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..

TMN

-

,
200900


2004

621.395
: .

..
.. TMN:
. . .: , 2004 . 155 .: .
ISBN 5-256-01730-6.

TMN (elecommunication Management Network), - .3000.
CMIP. ,
SNMP. Siemens, Compaq, Hewlett-Packard. .
200900, , , .
. 16. .37. 2 . .: 43 .

ISBN 5-256-01730-6

.. , 2004
, 2004

TMN

.5
1. .... 6
1.1

.......................................... 6

1.2

.......... 9

1.3

GII .............. 13

1........................................................ 21
2. TMN ....................... 22
2.1

TMN ................... 22

2.2

TMN.................................................... 25

2.2.1 TMN.............................. 25
2.2.2 TMN ................................... 28
2.2.3 TMN ........................................... 32
2.2.4 TMN ................................................................ 34
2.2.5 TMN ................................. 37
2.2.6 TMN ............... 42
2........................................................ 50
3. .... 51
3.1

, TMN.................... 51

3.2

Q........................................................... 54

3.3

X ........................................................... 59

3.4

F G................................................... 65

3.5

TMN .......................... 70

3........................................................ 72
4. CMIP ...... 73
4.1

................................... 73

4.2

CMIP .................... 80

TMN

4. ...................................................... 87
5. SNMP ......... 88
5.1

SNMP....................................... 88

5.2

, SNMP......... 90

5.3

SNMP..................................................... 96

5.4

SNMP ................................................... 100

5.5

SNMP 3

............................ 103

5. .................................................... 110
6. ............................... 111
6.1

........................................ 111

6.2

S&NMS SIEMENS .................. 115

6.3

TEMIP COMPAQ ..... 120

6.4

HP OPENVIEW TELECOM DM TMN...... 125

6.5

................................ 130

6. .................................................... 133
........................................................... 134
............................. 138
.
.................... 146
.
().................. 150

TMN

. .
(, , ) .

,
(telecommunication management network, TMN).
TMN ,
, , . , . TMN,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
.

TMN

1.

1.1
. ,

.

. Frame Relay, , MPLS. IP
IP-
. 2 / 256 /

, DSL
(ADSL, XDSL, SDSL, HDSL).
3- UMTS CDMA.
, ..
, . .
,
.
/ , :

;

TMN

,

;
;
//.


TMN. TMN ,

, - [18,19].
TMN ,
( ) ( ). TMN
, . TMN .
TMN, , , , . TMN , ,
, ,
..
- M.3xxx (. 1),
TMN
.

TMN

, , [13,15,24].
TMN
, :
;
(,
, ..);

( - , , );
;
;
;
, , - ( );
TMN (.. TMN);
, .. 7 [4];
;
(),
();
;
, (
);
() ;
, (
, , ..).

TMN


TMN [3].
.

1.2
, ,
-
, .
, 45.174-2001
[20]. -
, [3,18,19].
,
, . [7]:
, ,

;

, TMN;
, ;

- .

10

TMN

,
TMN,
, :
;
;

[14],
;
, ;

, ;
, , , , .
1980-1990- () .
[10,11,21].
TMN, .
:
,
;
,

TMN

11

()
;
;
;
.
,

TMN, . -
.3010 [26].
, , .

,
, ,
, [18].
() -
, TMN.
, (), , , ,
, .
:

(-),
;
()
, , .
, ,
. ,
,
(. . 1.1):

12

TMN

(),
, ;
(),
.

1.1 - ()
-
,
, .

.

.
, ,
,
.

TMN

13

, . ,
() .
,
. .

1.3 GII
(Global Information
Infrastructure, GII)
[32]. GII .
GII - , (, , ) . GII ,

. GII.
GII 4 :
, , .
(information appliances),
, .
, .

14

TMN

.
, , , ,
(
),
(, , ) .
. 1.2.

( )

1.2 GII
,
, , ,
.
,
, ,
, .
, , . ,
DSL-, , ,
, , . -

15

TMN

,
, (X.25,
Frame Relay, ATM, MPLS), . GII, , , .
GII , , (middleware) ,

. middleware GII , , .
GII . 1.3.
IP-, ,

,

(,
)

(middleware)


( ,


(, ATM, IP, MPLS)

1.3 GII
, GII,
.
. ,

16

TMN

.
:
(infrastructural service
components) (, )
, .. (baseware) .
(middleware)
.
,
.
4 ; M1 2.
M1 .
; GII.
M2 .
GII :
- .
().
.
.
.
.
.

.
, ;

.

TMN

17

, .. -
: , ,
, . , TMN.
, ,
, .
GII.
,
;

. . , , .

, , .
, , .

(functional reference point) .

.. , .
/ .
( ),

.

18

TMN


, .. , .
.
, ,
() GII.
, GII
.
. 1.4 . ,
.

1.4
. 1.4 , CORBA IDL, HyperText
Markup Language (HTML), / .
GII :
(applications functions, AF) , , .
(middleware functions, MF) ,
:
(service control functions, SCF)
,

TMN

19

;
.
(management functions, ManF)
.
(baseware functions, BF) ,
,
( ) .

(. 1.1).
1.1

AP
(Application Protocol)

API
(Application Programming
Interface)

MP
(Middleware Protocol)

BPI
(Basic Programming Interface)


HCI (Human-Computer Interface)

TRP
(Telecommunications
Reference Point)


.


,
.
.

, (
API).

, ,
; .
.

20

TMN

. 1.5
GII, .
1,9
, , , ,
( ) (network control functions).
2 , .
3 , .
4
( ). 4

.

5

9
8

6
7

10
5

5



2

1.5 GII
5 . , ,
.

TMN

21

6,7,8 , .
10 (management
protocol), .
GII .
.
, .. () .
, GII, , :
GII;
GII;
.
, TMN 2 3.

1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

?
TMN.
TMN?
TMN?
?

?
7. ?
8. , .

22

TMN

2. TMN
2.1 TMN
(Telecommunication Management Network, TMN) - 1992 . TMN . - M.3010. TMN
. .
M.3010, TMN ,
. TMN , () (. . 2.1). TMN , [7,13,15,24].

TMN

TMN

TMN

S
D
H

S
D
H

2.1 TMN ( . - .3010)


TMN
. , -

TMN

23

, , . ,
, , . TMN (network element, NE)
.
TMN (management service).
, TMN . TMN , ,
(),
(management function). TMN
,
. (management information)
,
, .
TMN
, -
TMN.
, TMN
(data
communication network, DCN). DCN
TMN (). TMN

(operations systems, OS).

24

TMN

(OS) TMN

2.2 TMN
, (. . 2.2) ,
. ,
TMN.
.


, (). .
( ), , , .
- . , OS , , .

.
DCN OS. C
DCN TMN. DCN
(work stations, WS) -

TMN

25

, -
. -
, Z.300;
TMN. WS - , -
.
TMN . TMN
1985 . IV ( -). TMN M.30 1988 . 1992 . , M.3010.
19962000 .. TMN
-
(ISDN).
(European Telecommunication Standards Institute, ETSI), ,
TMN,
Q.3 SDH.

2.2 TMN
2.2.1 TMN
TMN [26,28]:

TMN;

TMN;

26

TMN

TMN;
;

,
,

;

.
C TMN 5 , .
(configuration management),
:
,
, ;

( ,
);

.
(fault
management) ::
;
.
;
;
- .
(account management),
:
(
, );
.

TMN

27

(security management)
:
TMN;
;
() TMN;
( ) .
( ) (performance management)

;
, ;
(trend
analysis).
TMN. .
TMN TMN.
TMN
TMN, TMN, TMN
.
M.3010
TMN :
TMN,
;
TMN,
;
TMN,
TMN ISO ;

28

TMN

TMN (logical layered


architecture, LLA) ,
.
TMN .

2.2.2 TMN
TMN
:
(functional blocks) TMN, .
(management application functions, MAF) - ,
. MAF ,
. , MAF. MAF
.
TMN (TMN management function, TMN MF)
TMN (TMN management function
sets). TMN MF MAF . TMN
MF
c MAF.
(reference point)
TMN.
; , .
TMN, :
;

29

TMN

;
-;
;
TMN;
.
TMN . , 4 TMN.
(. . 2.3):

WSF

WSF

f
f

q
q

OSF

TMN i

OSF

f
x

TMN j

OSF

q
NEF

NEF

TF

m
2.3 TMN
(operations systems function block, OSF).
(network element function
block, NEF).
(workstation function
block, WSF).
(transformation function
block, TF).

30

TMN

, ,
TMN ,
TMN. (WSF, NEF
TF) . ,
TMN. ,
(q, f x)
TMN; (g m) TMN .
, NEF. ,
TMN
(network element, NE). NEF , TMN. NEF
TMN . NEF, TMN, . 2.3 TMN.
, OSF / . OSF NEF q (. . M.3010). 2.4 OSF, NEF q. ,
q CMIP (. 4).

OSF

NEF

2.4 OSF, NEF q


. 2.3, TMN ( ) OSF q. OSF
TMN ( ) x.

31

TMN

, WSF

. WSF
g. WSF TMN. 2.3 WSF
TMN, g TMN.
, TF , . , . TF
TMN,
. , TMN, TF , TMN, m. TF q ( TMN) m. m TMN, TF
TMN. , TF ; .
2.1 :
2.1 TMN
NEF

NEF
OSF
TF
WSF
TMN

q
q

OSF

q
q, x1
q
f

TF

q
q
q
f
m

WSF

f
f

TMN

m
g

.
1
x OSF
g WSF , .

32

TMN

2.1 ,
. , ,
.
, 2000 . TMN . , TMN (data
communication function, DCF). ,
M.3010,
DCF, DCN, 1 3 ( ) TMN .

2.2.3 TMN
TMN. TMN
(phisical blocks).
, , . TMN :
( ), NE.
(Mediation Device, MD).
Q- (QA).
, OS.
, WS.
, DCN.
. ,
.. .
TF
:

, ;

33

TMN

, .
, TMN
.
,
,
, .
TMN
.

TMN


OS


OS

X/F/Q
X


DCN

Q
Q

Q
Q-

Q- NE

TMN

WS

NE

TMN

2.5 TMN
TMN . 2.5.
(adaptation device,
AD), , ,
TMN ( ), TMN. , . 2.5.
, Q- (Q-adapter, QA). Q-
TMN Q- TMN. -

34

TMN


TMN.
TMN, -TMN ,
, .
X- (X-adapter, XA), TMN TMN ,
TMN. ,


TMN X-.
MD
TMN,
.
Q- (Q-Mediator, QM) X- (X-mediator, XM). Q TMN, X-
TMN.
.

. , OSF,
OSF, MF WSF. ,
, .

2.2.4 TMN
2.2.3, TMN [26,28,29]. ,
. (

35

TMN

) TMN TMN .
, .. . TMN
-.
TMN (
!), .
:

q
x
f

Q
X
F

TMN , -, ETSI, TMF. , ,


. TMN
TMN. TMN , . TMN
;
, . ,
TMN, . - M.3020 [27].
, TMN ,
. () ;
, , .

.
(NE), (logfile)

36

TMN

(logRecord) .
, UML.

. ,
, .
,
.
, . -
M.3200 M.3400. . TMN
- ,
. - M.3100 (. ).
TMN : Q, F X.
Q ,
. , Q , TMN
, .
Q OS NE OS OS.
F WS TMN, OSF TF. DCN.
X TMN
, TMN. X . , TMN. C
, X ,
Q. c Q, X -

TMN

37

TMN
TMN [24].

2.2.5 TMN
TMN, ,
, ISO (. - X.720)
- . TMN TMN.
, .
TMN
. , TMN. (managed object boundary). , .
. 2.6.

2.6
:
(attributes), ;

38

TMN

(actions),
;
(behavior) , ;
(replays), .
,
, ( ) .
.
,
;
/ .
(notifications),
(acknowledgement), , /.
.
(Guidelines for the Definition
of Managed Objects, GDMO) . - X.722. TMN
(. . 2.7 ).
, - ,
/ / , .
- ,
( ), , .

.
.

39

TMN

,
. Q

(Get,Set,Create)

(notifications),

(replays)

MIB

( )

2.7
TMN
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
(Create), (Delete),
(Action) , (Get) (Set) .
,
.
, ,
( ), . ,
. .
.

40

TMN

. (, , ).
. ,
. ,
.
.
,
. , , , .
, ,
, , .
, ,
(management information
base, MIB). MIB, ,
.
. MIB

.
, , . MIB
( )

.. . , MIB (
, ), . , .
, -, 4

41

TMN

..
. . ,
CONNECT,
DATA. :
1. , -
(Request Primitive).
2. - ,
(Indication
Primitive), .
3. , , - (Response Primitive) .
4. - (Confirm Primitive).
TMN
, . 2.8.
G
WSF

X
A

OSF

OSF

Q
Q
M

TF
A

TF

TF

NEF

TF

NEF

M
: M

M
-

2.8 TMN

42

TMN

TMN , ,
- ()
(shared management knowledge, SMK).
SMK TMN.
Get, Cancel-Get ( ), Create
Delete ; Set, Event-Report
( ) Action .
,
, ,
. ,
MIB.
, . ,
MIB . MIB 7- , , .
4.

2.2.6 TMN
TMN ,
,
.
;
(logical layered architecture, LLA) TMN.

TMN.

43

TMN

1992 .,
. - M.3010.
1996 .
2000 .
LLA ,
.

, TMN
() . . 2.9 [34].
1

SAP

SAP

2.9
. 2.9 2 1 2 1 (service access point, SAP). 1 , - 2.
, 1
2; 2 ,
1.
, .

44

TMN

3 2
3. , , 1
3; 1 2, 2
3. , 1
3 2. TMN, c
(. . 2.10):

, BML

, BMS

Business
OSF
B-OSF
q

, SML

Service
OSF
S-OSF

, SMS

, NML

Network
OSF
N-OSF

, NMS

, EML

Element
OSF
E-OSF

,
EMS

, NEL

Network
Element
NEF

2.10 TMN

(network element layer, NEL).
(element management layer,
EML).

TMN

45

(network management layer, NML);


(service management layer, SML).
(business management layer, BML).
TMN (business operation system function, BOSF), /
.
(service
operation system function, S-OSF) , . S-OSF
.
(network
operation system function, N-OSF)
. N-OSF OSF E-OSF.

(element operation system function, E-OSF) . N-OSF E-OSF
S-OSF. (network element function,
NEF) EML .
LLA , - OSF OSF-,
, . ,
TMN TMN, q . NEF E-OSF. LLA
.
(network element layer, NEL). -

46

TMN

- , .
(element manager layer,
EML). E-OSF
.
, .
LLA
.
, :

;
, ;
, ,
/, .;
.
, OSF ( )
NEF .
(network management layer, NML). ,
.
, , /, .. . ,
,
, .
, :
( );
QoS ;
;

TMN

47

;
;
.
OSF
, . .
(service management layer,
SML). ()
, . , , .
, ; .
. IP-, , ,

.
,
:
(, , ..);
;
() ;
;
,
.
. ,
, ( ).

.

48

TMN

, . ,
, , - ().

,
.

,
[34].
(business management layer, BML).

. ,
.
.
TMN
(management
system, MS). , TMN. . LLA (. . 2.10) :
(business management system,
BMS).
C (service management system,
SMS).
(network management system, NMS).
C (element management
system, EMS).
MS , ,

TMN

49

- , DCN. MS (): , ,
(), OS, .
, OS.
. ,

, ,
.. ,
,
,
()
.
OS ,
. ,
, , .

50

TMN

2.
1. TMN ?
2.
TMN.
3. OS TMN?
4. TMN
?
5. ?
6. ( ) TMN?
7. TMN?
8. TMN ?
9. DCN X.25?
10. , ?
11. ?
12. - ?
13. MIB?
14. ?
15. ?
16. ?

TMN

51

3.
3.1 , TMN
TMN , .
.
, .
TMN
M.3200 [20]. M.32xx . TMN
. TMN, ISO, M.3400 [30].

.
.
.
TMN . M.3020.
M.3200
.

3.1 . -
.3200, 1997 . :

52

TMN

3.1
-


(
)

TMN

: + , .

, . M.3200
( ). . :

TMN

53

(), ,
.
(), , (Management Functions Set, MFS) :
.
(alarm summary).
(alarm event criteria).
.
.
,
TMN, ,
(route larm report), (request alarm history).
, ( 1 4):
1. .
2. ( ).
3.
( ).
4. ( ).
.
TMN :


..
OS.
.

. ,

54

TMN


.
, .

.

[20]. [27]
TMN. , , TMN. .
,
.
()
TMN . Q.823.1 Management Conformance Statement Proforma, 1997 [
]. TMN.

3.2 Q
Q ( Q.3) (, )
OS. Q
. ,
Q . 3.1 [33].
Q . Q.811,
Q . Q.812. G.784 Q SDH.

55

TMN

( )
: CMISE FTAM
.

( )

ASE-

FTAM

ISO 8571

CMIP c ISO 9595, 9596


ASCE

ACSE

ROSE

X.227 X.217

X.227 X.217

X.219 X.229

. - X.226 X.209 X.216

. - X.225 X.215

. - X.224 X.214
ISO 8473-3 (CLNS)
ISO 8208 X.25

ISO 8473-3
(CLNS)

ISO 7776 LAPB


X.25

ISO 802.3 LCC


ISO 802.3 MAC

Q.921 LapD

ATM

X.21 / X.21 bis


V.35 G.703

ISO 802.2
Ethernet

SDH DCC
2M TS n

ISO 8473-4
(CLNS)

CLNP/CONP
AAL5

3.1 Q
FTAM ASCE, CMISE ACSE ROSE. ASE, CMISE, ACSE,
ROSE 4. Q
.
, .. . , -

56

TMN

.
, . . Q

(protocol data unit, PDU).
. ..
, . , , .

,
.
,
()
.
, DCN,
Q.
FTAM . Q
. , , Q ..
,
.

.
. (connectionless network protocol, CLNP). CLNP .
ES-IS (end system, ES) -

TMN

57

(intermediate system, IS)


ISIS. ,
, CLNP.
Q, , ,
E1 - .
. Q .
. LapD (Link Access Procedure D-channel, D), . - Q.921.
LapD . - G.784. Ethernet (logical link control,
LLC).
X.25
(high-level data link control protocol, LapB),
ISO 7776.
, Q .
Q
. - Q , ETSI, -, ISO , ATM (ATM Forum). , ATM
, ATM.


Q, .

58

TMN

ETSI -, Q
V.5.1, V.5.2.
www.etsi.org
Q . . - Q.825 Q.3 :
( 06.1998 .) . .
Q ,
.
, Q (). ( ).
, .. . , -
- , , MIB

.
,
Q, , , , (, ), ( , -, ) ..
Q ,

TMN

59

.

, ..
.
Q,
[33] (. 3.2) :
3.2 , Q

/
1




Centrex

( )
( )
7


V.5x


.

,
.
Q , - X.700 M.3100.

3.3 X
X
,

60

TMN

SDH
[22,25].
, SDH .

; ,
(virtual container, VC) .
SDH (STM-n) . [22]. SDH ETSI EN 300 147 V1.4.1. Transmission and Multiplexing; Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH); Multiplexing structure, 2001. [ ;
; ]).
. 3.2 :

VC-12

VC-2

VC-3

VC-4

3.2 SDH
( -), VC.
VC . .

61

TMN

VC-n . SDH VC-12, VC-2, VC-3, VC-4 . VC-n


STM-n . X
SDH,
(path provisioning) (fault
management). X OS , OS OS (. . 3.3) ,
OS [25].
OS

OS

OS

3.3 X
. -

STM-64

STM-16

S16

S16

STM-64

S64

S64

SDH , SDH SDH (. . 3.4).

STM-64

VC-12
VC-4

S16
S16

STM-64

STM-16

S64

VC-12
VC-4

S64

S16

S64

STM-16

STM-16

3.4

62

TMN

SDH
VC12, VC4.
(link connections,
LC), VC4 , .
LC
. ,
,
. C,
VC12 , .

. , c
SMK.
, . , .
(path provisioning) .
VC12
, VC12 (deliverablerable link connection, DLC)
. VC-12 .
.
(identificators, ID) ID DLC.
,
() , :
DLC;

TMN

63

DLC,

ID.
, . , DLC
.
MFS,
, :
DLC DLC
.
DLC DLC .
DLC .
DLC SNC (SubNetwork Connections,
, ). , ,
.

DLC SNC .
DLC .
,
.
MFS,
3.1, . 3.3.
3.3
.

64

TMN

3.3 SDH

MFS
DLC

DLC (DLC Reservation)


(Available Connections Change
Dissemination, ACCD).
DLC DLC
ACCD

ACCD


DLC
SNC

DLC
SNC
ACCD

, ATCCD (ability to connect


change dissemination)


,
. . 3.4
, . ,
()
.
, , . , ( , ,
, ).

LC LC, , , . -

TMN

65

.
MFS, , :
(alarm processing) , ;
(alarm event logging)
.
,
X, , , , 3.4 .
3.4
.
3.4



, SDH ,
X.

3.4 F G
F WS OS MD. F
. F ,
, .

66

TMN

GDMO/ASN.1 IDL.
f OS
WSF; F
WS. F OS ;
,
, OS.
F ,
,
OS. , .. F (. 3.5) [29,30]:
3.5 , F

(
)









()


( )
( )

.
, , .

.

TMN

67

,
3.5 G . G TMN

.
, , .
, G. ISO 9241 ,
.
. ,
.
G ISO 9241 : 10
, 11 , 13 , 16 .

. Z.300 Z.350.
TMN OSF/Motif Hewlett-Packard Open View. IBM () (ommon user access, CUA) Microsoft
Corporation ().
.
, OS :
OS SDH, OS PDH, OS
ATM. OS OS,
,
OS.

68

TMN


.
,
,

.
, , , . ()
.
, , ,

.
. . 3.6
:
3.6

()


,
(, )


,

(..
, )

,
.
.
, ,
. -

TMN

69


.

: ( ), ,
, .
, , .
G . :
;
();
.
. Help ( )
. , , , . ( )
,
. :
;
;
..
;
,
;

() .
G .

70

TMN

, G.
G ,
TMN.

3.5 TMN
TMN UTRAD (Unified TMN Requirements, Analysis and Design) [27]. () TMN.
, TMN,
:
;
;
.
RAD (user
Requirements, Analysis and Design). RAD (unified modelling language, UML). UML TMN
-.
TMN,
GDMO.
TMN ()
. - M.3200. . .
- M.3400
.
UTRAD
,
().

TMN

71

UTRAD :
1. ( , ).
2. .
3. .
TMN
UTRAD , -
.
():
.
.
; -
.

TMN. TMN ,
GDMO , , , , , .
ASN.1 UML. , UML, ,
TMN CORBA,
IDL.
CORBA , . . . .: , 2002 . (
).

72

TMN

3.
1. TMN.
2. TMN?
3. TMN 7?
4. Q?
5. X?
6. G
?
7. TMN?

TMN

73

4. CMIP
4.1
(
, ISO)

[31]. ,
. ISO
, . ISO 9595

(Common Management Information Services Element, CMISE).
- CMISE (application service element, ASE),
[23,35].
ASE ,
. ASE . ASE
, , . ASE .
CMISE, ,
, .. (protocol machine).

PDU, ,
, . -

74

TMN

.
:
1. (management association services,
MAS) , .
MAS :
M-Associate CMISE (
) CMISE .
M-Release
, , CMISE.

M-Abort ,
.
2. (management
notification service, MNS) ,
, / .
3. (management operation services, MOS)
,
, :

M-GET ( );

M-SET ();
M-CREATE ;

M-DELETE ; M-ACTION //
;

M-EVENT-REPORT
;

M-CANCELGET .

75

TMN


( ) . 4.1.

(, .. )

CMISE
CMIP
4.1 CMISE
, CMISE, . ,
, .
, ASE, :
(system management application service element, SMASE).
(common management information service element, CMISE).
(association control service element, ACSE).
(remote operations service element, ROSE).
(co-ordination function).
(application program interface, API).

76

TMN

SMASE
- ,
.
. 4.2.
ACSE ,
(application associations) , .. - -.
, , , ASE.
ASCE.
ACSE .
;
.

SMASE

CMISE
ACSE

API

ROSE

1 - 6

4.2 ASE
ROSE
(remote procedure calls, RPC) .
, , -

TMN

77

, , . , [4] ASE
INP
7.
CMISE ,
.
(ommon management information services, CMIS)
(common management information
protocol, CMIP), ISO 9696.
CMIS , .
CMIP . CMIP
. , CMIS CMIP
.
CMIS , -. CMIS , .
. , , (.. ) .
.
CMIP
,
.
:
, ;
/,
.

78

TMN

,
.
,
.


CMIP (. . 4.3).

()


()

CMIS

MISE

CMIP

MISE

4.3
-
, ,
. (management information)
. , CMISE ,
.
CMIP , MIB, .

,
CMISE ..

TMN

79



, TMN.
CMIP
MIB ..
.
, ,
( ) .
, , .
MIB , . MIB
, . ,
()
,
.
, . (, NT1, NT2 ) ,
, .
MIB S U.
, (actions) ,

. (templates) TMN GDMO
ASN.1.
CMISE
, CMIS
. ,
, (request), CMIS (. 2.2.5).

80

TMN

CMIS
request, CMIS .. , . request
:
indication []
, request;
response [, ] ,
;
confirmation []
.
, Get
MISE M-GET request, Get
M-GET response.
(onfirmed request operations)
,
. ,
(unconfirmed request operations), .
, ,
, CMIS .. (receipt, responce)
,
.
.
CMIP.

4.2 CMIP
4.1, CMIP MISE
. .. . CMIP
PDU PDU -

TMN

81

. ACSE, PDU ROSE. CMIP CMISE.


CMISE, ASCE ROSE CMIP.
CMISE CMIS-, PDU.
CMIP - X.710 ( ISO/IEC 9595) - .X.711 ( ISO/IEC 9596-1).
CMIP
CMIP (common management
information protocol machine, CMIPM). CMIP.
, , CMIS
. CMIPM
. CMIPM ()
, CMIP PDU, ROSE ,
CMISE (. . 4.4).

MISE

CMIS

CMIP
PDU


CMIS


CMIP
CMIP (CMIPM)

CMIP PDU
(
ROSE)


CMIP PDU
(
ROSE)

ROSE
4.4 CMIPM

82

TMN

, .. ,
CMIPM PDU CMISE.
PDU , PDU ,
.
, CMIPM
PDU, ,
CMIS , , CMIS
.
. X.638, CMISE :
R
ROSE ISO/IEC 9072-4.
A
ACSE . X.247
ISO/IEC 8650-2.
P
. X.246 ISO/IEC 8823-2.
S
. X.245 ISO/IEC 8327-2.

.
.
,
. ,
CMIP.
A-ASSOCIATE .
A-RELEASE , ,
, -

TMN

83

. .
A-ABORT . A-ABORT
. A-ABORT ,
.
A-P-ABORT .
C CMIP ROSE :
RO-INVOKE;
RO-RESULT;
RO-ERROR;
RO-REJECT.
ROSE 4.1.
4.1 ROSE
ROSE

ROSE

RO-INVOKE

() ( ) . , .

RO-RESULT

RO-INVOKE () .
RO-INVOKE .
, .

ROSE .

RO-ERROR
RO-REJECT-U
RO-REJECT-P


. 4.5.

84

TMN

, . 4.5 SMASE,
CMISE API CMISE.
[7,9].

CMISE
A-Associate
A-Release A-Abort

RO-Invoke, RO-Reject,
RO-Result, RO-Error

ACSE/ROSE API

ACSE

P-CONNECT,P-RELEASE
P-ABORT

ROSE

P-DATA

4.5 CMIP : ACSE ROSE


. - X.711 2.2.5, , AASSOCIATE, . AAssociate.
, RO-INVOKE RO-Invoke.
PDU (Application PDU, APDU) RO-INVOKE request,
RO ROSE, INVOKE , request .
, , .
CMIS ROSE
CMIP IP-
Get
PDU . 4.6 . , ( -

85

TMN

) SMISE M-Get. M-GET1


request CMIPM CMIP
APDU.

CMISE -


M-GET
M-GET

CMIPM

RO-INVOKE RO-RESULT
ROSE


CMISE -


M-GET
M-GET
CMIPM

RO-RESULT
RO-INVOKE
ROSE

4.6 PDU Get ROSE ( )


M-GET CMIP
( ) ROSE. , Get
MGET request. MGET request, CMIPM :
c PDU CMIP,
APDU, (.. ) MGET .
1

C . X.711, MGET request


CMIS, Get CMIPM . , MGET request mGet CMIP . m-Get ROSE c
APDU P-DATA [7,24].

86

TMN

CMIPM
APDU
ROSE RO-INVOKE.
APDU 16
. .
CMIPM (
, MGET) ,
APDU ,
MGET (M-GET indication),
MGET. PDU ,
PDU
PDU ROSE
RO-REJECT-U.
MGET, :
CMISE
M-GET responce. IP-
.
APDU, MGET.
APDU IP- RORESULT;

ROERROR.
PDU ,
CMIPM :

, APDU IP- ,
RO-RESULT (RO-RESULT indication),

()
MGET confirmation IP .
APDU
, ;

TMN

87

RO-REJECT-U.
, CMIP ,
. CMIP
, .
CMIP ,
. CMIP SNMP, 5.

4.
1.
?
2. ASE.
3.
?
4. ROSE ACSE?
5. CMIP -?
6. CMIPM?
7.
CMIPM?
8. ROSE?

88

TMN

5. SNMP
5.1 SNMP
SNMP
.
, / , . , SNMP TMN,
- TMN.
SNMP , CMIP [17,43].
SNMP 1980- :
(High-level
Entity Management System, HEMS), ,
HEMS.
(Simple Gateway
Monitoring Protocol, SGMP). SGMP ,
; , IP.
SGMP .
CMIP TCP (Common Management over TCP,
CMOT) , [36]. CMOT CMIP
,
.

TMN

89

HEMS, SGMP CMOT 1987 . 1988 .


Internet Activities Board, IAB. ,
.
SGMP (Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP). SNMP
. , :
MIP. SNMP .
1990 . SNMP 1 (SNMPv1)
. , , TCP/IP, RFC 1157 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),
IETF.
SNMP .
,
CMIP, SNMP 1993 , TCP/IP. SNMP
,
, ( ).
1990- SNMP (Internet Engineering
Task Force, IETF). SNMP
, TCP/IP, ,
.
SNMP (, , ); -

90

TMN

, (user
datagram protocol, UDP)
.
SNMP: SNMP 1 (SNMPv1) SNMP 2 (SNMPv2) [37,
39]. , SNMPv2 ,
, . SNMP 3 (SNMPv3) . SNMP 2.
SNMP , SNMP .
- www.simpleweb.org,
www.citforum.ru, www.laes.ru/list/pve/SNMP/.

5.2 , SNMP
, SNMP
( )
SNMP-. SNMP- ,
. (network management systems, NMS), . 5.1 [42,43] .

CMIP SNMP. CMIP
;
SNMP
, .
, , -, , , , , ..
,

91

TMN

-
; , .
NMS

SNMP

SNMPv2
MIB



UDP/IP


SNMPv2
MIB

SNMPv2
MIB

SNMPv2

MIB

SNMPv2

MIB

SNMPv2

MIB

5.1 SNMPv2
( )
:
.

/.

() .
/ ( ).
.
.

92

TMN


ISO - (Internet management information base, IMIB) [38]. IMIB , MIB, , .
SNMP IMIB
, , CMIP.
IMIB SNMP /, ,
IP,TCP,UDP, IP-, TCP, .
SNMP
IMIB.
IMIB, SNMP,
MIB-I MIB-II. ,
MIB (Remote Monitoring, RMON). RMON
.
MIB-I (. RFC 1156) . 114
, 8 . , System ,
, / ; IP IP:
IP-, IP-.
()
. () ,
IMIB. ..
, ( iso), (ccitt itu), , ( jointtoccitt).

93

TMN


.5.2.
1 (Abstract Syntax Notation No1). ASN.1
..
, .
root

ccitt(0)

iso(1)

joint-iso-ccitt(2)

org(3)
dod(6)
internet(1)
mgmt(2)
privat(4) snmpv2(6)
mib-2(1)
system(1)
sysObjectID(2)

snmp(11)

sysUpTime(3)

5.2

, sysUpTime, , / , OID system 1.3,
1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0, ( ): iso(1)
org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mgmt(2) mib-2(1) system(1)
sysUpTime(3) 0.

94

TMN

: , ISO,
, (org) (department of defense, dod),
(internet), (mgmt), MIB-II (mib-2),
(system), sysUpTyme (3) (0) root ( )
. MIB-II (. RFC 1213), 1992 .,
185, 10 (. 5.3).

MIB-II
System (mib-2 1)

SNMP (mib-2 11)

Interfaces (mib-2 2)
Address translation
(mib-2 3)
IP (mib-2 4)
ICMP (mib-2 5)

Transmission (mib-2 10)


Exterior Gateway
Protocol (mib-2 8)
User Data Protocol
(mib-2 7)
TCP (mib-2 6)

:
mib-2 x
System ( , , )
Interfaces ( , , )
Address translations IP-
IP (Internet Protocol)
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

TCP (Transaction Control Protocol)
UDP (User Data Protocol)
Exterior Gateway Protocol
Transmission
SNMP SNMP

5.3 MIB-II

95

TMN


IMIB , ; .
IMIB, , , (. . 5.3.). MIB-II . , , .
,

tcpConnTable,

1.3.6.1.2.1.6.13.1, TCP
( TCP mib2-6 ), Cisco Systems,
(. . 5.4):
TcpConnState

tcpConnLocalAddress

TcpConnLocalPort

( 1)

( 3)

( 5)

( 2)

( 4)

( 6)

( I)

( J)

( K)

:
TcpConnState TCP, - (INTEGER).
TcpConnLocalAddress IP ,
IP (IpAddress).
TcpConnLocalPort , ,
(INTEGER).

5.4 SNMP,
TCP
, , MIB, .
SNMP .

96

TMN


IMIB ,

. SNMP.

5.3 SNMP
SNMP [39,40].
1. (standard message format), UDP.
2. (standard set of
managed objects) (values) IMIB.
. , (.. ) .
TCP, IP, UDP, .
,
.
-- (dot-notation), . 5.2.
3. (standard way of
adding objects). ,
SNMP defacto .
-
IMIB.
SNMP 1 (SNMPv1)
SNMP- :
Get [] () IMIB.

TMN

97

GetNext [ ] , ( )
IMIB.
Set [] ,
( . 5.4).
Trap [] ; ,
, , ,
, ..
SNMP 2 (SNMPv2) , SNMP-, :
GetBulk [ ] , .
Inform [] NMS Trap NMS , ,
.
Report []
; .
PDU
. () .

:
(GetRequest) Get. IMIB

.
(GetNextRequest)
SNMP

98

TMN

, .
,
IMIB (c GetNext).
,
IMIB.
(SetRequest)
,
Set; , , , 0
..
SNMP.
(Trap). SNMP , (reach out) ( Trap) , .
, InformRequest [] GetBulkRequest [ ]. Response [] , .
()
. 5.5.
G e tR e q u e s t
R esponse

In fo rm R e q u e s t
R esponse

G e tN e x tR e q u e s t
R esponse

G e tB u lk R e q u e s t
R esponse

S e tR e q u e s t
R esponse

In fo rm
R esponse
T ra p

5.5 (response) SNMPv2

99

TMN


PDU, , SNMP (. .5.6 5.1) :
Get, Get-Next, Set, Responce PDU
SNMP

SNMP PDU

SNMP

SNMP PDU

- a

Trap PDU
PDU SNMP

5.6 PDU SNMP (v1 v2 )


5.1 PDU SNMP

SNMP

PDU

SNMP

Get ( 0), Set ( 2), GetNext ( 1), Responce ( 3)

(Request-ID).

(Error-status)

(Error-index)
,

(Variable bindings)
PDU
,
(Enterprise)

(Agent address)
(Generic trap type)

(Specific trap code)

(Time stamp)

.
.

, (Variable
bindings)

.
SNMP PDU, ,
.
Trap ( 4)
, .
,

.
.
,
.

c .

100

TMN

PDU, GetBulkRequest Inform . .5.6 SNMP .


- SNMP , ,
, .
, SNMP ,
.
SNMP .

5.4 SNMP
SNMP
, SNMP ,
TCP/IP. TCP/IP , SNMP. SNMP
API . c
.
SNMP, , , ,
.
SNMP
, .
. . 3 SNMP .

TMN

101

- SNMP :
(alarm polling
functions). SNMP- (thresholds) (, ),
, .

. , , ( , ).
(trend monitoring functions). SNMP-
; IMIB. ,
.. . ,
() .
(trap reception functions). SNMP SNMP,
. SNMP SNMP; , ,
, ..
.
/ . , SNMP-
, , ().
, SNMP :

102

TMN

/ (management tool set).


SNMP- . IMIB,
IMIB . SNMP- , , SNMP.
IMIB (compiler).
IMIB, . IMIB,
.
SNMP
, . SNMP , . , SNMP .
SNMP
CMIP, . , SNMP
Create Delete. SNMP , CMIP, .
, Set
.

TMN

103

5.5 SNMP 3
SNMP 3 (SNMPv3) IETF :
RFC 2570. Introduction to SNMP v3 [ SNMP
3], 1999 .
RFC 2571. An Architecture for Describing SNMP
Management Frameworks [
SNMP], 1999 .
RFC 2572. Message processing and Dispatching [ ], 1999 .
RFC 2573. SNMP Applications [ SNMP],
1999 .
RFC 2574. User-Based Security Model [ ], 1999 .
, SNMP 3 :
, SNMPv3.
NMS , .
SNMP .
.
, .
.. .
.
, . 5.7 5.7 SNMPv3 .

104

TMN

SNMP

SNMP-

(IPX, UDP)

5.7 SNMPv3
SNMP
MIB

SNMP-

(IPX, UDP)

5.7 SNMPv3

TMN

105

:
SNMP, SNMP- (SNMP engine);
SNMP (SNMP application).
SNMP
.. . SNMP PDU, ,
SNMP-, .
SNMP
.
SNMP :
(dispatcher);
(message processing system);
(security subsystem);
(access control subsystem).
SNMP-.
, SNMP 1
2.
SNMP.
. PDU , SNMP.
/
. ; PDU SNMP ,
.

106

TMN

(security subsystem)
SNMP .
SNMPv1 SNMPv2 .
, SNMPv3
,
:
;
,
;
,
, TCP/IP;
.
SNMP-
.
, PDU
SNMP.
. (),
.
-, MD5 (message digest, MD)
(secure hash algorithm, SHA).
SNMPv3
DES (data encryption standard, DES).
SNMPv3 , -

TMN

107

,
.

. IMIB
.
RFC 2275.
, ..
(view) , , IMIB. , .
, , SNMPv3.
SNMPv3
:
(command generator applications) . PDU 5.1
/ (notification receiver application)
InformRequest, Trap, Response.

/
(notification
originator
application) .
InformRequest.
(proxy forwarded applications) SNMP, ,
.
SNMP v3 (. . 5.8) :

108

TMN
msgVersion
msgMaxSise
msgFlags
msgSecurityModel
msgSecuirityParametrs

msgID

contextEngineId
contexName
SNMP Data (PDU)

msgGlobalData=
HeaderData

SecuirityModel
msgData=
ScopedPDU
(

5.8 SNMP v3
5.2 :
5.2 PDU SNMP v3

SNMP, snmpv3 (3)


msgVersion
Header data
,
msgID
SNMP
SNMP . 0 231-1
msgMaxSize
484 231-1, () .
, , MsgFlags
. (Get, Set,
Inform), PDU,
. 0 1.
0 231-1 MsgSecurityModel
,
. : 1
SNMPv1; 2 SNMPv2; 3
SNMPv3,

TMN

msgSecurityParametersl

109

, ( ) SNMP SNMP . .
, PDU, ContextEngineId

. , .
contextEngineId ContextName
,
PDU
SNMP Data (PDU) SNMP

, SNMP
CMIP. SNMP. SNMP-

,
IP, , , . SNMP de-facto

.
SNMP . SNMP , ,
.
SNMP, ,
, SNMP , ,
SNMP ( SNMP), , .

SNMP 1 2, , CERT (omputer emer-

110

TMN

gency response team, CERT) CA-2002-03 CERT SNMP 12.02.2002. SNMPv1.


3 SNMP , 1 2 , , .
, SNMP, ,
CMIP,
. , , SNMP NetManager
Siemens ()
EWSD, 15.

5.
1. SNMP?
2. - IMIB?
3.
SNMPv2.
4. SNMP ?
5. SNMP ?
6. SNMP.
7. PDU SNMPv3?
8. SNMP CMIP?

TMN

111

6.
6.1
, TMN, , ,
, .
. TMN
, . HP Open View
Telecom, Digital TeMIP, Vertel TMN Manager Platform Agent Platform, Siemens S&MNS, Tivoli NetView, Harris Network Management.
[8,9,11,12,14,15,16].
, / .
, ;
; - .
, ,
MIB, , , , .
, .
.
, ,
, , :

- ;

112

TMN

SLA;
LLA TMN;
;

;

.
,
. ,
,
,
34.60190 .
. ( 01.01.1992).

, , , [15]:

, ,
(, SDH, ATM);
, (. 1) .
, . ,
MCI (), Sprint (), AT&T (),
Deutsche Telekom ().

. .
,
.

TMN

113


(4..6 ).
, . .
, . , ,
. , Lucent
Technologies () 2001 . Navis
iOperations
Software
(

www.lucent.ru/products/application/oss/soft/soft.html).
iOperations Software
,
. Navis iEngineer , , , , , - ,
. Navis iProvision iOperations Software , ,
(
). Navis iProvision . ,
.
Navis iAssure
(QoS) , , .
,
,

114

TMN

(SLA),
. () iNavis Access
Navis iProvision 90 , , .
iNavis NFM (Network Fault Manager),
Navis iAssure,
Lucent, (
NEC, Siemens, Alcatel). , 25 , 500 . .
, Hewlett Packard
Compaq TeMIP 350 000 ,
1 3
. .
,
()
[1]. 5 , 4 10
. 1999 . ().

. , , .


.
, :

TMN

115

Cisco Works Cisco


Systems Cisco
Systems;
Optivity Network Management System (NMS)
Nortel;
46020 MainStreet Newbridge, Alcatel;
Ericsson Packet Backbone Network (Ericsson PBN) Element Management Access, EMA Ericsson.
,
. . .

6.2 S&NMS Siemens


Siemens
(Service & Network Management System, SNMS),
. : (Domain Element Management),
(Domain Network Management),
(Domain Service Management). Siemens
: (CrossDomain Network Management),
(CrossDomain Service Management)
[2].
(General Fault Management), (Connection Management), (Per-

116

TMN

formance Management), (Accounting Data Collector). ,


,

(Billing & Customer Care), . . 6.1.
S&NMS
Siemens , ,
, , SDH, IP . ,
S&NMS
Siemens , Siemens.
Customer Care &
Billing

Billing & CustomerCare

Billing

Cross-domain Coordinated Service Provisioning- NetManager Coordinated Service Provisioning - Unisphere


Service Mgmt
Accounting Data Collector
Domain
Service Mgmt

IN
Service
Mgmt.

Provisioning
FastLink

Network
Element

xPressLink

ATM
service

IP
service

Provisioning
transmissin

Provisioning
Mobile
Subscribers

Connection Management
General Fault Management
Call
Routing

Element
Management

Provisioning

Performance Management

Cross-Domain
Service
Mgmt.
Domain
Network
Mgmt.

Provisioning
EWSD
SURPASS

Signalling
Mgmt.

E2E Access
Path Mgmt.

E2E Layer
2 Mgmt.

IP
Routing

SDH Path
Mgmt.

Mobile Network
Management

IN
Commander

AccessIntegrator

NetManager

MainStreetXpress
46020

MainStreet
- Xpress
46xxx

Unisphere
Mgmt.Center

TNMS/
EMNS

Mobile
Network
Mgmt.

INXpress

FastLink

EWSD/
SURPASS

XpressLink

MainstreetXpress
(ATM)

IP Switch

Infinity
/OSN

Mobile

:
Mgmt. -
Coordinated Service Provisioning -

6.1 S&NMS
S&NMS () :
NetManager
EWSD;

TMN

117

AcessIntegrator
FastLink;
IMNS ;
SPOTS/SPOTSXpress .
S&NMS
IP .
. :
SNMP;
FTAM/FTP;
Java/CORBA.
S&NMS .
(call routing) (signaling management) NetManager. , , , ,
EWSD, SURPASS, (mobile Network). .

(EndtoEnd Layer 2 Management, E2E Layer 2 Management) InterXpress MNS 7000 , :
, ATM (ATM Path Management), Q.SIG. ,
(EndtoEnd MultiService Access Management, E2E Access Management)

118

TMN

xDSL ( FastLink)
AccessIntegrator.
IP (IPRouting Management) Unisphere (Unisphere
Network Management Center).
.
SDH
(Element Network
Management System, ENMS)
(Transmission Network Management System, TNMS). TransXpress,
,
, .
(mobile network management) Mobile Integrator.
, .
(general fault management)
(Integrated Network Management System, IMNS). :

, .
.
,
. INMS
(, , , ).
(service user network

TMN

119

interface, SUNI). INMS ,


WDM/SDH/PDH, ATM, Frame Relay, X.25, , , , , .
(Network Connection
Management) . .
InterXpress MNS 7000.
() SPOTS XDMS.
.
(Domain Service Management Application) :
(IN Service
Management) INXpress.
IP (IP Service Management) c Unisphere (Unisphere Service Management Center, SMC).
ATM (ATM Service Management) c
MainStreetXpress 46020.
EWSD SURPASS (Service Provisioning for EWSD and SURPASS hiA) c
NetManager.
(Service Provisioning for FastLink subscribers) AccessIntegrator.
XpressLink (Service Provisioning for XpressLink subscribers) MainStreetXpress Network Service Management System.
(Transmission Service Provisioning) c
ENMS TNMS.

120

TMN


(Service Provisioning for mobile subscribers)
SwitchCommander.
(Cross
Domain Service Management) , IP.
IP, IP IPVPN.
xDSL
IP.
NetManager Unisphere Management Center (UMC).
, , . , .
, .

(Accounting data collection and conversion, ADC) NetManager.
, , ( ) .

S&NMS (Customer Care System) Arbor/BP Kenan System () .

6.3 TeMIP
Compaq
TeMIP (Telecom Management Information Platform) Compaq - -

TMN

121

.
:
;
;
;
;

;
(trouble ticketing).
, , SLA.
TeMIP

, . TeMIP
:
GSM.
SDH.
, .

.
ATM.
.
7.
TeMIP :

-
, .

, (). , .

122

TMN

TeMIP
API , .
TeMIP :
TeMIP (TeMIP Framework);
(TeMIP Fault and
Trouble Management);
TeMIP Microsoft
Windows NT;
TeMIP Windows
NT UNIX (TeMIP Access Library), .
, TeMIP :
(TeMIP Application Developers
Toolkit) Visual TeMIP;
Expert System Access;
SNMP;
.
TeMIP
(Alarm Generator Access Module).
TeMIP.
TeMIP
G
, , , . G, F
.
TeMIP , .
,
.

123

TMN


.
, ,
IP.
.

,
.
()
, .
IP Poller
SNMP.

TeMIP , , . .
TeMIP :
, ;

OSI/CMIP Q3, SNMP;

, X Windows, OSF/Motif, Microsoft Windows NT;


;
,

;
;

124

TMN

Q, TeMIP
TMN-;
- ,
CORBA, Java Microsoft.
TeMIP
, , .
TeMIP . 6.2 .
. 6.2.
, MIB.
TeMIP c .

TeMIP

MIR

CMIP, ASCII

TeMIP-

MD ()

Q

Q

Q
S
D
H

Q
S
D
H


TMN

6.2 TeMIP TMN

TMN

125

HewlettPackard Compaq TeMIP HewlettPackard;


hp Open View TeMIP solutions (
1.09.2002 www.openview.hp.com).
TeMIP :
TeMIP
RealTime Network Operations.
TeMIP
TeMIP Expert.

Fault Management.

TeMIP


TeMIP Service Monitor.
:
( ) ATM, Frame Relay DSL TeMIP Broadband Service
Controller.
SDH TeMIP Broadband Service Controller.
TeMIP British Telecom (), 1000 , .

6.4 HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN


Hewlett-Packard
(HP) OpenView Telecom Distributed Management (DM) TMN , , .
1985 .

126

TMN

2000 . OpenView Communications/Service Assurance (HP OVC/SA),


[6].
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN
, , .
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN , , , ISO
IETF SNMP. CMIP SNMP. HP OpenView Telecom DM
TMN , - .
HP 9000, HP-UX 10.20, 11.0
, Sun SPARC
Solaris 2.6, 7, 8 .
Intel
MS Windows NT 4.0 MS Windows 2000.
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN
,
.
, , , ,
,

.
HP OpenView Communications ( Telecom) DM
TMN :
DM TMN Agent (- ),
,
-

TMN

127

, .
- .
DM TMN Manager
(Managers Devellopers Kit).

DM TMN Agent Network Node Manager.
DM TMN Manager . OpenView Windows GUI.
Network Node Manager [ ] ,
, (outsourcing) (Enterprise service providers).
Hewlett-Packard, HP OpenView Network Node Manager
HP OpenView Network Node Manager.
Network Node Manager
, .

(event correlation technology), .

.
TCP/IP IPX , Java WEB- .

128

TMN

GUI , .
HP OpenView Telecom DM TMN . 6.3.

HP OpenView Windows

(Managed
Object Toolkit)

API

ACSE

GDMO


()

CMIP

GDMO

SNMP

6.3 HP OpenView Telecom



Hewlett-Packard HP ISM (Integrated Service
Management). HP ISM:
HP OpenView
,
.
HP Process Manager , / .
HP Internet Usage Manager
.. , .

TMN

129

HP ISM .
HP Service Delivery , . HP Service Delivery
,
.

HP Service Assurance. SLA ,
SLA. ,
:
, ( ) .
HP Service Assurance one .
IP.
HP IP-
:
HP OpenCall
, IP;
Softswitch, Hewlett-Packard;
HP VoIP (voice over IP, IP);
HP,
.
,
HP ISM .
Hewlett-Packard, 67% , - HP Open View. HP Open

130

TMN

View TeMIP solutions 170 ,


8 10 (
). OpenView
DM Telecom TMN Siemens, Alcatel, Nortel, Lucent, Nokia, Fujitsu. HP Open View TeMIP , Motorola, Siemens,
Marconi, Tellabs, Ericsson. , British Telecom HP Open View TeMIP ATM, FrameRelay, ADSL.
HP OpenView OEMF
2000 . .
, DX200
Nokia Alcatel 1000 S12. HP OpenView OEMF
1998
.
Hewlett-Packard
HP OpenView ServiceCenter/SLM .
.

6.5

1990- 2000- . . -.
.
.

TMN

131


, ,
SLA, .
, - (Service Assurance).
- -, - ( ),
. /
.
(
)
. ,
Q
MIB. , Q,
. .
()

() SDH (. 6.4
), / , .
. .
-

132

TMN

/ ,
, , .
,
. IP, .

()

NMS
N-OS

DCN

N-OS

...

N-OS

E-OS

EMS

SNMS

SNMS

:
E-OS - (element operation system)
N-OS - (network operation system)
SNMS - (subnetwork management system)
EMS - (element management system)

6.4
SDH ( , )
,
, . ,
, -

TMN

133

[14]. , .

[5]. (middleware), .
.

. , , (
),
.

6.
1. TMN.
2. ?
3. Siemens
?
4.
Compaq TeMIP ?
5. ?

134

TMN


1. ., ., .. TMN// . 1999. 12.
2. . // . 2000. 4. .8692.
3. .., . .
. .: , 1995.
4. .. . .: .
1997.
5. .. //
1.2000. . 2932; 22000. .7983.
6. ..
. // .7.1998..818.
7. .. . .: , 2003 .
8. ., ..
// . Connect.1998.12; 1999.1.138141.
9. ., ., .. : , , .
, .: , 2003.
10. ., .. // 1996. 12 .23-27.
11. .. TMN // . 1998.
5.
12. ..
// 2000.1 .33-34.
13. .. . .: , 1999 .

TMN

135

14. .. //
. 2001. 1. . 2629.
15. ., ., ..
: // . 1994. .3 17.
16. .., .. : , // . 2000. 2. .83 87.
17. .., .. . , , . - : -. 2000 . 672 .
18. 2005 . .
1,8 ., , 1996 .
19. / .. , ..
, .. .; . .. .. .
.: , 1998.
20. . . .: , 2001.
21. : / .,
.., .. .: , 1997.
22. .. : . .: -, 2001 .
23. CMIP Services and Topology Agent Programming Guide. Document Number: SC31-6544-00. : [http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/cgibin/bookmgr/BOOKS/ISTP7000/CCONTENTS 25.03.2002 ]
24. Divakara K. Udupa TMN: Telecommunications Management Network. McGraw-Hill. 1999. 420 p.
25. ES 201 654. Telecommunications Management Network (TMN); X interface; SDH path provisioning and fault management. June, 1999 V1.1.1.
26. ITUT Recommendation M.3010. Principles for a telecommunications
management network. 2000.

136

TMN

27. ITUT Recommendation M.3020. TMN interface specification methodology.


2000.
28. ITUT Recommendation M.3200. TMN management services and telecommunications managed areas: overview. 1997.
29. ITUT (Prepublished recommendation) M.3300. TMN F interface requirements. 1998.
30. ITUT Recommendation M.3400. TMN management functions. 2000.
31. ITU-T: Recommendation X.711. Information technology Open Systems
Interconnection Common management information protocol. 1997.
32. ITUT Recommendation Y.110. Global Information Infrastructure principles
and framework architecture. 1998.
33. Petermueller W. J. Q3 Object Models for the Management of Exchanges.//IEEE Communications Magazine. March, 1996. Volume 34,
Number 3.
34. Pras Aiko Network Management Architectures. CTIT Ph. D-thesis series
No. 95-02. Thesis University of Twente, Enschede. With ref. ISBN 90365-0728-6. 1995. :
[http://www.simpleweb.org/nm/research/results/publications/pras/thesis.htm
l 17.10.01]
35. Raman L. CMISE Functions and Services/IEEE Communications Magazine. May 1993. Volume 31, Number 5.
[http://www.comsoc.org/livepubs/surveys/public/raman/raman.html 4.04.01]
36. RFC 1095. The Common Management Information Services and Protocols
for the Internet (CMOT and CMIP). October, 1990.
37. RFC 1441. Introduction to version 2 of the Internet-standard Network Management Framework. IETF. April 1993.
38. RFC 1442. Structure of Management Information for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
39. RFC 1444. Conformance Statements for version 2 of the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.

TMN

137

40. RFC 1446 Administrative Model for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April, 1993.
41. RFC 1448. Protocol Operations for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
42. RFC 1450. Management Information Base for version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2). IETF. April 1993.
43. Stallings W. SNMP, SNMPv2, SNMPv3, and RMON1 and 2, Third edition.
Addisson-Wesley. 1998.

138

TMN


A
ACCD
ACSE
AD
ADC
ADSL
AF
AIS
ANSI
AP
AP
API
APDU
ASE
ASN.1
ATCCD
ATM
BER
BMF
BML
BML
BPI
CASE
ERT
CDMA
CF

Agent
Available Connections Change Dissemination
Association Control Service Element
Adaptation device
Accounting data collection and conversion
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Application Function
Alarm Identification Signal
American National Standard Institute
Application Process
Application Protocol GII
Application Programming Interface

Application PDU PDU


Application Service Element
Abstract Syntax Notation no 1 1
Ability To Connect Change Dissemination
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Basic Encoding Rules ()
Basic management functions
Business Management Layer
Business Management System
Basic Programme Interrface
Computer-aided software engineering

Computer Emergency Response Team

Code division multiplexing access
Control Function GII

TMN

139

onnectionless-Mode Services
CMIP
Common Management Information Protocol

CMIS
Common Management Information Service
(
)
COM
Component Object Model
CONS
onnection-Mode Services
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture

CORBA CORBA Interface Description Language IDL
CORBA
CCS 7 Common Channel Signaling no 7
7
CUA
Common User Access
DCF
Data Communication Function
DCC
Data Communications Channel

DCE
Distributed Computing Environment
DCN
Data Communication Network
DLC
Deliverablerable Link Connection
DPT
- Danamic Transport Data

DSL
Digital Subscriber Loop
DWDM

Dense
Wavelength
Division
Multiplexing


ECC
Embedded Communication Channel
EEI
Environment External Interface
EML
Element Management Layer
EMS
Element Management System
ETSI
European Telecommunication Standard Institute
()
ES
End System
FTAM
File Transfer Access Methode
FTP
File Transfer Path
GDMO
Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects CLNS

140

TMN


GII
- Global Information Infrastructure
GPRS
- General Packet Radio Service

HCIF
Human-Computer Interfacing -
HCIF
Human-Computer Interfacing Function
-
HDLC
High-level data link control protocol
HDSL
- High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line

HMI
Human-machine interface
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTML
HyperText Markup Language
( )
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force
IMIB
- Internet Management Information Base -
INAP
Intelligent Network Application Part
7
IP
Internet Protocol
IS
Intermediate system
IS-IS
Intermediate system to IS
ISDN
Integrated Service Digital Network , .
ISO
International Standard Organization
ITU
International Telecommunication Unit

ITU-T
International Telecommunication Unit Standardization Sector

LAPB(D) Link Access Procedure B (D) channel
B(D)
LC
Link Connection
LCC
Logical Link Control
LCS
Leased Circuit Services

TMN

LLA

141

NML
NMS
NPDU

Logical Layer Architecture


Line Terminal ISDN
Manager ,
Manager Application Function
Management Function GII
Management Association Services
( )
Management Communication Function

Management Device ,
Mobile e-Services Architecture

Mediation Function
Middleware Function ( ) GII
Management function sets
Management Information Base
Management Information Service

Management Notification Service


Management Object ,

Middleware Protocol GII


Multi-Protocol Label Switch

Network Element ,
Network Element Function
Network element layer
Network Interface Card
- Network Function
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Network Management Forum c ,
TMF.
Network Management Layer
Network Management System
Network Protocol Data Unit

NT

Network Terminal ISDN

LT
M
MAF
ManF
MAS
MCF
MD
MESA
MF
MF
MFS
MIB
MIS
MNS
MO
MP
MPLS
NE
NEF
NEL
NIC
NF
NIST
NMF

142

ODP
OMG
OS
OSF
OSI
OSIE
PDU
RPC
P&SF
PI
Q
QA
QAF
QoS
RAD
RDSL
RFC
RMON
ROSE
RPC
SAP
SCF
SDH
SDL
SDU
SDSL
SLA
SMAE
SMASE

TMN

Open distributed processing []


Object Management Group ,
Operation System (
)
Operation System Function
Open System Interaction
Open System Interaction Environment

Protocol Data Unit
Remote Procedure Call
Processing and Storage Function .
Protocol control information
Q-interface Q-
Q-adapter Q-
Q-adapter Function Q-
Quality of Service
[user] Requirements, Analysis and Design ,
Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line

Request For Comments IETF
Remote Monitoring
Remote Operations Service Element
Remote Procedure Call ()
.
Service Access Points
Service Control Function
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Specification and Description Language

Service data unit
Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
Service Level Agreement
Service Management Application Element

Service Management Application Service Element

TMN

SMC
SMI
SMF
SML
SMK
SML
SMS
SNC
SNMP
STM
SUNI
SQL
TF
TF
TCP
TMF
TMN
TRP
UDP
UML
UMTS
UNI
UCD
UTRAD
V
V-n

143


Service Management Center
Structure of Management Information
( )
Systems Management Function
Service Management Layer
Shared Management Knowledge

Service management layer
Service management system
SubNetwork Connections
Simple Network Management Protocol

Synhronous Transport Module
.
Service user network interface
Server-Client Language - ( -)
Transformation function
Transport Function GII
Transmission Control Protocol
( TCP/IP)
TeleManagement Forum ,
Telecommunications Management Network

Telecommunications Reference Point

User Datagram Protocol

Unified Modelling Language


Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

User-Network Interface .
User Centered Design ,
Unified TMN Requirements, Analysis and Design
TMN, []
Virtual Container
Virtual Container of level n n
(n=12, 2,3,4)

144

VDSL
VoIP
VPN
X.25
Xadapter
WAN

TMN

Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line


Voice over IP IP
Virtual Privet Network ()

X.25
X-adapter X

- Wide Area Network (


)
WS
Working Station
WSF
Working Station Function

( )

(LAN)

(
,
7 )

, IEC

( , )

()

( ).

TMN

,
-
-
-
-

-
-



-

()





-

145

146

TMN

http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.

M
ITUT Recommendation M.3010. Principles for a telecommunications management network. 2000. [ ]
ITUT Recommendation M.3016. TMN security overview. 1998. [
TMN]
ITUT Recommendation M.3020. TMN interface specification methodology.
2000. [ TMN]
ITUT Recommendation M.3030. Telecommunications Markup Language
(tML) Framework. 2002. [ ]
ITUT Recommendation M.3100. Generic network information model.
1995. [ ]
ITUT Recommendation M.3120. CORBA generic network and network element level information model. 2001. [ CORBA ]
ITUT Recommendation M.3200. TMN management services and telecommunications managed areas: overview. 1997. [
TMN / ]
ITU-T Recommendation M.3207.1 TMN management service: maintenance
aspects of B-ISDN management. 1996. [
]
ITU-T Recommendation M.3208.1 TMN management services for dedicated
and reconfigurable circuits network : Leased circuit services. 1997. [
TMN . ]

147

TMN

ITU-T Recommendation M.3208.2 TMN management services for dedicated


and reconfigurable circuits network : Connection management of preprovisioned service link connections to form a leased circuit service. - 1999
[ TMN
. ,
]
ITU-T Recommendation M.3208.3 TMN management services for dedicated
and reconfigurable circuits network : Virtual private network. 2000. [
TMN . ]
ITU-T Recommendation M.3210.1 TMN management services for IMT-2000
security management. 2001. [ TMN
IMT2000]
ITU-T Recommendation M.3211.1 TMN management service: Fault and performance management of the ISDN access. 1996. [
TMN. ]
ITUT Recommendation M.3320. Management requirements framework for
the TMN X-Interface. 1997. [
X TMN]
ITUT Recommendation M.3300. TMN
1998.[ F TMN]

Finterface

requirements.

ITUT Recommendation M.3400. TMN management functions. 2000.


[ TMN]
ITUT Recommendation M.3600. Principles for the management of ISDNs.
1992. [ ]
ITUT Recommendation M.4100. Maintenance of common channel Signalling
System No. 7. 1996. [ 7]
Q
ITU-T Recommendation Q.811. Lower layer protocol profiles for the Q3 and X
interfaces. 1997. [
Q3 X ]

148

TMN

ITU-T Recommendation Q.812. Upper layer protocol profiles for the Q3 and X
interfaces 1997. [
Q3 X ]
ITU-T Recommendation Q.816 CORBA-based TMN services. 2001. [ TMN, CORBA].
ITU-T Recommendation Q.821. Stage 2 and Stage 3 description for the Q3
interface - Alarm Surveillance. 2000. [ 2 3 Q3. /]
ITU-T Recommendation Q.821.1 CORBA-based TMN alarm surveillance service. 2001. [ TMN ,
CORBA]
ITU-T Recommendation Q.825 Specification of TMN applications at the Q3
interface: Call detail recording. 1998. [ TMN
Q3. ]
X.
ITUT Recommendation X.200. Information technology Open systems interconnection Basic reference model: The basic model. 1994. [ . . ]
ITUT Recommendation X.650. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Basic Reference Model: Naming and addressing. 1996. [ . . : ]
ITUT Recommendation X.680. Information technology - Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1): Specification of basic notation. 2002. (pre-published)
[
.

1. ].
ITUT Recommendation X.700. Management framework for open system interconnection (OSI) for CCITT applications. 1992. [
]

TMN

149

ITUT Recommendation X.701. Information technology. Open systems interconnection. Systems Management overview. 1992. [ . . ]
ITUT Recommendation X.710. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Common Management Information Service. 1997. [ . . ]
ITUT Recommendation X.711. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Common Management Information Protocol: Specification.
1997. [ . . ]
ITU-T Recommendation X.720. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of management information: Management information
model. 1992. [ . . : ]
ITU-T Recommendation X.722. Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Structure of Management Information: Guidelines for the definition
of managed objects. 1996. .
. : ]
ITUT Recommendation X.901. Information technology - Open distributed
processing - Reference Model: Overview. 1997. [ . . ]
Y
ITUT Recommendation Y.110. Global Information Infrastructure principles
and framework architecture. 1998. [ ]

150

TMN

.
()

. /..
.; . .. .. . .: , 1989.
320 .: .



,
().

, () .
,
, , .. , ,
, -
,

.
.
.
, , ..
.
( ).
( ) . -

TMN

151

, ,
.
.1 .3. :

;

, ;
( )
;

;
-1 ;
-1 ;
- ;
- ;
N - ;
N - ;
P{D} - ,

t - .

152

TMN

.1


1/

P{ t} -

e t e t
,

1/
1/

(1 + t ) e t , =

.2
() ( )

1/

A() ( / ) 2 A()
1/
(1 /)

<<1

/2

<<1

(

)

1/

7
1/ 0
12

<<1
<<1

153

TMN

.3

+ (1 )

=1/ ,
. ,
; 1.

, P{D}
, .4 .5.
.4


( )

1 1
t P{D}
1 1

154

TMN

.5 P{D}

N 1

k =0

k! 2
k

N
=1

N +1
1

N
1 +

+
+
+
N
1
N
1

1+
N
=2


N
N!N

(N s)!(N + s)!
k
!
k=0

2
2 s=1

N+s

N
2

N+2

N
N2

1 + 1
1+
+
( N + 1) ( N + 1)(N + 2) 2

N
<<1

1-N/

2
1 N
1
N
<<1
2

.1 .5 .

TMN

010164 29.01.97 .

127473, , 2- ., . 4/5, . 1
3140

11.02.2004.
60x90 / 16 .
.

... 200 .

,
443068, , . 7.
7-0050 30.08.2000 .