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INDEX FOR THE HYDRAFORM MANUAL

INDEX

PAGE NO.:

Disclaimer

Pg

3

1.

Hydraform safety instructions & warranty information

Pg

4

1.1. Safety instructions

Pg

4

1.2. Set up of machine on site

Pg

5

1.3. Hydraform warranty

Pg

6

2.

The layout and parts of the Hydraform machine

Pg

7

2.1. M7 Hydraform blockmaking machine

Pg

7

2.2. Parts list

Pg

8

2.3. Drawing: corner and side view of M7

Pg

9

3.

Operating and maintenance of the Hydraform machine

Pg

10

3.1. Machine operation

Pg

10 - 11

3.2. How to produce one Hydraform block

Pg

12

3.3. Maintenance of machine

Pg

13

3.4. Diesel engine maintenance

Pg

14

3.5. Diesel motor

Pg

15

3.6. Hydraulic maintenance

Pg

16

3.7. Changing of wearplates on all machines

Pg

17

4. Tools for production and construction

Pg

18 -19

5. Soil selection

Pg

20

5.1. The visual test

Pg

20

5.2. The wash test

Pg

21

5.3. The jar test

Pg

22

5.4. Shrinkage test

Pg

23

6.

Mix design & selection

Pg

24

6.1.

Diagram of: cross section of wall and roof

Pg

25

7.

Block production

Pg

26

7.1. Sieving

Pg

26

7.2. Mixing by hand

Pg

27

7.3. Hydraform pan mixer blockmaking machine

Pg

28

7.4. Mixing by pan mixer

Pg

29

7.5. Checking the moisture in the mix

Pg

30

7.6. Checking the water content in the mix, block length

Pg

31

7.7. Hydraform blocks can vary in length due to the following three cases

Pg

32 - 33

7.8. Stacking and curing

Pg

34

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(INDEX contd.)

PAGE NO.:

8. Quality checks on blocks

Pg

35 - 36

9. The Hydraform block tester

Pg

37

10.

Important definitions & points before starting construction

Pg

38

10.1. The Hydraform block

Pg

38 - 39

10.2. General points on construction

Pg

40 - 41

10.3. Corners

Pg

42

10.4. T-junctions

Pg

42

10.5. Cross-junctions

Pg

43

10.6. Joints and angles

Pg

43

10.7. Preparing the blocks and masonry

Pg

44

11.

Construction process

Pg

45

11.1. Foundations

Pg

45

11.2. Floor / surface bed

Pg

46

11.3. Leveling the first course of bricks

Pg

47

11.4. Beginning the first course

Pg

48

11.5. Above the first course

Pg

49

11.6. Above lintel level

Pg

50

12.

Services and finishes

Pg

51

12.1.

Agrément specifications for finishes

Pg

52

13. Trouble shooting – construction

Pg

53 - 56

14. Method for producing ± 1 500 Hydraform blocks per day

Pg

57 - 58

15. Blockyard layout for one machine

Pg

59

16. Agrément Certificate procedure and certificate extract

Pg

60 - 63

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Disclaimer

Machine, Training and Building Manual

Hydraforms manual has been prepared for clients use to advise on the best

possible use of the machine, blockmaking and building system incorporating

years of experience in the field.

“Other Factors” to be considered

Soils, cements, mix preparations, material codes, building materials, building

codes, local regulations, external conditions and more are all important to

produce a quality block and achieve acceptable building standards.

Disclaimer

Hydraform cannot be held responsible for not achieving acceptable quality levels

in block production and building as the “Other Factors” are out of our control

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1.

HYDRAFORM SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND WARRANTY INFORMATION

1.1 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

Injuries can be costly

Read these few points thoroughly

When towing or moving the Hydraform machine.

· Do not speed.

· Make sure mobile machines are connected to the towing vehicle correctly.

· Secure all machines on the pick-up or trailer.

· Do not hit top ram and bottom ram together. Do not operate without soil in the machine. Never produce blocks shorter than 100 mm.

Cleaning the Hydraform machine.

· Do not clean the machinery if the motor is idling or the electricity power is on.

DANGER

· Beware of TOP RAM opening and closing during blockmaking. It can cause damage to your hands, fingers and body

· Only a trained operator should operate the machine

Top ram Top arm
Top ram
Top arm

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1.2

SET UP OF MACHINE ON SITE

The Hydraform machine must be in a level position resting on the four corner stands or legs.

Check list before block production or starting the machine

· Check hydraulic oil level gauge on tank (on all machines)

· Check air filter for cleanness (on diesel machines only)

· Check engine oil (diesel machines only)

· Check electric connections (electric machines only)

· Check mixer for free movement (M7ExM or mixer machines only)

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1.3

HYDRAFORM WARRANTY

HYDRAFORM

ESTABLISHED 1988

WARRANTY REGISTRATION CERTIFICATE

The manufacturers guarantee that the machine is free from defects of design, workmanship, and material for a period of 6 months from the date of delivery. The guarantee is confined to defects, which render the machine unusable or materially impair its function due to faulty materials, workmanship or design. Defects of this nature should be notified at once in writing to the nearest Hydraform office, and substantiated. Replaced parts become the property of the manufacturers. The manufacturers will meet all reasonable costs of the replacements in all cases of expressly admitted claims. Repairs require the prior permission of the manufacturers. The guarantee does not apply to natural wear and tear, nor to defects resulting from negligence or misuse. The guarantee becomes null and void in the event of failure to observe the operating instructions or if the machine is repaired by the purchaser or third parties without authorization by the manufacturers.

MACHINE TYPE

SERIAL NUMBER

ACCEPTED CLIENT

DATE

DELIVERY DATE

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2. THE LAYOUT AND PARTS OF THE HYDRAFORM MACHINE

2.1. M7 HYDRAFORM BLOCKMAKING MACHINE

Soil loader

Top ram
Top ram
2.1. M7 HYDRAFORM BLOCKMAKING MACHINE Soil loader Top ram Compression chamber (wear plates inside – 4

Compression chamber (wear plates inside – 4 Pieces = 1 set)

Pressure gauge Control levers
Pressure
gauge
Control levers
inside – 4 Pieces = 1 set) Pressure gauge Control levers Bottom cylinder Top arm Top
inside – 4 Pieces = 1 set) Pressure gauge Control levers Bottom cylinder Top arm Top

Bottom cylinder

Top arm Top cylinder
Top arm
Top cylinder

Block cutter

levers Bottom cylinder Top arm Top cylinder Block cutter Diesel engine Tow hitch Hydraulic oil tank
levers Bottom cylinder Top arm Top cylinder Block cutter Diesel engine Tow hitch Hydraulic oil tank
levers Bottom cylinder Top arm Top cylinder Block cutter Diesel engine Tow hitch Hydraulic oil tank

Diesel engine

Tow hitch

Top arm Top cylinder Block cutter Diesel engine Tow hitch Hydraulic oil tank Legs/stands (4 No)

Hydraulic oil tank

Legs/stands

(4 No)

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2.2

PARTS LIST

NO.

DESCRIPTION

1. SOIL HOPPER

2. SOIL HOPPER SUPPORT

3. VALVE CONTROL

4. TOP ARM CYLINDER LEVER (TOP RAM)

5. BOTTOM CYLINDER LEVER (BOTTOM RAM)

6. CHAMBER

7. WEAR PLATES 4 PER SET

8. TOP RAM

9. TOP ARM

10. REAR PIN AND BEARINGS

11. MAIN CYLINDER (80MM)

12. FRAME (FIXED OR MOBILE)

13. PIN

14. BOTTOM RAM

15. TOP ARM CYLINDER

16. TOP RAM EXTENSION

17. CLEVIS

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2.3 DRAWING: CORNER AND SIDE VIEW OF M7

2.3 DRAWING: CORNER AND SIDE VIEW OF M7 Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page 9 Revision

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3.

OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE OF THE HYDRAFORM MACHINE

3.1 MACHINE OPERATION

It is important that only one person, (the trained operator) is in charge and responsible for the machine and the block production.

Two lever operation

The are two levers to operate the machine, each lever must be moved separately. By letting go of any of the two, the spring-loaded lever goes back into the neutral position.

Lever: Nr.4.

This is the left hand lever when standing in front of machine, this controls the top ram (top arm), when pushed forward, top ram (top arm) opens, when pulled back, top ram (top arm) closes.

Lever: Nr.5.

This is the right hand lever when standing in front of machine, this controls the bottom ram, when pushed down bottom ram moves down, when pushed up bottom ram moves up.

Lock and system pressure

1. Adjustment bolt for pressure setting.

2. Lock nut.

3. Double bank valve body.

4. Top ram lever.

5. Bottom ram lever.

4 5
4
5
1 2 3
1
2
3

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How to change hydraulic system pressure

Your machine will be delivered with the system pressure pre-set to 90 – 100 BAR (9-10 MPa).

It is not necessary to reset the pressure.

If you are working with high sand content soils, then you will need to increase the system pressure to 120 – 130 BAR (12-13 MPa).

If you are working with high clay content soils you may need to decrease the system pressure to 60 – 80 BAR (6 – 8 MPa).

1. Loosen locknut (Nr. 2).

2. Loosen adjustment bolt (Nr. 1) for lower pressure.

3. Tighten adjustment bolt (Nr. 1) for higher pressure.

To take the reading on the pressure gauge open the top ram and hold the bottom ram in the down or up position.

NB!!

Make sure the top ram is in the open position, when changing the pressure.

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3.2

HOW TO PRODUCE ONE HYDRAFORM BLOCK

STEP BY STEP INSTRUCTIONS

1. Bottom ram in down position.

2. Top ram open.

3. Fill mix into hopper.

4. Push hopper across chamber and return to original position.

5. Close top ram.

6. Move bottom ram upwards to compact the soil-cement mixture.

7. Open top ram.

8. Move bottom ram upwards until the produced block is completely out of the chamber.

9. Take block away to be cured.

10. Move main cylinder downward until the end.

11. Stop.

REPEAT STEP 1 TO 11 FOR FURTHER BLOCKS

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3.3

MAINTENANCE OF MACHINE

MAINTENANCE TO BE DONE EVERY DAY

· Machine must be cleaned overall.

· If production is stopped make sure bottom ram is down and the top ram is closed.

· After stopping the engine release the pressure in the hydraulic hoses by

moving the hydraulic levers in the respective directions.

· (See section 3.4 and 3.6)

WEEKLY MAINTENANCE

· Once a week check machine for wear and tear, leaks, loose bolts, clean machine thoroughly, check engine, and hydraulic system.

WEARPLATES MAINTENANCE

· Wearplates may need changing after 40 000 – 80 000 blocks. The

wearplates need to be changed when the block height is 118 mm (See section 3.7 and section 8.7)

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3.4 DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE (Antor - Lombardini)

For diesel engine maintenance refer to engine manual, which is supplied with all new machines.

to engine manual, which is supplied with all new machines. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page

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3.5

DIESEL MOTOR

(Diesel powered machines only)

Hydraform backs up our customers with technical advice on all kinds of service questions, spare parts and engine repairs.

CONTACT HYDRAFORM

Johannesburg

220 Rondebult Road Libradene Boksburg

1459

P.O. Box 17570 Sunward Park

1470

Tel: +27-11 913 1449 Fax: +27 -11 913 2840 Email: sales@hydraform.com Internet: www.hydraform.com

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3.6

HYDRAULIC MAINTENANCE

Service instructions

Main points to check are as follows:

1. Visually checking correct oil level of hydraulic tank, hydraulic oil must always be visible in sight glass. Top up hydraulic oil with oil grade 68 if required.

2. Visually checking all hydraulic hoses connection points for leaks – tighten if necessary.

3. Every 1000 hours (6 months of operation) the suction filter must be removed and cleaned. To do this, first remove reservoir lid, then reach into the tank and loosen filter. Wash filter with cleaning fluid (paraffin or equivalent), blow dry and replace filter, close lid ensuring seals are intact.

The above checks should be done on a regular basis to ensure safe operation of the machine.

Hydraulic Maintenance Schedule

DAILY:

Check hydraulic oil level in tank. Check for external leaks

Worn hoses.

EVERY 6 MONTHS:

YEARLY:

Change return – line filter element.

Change suction strainer (inside the tank).

Change breather.

Change return – line filter element.

Remove tank lid and clean tank.

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3.7

CHANGING OF WEARPLATES ON ALL MACHINES

Wearplates

There are four wearplates in the machine, which give the shape of the block. These are of special material to achieve wear resistance. However, depending on the working conditions and the soil abrasion wearplates must be changed when necessary.

When the block height reaches 118 mm, the wearplates must be changed. The blocks will show signs of cracking and no longer fit together properly. (See section 8.7)

Important note:

1. Wearplates must always be replaced as a set.

2. Every time wearplates are changed new bolts, washers and spring washers must be used.

3. All bolts are high tensile materials.

4. After wearplates have been fitted check bottom ram and top ram for free movement, (top ram is designed to have free play).

Taking out wearplates

· Open the top ram and move bottom ram down to its lowest position.

· Stop engine.

· Switch off Diesel motor or electric motor.

· Front and back wearplates are bolted into the compression chamber with six bolts.

· Side wearplates are bolted into the compression chamber with four bolts.

· Take out front and rear wearplates bolts.

· Take out front and rear wearplates (if you have difficulty in taking them out, use a block of wood and a hammer to loosen the plates).

· Take out left and right side wearplates bolts.

· Take out side wearplates.

Fitting the new wearplates

· Use new bolts and spring washers whenever possible.

· The wearplate compression chamber form must be cleaned and lightly oiled.

· Fit side plates first, ensuring that the top of the plate is level with the top of the compression chamber, tighten bolts.

· Fit front and rear plate ensuring that they are level with the chamber.

· Tighten bolts.

· Start machine and move top ram up and down slowly to ensure free movement, into the block chamber.

· Move bottom ram up and down to ensure free movement, tighten all bolts again.

· Proceed with blockmaking.

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4. TOOLS FOR PRODUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION

4. TOOLS FOR PRODUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page 18 Revision 31/10/05

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TOOLS FOR PRODUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION (contd.)

TOOLS FOR PRODUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION (contd.) Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page 19 Revision 31/10/05

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5.

SOIL SELECTION

A Hydraform block is produced from a soil and cement mixture. The soil type is classified as a sandy – loam. The soil should contain more sand than clay and silt (fines). If the clay content is too high, sand will need to be blended in with the soil.

The clay keeps the block together so it is easy to carry the block during blockmaking. The sandy portion is what binds with the cement to give the block its ultimate strength.

Too little clay will make block handling difficult, too much clay will make the block shrink and crack during curing.

Hydraform blocks are made from sub-soil 1 metre below ground level, never top soil, which contains organic material.

There are 4 field tests in the field to test the soil:

5.1 The visual test

tests in the field to test the soil: 5.1 The visual test 5.2 The wash test

5.2 The wash test

· Dig a hole 1m deep.

· Look at the different soil layers.

· Does the soil look sandy or does it have lumps?

a. If it is has lumps and cracks in the soil then there is clay.

b. If it is very sandy then dig deeper to find a more clayey soil.

· DO NOT USE TOPSOIL!

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5.3 The jar test · Take some soil in the hand, pour water on it

5.3 The jar test

· Take some soil in the hand, pour water on it and rub and squeeze

it.

· Does it feel gritty or soapy?

a. If it is gritty there is a lot of coarse sand.

b. If it is soapy then there is clay.

· Wash the hand with water. If soil washes off easily then it is mostly sand or silt. If it is difficult to wash off and leaves colour on your hand, then there is a lot of

clay.

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· Fill a straight sided, flat bottomed jar ¹/ ³ with soil. · Fill to

· Fill a straight sided, flat bottomed jar ¹/ ³ with soil.

·

Fill to

²/ ³

with water

bottomed jar ¹/ ³ with soil. · Fill to ²/ ³ with water · Shake well
bottomed jar ¹/ ³ with soil. · Fill to ²/ ³ with water · Shake well

·

Shake well (1 minute).

·

Leave to stand for 24 hours.

·

Measure the thickness of the layers of clay and sand.

Note:

There must be between 10% and 50% clay and silt to make a block, ideally 15-35% silt and clay.

clay and silt to make a block, ideally 15-35% silt and clay. Clay and silt –

Clay and silt – upper layer Sand and gravel – lower layer

and silt – upper layer Sand and gravel – lower layer 5.4 Shrinkage test Hydraform training

5.4 Shrinkage test

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· Fill a shrinkage box 60cm long 4cm deep x 4 cm wide with wet
· Fill a shrinkage box 60cm long 4cm deep x 4 cm wide with wet

·

Fill a shrinkage box 60cm long

4cm deep x 4 cm wide with wet soil.

x

·

Scrape it level and leave to dry in the sun for 5 days.

·

After 5 days in the sun measure the shrinkage.

·

If

shrinkage is no more than

10mm then the soil is sandy.

might be difficult to handle the block, during blockmaking.

It

·

If

shrinkage is more than

60mm then the soil has too much clay. Sand must be added or find another soil.

·

An ideal soil should shrink around 20 mm – 40 mm.

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6.

MIX DESIGN & SELECTION

Brick

Strength

Cement

(Parts)

X1 Mix 1 5% cement (± 4MPa)
X1
Mix
1
5% cement
(± 4MPa)

Mix 2

8% cement (± 7MPa)

X1 X1 Mix 1 5% cement (± 4MPa) Mix 2 8% cement (± 7MPa) Soil (Parts) X20

Soil

(Parts)

cement (± 4MPa) Mix 2 8% cement (± 7MPa) X1 Soil (Parts) X20 X12 Blocks per

X20

X12

(± 4MPa) Mix 2 8% cement (± 7MPa) X1 Soil (Parts) X20 X12 Blocks per 50kg

Blocks per 50kg bag of cement

70

– 75

40

- 45

Never exceed more than 80 blocks from one bag of cement, the cement content and block strength will be low.

1 MPa (Mega Pascal) = 10kg/cm² = 1000 kPa = 145 psi

6.1 Mixed design and selection (contd.)

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Cross section of wall and roof

7. BLOCK PRODUCTION
7. BLOCK PRODUCTION
Cross section of wall and roof 7. BLOCK PRODUCTION Mix 1 – Plastered Mix 2 –

Mix

1 – Plastered

Mix

2 – Unplastered

Mix 1 – Plastered Mix 2 – Unplastered Mix 2 Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page

Mix 2

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7.1 Sieving

Strong steel frame 2 m long X 1m wide Stand
Strong steel frame 2 m long
X 1m wide
Stand

7.2 Mixing by hand

8-10mm strong mesh

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Note:

The soil-cement mix must be used within one hour of mixing never leave a mix unused for more than one hour.

of mixing never leave a mix unused for more than one hour. Batch the soil and
of mixing never leave a mix unused for more than one hour. Batch the soil and

Batch the soil and cement

mix unused for more than one hour. Batch the soil and cement Add water with watering
mix unused for more than one hour. Batch the soil and cement Add water with watering
mix unused for more than one hour. Batch the soil and cement Add water with watering

Add water with watering can

Mix three times

until the cement &

soil are mixed

thoroughly

three times until the cement & soil are mixed thoroughly · Do not pour the water

· Do not pour the water onto a single spot creating a pool of water.

· Water must be sprinkled onto the mix slowly while mixing.

Water must be sprinkled onto the mix slowly while mixing. Mix three times until the water
Water must be sprinkled onto the mix slowly while mixing. Mix three times until the water
Water must be sprinkled onto the mix slowly while mixing. Mix three times until the water
Water must be sprinkled onto the mix slowly while mixing. Mix three times until the water
Water must be sprinkled onto the mix slowly while mixing. Mix three times until the water

Mix three times

until the water is spread evenly throughout the mix

7.3 Hydraform pan mixer (Do not allow blades to touch drum)

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Hydraulic motor White Hydraulics - USA Drum
Hydraulic motor
White Hydraulics -
USA
Drum

Bearing housing and motor support

Hydraulics - USA Drum Bearing housing and motor support Inner blade Outer blade U bolts Middle
Inner blade Outer blade
Inner blade
Outer blade
U bolts
U bolts

Middle blade

motor support Inner blade Outer blade U bolts Middle blade 7.4 Mixing by pan mixer Hydraform

7.4

Mixing by pan mixer

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Note:

The soil-cement mix must be used within one hour of mixing never leave a mix unused for more than one hour.

of mixing never leave a mix unused for more than one hour. · Empty wheelbarrow into

· Empty wheelbarrow into mixer from ramp.

· Add soil first.

· Add cement second.

· Dry mix for 1 minute.

· Add water slowly and mix for 1 minute.

Note: water must be sprinkled in slowly.

DO NOT pour the water onto one spot.

sprinkled in slowly. DO NOT pour the water onto one spot. · Empty mixer by pulling

· Empty mixer by pulling lever after soil-cement is well mixed.

NOTE:

If the mixer struggles to mix, the soil may contain too much clay, add sand or reduce the mixing volume. The mixer operates best with 100 – 110 litres of soil and cement.

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7.5

Checking the moisture in the mix

The Drop Test

7.5 Checking the moisture in the mix The Drop Test 1. Squeeze the soil – cement

1. Squeeze the soil – cement mix into a ball.

2. Drop ball from waist height.

Too Dry– cement mix into a ball. 2. Drop ball from waist height. Ö Good Too Wet

Ö Good

Too Weta ball. 2. Drop ball from waist height. Too Dry Ö Good 3. If ball shatters

3. If ball shatters into many small pieces it is too dry.

-

-

If ball breaks into 5-6 lumps then the water content is right.

-

If ball does not break or only breaks into a few lumps it is too wet.

NOTE:

A dry mix will produce a poor quality block. The mix should be close to the optimum water content of the soil. The water content will vary block length. When the soil – cement mix is too dry the block length will be longer than when the water content is correct.

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7.6

Checking the water content in the mix, block length

7.6 Checking the water content in the mix, block length Too wet, block is short and
7.6 Checking the water content in the mix, block length Too wet, block is short and
7.6 Checking the water content in the mix, block length Too wet, block is short and

Too wet, block is short and has cracks

the mix, block length Too wet, block is short and has cracks Too dry, block is
the mix, block length Too wet, block is short and has cracks Too dry, block is

Too dry, block is long and difficult to handle

has cracks Too dry, block is long and difficult to handle Ö Operator must maintain block

Ö

Operator must maintain block length by maintaining a consistent water content in the mix

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7.7

Hydraform blocks can vary in length due to the following three cases.

Note: If you are getting more than 100 – 108 blocks from one cubic metre of mix, then there are 3 possibilities for this error.

Firstly the operator is not filling the chamber fully with the required 10 litres of soil per block. The hopper will automatically level the chamber when the soil hopper is pulled back after filling. Secondly the water content in the soil-cement mixture is not consistent. Thirdly the operator might not be returning the bottom ram to the very bottom during block manufacture. The ram must go all the way to the bottom before making every block. Also ensure the quantities of soil being mixed is in fact the same every time. The person mixing the soil may heap the soil on some mixes and then under fill the wheelbarrow on other mixes.

1) Under filling the mould / chamber: Note: one full length block is 10 litre before compaction. Normally one cubic metre of mix should produce 100 – 108 blocks per cubic metre. When measuring out the mix it is important to ensure the wheelbarrow being used or buckets are leveled every time, ensuring the same quantity of soil and cement is being used. Length may be intentionally varied when producing half blocks or special length blocks.

5 litres of soil put into the chamber will give a half block of approx 110- 120mm length. Never produce a block with a length of less than 100mm or

4 litres of soil, this may cause damage to the top gate arm during compaction of the soil cement mix.

2) Water content in the mix: First we need to establish the ideal block length for a given soil type. This is done by preparing a mix of soil and cement and a little water (The first mix should be slightly dry).

· Mix thoroughly and produce a block.

· Measure the 1 st block.

· Add water to the mix and mix thoroughly again, produce a 2 nd block and note the length. The block length will reduce as the water content is increased.

· Repeat the process adding more water to each mix and make new blocks noting the length.

· Finally fine cracks will begin to show on the bottom of the block, this indicates there is too much water and the mix is too wet. Note the length of the block for this mix.

· The best average length would be a little longer than the block length when fine cracks start to show. Assuming this length is 230mm instruct the machine operator to manufacture blocks in the range of 225mm – 235mm.

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Give the operator a steel rod of length 235mm with a marking at 225mm. The average block length should always be between the upper marking and lower marking.

· If the soil is a little dry the block will be longer than the average length, the operator then simply adds a little water to the mix and continues producing blocks.

· The steel rod gives a visual and easy check for the operator to check and maintain the water content of all blocks being produced.

Consistency in mixing

and water content in the mix is the key to good block quality.

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7.8

Stacking and curing

Curing gives the block its durability and strength

curing Curing gives the block its durability and strength · Stack the blocks 5 high and
curing Curing gives the block its durability and strength · Stack the blocks 5 high and

· Stack the blocks 5 high and 7 wide (depending on the width of the plastic).

· Cover the blocks, as they are stacked.

· Never leave the blocks in the sun or wind uncovered.

· Even when producing blocks in shade, plastic must be used.

· Uncover the blocks and water the blocks twice a day – once in the morning & once in the evening, and cover again immediately. This is curing.

· The blocks are cured for 7-14 days. The longer curing the stronger the block.

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8.

QUALITY CHECKS ON BLOCKS

Note:

If blocks are cracking from excessive vibration from chamber during extrusion. Lower the system pressure (see 3.1) and increase the water content of the soil cement mixture

PROBLEM CAUSE 1. Rough surface on blocks -Mix too dry -Rough plates -Soil build up
PROBLEM
CAUSE
1.
Rough surface on
blocks
-Mix too dry
-Rough plates
-Soil build up in joints or
on wearplates
2.
Cracking blocks
2.1
Horizontal cracks
seen as block ejected
from chamber
-Too much water in mix
-Compression pressure
too high
2.2
Cracks developing
during 7 day curing
period
-Blocks losing too much
water too fast during
curing

-High clay content-Blocks losing too much water too fast during curing - wearplates worn out REMEDY -Add more

- wearplates worn out

REMEDY

-Add more water to mix

-Inspect plates and change if necessary

-Clean excess soil from joints and plates

-Use less water in mix Add cement to mix already made to dry out

-Reduce pressure

(see section 3.1)

-Cover blocks properly with plastic and water twice daily as per Hydraform recommendations

-Add coarse sand to mix

-Add more cement

(see section 6)

(see point 7 below)

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3. Blocks being damaged and broken during stacking and storage

4. Blocks shorter than chosen length

-Careless handling of blocks

-Blocks too weak

-Too much water in mix

-Compression pressure too high

(see section 7.5, 7.6 & 7.7)

5. Blocks longer than chosen length

-Mix too dry

-Compression pressure too low

(see section 7.5, 7.6 & 7.7)

6. Block length changing continuously

-Water content changing continuously

(see section 7.5, 7.6 & 7.7)

-Soil properties changing continuously

7. Block height is different

changing continuously 7. Block height is different - Wearplates are worn. -New wear plates produce a

- Wearplates are worn.

-New wear plates produce a block height of 115 mm

-Closer supervision of stacking

-Check production process and/or add more cement to mix

-Use less water in mix

-Reduce pressure

-Add more water to mix

-Increase pressure

(see section 3.1)

-Keep water in mix constant. Check water content by checking length of block with ruler

-Use same soil source for all production

-Replace wearplates when block height is 118 mm

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9.

THE HYDRAFORM BLOCK TESTER

This is a simple tool designed to give rough indication of the strength of the blocks being produced.

Take care when the block breaks that it does not fall onto the operator’s hand and cause injury.

does not fall onto the operator’s hand and cause injury. Jack head · Lower jack by

Jack head

fall onto the operator’s hand and cause injury. Jack head · Lower jack by turning nut
fall onto the operator’s hand and cause injury. Jack head · Lower jack by turning nut

· Lower jack by turning nut anticlockwise and pushing down on jack.

· Turn nut clockwise.

· Reset gauge to zero.

on jack. · Turn nut clockwise. · Reset gauge to zero. Hydraform block Handle Nut Gauge

Hydraform block

Turn nut clockwise. · Reset gauge to zero. Hydraform block Handle Nut Gauge · Place block

Handle

Nut

Gauge

· Reset gauge to zero. Hydraform block Handle Nut Gauge · Place block in tester and

· Place block in tester and jack slowly until block fails and gauge reaches a maximum.

· Evaluate strength for use (see section 6).

· Always ensure the block is properly level and touching the top and bottom pad evenly.

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10.

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS AND POINTS BEFORE STARTING CONSTRUCTION

10.1 The Hydraform Block

An Interlocking Compressed Earth Block made on the Hydraform press is referred to as a block.

Block made on the Hydraform press is referred to as a block. Interlocking The locking of

Interlocking

The locking of a male face of one block with the female face of another or the locking of the bed of one block with the ridge of the one below it is called Interlock.

with the ridge of the one below it is called Interlock. Bed The recessed under surface

Bed

The recessed under surface of the block is referred to as the bed.

Ridge

The raised top surface of the block is called the Ridge.

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Male Face

The side face of the block with an extension is called the Male face.

Female face

The side face of the block with a recess is called the female face.

face of the block with a recess is called the female face. Course One (horizontal) layer

Course

One (horizontal) layer of Hydraform blocks is called a course.

Height of a course = 115 mm (with a new set of wear plates).

Height of a course = 115 mm (with a new set of wear plates). Hydraform training

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10.2

General points on construction

Masonry should be started at the corners and therefore corners should be built first, so that ½, ¼ or cut blocks can be used to fill in the masonry.

To start the first layer lay mortar at the corners and adjust corner blocks in position. Ensure that the first layer is truly vertical by checking with a level.

the first layer is truly vertical by checking with a level. All corners must start with

All corners must start with a ½ block.

The male face must point outwards and corners must be built in a cyclic order as below.

and corners must be built in a cyclic order as below. Also ensure that the first

Also ensure that the first layer is truly horizontal by checking with a spirit level over at least 3 simultaneous joints.

with a spirit level over at least 3 simultaneous joints. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page

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Slide blocks one on top of another to interlock them in place leaving no gaps between them.

Block laying must proceed in one direction only so that male and female faces can interlock.

direction only so that male and female faces can interlock. Blocks must be lightly hammered in

Blocks must be lightly hammered in place using a rubber hammer to achieve ‘true interlock’ to avoid gaps between blocks.

achieve ‘true interlock’ to avoid gaps between blocks. The aim is to make the corner an

The aim is to make the corner an integral part of the structure.

aim is to make the corner an integral part of the structure. Vertical poles must be

Vertical poles must be in place to ensure straight vertical corners.

Check plumb at every course and check level at each joint across the entire length of the wall.

level at each joint across the entire length of the wall. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005

Hydraform training manual copyright 2005

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10.3

Corners

For a corner, you will require:

Shaved ½ blocks.

Shaved full blocks.

You must start the first course with a ½ block.

Also remember to shave off the ridge and male face of the corner block, as shown. Ensure that the shaved ridge points upward and the shaved male face point’s outwards.

points upward and the shaved male face point’s outwards. 10.4 T Junctions For a T Junction

10.4 T Junctions

For a T Junction of n courses, you will require:

Shaved ½ blocks.

Shaved full blocks.

You must start the first course with a ½ block.

Ensure that the shaved faces point upwards.

with a ½ block. Ensure that the shaved faces point upwards. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005
with a ½ block. Ensure that the shaved faces point upwards. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005
with a ½ block. Ensure that the shaved faces point upwards. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005

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10.5

Cross-Junctions

For a cross junction you require only full blocks with ridges shaved off, as shown.

Make sure that there are no straight joints. Ensure that the junction is an integral part of both the walls.

that the junction is an integral part of both the walls. 10.6 Joints and Angles Each

10.6 Joints and Angles

an integral part of both the walls. 10.6 Joints and Angles Each course will have to

Each course will have to be connected at the corner with a brick force as shown. Always start with large blocks. Always nail the brick force in the centre of the block and not near the edge.

force in the centre of the block and not near the edge. Hydraform training manual copyright
force in the centre of the block and not near the edge. Hydraform training manual copyright

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10.7

Preparing the blocks and masonry

Cleaning

Before using the top and bed surfaces of the block must be cleaned using a brush.

and bed surfaces of the block must be cleaned using a brush. Cutting and Shaving You

Cutting and Shaving

You can cut your block with a block cutter or a blaster chisel and hammer. Use “used” hacksaw blades or chisel and hammer to shave your blocks for corners if you don’t have a block shaver.

your blocks for corners if you don’t have a block shaver. Cleaning Use a used hacksaw

Cleaning

Use a used hacksaw blade to remove any stubborn soil lumps inside any of the recesses, ridges or flanges so that they are directly in contact to ensure ‘true’ and safe load transfer.

in contact to ensure ‘true’ and safe load transfer. Remember Blocks must be clean and free

Remember

Blocks must be clean and free of all soil lumps sticking to the block surface otherwise blocks will not truly interlock. Therefore achieving plumb and level would be very difficult and time consuming.

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11.

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

11.1

Foundations

Below is one recommendation. Alternately seek advice from local engineers or follow common building practice.

Mortar is used in the foundation brickwork

Direction of bricks

is used in the foundation brickwork Direction of bricks Mortar Concrete footing Note: If it is

Mortar

used in the foundation brickwork Direction of bricks Mortar Concrete footing Note: If it is necessary
used in the foundation brickwork Direction of bricks Mortar Concrete footing Note: If it is necessary
used in the foundation brickwork Direction of bricks Mortar Concrete footing Note: If it is necessary

Concrete footing

Note: If it is necessary to step the foundations, use the Hydraform brick height in the step.

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11.2

Floor / Surface bed

Concrete floor Concrete Compacted backfill Completed foundation block work
Concrete floor
Concrete
Compacted backfill
Completed foundation
block work

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11.3

Leveling the first course of bricks

Profile (50 x 50 mm Timber or Steel)
Profile (50 x 50 mm Timber or Steel)

Water level

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11.4 Beginning the first course

Set up corners first – always start with a half block

Builders line

first – always start with a half block Builders line Mortar Hydraform training manual copyright 2005
first – always start with a half block Builders line Mortar Hydraform training manual copyright 2005
first – always start with a half block Builders line Mortar Hydraform training manual copyright 2005
first – always start with a half block Builders line Mortar Hydraform training manual copyright 2005

Mortar

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11.5

Above the first course

11.5 Above the first course Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page 49 Revision 31/10/05   Website

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11.6

Above Lintel Level

Roof tie downs

Mortar between blocks above lintel levels

Roof tie downs Mortar between blocks above lintel levels Mortar above and below lintel Roof: Follow
Roof tie downs Mortar between blocks above lintel levels Mortar above and below lintel Roof: Follow

Mortar above and below lintel

blocks above lintel levels Mortar above and below lintel Roof: Follow the normal local practice for

Roof:

Follow the normal local practice for roof design and construction

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12.

SERVICES AND FINISHES

For laying electrical conduits and wiring in your building, you may either have exposed casing running along the wall or run your conduits within the conduits within the conduit blocks. Conduit blocks are special blocks with semi – circular recesses in the top and bottom surfaces of the block.

You may however chase the masonry in order to fit conduiting as in conventional masonry, but you will have to plaster the chased area.

masonry, but you will have to plaster the chased area. Other services such as plumbing and

Other services such as plumbing and sewerage could be exposed. All pipes must be coated with water repellent paints and must have all joints sealed perfectly to avoid damage to blocks due to water leakage from the pipes.

avoid damage to blocks due to water leakage from the pipes. Plaster all edges and corners

Plaster all edges and corners externally. It is important to plaster the corner well beyond the joint.

It is important to plaster the corner well beyond the joint. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005

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Skirting should be higher than the first joint from the finished floor.

Skirting top should slope outwards – away from the wall. They should not be finished flat, and never sloping inwards.

They should not be finished flat, and never sloping inwards. 12.1 Agrément specifications for finishes ·

12.1 Agrément specifications for finishes

· When building in South Africa with NHBRC approval, construction and finishes will need to be done in accordance with the Agrément specification. Agrément recommend both internal and external walls be plastered and painted.

· A full Agrément certificate is available from the www.agrement.co.za website under active certificates

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13.

TROUBLE SHOOTING - CONSTRUCTION

13.1 If blocks are not sitting flush on each other and the interlock is not perfect when checked with a spirit level and plumb bob.

· The blocks have not been cleaned well enough.

· The blocks must be cleaned with a brush & foreign particles scraped with a blade. The interlock will thus be much easier.

· The wearplates may need changing (block height must never exceed 118 mm see section 8, point 7)

Also check the blocks for dimensional accuracy.

8, point 7 ) Also check the blocks for dimensional accuracy. 13.2 In spite of all
8, point 7 ) Also check the blocks for dimensional accuracy. 13.2 In spite of all

13.2 In spite of all the precautions the masonry is not in plumb.

In spite of all the precautions the masonry is not in plumb. · If it is

· If it is possible, remove the blocks and redo the masonry.

· Otherwise take a flat hard plate of rubber, wood or steel, align it along the wall and hammer against the wall to get the blocks in plumb.

wall and hammer against the wall to get the blocks in plumb. Hydraform training manual copyright

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13.3

If you find that some blocks appear to have sheared on loading.

· Probably the blocks have not been made to interlock (well) with each other: therefore the blocks are not in plumb necessary for safe load transfer.

· Re-do the masonry and make sure that the blocks safely transfer the load by being perfectly in level and plumb.

· Wearplates may need replacing, replace wearplates when block height is more than 118 mm, (see section 8, point 7).

height is more than 118 mm, ( see section 8, point 7) . 13.4 If you

13.4 If you find chunks of blocks coming off at places where the brick force was hammered.

· Probably the brick force has not been nailed in the center of the blocks. Instead the brick force has been hammered towards the edges. If this occurs along the entire vertical length of the joint such as a joint between a 220mm wall & a 115mm wall the masonry should be redone.

· If it is only one or two odd joints, the blocks should be repaired by pointing with a cement soil mortar.

should be repaired by pointing with a cement soil mortar. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005 Page

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13.5

If you find that some of your blocks in the masonry have got damaged on the surface even after having done the masonry with utmost care.

· The blocks probably got damaged during shuttering / deshuttering procedure or ladders were probably made to rest against them.

· Chisel out the damaged part and repair with cement – soil mortar.

· However, in order to avoid such an occurrence altogether, it is a good idea to cover the ends of the ladder & scaffolding material with a cloth.

13.6 If you find water seeping in especially near the skirting.

· The skirting has been finished at a joint in the masonry very close to ground level so the water manages to seep in.

· Increase or decrease the height of skirting so that it is not flush with the joint.

Otherwise, slope the top of the skirting away from the joint and seal the joint with a sealant or point it with soil cement mortar.

joint with a sealant or point it with soil cement mortar. 13.7 If you find water

13.7 If you find water seeping in through the masonry joints

· The blocks are probably not interlocked properly in the enthusiasm to build faster.

· Re-do the leaking joints, Make sure to hammer the blocks in position.

leaking joints, Make sure to hammer the blocks in position. · Seal the joints with a

· Seal the joints with a sealant or point with soil-cement mortar.

· Avoid water running directly from the roof onto the walls, use correct roof overhang or a gutter.

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13.8

If you want to build another room next to an existing one.

· A planned expansion is much easier as you can use full blocks in the corners instead of half. These full blocks can also then become a part of the expansion.

· If your expansion is unplanned, chip off the plaster from the corner. Replace each ½ block in the corner with a full block with the ridge shaved. You now have a corner to start expanding from.

13.9 Precautions

As shown, when two block interlock one over another, the central recess and ridge of both the blocks do not touch while the side flanges of both the blocks touch each other transferring the load coming on the top block to the bottom. Hence, it is important that blocks are stacked “truly” so that actual load transfer can happen through both the side flanges.

load transfer can happen through both the side flanges. Precautions The first course is like a

Precautions

The first course is like a base or foundation for all the upper courses. Slight errors in the first course would compound in subsequent courses. It is therefore important that the first course is done to desired levels of perfection even at the cost of increase in time.

levels of perfection even at the cost of increase in time. Hydraform training manual copyright 2005

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14.

METHOD FOR PRODUCING ± 1500 HYDRAFORM BLOCKS PER DAY

An 8 man team (excluding sieving and curing) can produce 1 500 blocks per day if the following procedure is followed. A full team with curing and sieving is normally 9 – 11 people.

14.1 The soil must be sieved with a minimum of 2 days lead-time i.e. 1m³ per 100 blocks or 15 m³ sieved soil for one day production of 1 500 blocks/day. 2 men can sieve 15 m³ soil per day.

14.2 The water must be available close to the operation. Preferably by hosepipe from either a gravity fed tank or by municipal pipeline.

14.3 Cement must be stacked next to the operation. The full days’ supply must be stacked before any production begins.

· 5% cement = 21 bags for 1 500 blocks.

· 8% cement = 36 bags for 1 500 blocks.

14.4 The labour employed should not be weak old men or old women and most definitely not young girls. The labour should be healthy, strong men that are willing to work hard.

Mixing by hand:

To run one machine, 8 men are required. This excludes the carrying of the cement to the production area, curing of the blocks, stockpiling and sieving of the soil. All activities other than running of the machine must be done by separate personnel. The block production team and function of each of the 8 men area as follows:

- Machine operator.

- Soil loading by bucket.

- Carrying blocks 2 persons.

- Mixing of first mix.

- Mixing of first mix.

- Mixing of second mix.

- Mixing of second mix.

The second mix is the most crucial mix, if the second mix is not always 100% ready, the machine will have to stop, and wait for the mixing to be completed. If the machine stops, production will fall by 4 blocks per minute. Therefore if the machine stops, between each and every mix for only 7 minutes to catch up, the production will fall by 30 blocks per mix. To produce 1 500 blocks per day 15-20 mixes are normally done. The production would drop by almost 600 blocks per day if there were a 7- minute delay per mix waiting for the second mix to catch up.

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Pan mixer:

If a pan mixer is being used then the labour complement numbers 7 as follows:

- Machine operator

- Soil loader

- Stacker/block carrier x 2 persons

- Mixer soil loader

- Cement and water loader

- Mixer discharger

14.5 Production pay is normally the most effective method of paying the block production team. The team is paid a fixed amount per good quality finished blocks. The incentive will ensure production is maximized while ensuring the team will always have a goal to increase their daily pay. Example: 8 men X daily labour rate/1 500 blocks = value of labour for 1 block.

14.6 Curing is extremely important and should be done by a responsible person who is separate from the 8-man team. This person should also be used to carry the cement bags before production begins and also to prepare the ground for the newly stacked blocks.

14.7 Tools should be of good quality and there should be no shortage of tools forcing people to share.

14.8 Lunchtime- before the team goes on lunch, they should prepare the mix for after lunch, the cement bags should be placed on top of the soil ready to be opened and spread out over the soil. No mix must be left unused before lunch, if the cement has been mixed into the soil it must be used before lunch. The lunchtime must be strictly monitored, keeping in mind that 4 blocks production is lost per minute when the machine is not running. After lunch the full team should help to get the first mix ready.

14.9 End of the day- before packing up, the soil must be measured out for the following days first two mixes (without adding cement). The machine must be filled with Diesel and cleaned. The next morning there must be no delay, the machine should be ready to run within 10 minutes after work begins.

14.10 The blockyard should be set out properly with sufficient space to move freely. The blocks should be set out neatly to not waste space. 1500 blocks should take up approximately 1,8m x 12m.

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15.

BLOCKYARD LAYOUT FOR ONE MACHINE

HYDRAFORM MIDRAND BLOCKYARD (not to scale)

B

B

L

L

O

O

C

C

K

K

P

P

A

A

C

C

K

K

I

I

N

N

G

G

A

A

R

R

E

E

A

A

BLOCK PACKING AREA

BLOCK PACKING AREA

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

C

O

O

O

O

O

O

O

K

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

S

K

K

K

K

K

K

K

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

CEMENT

STORE

 

M7

   

½ BLOCKS

COVERED MIXING AREA 6 X 2 METERS

W

T

 

A

A

T

N

 

E

K

 

R

6 X 3 METERS ± 50M³

B

B

L

L

O

O

C

C

K

K

P

P

A

A

C

C

K

K

I

I

N

N

G

G

A

A

R

R

E

E

A

A

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For the Hydraform Engine specifications and maintenance please contact the office and quote your engine number

Tel:

Email:

+27 11 913 1449 sales@hydraform.com

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