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Option 1

Chapter 1
Exercise 1.1
1 a) P(x 2) = 0.5248, P(1 x b) E(X) = 1.6, Var(X) = 0.96 c) E(Y) = 5.8, Var(Y) = 3.84 2 a) b) c) d) e) 3 a) 3) = 0.8448 8 a) E(2X + Y) = 2 7 + 2 , Var(2X + Y) = 22 b) E(X 3Y) = 7 6, Var(X 3Y) = 23 c) E(2X + 3Y) = 2 7 + 6 , Var(2X + 3Y) = 38 d) E(2X 3Y) = 2 7 6 , Var(2X 3Y) = 38 0.193 P(12 < x 14) = 0.743, P(x 14) = 0.263 E(X) = 13.452, Var(X) = 2.222 E(Y) = 26.904, Var(Y) = 8.888 E(Z) = 26.904, Var(Z) = 4.444 x 1 2 3 4 5 6 p(x) 0.166 667 0.166 667 0.166 667 0.166 667 0.166 667 0.166 667 y 1 2 3 4 p(y) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 c) 9 a) E(l) = 1.01, variance = 0.0024 b) l

P(l) 0.36 0.48 0.16 P(l)


E(l) = 2.02, variance = 0.0048

2.1 2 1.9 l

2.85 0.064 2.95 0.288 3.05 0.432 3.15 0.216 E(l) = 3.03, variance = 0.0072
10 a) 0.298 11 0.007 12 0.560 b) 0.227 c) 0.298

b) Mean (of x) = 3.5, variance = 2.917; mean (of y) = 2.5, variance = 1.25 c) x 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p(x) 0.041 667 0.083 333 0.125 0.166 667 0.166 667 0.166 667 0.125 0.083 333

Practice questions
1 a) 0.841 b) (i) 0.0681 2 0.164 3 a) l = 3 b) 0.647 d) (i) Mean = 7, variance = 11 (ii) Not Po 4 a) 10 5 a) 0.944 b) 12 b) Verify (ii) 0.0828 c) 7 c) 0.265 (ii) 0.0312 (iii) 0.932

d) 35

d) Mean = 6, variance = 4.167 4 E(V) = 3.5, standard deviation = 0.285 5 a) 0.1 6 a) b) c) d) b) 3.2 c) 1.68 d) 16 e) 21.84 E(X + Y) = 10, Var(X + Y) = 3 E(X Y) = 4, Var(X Y) = 3 E(2X + 3Y) = 27, Var(2X + 3Y) = 17 E(2X 3Y) = 15, Var(2X 3Y) = 17

6 a) (i) Mean = 0.5, variance = 0.13 b) 0.904 7 a) 0.0548 3 8 a) (i) __ 2 b) 0.432 b) 0.993 11 (ii) ___ 9

125 (iii) ___ 36

7 a) E(X + Y) = 7 + 13 , Var(X + Y) = 5 b) E(X Y) = 7 13 , Var(X Y) = 5 c) E(2X + 3Y) = 2 7 + 3 13 , Var(2X + 3Y) = 35 d) E(2X 3Y) = 2 7 3 13 , Var(2X 3Y) = 35

Chapter 2
Exercise 2.1
1 a) 8 2 a) 1 5 3 c) 5 b) 16 c) 5 7 b) Mean = 15, standard deviation = 2 2

Answers

4 1 1 3 a) 10 1 c) 900 4 a) 6.5 5 a) 4.5 b) E(V) = 4.5, variance = 8.25 d) 2 5 c) 0.076 c) 0.078 5 a) 0.0951 6 a) 0.491 b) 0.209 b) 0.084 c) 0.890 c) 0.088 d) 2

b) 11.92 b) 5.25

7 a) (i) 0.0256 (iii) 0.662 b) 1.87 8 a) (i) 0.420 b) (i) 2.14 9 8

(ii) 0.154 (iv) 0.462 (ii) 0.028 (ii) 14.29 hours (iii) 0.937

Exercise 2.2
1 a) 0.148 2 a) 0.007 87 b) 0.538 b) 0.0238 c) 0.686 c) 0.984 d) 3.125 3 E(N) = 125; no; standard deviation = 124.5 3 6 6 b) c) 4 a) 21 21 21 d) 4.33 e) 2.22 f) 6 5 a) 3.3 6 a) (i) 0.7 b) (i) 0.059 7 a) 0.2 b) 1 (ii) 0.6 (ii) 1 c) 0.657 (iii) 4.5 (iii) 2.64 c) 0.328 (iv) 8.25

10 a) By chance, P(at most 1 non-native) = 0.187; no reason for doubt. b) By chance, P(at most 2 females) = 0.314; no reason for doubt. c) E(N) = 2.4, standard deviation = 1.03 d) E(N) = 3, standard deviation = 1.05 11 a) 0.491 12 a) x P(X = x) 0 0.399 1 0.461 2 0.132 3 0.0088 b) 0.150

b) E(X) = 5, Var(X) = 20

8 a) 0.141 b) 0.316 c) E(N) = 4, standard deviation = 3.464 9 a) 0.0527 10 a) 8 11 a) 0.128 b) 0.284 b) 0.573 b) 0.107 c) 0.0648 d) 0.714

b) E(X) = 0.75, Var(X) = 0.503 c) 0.601

Practice questions
1 a) Answers vary c) 0.0768 2 a) 0.684 b) Mean = 33.3, variance = 22.2 b) 0.0244 c) Answers vary

Exercise 2.3
1 a) 0.1298 b) 0.1101 c) E(N) = 13.33, standard deviation = 2.108 2 a) 0.125 3 a) 0.005 67 4 a) 0.106 5 13.33 6 0.138 7 a) 0.080 b) E(V) = 20, standard deviation = 46.7 8 a) 0.09 b) 0.0437 c) 0.991 d) (i) Mean = 1.11, standard deviation = 0.351 (ii) Mean = 3.33, standard deviation = 0.609 9 a) b) c) d) e) (i) 0.6 (ii) 0.096 (i) 0.360 (ii) 0.092 0.173 E(N) = 1.67, standard deviation = 1.054 E(N) = 5, standard deviation = 1.826 b) 0.125 b) 0.052 92 b) 0.0885 c) 0.1182 c) 0.0938

Chapter 3
Exercise 3.1
1 a) 1 8 b) Mean = 2, variance = 16 3 3k 1 6

2 a) Mean = b)

23 3 3b a a+b 3 a) Mean = , standard deviation = 6 2 b) a = 3, b = 9 4 a) 0.565 5 a) 0.381 b) 18.9% b) 0.147 c) 0.145

(k 1)2 1+ k , standard deviation = = 12 2

6 a) 0.223 b) 0.865 c) 1st quartile = 0.575, median = 1.386, 3rd quartile = 2.773 7 a) 0.865 b) 0.233 8 a) E(T) = 4 seconds, standard deviation = 4 seconds b) 0.632 c) 0.320 9 0.671 10 a) 0.632 b) (i) 0.441 (ii) 0.693 c) 78 tons

10 a) 0.081 b) 0.0098 c) E(N) = 30, standard deviation = 16.43 d) E(N) = 1767, standard deviation = 739.35

Exercise 2.4
1 a) 0.148 3 a) 0.288 b) 0.439 b) 0.216 c) 0.899 c) 0.965 d) 0.251 2 E(N) = 2.60, standard deviation = 0.875

11 a) 0.223 b) Median lifetime = 13.863, standard deviation = 20 c) 21.97

Chapter 4
Exercise 4.1
1 a) 0.338 2 a) 0.0594 3 a) 34.1% b) 0.053 b) 0 c) 0.9973

3 ( 0.0412, 0.072 29) 4 92.5% 5 a) (995.88, 1000.1) 6 a) (1002.48, 1072.52) 7 28 9 (0.743, 2.424) 11 (13.84, 20.28) 13 (0.1875, 0.2234) 15 16 16 a) 0.9996 17 (0.106, 0.425) b) 3 b) 57.77% b) 57 8 (21.1, 21.6) 10 (0.643, 0.734) 12 68 14 1068

b) 36.65 weeks 2 c) Normal with = 38, = 120 d) 0 e) a) and b) will change, while c) and d) will not

4 a) No b) No, sample too small for the central limit theorem (CLT) c) Yes, CLT applies, p = 0.039 5 a) 1 6 5.06 7 a) 0.399 b) 0.154; the companys claim is ne. 8 a) 0.223 b) 0.460 c) Cannot nd probability as the sample size is too small. 9 a) (i) 0.683 10 a) 0.001 87 (ii) 0.904 b) [932.95, 987.05] (iii) 0.992 b) 4

Practice questions
1 984 2 (2.703, 2.707) 3 a) (i) 87.03 (ii) 215.58 b) (i) (86.22, 88.04) (ii) (86.37, 87.89) c) Greater confidence leads to less precision 4 (3.04, 4.36) 5 a) Mean = 33.18, variance = 3.22 6 a) 96 b) 99.0% (iii) (0.422, 0.478) 7 a) (i) 0.45 (ii) 0.0144 b) Random sampling 8 a) (x
_

11 a) 0.837 b) No, as the sample size is too small for CLT to apply. 12 0.146 13 a) 0.009 52 b) This is so unlikely to happen. We can conclude that the claim may underestimate the true defective rate. 14 a) 0.004 40 b) This is so unlikely to happen. We can conclude that the claim may overestimate the true relief rate. 15 Approximately 0 16 22% 17 0.0548 18 a) 0.244 19 0.003 35 20 a) 0.864 21 1 22 a) 0.369 23 p 7.37, 1.72 b) 0.004 91 b) 0.941 b) 0.271

b) (32.1, 34.2)

1.91, x + 1.91) b) 99.0% b) = 13.7; inconsistent b) 9576 b) 10

9 a) (11.8, 13.4) 10 a) (0.498, 0.557) 11 a) 98.2%

Chapter 6
Exercise 6.1
1 There is evidence of change, p-value = 0.0339 2 There is no statistical evidence at the 1% level of significance, p-value = 1.51% 3 There is statistical evidence at the 2% level of significance, p-value = 0.274% 4 There is no statistical evidence at the 3% level of significance, p-value = 13.350% 5 There is no statistical evidence at the 5% level of significance to conclude that the wire is gold, p-value = 74.6% 6 a) There is no statistical evidence at the 5% level of significance (p-value = 38.8%) that the packs are underweight. b) There is statistical evidence at the 5% level of significance (p-value = 2.64%) that the packs are underweight. 7 a) H0: p = 0.03, H1: p > 0.03. p-value = 42.7%; we do not have statistical evidence to conclude that the rate of cancer cases has increased. b) Type II c) 73.1% 8 a) H0: p = 0.30, H1: p > 0.30. p-value = 0.02%; we have statistical evidence to conclude that the number of hospital stays has increased.
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Chapter 5
Exercise 5.1
1 a) b) c) d) e) 2 a) b) c) d) e) Mean = 79.333, standard deviation = 10.137 Mean = 0.276, standard deviation = 0.663 Mean = 73.067, standard deviation = 13.554 Mean = 47, standard deviation = 19.472 Mean = 66.692, standard deviation = 36.871 Mean = 499.54, standard deviation = 1.893 (498.50, 500.58) Companys claim is acceptable (498.07, 501.01) 2.08, 2.94 f) (498.44, 500.64)

Answers

b) Type I. We conclude that hospital stays have increased when they actually did not. c) 31.4%. We conclude that the number of hospital stays has not increased when it actually did. 9 a) H0: p = 0.54, H1: p < 0.54. p-value = 2.6%; we have statistical evidence at the 5% level of significance to conclude that consumer confidence is lower in 2009 than it was before. b) 9.21% 10 a) H0: = 3.2, H1: < 3.2. Rejection region: t < 1.761, t = 1.81, p-value = 4.6%; we have statistical evidence to conclude that shop sales have decreased. b) 79.7%. We conclude that the sales have not decreased when they actually did. 11 a) H0: = 24.1, H1: > 24.1. Rejection region: t > 1.66, t = 1.71, p-value = 4.5%; we have statistical evidence to conclude that the age of the consumer has increased. b) 62.96%. We conclude that the average age has not increased when it actually did. 12 H0: = 11.1, H1: > 11.1. p-value = 0.2%; we have statistical evidence to conclude that the companys efforts are successful. 13 Matched pairs test. p-value = 2.4%; we have enough evidence that there is a difference in fuel consumption between the two car types. 14 Matched pairs test (absolute values!). p-value = 0; we conclude that the difference is more than 0.003 and hence they will not purchase the hydrostatic instruments. Type I error means that we will conclude that the difference is more than 0.003 and end up not purchasing the hydrostatic instruments; while Type II error means that we fail to see that the difference is more than 0.003 and end up purchasing the hydrostatic instruments. 15 a) Matched pairs test. p-value = 1.2%; we have statistical evidence to conclude that the passenger appears to have the worst seat. b) 59%. We conclude that there is no difference in injury between the passenger and the driver when in fact there is a difference. 30 16 a) P x > 762.34 | = 750, = < 0.05, and hence we 16 reject H0. b) p-value = 2.28%, and hence we reject H0. c) 15.4% 896 15 54 172 896 2 2 = 59.73, sn 1 = = 46.50. 17 x = 15 15 14 15 H0: = 60, H1: < 60. p-value = 44%; we do not have statistical evidence to reject the companys claim.

2 a) 0.369 b) 0.146 c) (i) 0.714 (ii) $1716.60 d) No evidence of change of standards. e) Cannot reject the hypothesis that the data is N(68, 9). 3 a) Differences (d): 1.5, 0.6, 0.3, 0.2, 2.0, 0.6, 1.5, 0.1, 0.5, 0.4. b) (i) H0: d = 0, H1: d < 0 (ii) p-value = 0.0139 > 0.01; insufficient evidence to conclude that Puzzle 2 takes longer than Puzzle 1. b) p-value = 0.0530 4 a) H0: p = 0.75, H1: p < 0.75 c) (i) Reject H0 (ii) Do not reject H0 5 a) H0: = 30, H1: 30 b) p-value = 0.114; do not reject H0 c) t-test since population is normal and variance unknown. 6 a) H0: p = 0.5, H1: p > 0.5 b) (i) Critical region (ii) Probability of finding a sample with p 0.733 when the population has p = 0.5. The observed significance level in this case is 0.0592. c) P(Type II) = P(X 10| p = 0.6) = 0.783 d) (i) Type II (ii) Conclusion will be that the coin is fair when it is not. 7 a) H0: d = 5, H1: d < 5 (matched pairs) b) (i) p-value = 0.0447; cannot reject at 1% level. (ii) Reject at 10% c) Randomness and normality 8 Matched pairs. H0: d = 0, H1: d 0. p-value = 0.0320; claim cannot be justified. 9 a) Critical (rejection) region b) (i) 0.242 (ii) 0.341 10 Matched pairs. H0: = 0, H1: > 0. p-value = 0.004 09; there is enough evidence to support claim. 11 a) 0.0668 b) 9.53 c) H0: = 75, H1: > 75. p-value = 0.001 86; reject H0. 12 a) 65 b) In both cases, H0: p = 0.5, H1: p 0.5. (i) Amanda: X ~ B(3, 0.5); P(Type I) = P(X = 0 or 3) = 0.25 Roger: X ~ B(8, 0.5); P(Type I) = P(X 6 or X 2) = 0.289 Amanda has the smaller Type I probability. (ii) P(Type II) = P( 3 X 5| p = 0.6) = 0.635 13 a) Matched pairs. H0: d = 0, H1: d > 0. b) p-value = 0.0295; we have enough evidence to conclude that practice sessions improve ability to memorize digits. 14 a) (i) [15.0, [ (ii) [15.8, [ b) (i) 0.440 (ii) 0.702 c) As P(Type I) decreases P(Type II) increases.

Practice questions
1 a) 0.692 b) 320 ml c) 0.004 91 d) Enough evidence that the volume is more than 330 ml. e) (330.43, 335.13) f) The evidence is that the volume is not the required one. g) (0.544, 0.896)
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Chapter 7
Exercise 7.1
1 Frequency = 80 per day. p-value = 0.016; we can conclude that the differences are significant. 2 p-value = 0.003; we can conclude that the differences are significant.

3 p-value = 0.201; we cannot reject H0. There is no evidence that the coins are biased. 4 p-value = 0.187; we cannot reject H0. There is no evidence that the distribution is not binomial. 5 p-value = 0.350; we cannot reject H0. There is no evidence that the distribution is not a Poisson distribution. 6 p-value = 0.145; we cannot reject H0. There is no evidence that the distribution is not a normal distribution. To modify the test, we would estimate the mean and variance from the sample and subtract two more degrees of freedom: 7 2 = 5. 7 Channel ARD ZDF RTL North 27.5 12.5 10 East 16.5 7.5 6 South 44 20 16 West 22 10 8

5 a) This is a t-test of the difference of two means (Not in syllabus). Since t = 1.686 < 2.460, we reject H0. Hence, Group B gains weight faster. b) Computed 2 = 3.469 < 5.99 and hence we do not have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis; therefore, there is no evidence to say that the distribution is not normal with a mean of 380. 6 a) Students own description (reference Chapter 7) b) 133.5, 56.3 c) a = 9, b = 20, c = 9 ( f fe )2 = 1.0847 d) 2 = o fe e) H0: the distribution of tree heights is normally distributed. H1: the distribution is not normal. The critical number is 11.0705. Since 2 = 1.0847 < 11.0705, we fail to reject H0. Conclusion: we do not have enough evidence to claim that the distribution of tree heights is not normal. 7 a) 2 test for independence. b) Computed 2 = 11.25 > 5.99 and we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that we have evidence that drinking coffee has an effect on sleeping pattern. 8 Computed 2 = 0.920 < 15.507. We do not have enough evidence to reject H0. Hence, we do not have enough evidence of association between the day of production and the quality of the part. 9 a) (i) Computed 2 = 11.3 > 11.07. We reject the null hypothesis and hence conclude that the die seems to be unfair. (ii) Computed 2 = 11.3 < 15.086. We cannot reject the null hypothesis that the die seems to be fair. b) Students explanation (reference Chapter 6) 10 p-value = 0.179; we cannot reject H0 that the percentage is the same in all four professions. 11 a) Computed 2 = 7 < 16.919 and we cannot reject the null hypothesis that the sequence contains equal numbers of each digit. b) The probability of concluding that the sequence does not contain equal numbers of each digit when it does is 5%. 12 a) (i) 1.98 (ii) 0.33 b) p-value = 0.668; we cannot reject the hypothesis that the binomial distribution provides a good fit for the data. 13 a) H0: there is no association between classification in exams and gender. b) Male Female c) 4.03 d) Degrees of freedom = 2, p-value = 0.133; we cannot reject H0. There is insufficient evidence, at the 5% level, to conclude that there is any association between classification and gender. Distinction 31.6 22.4 Pass 68.5 48.5 Fail 12.9 9.12

p-value = 3.6%; we have enough evidence to reject H0 at the 5% level of significance and conclude that there is some association between channel and region. 8 p-value = 0.281; we fail to reject H0. We do not have evidence of any association between gender and exam classification. 9 p-value 0; we reject H0 and conclude that we have evidence that the percentage of children taking up their parents profession is not the same in every profession. 10 p-value 0; we reject H0 and conclude that we have evidence that there is a relationship between the age of a user and the number of purchases he/she makes per year. 11 p-value = 0.212; we cannot reject H0. We do not have evidence to claim that pigeons have any preference in choosing the direction of the flight after being disoriented. 12 p-value = 0.102; we cannot reject H0. We do not have evidence to reject the claim that the data is N(5, 0.0004). 13 p-value = 0.148; we cannot reject H0. We do not have evidence to reject the claim that the data is N(4.997, 0.000 566).

Practice questions
2

1 Computed = 79.43 > 9.49 and hence we reject H0. The cost of the vehicle is not independent of the number of complaints.

2 a) p (80.5 X 90.5) = 0.1455 Fe = 4000 0.1455 582 ; others are similar. b) Computed 2 = 53.0 > 14.07 and hence we reject H0. We have enough evidence to suggest that the normal distribution with mean 100 and standard deviation 10 does not fit the data well. 3 Computed 2 = 1.628 < 3.84. We do not have enough evidence to reject H0. Hence, we do not have enough evidence to support the claim that flu injections help reduce the number of people suffering from colds. 4 Computed 2 = 42.252 > 12.592 and we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that we have evidence that there is some association between nicotine and alcohol consumption.

Answers

14 a) p1 = 0.0784, p2= 0.2160, p3 = 0.2960, p4 = 0.280, p5 = 0.1296 b) Computed = 4.8245 < 7.815 and we cannot reject the null hypothesis. 15 a) Verify b) n is large for the CLT to apply c) (i) Computed 2 = 7.94 < 11.07. We cannot reject H0; data fit N(0, 1). (ii) Type I error: concluding that the data do not fit N(0, 1) when in fact they do. Type II error: concluding that data fit N(0, 1) when in fact they do not. 16 a) f(x) > 0, b) Computed 2 = 12.0 > 7.815. We reject the null hypothesis, i.e. f is not an appropriate model for the data. 17 a) 2.16 b) (i) H0: Poisson law provides a suitable model. H1: Poisson law does not provide a suitable model. (ii) Computed 2 = 5.35 < 13.277. We cannot reject H0; Poisson law may provide a suitable model. 18 a) Verify b) Computed 2 = 1.83 < 9.488. We cannot reject H0; Poisson law may provide a suitable model. 2

19 a) H0: distribution is B(6, 0.5); H1: distribution is not B(6, 0.5). p-value = 0.266; we cannot reject H0. b) Estimate p from the data, which would entail the loss of one degree of freedom. c) p-value = 0.001 29; we have enough evidence to reject H0. 20 H0: data can be modelled by exponential distribution with mean 100 hours. H1: data cannot be modelled by exponential distribution with mean 100 hours. p-value = 0.309; we cannot reject H0. Data can be modelled by an exponential distribution with mean 100 hours. 21 a) 2.725 b) p-value = 0.0662; we cannot reject H0. Data can be modelled by a Poisson distribution. 22 a) Mean = 1.71, variance = 0.0036 b) (i) H0: data can be modelled by a normal distribution. H1: data cannot be modelled by a normal distribution. (ii) p-value = 0.35; we cannot reject H0. The data can be modelled by a normal distribution.

f (x ) dx = 1.