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MANAGEMENT AND SCIENCE UNIVERSITY (MSU)

Workbook and Practical Manual


FBD 0014

Foundation in Health Science

Name ID

: ____________________________ : ____________________________ : ____________________________

Lecturer

Practical
Chapter Practical Introduction to Practical 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tissues Skeletal system Digestive system Respiratory system Cardiovascular system Urinary system Nervous system Blood test Reproduction system Page 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26

Introduction to Practical
Laboratory safety There are few guide lines that each students need to follow:-

a) Students can only be in the laboratory with the presence of a lecturer/tutor assigned.

b) Please do not run, play around or do any indecent behavior while in the lab.
c) In the case of an accident, injury of illness immediately informs the lecturer or tutor in the laboratory.

d) Please do not eat, drink, smoke or handle contact lenses in the laboratory.
e) Be aware of the location and operation of all emergency equipment and how to call for help if needed. f) Know the potential hazards, precautions and safety procedures before conducting a practical exercise. COAT. h) Please wash your hands after handling chemicals, animals or after removing your gloves.

g) Please wear comfortable, inexpensive clothing and most importantly a LAB

i) Please do not intentionally sniff any chemicals.


j) Please promptly report any faulty equipment, damage specimens, water or gas leaks to the lecturer or tutor in the laboratory.

k) Ask the lecturer or tutor if you are unsure of any part in the practical procedure before the practical starts.

l) Please clean work surfaces, switch off all electrical outlets after each practical
exercise. m) If there is any fire or a fire alarms rings, immediately leave the lab in an orderly manner4 to the designated safe area.

How to perform well in a practical class Some of the tips to help you optimize your work in the lab are:

a) Try to arrive early to the practical class so that you are calm and in a clear mind. b) Take notes on the instruction given at the beginning of the practical. c) Ensure that you have all the necessary equipment and specimens for your work.

d) Check that the equipment and specimens are in proper condition. Check any
broken or defective parts and if any one is detected please inform your lecturer or tutor.

e) Microscope will be prepared for you during practcal. Please remember they are
expensive and delicate instruments. Therefore it is your responsibility to handle them properly.

f) Do not hesitate to call and ask the lecturer or tutor for guidance or if you r having
problems.

g) Do your work promptly and avoid idle conversation. h) When working with other students try to work quietly and efficiently so as not to
disturb others.

i) Carefully handle and examine the specimens given without removing them from
the worktable. Remember that the specimens are there for other students as well as yourself.

j) Special care and consideration have to be given if you are working with
permanent slides. Please ask your lecturer or tutor for correct handling of slides.

k) Dissections must be performed by groups of students in a step-by-step basis with


the guidance of your tutor or lecturer. A hasty dissection would lead to a poor dissection. Anatomy of a good practical report The criteria of a good report are as follows:

a) Facts and content is complete and well written. b) Data obtained from practical is correct and concisely written. c) Diagrams are neatly drawn and labeled correctly with eligible writing. d) Presentation of your report is neat and appealing with contents in the right order
and sentences concise.

e) Give complete and correct answers to all questions in the practical manual.

Practical 1: Tissues Objective To identify and compare different type of tissues. Materials and apparatus Compound microscope, lens paper, prepared tissue slides. Intorduction There are four primary tissues; epithelial tissues, connective tissues, muscle tissues and neuron tissues. Epithelial tissue covers surfaces, line cavities and form glands. Connective tissue supports and protects other tissues. Muscle tissue causes movement. Neuron tissue receives and generates nerve impulses. Organs contain two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function. Procedure 1. Using the microscope, examine the following tissue slides; a)Skin tissue Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage c) Muscle tissue d) Bone tissue Compact bone Spongy bone e) Nerve tissue 2. Draw and label the tissues (maximum two drawings per page). Question 1. Describe the location and function of the four primary tissue types. 2. Compare between;

a. Cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. b. Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage.

Practical 2: Skeletal System

Objective To observe the skeletal model and identify the bones in the human structure Materials and apparatus Skeletal model Introduction There are 206 bones in the adult skeleton, which can be separated into the areas and the appendicular divisions. The axial skeleton is composed of 80 bones located along vertical line, the longitudal axis at the body. The bones support and protect the organs of the head, neck and torso. The appendicluar skeleton is composed of 126 bones that are designed for a variety of movements and form the upper an lower limbs. The three main parts of the axial skeletons are the skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage. Procedure 1. Observe the skeletal model and examine the bones in the following regions: a) Axial skeleton Skull Vertebrae Sternum Ribs Sacrum Hyoid

b) Appendicular skeleton Pectoral girdle Upper extremity Pelvic girdle Lower extremity

2. Draw and label the bones based on your observation. Question 1. Differentiate between an adult skull and a fetal skull. 2. Based on your observation, compare between the appendicular skeleton and axial skeleton.

Practical 3: Digestive System Objective To learn the structure and function of the digestive system. Material and apparatus Disection kit and rat Introduction The digestive system contain organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessary digestive organs. The gastrointestinal tract or elimentary canal is a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. The lumen of the gastrointestinal tract opens to the external environment of either end. Therefore, anything inside the lumen is considered to be external to the body. The gastrointestinal tract organs include mouth, most of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus. The accessary digestive organs that assist in digestion are the salivary gland, tongue, teeth, pancreas, liver and gallbladder Procedure 1. Place the rat on the dissection tray and pin the four legs on the tray. 2. Use the forceps to lift the skin, cut the layers of the skin and pin it to the tray. 3. Observe and identify the organs involved in the digestive system. 4. Draw and label the organs of the digestive system based on your observation 5. Remove the organs of the digestive system, draw and label each organ separately. Question 1. Based on your observation, compare the structure and function between the small intestine and the large intestine. 2. Based on observation, differientiate the structure and function of the liver and gallbladder.

Practical 4 : Respiratory System Objective To learn the structure and function of the respiratory system. Material and apparatus Dissection kit and rat. Introduction The respiratory system moves air in and out of the body. It is also the site where oxygen diffuses out of the bloodstream to be exhaled. The organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharyunx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and their smaller branches and the lungs. Gas exchanges with the blood happen only in the alveoli. Other respiratory system structures are only conducting passageways that allow air to reach the lungs. However, these passageways that allow air to reach the lungs. However, these passageways also humidity, purify and warm incoming air. Thus, the air that reach the lungs has fewer irritants and is warm and damp. Procedure 1. Place the rat on the dissection tray and pin the four legs on the tray. 2. Use the forceps to lift the skin, cut the layers of the skin and pin it to the tray. 3. Observe and identify the organs involved in the respiratory system. 4. Draw and label the organs of the respiratory system based on your observation 5. Remove the organs of the respiratory system, draw and label each organ separately. Question 1. Compare the structure of the human lung and the specimen lung. 2. Clinically, the airways can be divided into three areas according to their size. List them and state the structure involved.

Practical 5 : Cardiovascular System Objective To learn the structure and function of the cardiovascular system Materials and apparatus Dissection kit and rat Introduction The major function of the cardiovascular system is transportation. The heart works as a remarkable pump that works ceaselessly throughout life, forcing blood in an endless circuit through all the miles of living tubing that go to make up the circulatory system. Two thousand gallons of blood pass through the hearts chambers, carrying out the endless tyask of transporting oxygen and food material for all of the bodys requirements. Because there is a double circulation, blood in effect travels in a figure eight circuit. The heart lies at the point of crossover and can be regarded as the two linked pumps.

Procedure 1. Place the rat on the dissection tray and pin the four legs on the tray. 2. Use the forceps to lift the skin, cut the layers of the skin and pin it to the tray. 3. Observe and identify the organs involved in the cardiovascular system. 4. Draw and label the organs of the cardiovascular system based on your observation 5. Remove the major organ of the cardiovascular system, draw and label each organ separately. Question 1. Name the structures that are involved in the cardiovascular system. 2. Describe the component of the heart and the function of each component.

Practical 6 : Urinary System Objective To learn the structure and function of the urinary system Materials and apparatus Dissection kit and rat Introduction The urinary system is concerned with the formation and elimination of urine. In an adult, more than 2500 pints of blood pass through the kidneys each day. Blood enters via the reanl arteries and is filtered to remove most of the waste products of metabolism. Seven pints of filtrate are produced every hour. Purified blood returns to the body circulation via the reanl veins. The filtering process is carried out by more than two million tiny kidney units or nephrons, which produced a highl\y concentrated solution of chemicals, known as urine. Urine is harmful to the body if allowed to remain. Urine flows from the nephrons and then into the ureters. Waves of muscular contraction passing down the ureters push the urine into the bladder.

Procedure 1. Place the rat on the dissection tray and pin the four legs on the tray. 2. Use the forceps to lift the skin, cut the layers of the skin and pin it to the tray. 3. Observe and identify the organs involved in the cardiovascular system. 4. Draw and label the organs of the cardiovascular system based on your observation Question

1. Name the organs that are involved in the urinary system.


2. With the help of a diagram, describe the location and complete structure of a kidney.

Practical 7 : Nervous System Objective To learn and understand the function of the nervous system. Material and apparatus Ruler, pencil, volunteers Introduction The nervous system is a complex network of nerve cells and nerve fibers spread throughout the body. Its function is to interpret, store and respond to information received inside and outside, the central nervous system (CNS) consist of the brain and spinal cord and is responsible for processing information gathered from the rest of the nerves and transmitting instruction to the body. Messages passing to and from the CNS are carried by the nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The autonomic nervous system, consisting of sympathetic and paasympathetic nerve fibers, controls such as involuntary body functions as heartbeat. Procedure 1. Knock the volunteers patella with a ruler and watch it in 5 minutes. Determine and identify the reaction that you observed Question 1. Name the reaction that you observed in the experiment and describe it in details in your discussion part.

Practical 8 : Blood Test Objective 1. To identify individual blood type 2. To identify RBCs and WBCs on prepared blood smear slides. Materials and apparatus Compound microscope, lens paper, prepared slides of normal human blood, disposable lancets, alcohol swabs, cotton balls, toothpicks, glass slides and antisera (anti-A and anti-B). Introduction Blood consisit of plasma, a yellowish fluid in which are suspended cells, or corpuscles and other small particles. The cells, also called eryhtrocytes, and several forms of white cells or leukocytes. The other particles are called platelets. Each of these components has its own special role to play in the day-to-day working of each of the bodys tissues and organs. When it leaks from a cut or pinprick in the skin, blood is an opaque, slightly sticky red fluid. Normally, within a matter of minutes, it clots, darkens and slidifies as the bodys defense mechanisms go to work to prevent further loss of the vital fluid and seal the gap. There are certain important differences in the chemical compositon of the tissue fluids around the bodys cells and those that are actually contained within the cells, the intacellular fluids. The main difference however between the blood and and tissue fluid, or lymph, is the presence of red blood corpuscles and the proteins called plasma proteins. Procedure A. Individual Blood Type Test 1. Obtain a clean glass slide, two new toothpicks and antisera. 2. Divide the glass slide inhalf with a marker. Mark A on the left side and B on the right side. 3. Place one drop of anti-A serum on the left side and one drop of anti-B serum on the right side. 4. Wash hand throughly with soap and dry with a clean paper towel. 5. Clean the tip of your index finger with an alcohol swab. 6. Open a new, sterile blood lancet exposing the sharp tip only. Lance just to the side of the finger pad with the new lancet. (NEVER REUSE A LANCET, even your own). 7. Wipe away the first drop of blood with a cotton ball. Then, gently squeeze one drop of blood on each side of a clean prepared slide. 8. Using separate new toothpicks, mix each simple of blood with corresponding antiserum. 9. results may take up to 2 minutes. Observe each sample for agglutination od granulation and interpret the results. 10. Write your results on the board to pool class data for comparison. Record percentage of ABO blood types for your class.

Questions 1. Complete the chart below. Blood type A B AB O Number of students Percentage

2. Complete the blood group interaction Blood type Antigen on RBCs Antibody in plasma Compatible donor Non-compatible donor A B AB O

B. Observation of Prepared Slide 1. Observe the prepared slides of RBCs and WBCs. 2. Draw and label your observation. Question 1. Differentiate RBCs and WBCs.

Practical 9 : Reproduction System Objective 1. To identify the male and female anatomy and physiology. 2. To learn the male and female gametes. Materials and apparatus Compound microscope, prepared slides, posters, human model. Introduction The reproduction system starts to operate when puberty is reached. The gonads or primary sex organs are the testes in male and ovaries in female. The gonads produce sex cells or gametes and secrete sex hormones. The remaining reproductive system structures are accessory reproductive organs. The male reproductive system is designed to reproduce male sex cells, spermatozoa, and deposit them in the female tract the female reproductive system not only must produce egg cells, ova and receive spermatozoa, but also must be adapted to nurture of a growing embryo if fertilization should occur. Procedure 1. Observe all the prepared slide, posters and human model. 2. Draw, label and make shot notes for each diagram. Question 1. Rearrange the following male duct systems, numbering them 1 through 5, from the production of sperm to their ejaculation: a. ductus (vas) deferens b. epididymis c. ejaculatory duct d. seminiferous tubules e. urethra 2. Number the structures in order, 1 through 5, showing the pathway of a gamete from the ovary to the uterus. a. Body of uterus b. Fimbriae of uterine tube c. Fundus of uterus d. Ovary e. Uterine tube.