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July-December,2010 Vol. I Issue No. 2 Kapurthala

A half yearly Newsletter of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala  Seminar on warehousing development Act  Skill development programme for Women  SAC meeting  Farmer s success story  Potassium status of soils  On farm trials  Promising technologies y Maize hybrid seed production y Intercropping in orchards


From Editors desk

Agriculture in India is the pivotal sector for ensuring food and nutritional security, sustainable development and for alleviation of rural poverty. Our agriculture did extremely well and it was on the ascendancy till the mid nineties but after that the growth slowed down. Since 1996-97 the growth rate of agricultural GDP has been, on an average, 1.75 % per year in contrast with the rate of 4% that is required. It is the key factor for generating employment opportunities for the vast majority of the population. The agriculture sector, as a whole, has been confronted with numerous challenges linked to food and energy crisis coupled with climate change and degradation of natural resources. Similarly, the farmer is facing rising input costs, declining returns from the inputs, uncertain market, increasing role of market in agriculture and blurring of distinction between the domestic market and the international market. To assist the farmer in these changing contexts new strategies and innovative solutions are urgently required which in turn will require technological support. In response to emerging challenges KVK mandate has also broadened with time. From vocational training, the focus shifted to On-farm testing during 1990s,: to technology assessment and refinement in 2000 and as knowledge centre and resource centre in 2009. The KVKs at present are involved in the  On farm testing to identify the location specificity of agricultural technologies under various farming systems.  Frontline demonstration to establish the production potential of improved agricultural technologies on the farmers field  Training of farmers to update their knowledge and skill in various aspects of agriculture, training of extension personnel to orient them in the frontier areas of technology development  Works as knowledge and resource centre of agricultural technology for supporting initiative of public, private and voluntary sector for improving agricultural economy of district

 New projects launched

y Mineral mixture  Trainings and awareness  Technological problems in dairy farming  Awareness through television  Achievements  Other Extension activities  E- connectivity Lab

Editorial Board Editor in Chief Dr Manoj Sharma Editor Members Dr Gagandeep Kaur Sh. Rajan Bhatt Mrs Avneet Ahuja Mrs Gurpreet Kaur Mrs Daljit Kaur Sh. Baljit Singh

Manoj Sharma

Seminar on warehousing development act To create awareness among the farmers about the Warehousing (Development and Regulation) Act, 2007, a two days seminar was organised at KVK, Kapurthala on 10th and 11th November, 2010 in collaboration with the Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC). The aim of the seminar was to educate about the provisions of the act and thereby providing an opportunity to the farmers towards safekeeping of farm goods in accredited warehouses. A group of 30 progressive farmers including 10 farm women attended the seminar and the team from Central Warehousing Corporation delivered lectures on the various components of the the Act like development and regulation of warehouses, the method of registration of warehouses, the issuance of the negotiable warehouse receipts. economic impact of safe storage of food grains and Dr Gagandeep Kaur made presentation on post harvest management of vegetables for prolonged storage. In order to impart practical experience, participants were taken for exposure visit to CWC warehouse at Bhogpur. Apart from the training certificates, all the participants were given a storage bin of 3 quintal capacity for safe storing food grains and other commodities at the domestic level.

Trainees looking the warehouse godown

Dr Manoj Sharma delivering lecture on safe storage of food grains Dr Manoj Sharma, Deputy Director (Training), KVK, highlighted the importance and

Training certificate and a storage bin being presented to a trainee

Skill develop ent p ogramme for farm omen The ey e e e e es v g he ec c se -s c e cy highe e ess eve s s cial iss es through mobilization. The KVK, Kapurthala has always been keen to work in this direction and organises basic and advanced skill development training programme from time to time.

In this series, a four days duration training cum visit programme sponsored by IFF was organized at the KVK campus on 16th to 20th November, 2011. Forty farm women attended this programme.

The participants were interested to learn practical skills in the preservation techniques and therefore, products like papaya chutney, cauliflower chutney, mixed pickles, mixed fruit jam, dishes from sprouted pulses etc. were demonstrated. Tie and dye and detergent making techniques were also shown. On the concluding day, an interaction with the bank representatives was arranged to make the participants familiar with various


lending agencies and to help them in starting their own business. Scientific Advisory Committee Meeting The meeting was chaired by Dr. M.S. Gill, Director of Extension Education and presided over by Dr. A. M. Narula, Zonal Project Director, Zone-I. In this meeting, KVK, Kapurthala managed to get released its first edition of KVK newsletter by the honorable chairman, Dr. M. S. Gill. The Newsletter to be issued twice a year will highlight KVK s achievements, latest news, techniques and methods available in agriculture for the benefit of farmers. Dr. A. M.

Narula stressed that scientific advisory committee is mandated to advise and assist the KVK in improving its working and formulate its future action plan. So he requested heads of line department and special invitees to give feedback specifically regarding working of KVK. He urged the line departments to promote the mobile advisory service scheme of KVK.

Dr. J.S. Ghumman, Deputy Director (Animal

Husbandry appreciated the linkage of Department of Animal Husbandry and KVK and established that technologies available at the KVK like UMMB licks and mineral mixture are being adopted on a large scale by the dairy farmers. Dr. M. S. Gill, the Chairman, addressed suggestions and queries of the members. He requested that Lead bank should take feedback from the KVK as they have a large number of progressive farmers in contact with them and formulate such schemes which are conducive to district farmers and can be financed by such agencies. He also insisted that the feedback on technological constraints in technology like being currently faced in happy seeder and Rotavator should be given to KVK and University.

Amarjit Singh Boparai -Mushroom gro er Name: Sh. Amarjit Singh Boparai Village: Muskved PO: Lakhan Kalan District: Kapurthala Mobile No:98554-85865 The name of Shri Amarjit Singh of village Muskved of Kapurthala district is well known as a most successful mushroom grower who has done wonders in mushroom cultivation in addition to traditional farming. He started mushroom cultivation with a small shed over the terrace of his ancestral home in the village during 1993, now has sprawling cultivation of over an area of 2000 sq. ft. He obtained a formal training on button mushroom cultivation at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kapurthala. The shed built by him with bamboo poles and iron rods covered with straw in itself is marker of his innovation. Now his shed expands to an area of 1000 sq. ft while rest of the area is being used for floor for cleaning and packaging. He handles 350400 quintals of straw each season and prepares his own compost. Recent innovation introduced by him is use of poultry manure in his compost which has enhanced the mushroom productivity. Earlier he was harvesting 20 Kg per quintal of compost, however, in winter 2009, he harvested yield to the tune of 30 kg mushroom per quintal of compost with modification in the composition of compost. He himself picks, cleanses and packs the mushroom at his farm, the mushroom thus packed in perforated polythene bags in standard size of 200 gm is transported to nearby markets of Kapurthala and Jalandhar. The annual production is to the tune of 114 quintal and with market price ranging between 40 60 Rs/ kg, his net turnover is 5,70,000/- whereas his net returns amount to 3,15,000/- per season. He asserts that he achieved this success with proper guidance; desire to do the things in better way; doing work with his own hands instead of relying on labour and support of his wife. However his expansion plans for his mushroom unit has been put to hold due to the lack of skilled labour in the field. He suggests spawn production and packing units can open new horizon for the mushroom cultivation in district and create a great deal employment of educated youth. It is now expected that youth of state take cue from him and adopt mushroom cultivation in big away. Potassium scenario in apurthala district Generally, it is assumed that in the indogangetic plains of Punjab, Haryana potassium is in ample amount but latest reports revealed that potassium status has started showing a declining trend because of it s excess removal in the existing exhaustive cropping pattern. In the KVK laboratory, 2026 soil samples were analysed and found that 65 of the samples were low in K content (K<137.5 Kg/ha). Similarly, out of total 353 soil samples tested for carrying out the Front Line Demonstration during the last four years, 74 of the selected plots were low in potash. Thus, it was emphasized to use potash fertilizer on the basis of the soil test reports to harvest the potential yield. The status of the soil samples received from Kapurthala, Sultanpur, Phagwara and Dhilwan blocks is given in Table 1.


Table 1: Potash status of soils in apurthala district Sr. No Name of the Block Per cent Number of Geographical soil samples area of the analysed District Kapurthala 66.8 427 Sultanpur 29.6 421 Lodhi Phagwara 111 Dhilwan 3.6 18 Nadala --

1 2 3 4 5

Promising Technologies

Hybrid seed production of mai e

Corn (maize) is considered the only important

Maize seed production became a major agri industry when realized that hybrid lines could significantly out yield open pollinated line

Breeders have developed several highyielding hybrids of maize in recent years. These have made a major contribution to increase food production. Several of these hybrids are attractive to seed industry. There are lot of business opportunities in production of hybrid seed production because of higher profit margin as well as the farmers have to buy the hybrid seed each year. Use of hybrid maize has resulted in the development of new enterprises like production, processing, sale and distribution. The seed industry consists of several components like research, production, quality control and marketing. Here is the technology of production on hybrids developed by the university

% samples having low Potash (< 137.5 kg/ha) 63.7% 48.2% 66.6% 94.4% --

% samples having high Potash (> 137.5 kg/ha) 36.3% 51.8% 33.4% 5.6% --

Parental lines of the hybrids Name Characteristic of the hybrid Female Male line line PMH1 LM 13 LM 14 PMH 2 LM 15 LM 16 Prakash CM CM 139 140 JH 3459 CM CM 143 144 Seed required/ acre Female line 6 kg 5 kg 6 kg 5 kg Male line 2 kg 3 kg 2 kg 3 kg

For the seed production of these hybrids, planting should be done in second fortnight of July. The fresh seed of both female and pollinator lines of the hybrids should be obtained from the university. Planting should be done at spacing of 60 x 15 cm. seed production plot should be at least 300 meters away from another maize field. For PMH 1, PMH 2 and Prakash pollinator and female line ratio

7 should be 1 3. For JH3459, it should be kept 1 2. Off type plants should be rouged out before pollination. Rouging has to be performed in seedling stage, flowering stage and at the time of harvesting by seeing the plant and ear characters. All the tassels in female lines must be removed prior to pollen shedding. Detasseling should be done daily. 75 kg Intercropping in orchards As fruit trees take longer time to yield profit to the grower, it is desirable to supplement one's income by growing some short-term crops till they are shaded by the trees. Such crops when taken in the orchard are called intercrops. Farmers should keep the following points in mind while going for intercropping in or chards ater requirements of the intercrops should coincide with the requirement of fruit trees. Legumes such as pea, lentil, blackgram , green gram, sunhemp, cowpea etc., in citrus orchards had been found very beneficial in augmenting the nutrient supply from the soil. Such inter-crops suppress weed growth and reduce the evaporation of soil moisture, besides adding considerable Crop Age Intercrop Mango Upto 7 Leguminous years vegetables, Papaya (filler), Guava Nitrogen, 24 kg phosphorous and 12 kg potash should be applied to seed production plot. The seed should be harvested from female lines only. That s the hybrid seed. The male lines should be harvested first and kept separately. hile harvesting and shelling females lines off types ears should be discarded.

Such intercrops should be selected that do not exhaust the nutrients and moisture from the soil, which is so essential for the growth of fruit trees. Perennial or exhaustive crops like sugarcane, pigeonpea, maize, jowar etc. should be discouraged as an intercrop in the orchard. Vegetables like tomato, onion, cauliflower, beans, radish, palak etc. that have their roots within 25cm depth of the soil are most suited for intercropping. quantities of organic matter, nitrogen and other nutrients. Papaya , Peach, Phalsa and guava could also be included in the early stages of growth of the trees, provided these are maintained properly by adequate pruning and removal at proper time. Grapes Pears Upto 8 months Upto 5 years Bitter gourd Peach, Cabbage, Leguminous pulses

Ne projects launched Mineral mixture KVK Kapurthala has started production of mineral mixture to increase milk production and improve the health of dairy animals. This mineral mixture contains major as well micro

minerals which are essential for maximizing digestion and absorption of nutrients from feedstuff the animal consumes and will act as feed supplement. The cost of this feed




supplement is Rs 55 per kg and is available in packing of 5 kg. The dairy animals require at least 17 minerals in their diet for optimal milk production, reproductive performance and good health. Consumption of mineral mixture not only improves the functioning of the vital organs in dairy animals but also their immune and reproductive functions besides ensuring their overall good health. The demonstrations conducted at farmers field by KVK showed that regular use of mineral mixture supplement can lead to an increase in the milk yield up to 1.0 litre daily. It is recommended that for a cow giving up to 10 litres of milk about 50 grams of mineral mixture need to be supplemented in bran or oilcake daily and thus 1.5 kg is sufficient for a cow in a month. It is worth to mention that this feed supplement should not be considered a medicine but should be considered as an essential dietary constituent. Moreover long term benefit of supplementation of minerals includes enhanced conception, healthy calving and more calves apart from reduction in overall feeding cost in milk production.

vegetables growing can be helpful. For this purpose, PAU has standardized technology for protected cultivation of vegetables. Thrust is being given on the cultivation of high-value vegetable crops under net-house and poly-house. The university has recommended net-house cultivation of capsicum, tomato (indeterminate type) and brinjal. There are many benefits associated with nethouse cultivation of vegetables. The technology helps to extend the growing season, improves quality of the produce and minimizes the pesticides residues, a serious issue regarding freshly consumed vegetables. To demonstrate this technology among the farmers of Kapurthala, KVK has constructed a small shade unit at KVK premises. The produce of the net-house, being available in the off-season, fetches high price in the market due to their better quality and early availability. Further, the vegetables grown in the nethouse contract minimum incidence of viruses transmitted through insect vectors like white-fly, aphid etc. Vegetables like cucumber, beans and bottle gourd also give encouraging results under nethouses. Under the existing scenario of demand for better quality vegetables and continuously shrinking land holding, protected cultivation can help farmers increase their profitability. The KVK will utilize the facility created for training purposes.

Net house cultivation of vegetables

To supplement the income of farmers, particularly in the case of small farmers,

Trainings and a areness Technological problems in dairy farming It was observed that majority of dairy farmers were either land less or small and medium. On the other hand only 8% farmers who were possessing land more than 10 ha kept dairy animals which show that large farmers gave more attention to crop production than the dairy farming. Similarly, it was observed that 44.5% and 48.8% of population was keeping up to 5 and 15 animals, respectively. Only 4.3% farmers possessed between 16 to 25 animals and a very small population (2.4%) was possessing more than 25 animals. This showed that very few farmers were practicing dairy business on commercial scale (2.4 %) and majority of farmers i.e. 93.3% were having up to 15 animals. Further, it was also noticed that majority of dairy farmers (74.9%) were possessing cows with daily milk yield varying from 4 to 10 lt./d and 85.8 % of farmers were keeping buffaloes with daily milk yield ranging between 2 to 8 lt./d.

Table : Analysis of problems of different category of dairy farmers Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Problem Domestic Anoestrus Repeat breeders Mastitis Indigestion Marketing problems Feed availability Green fodder availability 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 3.0 2.0 7.0 Ranking of problem by dairy farmers Semi commercial 2.0 3.0 1.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 7.0 8.0 Commercial 3.0 2.0 1.0 7.0 4.0 8.5 5.0 6.0

heat straw availability

Classification of dairy farmers according to number of animals kept

3% Domestic (<5 animals) 29% Semi commercial (6-15 animals)


Total numbers of dairy farms were classified on the basis of selling of milk in the open market. It was observed that 29.2 % farmers having domestic dairy only, whereas, 68.4 % population was running dairy business on semi commercial basis, i.e. they were selling surplus milk after meeting out their daily requirements. However, very small percentages (2.4%) were running on commercial basis. Hence, there is a need to put maximum efforts to make these domestic and semi commercial into full fledged commercial dairy units.

9. Cow dung management 1.0 9.0 8.5

The problems being faced by these three categories of dairy farmers were also different. Major problems of the small dairy farmers were cow dung management while for semi commercial and commercial farmers mastitis was the major problem. The landless labourers who were keeping animals reported that the disposal of the fresh cow dung was the major problem as they were not possessing land, whereas, this was not a problem for those who were running business on semi commercial or commercial basis. The major technical problems in cross bred cows reported were of mastitis followed by anoestrous and repeat breeding. Since, these farmers were having large number of cows and thus due to deficiency in proper management and feeding of cross bred cows problems persisted under both the conditions (Table ). The farmers who were keeping small A areness through television talks The Doordarshan Kendra Jalandhar has been instrumental in providing support to agricultural extension. A regular punjabi programme titled Mera Pind Mere Khet and Savi Dharti are being telecasted by Doordarshan Kendra, Jalandhar for spreading awareness amongst farmers related to various aspects of agricultural activities including conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in agro ecosystem. The agriculture based program being telecasted by Doordarshan find audience among farmers, extension workers, and field-level functionaries, as well as agricultural scientists, researchers, and policy makers. KVK Kapurthala has been actively utilising this far reached multimedia tool to address information and technology needs of farmers

number of animals (Domestic dairy) were not facing such problems because they were taking care of each animals individually to the maximum possible extent but availability of green fodder and concentrate was on the top list probably due to poor financial conditions. Availability of green fodder was a major concern under commercial dairy farming and not in semi commercial conditions. It is thus suggested that in order to meet out green fodder requirements of milch animals, farmers must opt for silage making. This practice will reduce cost of milk production on one hand and prevent nutritional diseases on the other. From the table, it was concluded that all these three categories of dairy farming were facing different types of problems, hence their training needs were also found to be different.

for their economic growth and faster dissemination of information. KVK scientist has been participating as Technical Expert in the Television Programme Mera Pind Mere Khet and Savi Dharti . Scientists of KVK delivered 16 T.V. talks on the topics related to animal health management, problems in dairy farming, balanced diet for children and adults, employment opportunities for farm women, establishment and management of orchards, cultivation of vegetables, integrated nutrient management in paddy, soil testing and plant protection measures for kharif crops. Apart from these regular interview based programs, KVK scientists participate in interactive televised programmes like Amne Samne where the farmers get to raise the queries in-person to subject matter specialist. The KVK experts also take part in Doordarshan interactive weekly

live phone-in programme of whose purpose is to provide an instant solution to farmers field problem. production of cattle feed concentrate, mineral mixture and complete feed etc. 4. Processing and marketing of farm produce: Efficient management of postproduction operations require higher scale of technology as well as investment. Such enterprises can be handled by people s organisation/ self help groups, either in the form of cooperatives or service societies. Such ventures need good professional support for managing the activities as competitive business and to compete well with other players in the market, particularly the retail traders and middlemen.

Agri-entrepreneurship is the need of the day

Agri entrepreneurship is creating a business in the field of agriculture for the purpose of achieving profit and growth by utilizing the opportunities available at various stages of product development from farm field to the consumer. hile promoting agripreneurship, different types of enterprises in agribusiness are considered: 1. Primary producers: At the individual family level, each family is to be treated as an enterprise whose objective is to optimize the production by making best use of the technology, resources and cater according to need and demand in the market. 2. Service providers: In order to optimize agriculture income by every family enterprise, there are different types of services required at the village level. These include the inputs procurement and distribution, hiring of implements and equipment like tractors, seeds drills, sprayers, harvesters, threshers, dryers, and technical services such as installation of irrigation facilities, weed control, plant protection, harvesting, threshing, transportation, storage, etc. Similar opportunities exist in the livestock husbandry sector for providing breeding, vaccination, disease diagnostic and treatment services, apart from distribution of cattle feed, mineral mixture, forage seeds, etc. 3. Input producers: Some inputs which can be produced by the local entrepreneurs at the village are bio- fertilizers, bio- pesticides, vermicompost, soil amendments, planting materials, root media for raising plants in pots, agricultural tools, irrigation accessories,

Development of Agri entrepreneurship Success of a development of an agrienterprise venture depends upon following factors: 1. Inherent viability of the agrienterprise: technical, financial and commercial viability 2. Planning of the agri-enterprise. 3. Execution of the activities concerned with agri- enterprise 4. Management of the agri- enterprise.

In order to inculcate agrientrepreneurship skills and setting up of an

enterprise, it must be followed by a definite procedure so as to get maximum results.

Prodecure for agri entrepreneurship devolepment

Creation of awareness

Support required for promotion of Agri entrepreneurship


Problems in agri entrepreneurship

Subsistence farming

Selection of potential Agri-entrepreneur

Easy finance

Lack of infrastructure and marketing support

Knowledge and skill enhancement

Preparation of business plan

Single window approach

Low confidence and negative attitude Inability to get finance

Promotion of agrienterprise

Hand- holding


Lack of awareness

E-Connectivity Lab The Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kapurthala has been provided e-connectivity under the 10th Five Year Plan by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. The purpose of this facility is to enable KVKs to function as knowledge resource centres in technology. Currently the facility is being used for reporting purpose. However, another advantage of e-connectivity is sharing of information through video conferencing. Presently, the KVK hub is providing a two way audio and one way video webcasting and broadcasting which will further facilitate and strengthen communication bond between the scientists. Also this facility is being used for sending SMS on agro-advisory alerts to the farmers and other stakeholders in the district. Establishment of this facility has provided an enabling environment to KVK for developing Achievements Sr. No. 1 2. 3. Type of Courses Short term Vocational In-Service partnerships and collaborations between scientists and farmers for sharing appropriate technologies, best practices and innovative ideas among all stakeholders. The facility has provided internet access to global e-content on agriculture. Also the KVK is now using the information like updated weather based agroadvisories posted on websites regularly for the use of farmers.

41 08 12

35 07 2

Training pictures


Organi ed


Extension Activities Activities Plant health clinic Exhibition Method Demonstrations Group meetings Lectures delivered as resource persons Newspaper coverage Radio talks TV talks Extension Literature Advisory Services Scientific visit to farmers field Diagnostic visits Ex-trainees Sammelan Self Help Group Conveners meetings Total Number of activities conducted 3 5 4 36 8 1 16 6 36 20 4 1 140 Beneficiaries 83 5000 55 40 1780 Numerous Numerous Numerous Numerous 880

45 88 35 8006 +

Utility Services under single window system Sr. No. Input provided Qty (kg) 1.

Value 382500 38400 3600 14035 4000 1850 21200 7000 22825 6090


Beneficiary 84 24 4 65 5 3 15 100 83 54

2. Wheat DBW 17 3. Onion PRO-6 4. Coriander Pb. Sugandh 5. Moong SML- 668 6. Gobhi sarson 7. Barseem BL-42 8. UMMB Licks 9. Mineral Mixture 10. Sale of egg

Sr. No 1 2

Sanctioned post Programme Coordinator Subject Matter Specialist (Agronomy) Subject Matter Specialist (Home Science) Subject Matter Specialist (Soil Science) Subject Matter Specialist (Horticulture)


8 7


heat PBW 550

19125 1920 3 1025 40 27 106 100 415 3045 number

OR ING AT V , APURTHALA Name of the incumbent Dr. Manoj Sharma Smt Gurpreet Kaur Phone number 98727-45890 98889-98643

Smt. Avneet Kaur Ahuja


Sh. Rajan Bhatt


Dr. Gagandeep Kaur



Linkages with line department s

A strong linkage of KVK with the line departments in the district has led to extend the reach of its extension activities beyond its existing domain. The three way leg model where faculty of KVK, financial institutions (banks) and service delivery support (line departments) work together has facilitated the farmers making adoption of technologies easy and reward paying. Here are glimpses of few activities taken up by the KVK in collaboration with various line departments.