Y^^S(\- '^' -lite'^^),



t, .

31 .
1. ,
= 1() ,

.
= 1()
.
,

. .^
\)-^.
X,

[ '

^2

.
2. = -{-.

1=1

^^ +bn = Y, 1=1

(1)

3. / = ^+6 + .
,

445

(2)

4. = + . X

Xf-^I^^Z^
X.

X;

X;

+*1^=.

(3)

7.1.

X,.

1 ^

13

-2

-9

, ,
= -\-.
. .
(1)

i

X,.

^iVi

1
2
3
4
5
6

1
2
3
4
5
6
21

13
8
4
1
-2
-9
15

1
4
9
16
25
36
91

13
16
12
4
-10
-54
-19

2 .

446

31


91 + 216 = -19,
[21 + 66 = 15.
: =

143

84
; =.
143

84
+.
35
5
7.2.

X // -

1h

1 1

11

.
. ,
, .
.
(2)

/

X,

^f

^iy;

xfyi

1
2
3
4
5

0
1
2
3
4

1
2
4
7
11

0
1
4
9
16

0
1
8
27
64

0
1
16
81
256

0
2
8
21
44

0
2
16
63
176

10

25

30

100

354

75

257


[354+ 100 +30 = 257,
100+ 306 + = 75,
30 + 106 + 5 = 25.

447

2 ,
3 ,

40 + 106 = 25,
|54 + 10& = 32,
= - , 6 = - = 1.
2
2'
,
X

=+ + 1.
2 2
7.3.
Xi

0,5

-1

-1,5

.
.
(. 31.5.), ,
. ,
, (3),

/

X,

1/.

yAi

1
2
3
4
5

0,5
1
2
4
6

5
2
0
-1
-1,5

2
1
1/2
;25
1/6

4
1
1/4
1/16
1/36

10
2
0
-1/4
-1/4

4,5

3,916

5,34

11,5

448

31

J3,916a-h5,346 = ll,5,
|5 + 3,9166 = 4,5.
, : = --1,847; 6 = 3,5.
,
35
^ = -1,847 + .
X

1.
, b ^"" ^
. In / = In + 1 b
\ , In , In 6
.
,
1 + 6
\., . .
S = (\ + Xjlnfe - In !/j / + (\ + x^Xnb - \^ f +

+ --- + + ^6-1^/^^ =^('1 + .16-1//./


.
S
In In 6. S
In In 6,
, . .
= 0
= 0.
1
16

= 2 (\ + - 1^^; =
dlna
^

= 2(1 + Inb^ - -^ ].) ^


/=1

/=1

449

= 21^ - + 16^ ^ - ^ -\-.


,

\ + \^ - = ^ \.

1^ X. + 16^ ^ = ^ x.ln /.
/=1

/=1

/=1

In In 6

b.

31.8.
V. . p(t)
,
t .
, .
.
.

().

.
, ,
.
,
.

450

31


. ^ = 0
p(t) = 1 (. 31.6.).
q(t) = 1 - p(t).
q(t) . 31.6. /
q(t) .

. 31.6
,
,
. ,

F(t) = ( <t)
F(t) = q(t). , F(t)
, t .
F(t) , p(t) = 1 - F(t).

f(t) = F'(t) = q(t). . 31.7.
f(t)dt , 7
t t + dt.

m(At)

f(t)=^-NAt

(1)

451

("^^ , ^, . .
t t + dt; N ; .

t+At

. 31.7
,

t =M(T) = jtf(t)dt = jtq(t)dt

= -ltp(t)dt = jp(t)dt.

(2)

t ,
(. 31.6).
, k
,
. , ^, ...^rif^,
^ ^2' '> ,

/ =1/2-

(3)

i=l



. 2, ...,^
.

452

31

__ k

ts=t^n.T./t,.

(4)

,

.


kj^=T/(T+T^),

(5)

t-
,

.

.

p(t) = e-'\

(6)

()
.

F(t) = q(t) = l--^', f(t) = "^' (t>0).

(0

NAtp(t)

,
.

-\Mt)dt

p(t) = e

,.

^^^

453

X(t) = const, (8)


(6).
2. HadejWHocmb .
,
.

(. 31.8).

. 31.8
,
,

^ = .

(9)

. /- .
^=2=... = ^, (9)
= \

(10)

( )

A(t) = J^X,(t).

()

,
A(t)
X/t).
(8),
-JA(t)dl

P(t) = e

454

p,(t) = e^

(i = l2^,..^n).

31

^^^^

(12) (9),
-JA(t)dt -j^(t)dt -jl2(t)dt -JK(t)dt
e '
=e '
e "
...e '
=
t

-j[X,(t)+l,(t)+...+?^(t)]dt
-lY,^idt
=e '
=e ''=' ,
(11).
3. .

, (. 31.9).
;

. 31.9
^ ,
^ . .
, = 1.
' ' ^ ^^'
, , ^j, ^2' ' ^

Q^Qx'Qi'-'Qn = 1 - Q,

(13)

P=

455

\-q,-q,-...,q=\-(\-p,)(\-p,)...(\-pJ^
= 1--;-

(14)

/=1


^= ^=,,, = , (14)
=1--/.

(15)


,
(. 31.10).

-
. 31,10
, ,
'" (t),
.
,
(15)
=1--";%
(16)
.

, ,
, .
4. ,
, .

456

"

31

. 31.11

(. 31.11) ^.

,
,
; =(\-(\-p,)(\-pj...(\-pj)p^.

(17)


=\---2)(18)
,
, p^p^ p^^J..., ^^'', ,
,
(14)

=\-(\-)(\-,[]>

)(\-,[1> )-...-(\-[;>).

(19)


, .
5. .
. , , .
.
. Mj ^ > ^

457

^ ^.
.
, ,
2 . ,
(. 31.12).
5;

I
1 '^1 I

1
1 "-2 I

1 "-2

1 *^L_LJ *^LZJ *"


. 31.12

: S, ;
Sj ; S^
; S^ .


dp, _
dt = - ^ ' ^ " "
dp2

dt
^_
=
dt

-^2+^22''

(20)

dp4
= ^1-

dt

+2++4=1 P,((i) = 1,

p,(t) = e-'r
,

458

31

P2(Q) = ,
,
'-^-'^'.

-XJ

P2(t) = - ^

,
'''^2.g-V_.

dt

2"" I

'

-'^'.

2 J

^^ = '
p,(t)=

|2

--"'' -

|2

.-^2<_.

^1^2?

,-,/

^-,/

-i.t

^( t )
,

= \- -,/
|2

>,-,/

-'''+ 2 ]
2]

--^'-

-^'-' -

2-,/

2-1

8.1.
(. 31.13). p(t)
.

459

. ,
(0,1) X(t) = 2 - ^, t>\
= 1.
(0,1) (8)
-j(2-t)dt

p,(t) = e

=
p(t) t > 1

(it-'i)

jX(t)dt = jdt = t-\;


p^(t) = e -t+\

. 31.14.
,
p/t), p2(t)
_

t = j p,(t )dt + j p^ft )dt = je'^^'~^^dt + je-'^'dt =105 + 1 = 2,05.


[e'^^^'^^dt = 1,05
,

8.2.
{t^yt^ )

460

31

(. 31.15).
.

. 31.15
. (7)

p(t)

l-q(t)

,a>J\imt--\^--^.
t, '2

"1

'-2

TO

X(t) =

1
/J-/

. 31.16.

Mt)\

t,-t,
t,
. 31.16

t,

461

8.3. 7 ,
= 0,9 . .
. (10),
= 0,9'-0,478.
8.4. 100
.
, 0,85?
. (10)
.

= ^^85; 1 = 1,85; = 0,9995.
8.5.
. ,
:
fx(t)^l

f2(t) = ^t\ f,(t) = \-2t

0<^<1.

. f(t) = q'(t),

4x(t) = t; q,(t) = f; q^(t) = t-f

0<^<1.


p^(t) = \^t; p^(t) = \-t\'

p^(t) = \-t + t^ 0 < / < 1 .

(7)

3f

l-2t

(11)
\ /

21 /

31 /

j _ _ ^ j_^3

l_f^f

462

31

_2(l-t + 2t^-2f+3t^)
(\-f)(\-t-f)
8.6. ,
p^,p2,...,pj (. 31.17).
// /
/

'

IV

///

%
^

.5
^^:::

^ ^

Pwc. 57.77
.
, ,
.
,
.
I ^
^; = 1 - (^1 - 2 >* ""
II
3j I; pjj = ^-^.
III
^ ^; pjjj
=l-(l-pj(l-p^).
IV
^ , pjy = ^-^.
V
III IV; = ^ -pjy.

463

II V
; =
l-(\-pjj)(\-py).
8.7. ,
.

Aj. , . .

^2,
.^.
.
.
, , ,
,
. , S^^,
, (/: = , 1, 2, 3); S^^,
, ,
.

(. 31.18).

^02

2, 1

X,

,
2 +

"^0/

X,
}

1 < 12

,
f

, 1" +
9

//

1 ^^ .

. 31.18

dp,03
=-(^+2);
dt

464

31

%=-,+2,;,+2;
at

% = -,+ ,,+2,,;
at

%=;+2,+,;
^
^J^ = - ^ 3 + A J p , 2 + A , P o 2 + a + 2Ajp,3;

^ = ^,
, . . + : ,.

=^

, ^^
,
. ,
,
, ,

P(t)^\-^pjt).
. . , .
,

(. 31.18), , ,
.
.

465

1. . ., . ., . .
, .: , 1994.
544 ,
2. . , . ., . .
. .: , 2000.
190 .
3. . , : , ,
, ,: , 1980. 551 .
4. . .
. .: ,
1998. 400 ,
5. . ., . .
. ., , 1982. 256 .
6. . . , ,:
, 1993, 294 .
7. . .
. .: , 1982, 255 ,

0,398
3970
3910
3814
3683
3521
3332
3123
2897
2661

3989
3965
3902
3802
3668
3503
3312
3101
2874
2637

3989
3961
3894
3790
8653
3485
3292
3079
2850
2613

3988
3956
3885
3778
3637
3467
3271
3056
2827
2589

1,0 0,2420
2179
1,1
1942
1,2
1714
1,3
1497
1,4
1295
1,5
1,6
1109
0946
1,7
1,8
0790
0656
1,9

2396
2155
1919
1691
1476
1276
1092
0925
0775
0644

2371
2131
1895
1669
1456
1257
1074
0909
0761
0632

2,0 0,0540
0440
2,1
2,2
0355
2,3
0283
2,4
0224
2,5
0175
2,6
0136
0104
2,7
2,8
0079
2,9
0060

0529
0431
0347
0277
0219
0171
0132
0101
0077
0058

3,0 0,0044
3,1
0033
3,2
0024
0017
3,3
3,4
0012
3,5
0009
3,6
0006
3,7
0004
3,8
0003
3,9
0002

0043
0032
0023
0017
0012
0008
0006
0004
0003
0002

JC

0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9

3986
3951
3876
3765
3621
3448
3251
3034
2803
2565

4984
3945
3867
3752
3605
3429
3230
2780
2541

3982
3939
3857
3739
3589
3410
3209
2989
2756
2516

3980
3932
3847
3726
3572
3391
3187
2966
2732
2492

2347
2107
1872
1647
1435
1238
1057
0893
0748
0620

2323
2083
1849
1626
1415
1219
1040
0878
0734
0608

2299
2059
1826
1604
1394
1200
1023
0863
0721
0596

0519
0422
0339
0270
0213
0167
0129
0099
0075
0056

0508
0413
0332
0264
0208
0163
0126
0096
0073
0055

0498
0404
0325
0258
0203
0158
0122
0093
0071
0053

0042
0031
0022
0016
0012
0008
0006
0004
0003
0002

0040
0030
0022
0016

0039
0029
0021
0015

0008
0005
0004
0003
0002

0008
0005
0004
0003
0002

3977
3925
3836
3712
3555
3372
3166
2943
2709
2468

3973
3918
3825
3697
3538
3352
3144
2920
2685
2444

2275
2036
1804
1582
1374
1182
1006
0848
0707
0584

2251 2227
2012 1989
1781 1758
1561 1539
1354 1334
1163 1145
0989 0973
0833 0818
0694 0681
0573 0562

2203
1965
1736
1518
1315
1127
0957
0804
0669
0551

0488
0396
0317
0252
0198
0154
0119
0091
0069
0051

0478
0387
0310
0246
0194
0151
0116
0088
0067
0050

0468 0459
0379 0371
0303 0297
0241 0235
0189 0184
0147 0143
0113
0086 0084
0065 0063
0048 0047

0449
0363
0290
0229
0180
0139
0107
0081
0061
0046

0038
0028
0020
0015
0010
0007
0005
0004
0002
0002

0037
0027
0020
0014
0010
0007
0005
0003
0002
0002

0036
0026
0019
0014
0010
0007
0005
0003
0002
0002

0034
0025
0018
0013
0009
0006
0004
0003
0002
0001

0035
0025
0018
0013
0009
0007
0005
0003
0002
0001

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,9048
0,0905
0,0045
0,0002
0,0001

0,8187
0,1638
0,0164
0,0019
0,0002

0,7408
0,2222
0,0333
0,0033
0,0007
0,0001

1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

0,3679
0,3679
0,1839
0,0613
0,0153
0,0031
0,0005
0,0001

2
0,1353
0,2707
0,2707
0,1804
0,0902
0,0361
0,0120
0.0037
0,0009
0,0002

3
0,0498
0,1494
0,2240
0,2240
0,1680
0,1008
0,0504
0,0216
0,0081
0.0027
0,0008
0,0002
0,0001

0,4
0,6703
0,2681
0,0536
0,0072
0,0016
0,0002

4
0,0183
0,0733
0,1465
0.1954
0,1954
0.1563
0,1042
0,0595
0,0298
0,0132
0,0053
0,0019
0,0006
0.0002
0,0001

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0.9

0.6065
0,3033
0,0758
0,0126
0,0030
0,0004

0,5488
0,3293
0.0988
0,0198
0,0050
0,0007
0,0001

0,4966
0,3476
0,1217
0,0284
0,0077
0,0012
0,0002

0,4493
0,3595
0,1438
0,0383
0,0111
0,0020
0,0003

0,4066
0,3659
0,1647
0,0494

5
0,0067
0,0337
0,0842
0,1404
0,1755
0,1755
0,1462
0,1044
0,0653
0,0363
0,0181
0,0082
0,0034
0,0013
0,0005
0,0002

0,0025 0.0009
0,0149 0,0064
0,0446 0,0223
0,0892 0,0521
0,1339 0,0912
0,1606 0.1277
0,1606 0,1490
0,1377 0.1490
0,1033 0.1304
0,0688 0,1014
0,0413 0,0710
0,0225 0,0452
0,0126 0,0263
0,0052 0,0142
0,0022 0,0071
0,0009 0,0033
0,0003 0,0014
0.0001 0,0006
0,0002
0,0001

8
0,0003
0,0027
0,0107
0,0286
0,0572
0,0916
0,1221
0,1396
0,1396
0,1241
0,0993
0,0722
0,0481
0,0296
0,0169
0,0090
0,0045
0,0021
0,0009
0,0004
0,0002
0,0001

9
0,0001
0,0011
0,0050
0,0150
0,0337
0,0607
0,0911
0,1171
0.1318
0.1318
0,1186
0,0970
0,0728
0,0504
0,0324
0,0194
0,0109
0,0058
0,0029
0,0014
0,0006
0,0003
0,0001

10
0,0000
0,0005
0,0023
0,0076
0,0189
0,0378
0,0631
0,0901
0,1126
0,1251
0,1251
0,1137
0,0948
0,0729
0,0521
0,0347
0,0217
0,0128
0,0071
0,2237
0,0019
0,0009
0,0004
0 0002
0,0001

468

3
1

-~

[) = -^={ -dz
0

0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9

0,00000
03983
07926
11791
15542
19146
22575
25804
28814
31594

00399
04380
08317
12172
15910
19497
22907
26115
29103
31859

00798
04776
08706
12552
16276
19847
23237
26424
29389
32121

01197
05172
09095
12930
16640
20194
23565
26730
29673
32381

01595
05567
09483
13307
17003
20540
23891
27035
29955
32639

01994
05962
09871
13683
17364
20884
24215
27337
30234
32894

02392
06356
10257
14058
17724
21226
24537
27637
30511
33147

1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
1,7
1,8
1,9

34134
36433
38493
40320
41924
43319
44520
45543
46407
47128

34375
36650
38686
40490
42073
43448
44630
45637
46485
47193

34614 34850 35083


36864 37076 37286
38877 39065 39251
40658 40824 40988
42220 42364 42507
43574 43699 43822
44738 44845 44950
45728 45818 45907
46562 46638 46712
47257 47320' "47381

35314
37493
39435
41149
42647
43943
45003
45994
46784
47441

2,0
2,1
2,2
2,3
2,4
2,5
2,6
2,7
2,8
2,9

47725
48214
48610
48928
49180
49379
49534
49653
49744
49813

47778
48257
48645
48956
49202
49396
49547
49664
49752
49819

47831
48300
48679
48983
49224
49413
49560
49674
49760
49825

47882
48341
48713
49010
49245
49430
49573
49683
49767
49831

1^

49903
49984

0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4.

1 3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0

0,49 865
0,49 911
0,49 ?968
0,49 9991
0,49 999997

3,6

47932 47982
48382 48422
48745 48778
49036 49061
49266 49286
49446 49461
49585 49598
49693 49702
49774 49781
49836 49841

1 3,2
3,7

49931
49989

02790
06749
10642
14431
18082
21566
24857
27935
30785
33398

03188
07142
11026
14803
18439
21904
25175
28230
31057
33646

03586
07535
11409
15173
18793
22240
25490
28524
31327
33891

35543 35769
37698 37900
39617 39796
41309 41466
42786 42-922
44062 44179
45154 45254
46080 46164
46856 46926
47500 47558

35993
38100
39973
41621
43056
44295
40352
46246
46995
47615

36214
38298
40147
41774
43189
44408
45449
46327
47062
47670

48030
48461
48809
49086
49305
49477
49609
49711
49788
49846

48077
48500
48840
49111
49324
49492
49621
49720
49795
49851

48124
48537
48870
49134
49343
49506
49632
49728
49801
49856

48169
48574
48899
49158
49361
49520
49643
49736
49807
49861

1 3,3

49952
49993

1 3,4

49966
49995

3,8

3,9

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

0,95

0,99

0,999

2,78
2,57
2,45
2,37
2,31
2,26
2,23
2,20
2,18
2,16
2,15
2,13
2,12
2,11
2,10

4,60
4,03
3,71
3,50
3,36
3,25
3,17
3,11
3,06
3,01
2,98
2,95
2,92
2,90
2,88

8,61
6,86
5,96
5,41
5,04
4,78
4,59
4,4
4,32i
4,22
4,14
4,07
4,02
3,97
3,92

20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
120

0,95

0,99

0,099

2,093
2,064
2,045
2,032
2,023
2,016
2,009
2,001
1,996
1,991
1,987
1,984
1,980
1,960

2,861
2,797
2,756
2,720
2,708
2,692
2,679
2,662
2,649
2,640
2,633
2,627
2,617
2,576

3,883
3,745
3,659
3,600
3,558
3,527
3,502
3,464
8,439
3,418
3,403
3,392
3,374
3,291

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

0,95

0,95

0,999

0,95

0,99

0,999

1,37
1,09
0,92
0,80
0,71
0,65
0,59
0,55
0,52
0,48
0,46
0,44
0,42
0,40
0,39

2,67
2,01
1,62
1,38
1,20
1,08
0,98
0,90
0,83
0,78
0,73
0,70
0,66
0,63
0,60

5,64
3,88
2,98
2,42
2,06
1,80
1,60
1,45
1,33
1,23
1,15
1,67
1,01
0,96
0,92

20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
350
200
250

0,37
0,32
0,28
0,26
0,24
0,22
0,21
0,188
0,174
0,161
0,151
0,143
0,115
0,099
0,089

0,58
0,49
0,43
0,38
0,35
0,32
0,30
0,269
0,245
0,226
0,231
0,198
0,160
0,136
0,120

0,88
0,73
0,63
0,56
0,50
0,46
0,43
0,38
0,34
0,31
0,29
0,27
0,211
0,185
0,162

470

6
F -
(J ,
2 )
= 0,01
1

4052
98,49
34,12
21,20
16,26
13,74
12.25
11,26
10,56
10,04
9,86
9.33
9,07
8,86
8,68
8,53
8,40

4999
99,01
30,81
18,00
13,27
10,9S
9,55
8,65
8,02
7,56
7,20
6,93
6,70
6,51
6,36
6,23
6,11

5403
90,17
29,46
16,69
12,06
9,78
8,45
7,59
6,99
6,55
6,22
5,95
5,74
5,56
5,42
5,29
5,18

^
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

:4
5625
99,25
28,71
15,98
11,39
9,15
7,85
7,01
6,42
5,99
5,67
5,41
5,20
5,03
4,89
4,77
4,67

5764
99,33
28,24
15,52
10,97
8,75
7,46
6,63
6,06
5,64
5,32
5,06
4,86
4,69
4,56
4,44
4,34

5889
99,30
27.91
15,21
10,67
8,47
7,19
6,37
5,80
5,39
5,07
4,82
4,62
4,46
4,32
4,20
4,10

7
5928
99,34
27,67
14,98
10,45
8,26
7,00
6,19
5,62
5,21
4,88
4,65
4,44
4,28
4,14
4,03
3,93

5981
99,36
27,49
14,80
10,27
8,10
6,84
6,03
5,47
5,06
4,74
4,50
4,30
4,14
4,00
3,89
3,79

6022
99,36
27,34
14,66
16,15
7,98
6,71
5,91
5,35
4,95
4,63
4,39
4,19
4,03
3,89
3,78
3,68

10
6056
99,40
27,23
14,54
10,05
7,87
6,62
5,82
5,26
4,85
4,54
4,30
4,10
3,94
3,80
3,69
3,59

11

12

6082
99,41
27,13
14,45
9,96
7,79
6,54
5,74
5,18
4,78
4,46
4,22
4,02
3,86
3,73
3,61
3,52

6106
99,42
27,05
14,37
9,89
7,72
6,47
5,67
5,11
4,71
4,40
4,16
3,96
3,80
3,67
3,55
3,45

11

12

= 0,05
><^
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16
17

161
200
18,51 19,09
10,13 9,55
7,71 6,94
6,61 5,79
5,99 5,14
5,59 4,74
5,32 4.46
5,12 4,26
4,96 4,19
4,84 3,98
4,75 3,88
4,67 3,80
4,60 3,74
4,54 3,68
4,49 3,63
4,45 3,59

3
216
19,16
9,28
6,59
5,41
4,76
4,35
4,07
3,86
3,71
3,59
3,49
3,41
3,34
3,29
3,24
3,20

225 230
19,25 19,30
9,12 9,01
6,39 6,26
5,19 5,05
4,53 4,39
4,12 3,97
3,84 3,69
3,63 3,48
3,48 3,33
3,36 3,20
3,26 3,11
3,18 3,02
3,11 2,96
3,06 2,90
3,01 2,85
2,96 2,81

234
237
19,33 19,36
8,94 8,88
6,16 6,09
4,95 4,88
4,28 4,21
3,87 3,79
3,58 3,50
3,37 3,29
3,22 3,14
3,09 3,01
3,00 2,92
2,92 2,84
2,85 2,77
2,79 2,70
2,74 2,66
2,70 2,62

10

239
19,37
8,84
6,04
4,82
4,15
3,73
3,44
3,23
3,07
2,95
2,85
2,77
2,70
2,64
2,59
2,55

241
19,38
8,81
6,00
4,78
4,10
3,68
3,39
3,18
3,02
2,90
2,80
2,72
2,65
2,59
2,54
2,50

242
19,39
8,78
5,96
4,74
4,06
3,63
3,34
3,13
2,97
2,86
2,76
2,67
2.60
2,55
2,49
2,45

243
19,40
8,76
5,93
4,70
4,03
3,60
3,31
3,10
2,94
2,82
2,72
2,63
2,56
2,51
2,45
2,41

244
19,41
8,74
5,91
4,68
4,00
3,57
3,28
3,07
2,91
2,79
2,69
2,60
2,53
2,48
2,42
2,38

471

7
%


0,01

0,025

0,05

0,95

0,975

0,99

0,0039
0,103
0,352
0,711
1,15
1,64
2,17
2,73
3,33

0,00098
0,051
0,216
0,484
0,831
1,24
1,69
2,18
2,70

0,00016
0,020
0,115
0,297
0,554
0,872
1,24
1,65
2,09

3,25
3,82
4,40
5,01
5,63
6,26
6,91
7,56
8,23
8,91

2,56
3,05
3,57
4,11
4,66
5,23
5,81
6,41
7,01
7,63

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

6,6
9,2
11,3
13,3
15,1
16,8
18,5
20,1
21,7

5,0
7,4
9,4
11,1
12,8
14,4
16,0
17,5
19,0

3,8
6,0
7,8
9,5
11,1
12,6
14,1
15,5
16,9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

23,2
24,7
26,2
27,7
29,1
30,6
32,0
33,4
34,8
36,2

20,5
21,9
23,3
24,7
26,1
27,5
28,8
30,2
31,5
32,9

18,3
19,7
21,0
22,4
23,7
25,0
26,3
27,6
28,9
30,1

3,94
4,57
5,23
5,89
6,57
7,26
7,96
8,67
9,39
10,1

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

37,6
38,9
40,3
41,6
43,0
44,3
45,6
47,0
48,3
49,6

34,2
35,5
36,8
38,1
39,4
40,6
41,9
43,2
44,5
45,7

31,4
32,7
33,9
35,2
36,4
37,7
38,9
40,1
41,
42,6

10,9
11,6
12,3
13,1
13,8
14,6
15,4
16,2
16,9
17,7

9,59
10,3
11,0
11,7
12,4
13,1
13,8
14,6
15,3
16,0

8,26
8,90
9,54
10,2
10,9
11,5
12,2
12,9
13,6
14,3

30

50,9

47,0

43,8

18,5

16,8

15,0

( )
0,01

0,025

0,05

0,95

0,975

0,99

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

6,31
2,92
2,35
2,13
2,01
1,94
1,89
1,86
1,83

12,7
4,30
3,18
2,78
2,57
2,45
2,36
2,31
2,26

31,82
6,97
4,54
3,75
3,37
3,14
3,00
2,90
2,82

63,7
9,92
5,84
4,60
4,03
3,71
3,50
3,36
3,25

318,3
22,33
10,22
7,17
5,89
5,21
4,79
4,50
4,30

637,0
31,6
12,9
8,61
6,86
5,96
5,40
5,04
4,78

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

1,81
1,80
1,78
1,77
1,76
1,75
1,75
1,74
1,73
1,73

2,23
2,20
2,18
2,16
2,14
2,13
2,12
2,11
2,10
2,09

2,76
2,72
2,68
2,65
2,62
2,60
2,58
2,57
2,55
2,54

3,17
3,11
3,05
3,01
2,98
2,95
2,92
2,90
2,88
2,86

4,14
4,03
3,93
3,85
3,79
3,73
3,69
3,65
3,61
3,58

4,59
4,44
4,32
4,22
4,14
4,07
4,01
3,96
3,92
3,88

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

1,73
1,72
1,72
1,71
1,71
1,71
1,71
1,71
1,70
1,70

2,09
2,08
2,07
2,07
2,06
2,06
2,06
2,05
2,05
2,05

2,53
2,52
2,51
2,50
2,49
2,49
2,48
2,47
2,46
2,46

2,85
2,83
2,82
2,81
2,80
2,79
2,78
2,77
2,76
2,76

3,55
3,53
3,51
3,49
3,47
3,45
3,44
3,42
3,40
3,40

3,85
3,82
3,79
3,77
3,74
3,72
3,71
3,69
3,66
3,66

30
40
60
120

1,70
1,68
1,67
1,66
1,64

2,04
2,02
2,00
1,98
1,96

2,46
2,42
2,39
2,36
2,33

2,75
2,70
2,66
2,62
2,58

3,39
3,31
3,23
3,17
3,09

3,65
3,55
3,46
3,37
3,29

0,05

0,025

0,01

0,005

0,001

0,0005

( )

473

9

, / )

2
3
4

6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
24
30
40
60
120

= 0,01
1
0,9999
9933
9676
0,9279
8828
8376
0,7945
7544
7175
0,6528
5747
4799
0,4247
3632
2940
0,2151
1225
0000

0,9950
9423
8643
0,7885
7218
6644
0,6152
5727
5358
0,4751
4069
3297
0,2871
2412
1915
0,1371
0759
0000

0,9794
8831
7814
0,6957
6258
5685
0,5209
4810
4469
0,3919
3317
2654
0.2295
1913
1508
0,1069
0585
0000

4
0,9586
8335
7212
0,6329
5635
5080
0,4627
4251
3934
0.3428
2882
2288
0,1970
1635
1281
0,0902
0489
0000

0.9172
7606
6410
0,5531
4866
4347
0,3932
3592
3308
0.2861
2386
1877
0,1608
1327
1033
0,0722
0387
0000

0,8988
7335
6129
0,5259
4608
4105
0.3704
3378
3106
0,2680
2228
1748
0.1495
1232

36

144

0,6062
4230
3251
0,2644
2229
1929
0,1700
1521
1376
0,1157
0934
0709
0,0595
0480
0363
0,0245
0125
0000

0,9373
7933
6761
0,5875
5195
4659
0,4226
3870
3572
0.3099
2593
2048
0,1759
1454
1135
0,0796
0429
0000

0957 1
0,0668
0357
0000

= 0,01

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
24
30
40
60
120

8
0,8823
7107
5897
0,5037
4401
3911
0,3522
3207
2945
0,2535
2104
1646
0,1406
1157
0898
0,0625
0334
0000

9
0,8674
6912
5702
0,4854
4229
3751
0,3373
3067
2813
0,2419
2002
1567
0,1338
1100
0853
0,0594
0316
0000

10

16

0,8539

0,7949

0,7067

6743
5536
0,4697
4084
3616
0,3248
2950
2704
0,2320
1918
1501
0,1283
1054
0816
0,0567
0302
0000

6059
4884
0.4094
3529
3105
0,2779
2514
2297
0,1961
1612
1248
0,1060
0867
0668
0,0461
0242
0000

5153
4057
0,3351
2858
2494
0,2214
1992
1811
0,1535
1251
0960
0,0810
0658
0503
0,0344
0178
0000

0.5000
3333
2500
0,2000
1667
1429
0,1250
1111
1000
0,0833
0667
0500
0,0417
0333
0250
0,0167
0083
0000

474

()

= 0,05

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
24
30
40
60
120

1
0,9985
9669
9065
0,8412
7808
7271
0,6798
6385
6020
0,5410
4709
3894
0,3434
2929
2370
0,1737
0998
0000

0,9750
8709
7679
0,6338
6161
5612
0,5157
4775
4450
0,3924
3346
2705
0,2354
1980
1576
0,1131
0632
0000

0,9392
7977
6841
0,5981
5321
4800
0,4377
4027
3733
0,3624
2758
2205
0,1907
1593
1259
0,0895
0495
0000

4
0,9057
7457
6287
0,5440
4803
4307
0,3910
3584
3311
0,2880
2419
1921
0,1656
1377
1082
0,0765
0419
0000

5
0,8772
7071
5895
0,5063
4447
3974
0,3595
3286
3029
0,2624
2195
1735
0,1493
1237
0968
0,0682
0371
0000

6
0,8534
6771
5598
0,4783
4184
3726
0,3362
3067
2823
0,2439
2034
1602
0,1374
1137
0887
0,0623
0337
0000

7
0,8332
6530
5365
0,4564
3980
3535
0,3185
2901
2666
0,2299
1911
1501
0,1286
1061
0827 !
0,0583 1
0312
0000

= 0,05
^
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
15
20
24
30
40
60
120

0,8159
6333
5175
0,4387
3817
3384
0,3043
2768
2541
0,2187
1815
1422
0,1216
1002
0780
0,0552
0292
0000

0,8010
6167
5017
0,4241
3682
3259
0,2926
2659
2439
0,2098
1736
1357
0,1160
0958
0745
0,0520
0279
0000

10
0,7880
6025
4884
0,4118
3568
3154
0,2829
2568
2353
0,2020
1671
1303
0,1113
0921
0713
0,0497
0266
0000

16
0,7341
5466
4366
0,3645
3135
2756
0,2462
2226
2032
0,1737
1429
1108
0,0942
0771
0595
0,0411
0218
0000

36
0,6602
4748
3720
0,3066
2612
2278
0,2022
1820
1655
0,1403
1144
0879
0,0743
0604
0462
0,0316
0165
0000

144
0,5813
4031
3093
0,2013
2119
1833
0,1616
1446
1308
0,1100
0889
0675
0,0567
0457
0347
0,0234
0120
0000

0,5000
3333
2500

0,2000 1
1667
1429
0,1250
1111
1000
0,0833
0667
0500
0,0417
0333
0250
0,0167
0083
0000

475

10

10
37
08
99
12

09
54
42
01
80

73
20
26
90
79

25
48
89
25
99

33
05
53
29
70

76
64
19
09
80

52
89
64
37
15

01
47
50
67
73

35
42
93
07
61

86
96
03
15
47

34
24
23
38
64

67
80
20
31
03

35
52
90
13
23

48
40
25

66

76
37
60
65
53

80
20
15
88
98

95
63
95
67
95

90
61
33
67

91
04
47
43
68

17
02
64
97
77

66
31
85
63
73

06
06
26
57
79

57
01
97
33
64

47
08
76
21
57

17
05
02
35
53

34
45
02
05
03

07
57
05
32
52

27
18
16
54
96

68
24
56
70
47

50
06
92
48
78

36
35
68
90
35

69
30
66
55
80

73
34
57
35
83

61
26
48
75
42

70
14
18
48
82

65
86
73
28
60

81
79
05
46
93

33
90
38
82
52

98
74
52
87
03

85
39
47
09
44

98
11
83
88
99

52
80
45
68
59

01
50
29
54
46

77
54
96
02
73

67
31
34
00
48

14
39
06
86
87

90
80
28
50
51

56
82
89
75
76

86
77
80
84
49

07
32
83
01
69

22
50
13
36
91

10
72
74
76
82

94
56
67
66
60

05
82
00
79
89

58
48
78
51
28

60
29
18
90
93

97
40
47
36
78

09
52
54
47
56

34
42
06
64
13

33
01
10
93
68

65
80
74
69
09

48
12
35
91
89

43
09
62
32

76
56
98
68
05

74
35
17
03
05

17
17
77
66
14

46
72
40
25
22

85
70
27
22
56

09
80
72
91
85

50
15
14
48
14

58
45
43
36
46

04
31
23
93
42

77
82
60
68
75

69
23
02
72
67

74
74
10
03
88

73
21
45
76
96

03

52
62
29

95
57
16

77

71
82
42
39
88

86
53
37
90
22

91
80
44
12
63

49
33
10
55
60

91
69
48
07
64

45
45
19
37
93

23
98
49
42
29

68
26
85
11
16

47
94
15
10
50

92
03
74
00
53

76
68
79
20
44

86
58
54
40
84

46
70
32
12
40

16
29
97
86
21

28
73
92
07
95

35
41
65
46
25

54
35
75
97
63

94
53
57
96
43

75
14
60
64
65

08
03
04
48
17

99
33
08
94
70

23
40
81
39
82

61
15
94
42
23

19
47
55
48
52

69
44
72
11
37

04
52
85
62
83

46
66
73
13
17

26
95
67
97
73

45
27
89
34
20

74
07
75
40
88

77
99
43
87
98

74
53
87
21
37

51
59
54
16
68

92
36
62
86
93

43
78
24
84
59

37
38
44
87
14

29
48
31
67
16

65
82
91
03
26

39
39
19
07
25

45
61
04

22

95
01
25
20
96

93
18
92
59
63

04
00
35
59
46

49
54
96
80
05

35
99
31
80
88

24
76
53
83
52

94
54
07
91
36

75
64
26
45
01

24
05
89
42
39

63
18
80
72
09

38
81
93
68
22

24
59
54
42
86

45
96
33
83
77

86
11
35
60
28

25
96
13
94
14

10
38
54
97
40

25
96
62
00
77

61
54
77
13
93

96
69
97
02
91

27
28
45
12
08

93
23
00
48
36

35
91
24
92
47

32
69
19
45
94

17
23
56
15
86

90
46
54
51
43

05
14
14
49
19

97
06
30
38
94

87
20
01
19
36

37
11
75
47
16

92
74
87
60
81

52
52
53
72
08

41
04
79
46
51

05
15
40
43
34

56
95
41
66
88

70
66
92
79
88

70
00
15
45
15

07
00
85
43
53

86
18
66
59
01

74
74
67
04
54

31
39
43
79
03

71
24
68
00
54

57
23
06
33
56

476

11
"

0,80

0,85

0,90

0,95

0,96

0,97

1,64

2,08

2,71

3,84

4,21

4,49

0,98

0,99

0,995

0,999

0,9995

0,9999

5,43

6,61

7,9

10,9

12,25

15,2

ISBN 5-7325-0769-8

9ll785732ll507690





3
. .
. .
4. .
. .
. . , . .
010292 18.08.98
22.05.03. 13.08.03.
60x90 7,^. . . Times New Roman.
. . . 30,0. .-. . 29,1. 3000 . . 2850.
"".
191023, -, ., 6.

. . . .
185()05, . , . , 4.