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Laplace Transform

4.1

INTRODUCTION

The Laplace transform method is used extensively [1^3] to facilitate and systematize the solution of ordinary constant-coefficient differential equations. The advantages of this modern transform method for the analysis of linear-time-invariant (LTI) systems are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It includes the boundary or initial conditions. The work involved in the solution is simple algebra. The work is systematized. The use of a table of transforms reduces the labor required. Discontinuous inputs can be treated. The transient and steady-state components of the solution are obtained simultaneously.

The disadvantage of transform methods is that if they are used mechanically, without knowledge of the actual theory involved, they sometimes yield erroneous results. Also, a particular equation can sometimes be solved more simply and with less work by the classical method. Although an understanding of the Laplace transform method is essential, it must be emphasized that the solutions of differential equations are readily obtained by use of CAD packages such as MATLAB and TOTAL-PC [4]

110

Chapter 4

(see Appendixes C and D). Laplace transforms are also applied to the solution of system equations that are in matrix state-variable format. The method for using the state and output equations to obtain the system transfer function is presented. 4.2 DEFINITION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

The direct Laplace transformation of a function of time f (t) is given by Z1 L f t f test dt F s 4:1

0

where L f t is a shorthand notation for the Laplace integral. Evaluation of the integral results in a function F(s) that has s as the parameter. This parameter s is a complex quantity of the form s jo. Since the limits of integration are zero and infinity, it is immaterial what value f (t) has for negative or zero time. There are limitations on the functions f (t) that are Laplacetransformable. Basically, the requirement is that the Laplace integral converge, which means that this integral has a definite functional value. To meet this requirement [3] the function f (t) must be (1) piecewise continuous over every finite interval 0 t1 t t2 and (2) of exponential order. A function is piecewise continuous in a finite interval if that interval can be divided into a finite number of subintervals, over each of which the function is continuous and at the ends of each of which f (t) possesses finite right- and left-hand limits. A function f (t) is of exponential order if there exists a constant a such that the product eatjf (t)j is bounded for all values of t greater than some finite value T. This imposes the restriction that s, the real part of s, must be greater than a lower bound sa for which the product esa t j f tj is of exponential order. A linear differential equation with constant coefficients and with a finite number of terms is Laplace transformable if the driving function is Laplace transformable. All cases covered in this book are Laplace transformable. The basic purpose in using the Laplace transform is to obtain a method of solving differential equations that involves only simple algebraic operations in conjunction with a table of transforms. 4.3 DERIVATION OF LAPLACE TRANSFORMS OF SIMPLE FUNCTIONS

A number of examples are presented to show the derivation of the Laplace transform of several time functions. A list of common transform pairs is given in Appendix A.

Laplace Transform

111

Step Function u1(t) The Laplace transform of the unit step function u1(t) (see Fig. 3.1a) is Z1 u1 test dt U1 s Lu1 t

0

4:2

Since u1(t) has the value 1 over the limits of integration, 1 Z1 est 1 if s > 0 U1 s est dt s s

0 0

4:3

The step function is undefined at t 0, but this is immaterial, for the integral is defined by a limit process Z1 ZT f test dt lim f test dt 4:4

0

T !1 e!0

and the explicit value at t 0 does not affect the value of the integral.The value of the integral obtained by taking limits is implied in each case but is not written out explicitly. Decaying Exponential ea t The exponent a is a positive real number. Z1 Z1 at at st e e dt esat dt Le 0 0 1 esat 1 s > a sa sa

0

4:5

0

4:6

Expressing cos ot in exponential form gives cos ot Then 1 Lcosot 2 ejot ejot 2 Z

1 jost

Z dt

0

e

0

jost

1 1 1 s 2 2 jo s jo s s o2

0

s>0

4:7

112

Chapter 4

0

4:8

a

Let u t and dv est dt. Then du dt and v est/s. Thus 1 Z Z1 1 test est st dt te dt s s 0 0 0 1 est 1 s>0 0 2 2 s s

0

4:9

4.4

Several theorems that are useful in applying the Laplace transform are presented in this section. In general, they are helpful in evaluating transforms. Theorem 1: Linearity. is transformable, then If a is a constant or is independent of s and t, and if f (t) 4:10

Laf t aL f t aF s

Theorem 2: Superposition. If f1(t) and f2(t) are both Laplace-transformable, the principle of superposition applies: L f1 t f2 t L f1 t L f2 t F1 s F2 s 4:11

Theorem 3: Translation in time. If the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s) and a is a positive real number, the Laplace transform of the translated function f t au1 t a is L f t au1 t a eas F s 4:12 Translation in the positive t direction in the real domain becomes multiplication by the exponential eas in the s domain. Theorem 4: Complex differentiation. then Ltf t d F s ds If the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s), 4:13

Laplace Transform

113

Multiplication by time in the real domain entails differentiation with respect to s in the s domain. Example 1. Using Lcos ot from Eq. (4.7), d s s 2 o2 2 ds s 2 o2 s o2 2

Lt cos ot

Example 2. Lte

at

Theorem 5: Translation in the s Domain. is F(s) and a is either real or complex, then Leat f t F s a

4:14

Multiplication of eat in the real domain becomes translation in the s domain. Example 3. gives Starting with Lsin ot o=s 2 o2 and applying Theorem 5 o s a2 o2

Leat sin ot

Theorem 6: Real Differentiation. If the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s),and if the first derivative of f (t) with respect to time Df (t) is transformable, then LDf t sF s f 0 4:15

The term f (0) is the value of the right-hand limit of the function f (t) as the origin t 0 is approached from the right side (thus through positive values of time). This includes functions, such as the step function, that may be undefined at t 0. For simplicity, the plus sign following the zero is usually omitted, although its presence is implied. The transform of the second derivative D2f (t) is LD2 f t s 2 F s sf 0 Df 0 4:16

114

Chapter 4

where Df (0) is the value of the limit of the derivative of f (t) as the origin t 0, is approached from the right side. The transform of the nth derivative Dnf (t) is LDn f t s n F s s n1 f 0 s n2 Df 0 s Dn2 f 0 Dn1 f 0 4:17 Note that the transform includes the initial conditions,whereas in the classical method of solution the initial conditions are introduced separately to evaluate the coefficients of the solution of the differential equation. When all initial conditions are zero, the Laplace transform of the nth derivative of f (t) is simply snF(s). Theorem 7: Real Integration. If the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s), its integral Zt 1 D f t f t dt D1 f 0

0

The term D1 f (0) is the constant of integration and is equal to the value of the integral as the origin is approached from the positive or right side.The plus sign is omitted in the remainder of this text. The transform of the double integral D2f (t) is F s D1 f 0 D2 f 0 L D2 f t 2 s s s2 The transform of the nth-order integral Dn f (t) is L Dn f t F s D1 f 0 Dn f 0 sn sn s 4:20 4:19

Theorem 8: Final Value. If f (t) and Df (t) are Laplace transformable, if the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s), and if the limit f (t) as t ! 1 exists, then

s!0

lim sF s lim f t

t!1

4:21

This theorem states that the behavior of f (t) in the neighborhood of t 1 is related to the behavior of sF(s) in the neighborhood of s 0. If sF(s) has poles [values of s for which jsF(s)j becomes infinite] on the imaginary axis (excluding the origin) or in the right-half s plane, there is no finite final value

Laplace Transform

115

of f (t) and the theorem cannot be used. If f (t) is sinusoidal, the theorem is invalid, since Lsin ot has poles at s jo and limt!1 sin ot does not exist. However, for poles of sF(s) at the origin, s 0, this theorem gives the final value of f 1 1. This correctly describes the behavior of f (t) as t ! 1. Theorem 9: Initial Value. If the function f (t) and its first derivative are Laplace transformable, if the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s), and if lims!1 sF s exists, then

s!1

lim sF s lim f t

t!0

4:22

This theorem states that the behavior of f (t) in the neighborhood of t 0 is related to the behavior of sF(s) in the neighborhood of jsj 1. There are no limitations on the locations of the poles of sF(s). Theorem 10: Complex Integration. If the Laplace transform of f (t) is F(s) and if f (t)/t has a limit as t ! 0 , then ! Z1 f t F s ds 4:23 L t 0 This theorem states that division by the variable in the real domain entails integration with respect to s in the s domain. 4.5 CAD ACCURACY CHECKS: CADAC

The Laplace transform theorems 8 and 9 for the initial and final values are valuable CADAC. These theorems should be used, when appropriate, to assist in the validation of the computer solutions of control system problems. Additional CADAC are presented throughout this text. 4.6 APPLICATION OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM TO DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

The Laplace transform is now applied to the solution of the differential equation for the simple mechanical system that is solved by the classical method in Sec. 3.7.The differential equation of the system is repeated here: MD2 x2 BDx2 Kx2 Kx1 4:24

The position x1(t) undergoes a unit step displacement. This is the input and is called the driving function. The unknown quantity for which the equation is to be solved is the output displacement x2(t), called the response function.

Laplace Transform

117

than unity. Since x1(t) is a step function, the time response function is " # ! K=M o2 n 1 1 x2 t L L 4:30 ss 2 Bs=M K=M ss2 2zon s o2 n p p where on K=M and z B=2 KM . Reference to transform pair 27a in Appendix A provides the solution directly as q ezon t 1 2 x2 t 1 p sin on 1 z t cos z 1 z2

4.7

INVERSE TRANSFORMATION

The application of Laplace transforms to a differential equation yields an algebraic equation. From the algebraic equation the transform of the response function is readily found.To complete the solution the inverse transform must be found. In some cases the inverse-transform operation Z sj1 1 f t L1 F s F sest ds 4:31 j2 sj1 can be performed by direct reference to transform tables or by use of a digital computer program (see Appendix C). The linearity and translation theorems are useful in extending the tables. When the response transform cannot be found in the tables, the general procedure is to express F(s) as the sum of partial fractions with constant coefficients. The partial fractions have a firstorder or quadratic factor in the denominator and are readily found in the table of transforms. The complete inverse transform is the sum of the inverse transforms of each fraction. This procedure is illustrated next. The response transform F(s) can be expressed, in general, as the ratio of two polynomials P(s) and Q(s). Consider that these polynomials are of degree w and n, respectively, and are arranged in descending order of the powers of the variables s; thus, F s Ps aw s w aw1 sw1 a1 s a0 n Qs s bn1 s n1 b1 s b0 4:32

The as and bs are real constants, and the coefficient of the highest power of s in the denominator has been made equal to unity. Only those F(s) that are proper fractions are considered, i.e., those in which n is greater than w.*

If n w, first divide P(s) by Q(s) to obtain F(s) aw P1(s)/Q(s) aw F1(s). Then express F1(s) as the sum of partial fractions with constant coefficients.

*

118

Chapter 4

The first step is to factor Q(s) into first-order and quadratic factors with real coefficients: F s Ps Ps Qs s s1 s s2 s sk s sn 4:33

The values s1, s2, . . . , sn in the finite plane that make the denominator equal to zero are called the zeros of the denominator. These values of s, which may be either real or complex, also make jF(s)j infinite, and so they are called poles of F(s). Therefore, the values s1, s2, . . . , sn are referred to as zeros of the denominator or poles of the complete function in the finite plane, i.e., there are n poles of F(s). Methods of factoring polynomials exist in the literature. Digital-computer programs are available to perform this operation (see Appendix C) [4]. The transform F(s) can be expressed as a series of fractions. If the poles are simple (nonrepeated), the number of fractions is equal to n, the number of poles of F(s). In such case the function F(s) can be expressed as F s Ps A1 A2 Ak An Qs s s1 s s2 s sk s sn 4:34

The procedure is to evaluate the constants A1, A2, . . . , An corresponding to the poles s1, s2, . . . , sn. The coefficients A1, A2,. . . are termed the residuesy of F(s) at the corresponding poles. Cases of repeated factors and complex factors are treated separately. Several ways of evaluating the constants are shown in the following section. 4.8 HEAVISIDE PARTIAL-FRACTION EXPANSION THEOREMS

The technique of partial-fraction expansion is set up to take care of all cases systematically. There are four classes of problems, depending on the denominator Q(s). Each of these cases is illustrated separately. Case1 F(s) has first-order real poles. Case 2 F(s) has repeated first-order real poles. Case 3 F(s) has a pair of complex-conjugate poles (a quadratic factor in the denominator). Case 4 F(s) has repeated pairs of complex-conjugate poles (a repeated quadratic factor in the denominator).

More generally the residue is the coefficient of the (s si)1 term in the Laurent expansion of F(s) about s si.

Laplace Transform

119

FIGURE 4.1

Case 1: First-Order Real Poles The locations of three real poles of F(s) in the s plane are shown in Fig. 4.1. The poles may be positive, zero, or negative, and they lie on the real axis in the s plane. In this example, s1 is positive, s0 is zero, and s2 is negative. For the poles shown in Fig. 4.1 the transform F(s) and its partial fractions are F s Ps Ps A A1 A2 0 s s s1 s s2 Qs ss s1 s s2 4:35

There are as many fractions as there are factors in the denominator of F(s). Since s0 0, the factor s s0 is written simply as s. The inverse transform of F(s) is f t A0 A1 es1 t A2 es2 t

s1 t

4:36

The pole s1 is positive; therefore, the term A1 e is an increasing exponential and the system is unstable. The pole s2 is negative, and the term A2 es2 t is a decaying exponential with a final value of zero. Therefore, for a system to be stable, all real poles that contribute to the complementary solution must be in the left half of the s plane. To evaluate a typical coefficient Ak, multiply both sides of Eq. (4.34) by the factor s sk. The result is Ps s sk F s s sk Qs s sk s sk s sk A2 Ak An A1 s s1 s s2 s sn 4:37 The multiplying factor s sk on the left side of the equation and the same factor of Q(s) should be canceled. By letting s sk, each term on the right side of the equation is zero except Ak. Thus, a general rule for evaluating the constants for single-order real poles is ! ! Ps Ps Ak s sk 4:38 Qs ssk Q 0 s ssk

120

Chapter 4

where Q 0 sk dQs=dsssk Qs=s sk ssk . The coefficients Ak are the residues of F(s) at the corresponding poles. For the case of F s s2 A A A 0 1 2 s s1 s3 ss 1s 3 !

s0

A1 s 1F ss1 A2 s 3F ss3

! s2 1 ss 3 s1 2 ! s2 1 ss 1 s3 6

Case 2: Multiple-Order Real Poles The position of real poles of F(s), some of which are repeated, is shown in Fig. 4.2. The notation ]r indicates a pole of order r. All real poles lie on the real axis of the s plane. For the poles shown in Fig. 4.2 the transform F(s) and its partial fractions are F s Ps Ps Qs s s1 3 s s2 A13 A12 A A2 11 3 2 s s1 s s2 s s1 s s1

4:40

The order of Q(s) in this case is 4, and there are four fractions. Note that the multiple pole s1, which is of order 3, has resulted in three fractions on the right

FIGURE 4.2

Laplace Transform

121

side of Eq. (4.40). To designate the constants in the partial fractions, a single subscript is used for a first-order pole. For multiple-order poles a doublesubscript notation is used. The first subscript designates the pole, and the second subscript designates the order of the pole in the partial fraction. The constants associated with first-order denominators in the partial-fraction expansion are called residues: therefore, only the constants A11 and A2 are residues of Eq. (4.40). The inverse transform of F(s) (see transform pairs 7 and 8 in Appendix A) is t 2 s1 t e A12 tes1 t A11 es1 t A2 es2 t 2 For the general transform with repeated real roots, Ps Ps F s Qs s sq r s s1 Aqr Aqr1 Aqrk r r1 s sq s sq s sq rk f t A13 Aq1 A1 s sq s s1 4:41

4:42

The constant Aqr can be evaluated by simply multiplying both sides of Eq. (4.42) by (s sq )r, giving s sq r Ps Ps s sq r F s Qs s s1 Aqr Aqr1 s sq Aq1 s sq r1 A1 s sq r s s1 4:43

Note that the factor (s sq )r must be divided out of the left side of the equation. For s sq, all terms on the right side of the equation are zero except Aqr; therefore, ! r Ps Aqr s sq 4:44 Qs ssq Evaluation of Aq(r1) cannot be performed in a similar manner. Multiplying both sides of Eq. (4.42) by s sq r1 and letting s sq would result in both sides being infinite, which leaves Aq(r1) indeterminate. If the term Aqr were eliminated from Eq. (4.43), Aq(r1) could be evaluated. This can be done by differentiating Eq. (4.43) with respect to s: ! d Ps s sq r 4:45 Aqr1 2Aqr2 s sq ds Qs

122

Chapter 4

Letting s sq gives & !' d r Ps s sq Aqr1 ds Qs ssq Repeating the differentiation gives the coefficient Aq(r2) as ( !) 1 d2 r Ps s sq Aqr2 2 ds2 Qs

ssq

4:46

4:47

This process can be repeated until each constant is determined. A general formula for finding these coefficients associated with the repeated real pole of order r is ( !) 1 dk r Ps Aqrk s sq 4:48 k! dsk Qs

ssq

For the case of F s 1 A13 A12 A A 11 2 3 3 2 s2 s3 s 2 s 2 s 3 s 2 & A13 s 23 F ss2 1 A11 d2 s 23 F s 2 2ds ( ) 1

s2

4:49

s2

A2 s 3F ss3 1

A recursive algorithm for computing the partial fraction expansion of rational functions having any number of multiple poles is readily programmed on a digital computer and is given in Ref. 5. Case 3: Complex-Conjugate Poles The position of complex poles of F(s) in the s plane is shown in Fig. 4.3. Complex poles always are present in complex-conjugate pairs; their real part may be either positive or negative. For the poles shown in Fig. 4.3 the

Laplace Transform

123

FIGURE 4.3

transform F(s) and its partial fractions are Ps Ps 2 F s Qs s 2zon s o2 s s3 n A1 A2 A3 s s1 s s2 s s3 A1 A2 A3 p p 2 2 s s3 s zon jon 1 z s zon jon 1 z The inverse transform of F(s) is q ! f t A1 exp zon jon 1 z2 t q ! A2 exp zon jon 1 z2 t A3 es3 t

4:51

4:52

Since the poles s1 and s2 are complex conjugates, and since f (t) is a real quantity, the coefficients A1 and A2 must also be complex conjugates. Equation (4.52) can be written with the first two terms combined to a more useful damped sinusoidal form: q f t 2A1 ezon t sin on 1 z2 t f A3 es3 t 2A1 est sin od t f A3 es3 t 4:53 p 2 where f angle of A1 90 , od on 1 z , and s zon . The values of A1 and A3, as found in the manner shown previously, are A1 s s1 F sss1 and A3 s s3 F sss3 Since s1 is complex, the constant A1 is also complex. Remember that A1 is associated with the complex pole with the positive imaginary part. In Fig. 4.3 the complex poles have a negative real part, s zon,where the damping ratio z is positive. For this case the corresponding transient response is known as a damped sinusoid and is shown in Fig. 3.2. Its

124

Chapter 4

final value is zero.The angle Z shown in Fig. 4.3 is measured from the negative real axis and is related to the damping ratio by cos Z z If the complex pole has a positive real part, the time response increases exponentially with time and the system in unstable. If the complex roots are in the right half of the s plane, the damping ratio z is negative. The angle Z for this case is measured from the positive real axis and is given by cos Z z For the case of F s 10 A1 A2 A 3 s2 6s 25s 2 s 3 j4 s 3 j4 s 2 4:54

Using Eq. (4.53), the solution is f t 0:606e3t sin 4t 104 0:59e2t The function F(s) of Eq. (4.54) appears in Appendix A as transform pair 29. With the notation of Appendix A, the phase angle in the damped sinusoidal term is b 4 4 tan1 tan1 104 4:56 ca 23 1 It is important to note that tan1 4=1 6 tan1 4=1. To get the correct value for the angle f, it is useful to draw a sketch in order to avoid ambiguity and ensure that f is evaluated correctly. f tan1 IMAGINARY POLES. The position of imaginary poles of F(s) in the s plane is shown in Fig. 4.4. As the real part of the poles is zero, the poles lie on the imaginary axis. This situation is a special case of complex poles, i.e., the damping ratio z 0. For the poles shown in Fig. 4.4 the transform F(s) and its partial fractions are F s Ps Ps A1 A2 A3 Qs s 2 o2 s s3 s s1 s s2 s s3 n 4:57

Laplace Transform

125

FIGURE 4.4

The quadratic can be factored in terms of the poles s1 and s2; thus, s2 o2 s jon s jon s s1 s s2 n The inverse transform of Eq. (4.57) is f t A1 ejon t A2 ejon t A3 es3 t 4:58 As f (t) is a real quantity, the coefficients A1 and A2 are complex conjugates. The terms in Eq. (4.58) can be combined into the more useful form f t 2A1 sin on t f A3 es3 t 4:59 Note that since there is no damping term multiplying the sinusoid, this term represents a steady-state value. The angle f is given by f angle of A1 90 The values of A1 and A3, found in the conventional manner, are A1 s s1 F sss1 A3 s s3 F sss3 For the case where 100 A1 A2 A 3 F s 2 s 25s 2 s j5 s j5 s 2 the values of the coefficients are A1 s j5F ssj5 A3 s 2F ss2 The solution is f t 3:72 sin 5t 68:2 3:45e2t 4:61 ! 100 1:86158:2 : s j5s 2 sj5 100 2 3:45 s 25 s2

4:60

128

Chapter 4

FIGURE 4.5

Representing the time response for a unit impulse input is y(t) 0:60634 exp 3t cos4t 165:9638deg 0:58824 exp 2t

4.10

PARTIAL-FRACTION SHORTCUTS

Some shortcuts can be used to simplify the partial-fraction expansion procedures. They are most useful for transform functions that have multiple poles or complex poles. With multiple poles, the evaluation of the constants by the process of repeated differentiation given by Eq. (4.48) can be very tedious, particularly when a factor containing s appears in the numerator of F s. The modified procedure is to evaluate only those coefficients for real poles that can be obtained readily without differentiation. The corresponding partial functions are then subtracted from the original function. The resultant function is easier to work with to get the additional partial fractions than the original function F s. Example 1. For the function F s of Eq. (4.49), which contains a pole s1 2 of multiplicity 3, the coefficient A13 1 is readily found. Subtracting the associated fraction from F s and putting the result over a common

Laplace Transform

129

denominator yields. Fx s 1 1 1 s 23 s 3 s 23 s 22 s 3

Note that the remainder Fx s contains the pole s1 2 with a multiplicity of only 2. Thus the coefficient A12 is now easily obtained from Fx s without differentiation. The procedure is repeated to obtain all the coefficients associated with the multiple pole. Example 2. Consider the function 20 As B C F s 2 2 s1 s 6s 25s 1 s 6s 25

4:62

which has one real pole and a pair of complex poles. Instead of partial fractions for each pole, leave the quadratic factor in one fraction. Note that the numerator of the fraction containing the quadratic is a polynomial in s and is one degree lower than the denominator. Residue C is C s 1F ss1 1. Subtracting this fraction from F s gives s 2 20 1 s2 6s 5 2 6s 25s 1 s 1 s 6s 25s 1

Since the pole at s 1 has been removed, the numerator of the remainder must be divisible by s 1. The simplified function must be equal to the remaining partial fraction; i.e., s5 As B s 5 s2 6s 25 s 2 6s 25 s 32 42

The inverse transform for this fraction can be obtained directly from Appendix A, pair 26. The complete inverse transform of F(s) is f t et 1:12e3t sin4t 63:4 4:63

Leaving the complete quadratic in one fraction has resulted in real constants for the numerator. The chances for error are probably less than evaluating the residues, which are complex numbers, at the complex poles. A rule presented by Hazony and Riley [6] is very useful for evaluating the coefficients of partial-fraction expansions. For a normalizedz ratio of polynomials the rule is expressed as follows: 1. If the denominator is 1 degree higher than the numerator, the sum of the residues is 1.

z

A normalized polynomial is a monic polynomial,that is,the coefficient of the term containing the highest degree is equal to unity.

130

Chapter 4

2. If the denominator is 2 or more degrees higher than the numerator, the sum of the residues is 0. Equation (4.32) with aw factored from the numerator is a normalized ratio of polynomials. These rules are applied to the ratio F s=aw. It should be noted that residue refers only to the coefficients of terms in a partialfraction expansion with first-degree denominators. Coefficients of terms with higher-degree denominators are referred to only as coefficients. These rules can be used to simplify the work involved in evaluating the coefficients of partial-fraction expansions, particularly when the original function has a multiple-order pole. For example, only A11 and A2 in Eq. (4.49) are residues, and therefore A11 A2 0. Since A2 1, the value of A11 1 is obtained directly. Digital-computer programs (see Appendixes C and D) are readily available for evaluating the partial-fraction coefficients and obtaining a tabulation and plot of f t [4]. 4.11 GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION OF PARTIAL-FRACTION COEFFICIENTS [7]

The preceding sections describe the analytical evaluation of the partialfunction coefficients. These constants are directly related to the pole-zero pattern of the function F(s) and can be determined graphically, whether the poles and zeros are real or in complex-conjugate pairs. As long as P(s) and Q(s) are in factored form, the coefficients can be determined graphically by inspection. Rewriting Eq. (4.32) with the numerator and denominator in factored form and with aw K gives F s Ps Ks z1 s z2 s zm s zw Qs s p1 s p2 s pk s pn Qw s zm K Qm1 n k1 s pk

4:64

The zeros of this function, s zm, are those values of s for which the function is zero; that is, F zm 0. Zeros are indicated by a small circle on the s plane. The poles of this function, s pk , are those values of s for which the function is infinite; that is, jF pk j 1. Poles are indicated by a small on the s plane. Poles are also known as singularitiesx of the function. When F(s) has only simple poles (first-order poles), it can be expanded into partial fractions of

x A singularity of a function F(s) is a point where F(s) does not have a derivative.

Laplace Transform

137

FIGURE 4.10 (a) Pole-zero diagram, < 0:707; (b) magnitude of frequency response; (c) angle of frequency response.

with complex roots. As o ! 1, the angle a approaches 180. The magnitude and angle of the frequency response for z < 0.707 are shown in Fig. 4.10. The M and a curves are continuous for all linear systems. The M vs. o plot of Fig. 4.10b describes the frequency response characteristics for the undamped simple second-order system of Eq. (4.79). In later chapters this characteristic is used as the standard reference for analyzing and synthesizing higher-order systems. 4.13 LOCATION OF POLES AND STABILITY

The stability and the corresponding response of a system can be determined from the location of the poles of the response transform F(s) in the s plane. The possible positions of the poles are shown in Fig. 4.11, and the responses are given in Table 4.1. These poles are the roots of the characteristic equation. Poles of the response transform at the origin or on the imaginary axis that are not contributed by the forcing function result in a continuous output. These outputs are undesirable in a control system. Poles in the

138

Chapter 4

right-half s plane result in transient terms that increase with time. Such performance characterizes an unstable system; therefore, poles in the right-half s plane are not desirable, in general.

4.14

Figure 4.12 shows a rectangular pulse of amplitude 1/a and of duration a. The analytical expression for this pulse is f t u1 t u1 t a a 1 eas as as2 as3 2! 3! 4:82

and its Laplace transform is F s where eas 1 as TABLE 4.1 4:84 4:83

Relation of Response to Location of Poles Form of response Ae Aebt sinct f A: A sin dt f Aeet Aeft singt f

at

Characteristics Damped exponential Exponentially damped sinusoid Constant Constant-sinusoid Increasing exponential (unstable) Exponentially increasing sinusoid (unstable)

Appendix A

Table of Laplace Transform Pairs

F(s) 1. 1 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 1 s 1 s2 1 sn 1 as e s 1 1 eas s 1 sa 1 s an u0 t

f(t) 0

unit impulse at t 0 unit step starting at t 0 ramp function n positive integer unit step starting at t a rectangular pulse

1 or u 1(t) tu 1(t)

1 t n1 n 1! u 1(t a)

(continued)

1 t n1 eat n 1!

676

Appendix A

F(s) 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 16: 17: 18: 19: 1 ss a 1 ss as b sa ss as b 1 s as b s s as b sa s as b 1 s as bs c sa s as bs c o s 2 o2 s s 2 o2 sa s 2 o2 s sin y o cos y s 2 o2 1 ss o2 sa ss 2 o2

2

f(t) 0

eat ebt ect b ac a c ba b a cb c a aeat a bebt a cect b ac a c ba b a cb c sin ot cos ot p a2 o2 sin ot f o sin ot y 1 1 cos ot o2 p a a2 o2 cos ot f 2 o2 o f tan1 o a

f tan1

o a

1 s as 2 o2 1 s a2 b2 1 2 s 2zon s o2 n

(continued)

677

f(t) 0

eat sin bt f

f tan1

b aa

27:

27a:

1 ss2 2zon s o2 n sa ss a2 b2

28:

1 1 p eat sin bt f a2 b2 b a2 b2 b f tan1 a q 1 1 p ezon t sin on 1 z2 t f o2 o2 1 z2 n n f cos1 z s a 1 a a2 b2 at e sin bt f a2 b2 b a2 b2 b b tan1 f tan1 aa a ect eat sin bt f q c a2 b2 b c a2 b2 f tan1 b ca

29:

1 s cs a2 b2

30:

1 ss cs a2 b2

1 ect ca2 b2 cc a2 b2 eat sin bt f pq b a2 b2 c a2 b2 b b f tan1 tan1 a ca a c aect 2 b cc a2 b2 q a a2 b2 pq eat sin bt f b a2 b2 c a2 b2 b b b f tan1 tan1 tan1 aa a ca 1 at 1 eat a2 ca2

(continued)

31:

sa ss cs a2 b2

32:

s2 s

1 a

678

Appendix A

f(t) 0

35: 36:

37:

38:

1=osin ot f1 1=beat sin bt f2 4a2 o2 a2 b2 o2 2 1=2 2ao 2ab f1 tan1 2 f2 tan1 2 a b2 o2 a b2 o2 !1=2 sa 1 a2 o2 sin ot f1 s 2 o2 s a2 b2 c o " #1=2 1 a a2 b2 eat sin bt f2 c b 1 s2 o2 s a2 b2 c 2ao2 a2 b2 o2 2 o 2ao f1 tan1 tan1 2 a a b2 o 2 b 2ab tan1 2 f2 tan1 aa a b2 o2 1 2aa b2 a a2 1=2 at e sin bt f at 1 bc c c c a2 b2 b b tan1 f 2 tan1 a aa a1 a0 t a0 a b 1 a a0 1 1 2 eat a a ab ab ab2 1 a1 a0 bt 1 2 e b b 1b

39:

sa s 2 s a2 b2

40:

s2 a1 s a0 s2 s as b

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