Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Directorate General of Civil Aviation State of Kuwait

LOW VISIBILITY PROCEDURES STUDY

Done By Mohammed F. Al-Dashti Raed Y. Al-foudri

Table Of contents
1- TERMINOLOGY
A. Definitions B. Abbreviations 2- LOW VISIBLITY PROCEDURES A. General B. Operational Minimums C. Measures to be taken D. Operational downgrading E. Special Procedure and Safeguards F. Localizer/Glide slope critical and sensitive areas G. RVR Reporting Procedure 3- REFERENCES

1- TERMINOLOGY
ADefinitions.

Low visibility procedures. Procedures applied at an aerodrome for the purpose of ensuring safe operations during CAT II and III approaches and low visibility Take-offs. Low visibility Take-off. A Take-off where the RVR is less than 400m. Runway visual range. The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. Ground visibility. The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer or by automatic systems. Critical Area An area of defined dimensions around glide path and localizer antennas where no vehicles, including aircraft, are permitted in order to avoid unacceptable disturbances to the ILS performance. Sensitive Area A defined area extending beyond the critical area where the parking and/or movement of vehicles, including aircraft, is controlled in order to avoid unacceptable disturbances to the ILS performance. The sensitive area is usually within the aerodrome boundaries. Runway-holding position. A designated position intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower. Instrument runway. One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures: a) Non-precision approach runway. An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in approach. b) Precision approach runway, category I. An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. c) Precision approach runway, category II. An instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway visual range not less than 300 m

B-

Abbreviations.

CL. Centre line DME. Distance measuring equipment FG. Fog HIRL. High Intensity Runway Lights HIALS. High Intensity Approach Light System LVP. Low Visibility Procedures. LVTO. Low Visibility Take-off. RCL. Runway centre line RCLM. Runway Centerline Marking RCLL. Runway centre line light(s) REDL. Runway edge light(s) RENL. Runway end light(s) RVR. Runway Visual Range. PAPI. Precision approach path indicator TDZ. Touchdown zone

2- LOW VISIBILITY PROCEDURES A. General.


Kuwait International Airport Runways 15R,33L,15L and 33R are all equipped with ILS CAT I / II. Low Visibility Procedures are published for operations when RVR drop below 550 M Visibility Drops below 400 M and or cloud ceiling of less than 200 ft. The aerodrome control tower shall inform the approach control unit concerned when procedures for precision approach category II/III and low visibility operations will be applied and also when such procedures are no longer in force. When there is a requirement for traffic to operate on the manoeuvring area in conditions of visibility which prevent the aerodrome control tower from applying visual separation between aircraft, and between aircraft and vehicles, the following shall apply: At the intersection of taxiways, an aircraft or vehicle on a taxiway shall not be permitted to hold closer to the other taxiway than the holding position limit defined by a clearance bar, stop bar or taxiway intersection marking The aerodrome control tower shall, prior to a period of application of low visibility procedures, establish a record of vehicles and persons currently on the manoeuvring area and maintain this record during the period of application of these procedures to assist in assuring the safety of operations on that area.
As a rule the critical areas shall remain vacated during operation of the ILS. As a rule the critical and the sensitive areas shall remain vacated during CAT II operations.

Pilots are required to make a runway vacated call given due allowance for the Size of the aircraft to ensure that the entire aircraft has vacated the ILS sensitive area. Departing flights when given clearance to enter the runway and cleared for takeoff shall commence the maneuver without delay. Pilots must notify ATC immediately if they anticipate not being able to comply with this clearance. Rescue and fire fighting service Shall be alerted during LVP Pilots shall be informed when:a) Meteorological reports preclude ILS CAT I / II Operations. b) Low Visibility Procedures are in force. d) There is any un-serviceability in a promulgated facility so that they may amend their minima.

B. Minimas
Landing Visibility/RVR minimums 1234CAT I RVR 550M CAT II RVR 300M SVFR Visibility 1500M VFR Visibility 5000M

Take-off Visibility/RVR Minimums LVP Must Be in Force RL,CL RCLM & RL.CL (DAY only) or Mult. RVR req. RL A B 150 m 200 m 250 m C D 200 m 250 m 300 m RCLM (DAY only) or RL 400 m

NIL (DAY only)

500 m

Note : Aircraft Categories A B C D are calculated by speed over threshold

C. Measures to be taken
RVR less than 1000M Sensitive areas shall be vacated and critical areas shall be checked whether vacant Operation according to CAT II RVR Less than 600M Visual approach lighting system (PAPI) shall be switched off Strobe lights shall be switched off Red side row barrettes shall be switched on

Change of category If the RVR values and/or the cloud base exceed the minima laid down for the respective category and a stabilisation is discernible, the higher category shall be cancelled.

D. Operational downgrading :
A- CAT II to CAT I : - Sensitive area for CAT II not vacated - Failure of the transmissometers of the touchdown zone, the transmissometers of the touchdown zone may be substituted by a mid point transmissometers

Failure of the wind measuring equipment, if another wind indication is available there is no downgrading; Failure of the secondary power supply of the runway lighting Complete failure of the runway lighting at day.

B- CAT I to another instrument approach procedure - Sensitive area for CAT I not vacated, however downgrading shall only be effected if the aircraft is on the last 2 NM of the approach and Visibility is more than 1.5KM and/or ceiling more than 400 feet. C- Closure of runway - Complete failure of the runway lighting at night

E. Special Procedure and Safeguards


Aircraft shall not be held closer to a runway-in-use than at a runway-holding position. Stop bars shall be switched on to indicate that all traffic shall stop and switched off to indicate that traffic may proceed. Pilots should never cross illuminated red stop bars when lining up on, or crossing Runway Separation Clearance for take-off shall be issued so as to ensure that the departing aircraft has passed over the localizer antenna before the arriving aircraft is within a distance of 2 NM from the runway threshold. A landing aircraft must have vacated the critical and sensitive areas of the ILS before the next landing aircraft is within a distance of 2 NM from the runway threshold. All inbound aircraft that have not already received a landing clearance must be instructed to report at 2 DME, if a landing clearance cannot be issued at this point, missed approach instructions shall be passed.

Aircraft vacating the runway, preferably to vacate via the following exit :RW Y 33L VIA TW Y W 5 RW Y 15R VIA TW Y W 2 RW Y 33R VIA TW Y E 5 RW Y 15L VIA TW Y E 2

Departing aircraft shall only enter the runway via the following exit. RW Y 33L via Loop RWY 33L RW Y 15R via W 15 & W18 RW Y 33R via Loop RWY 33R RW Y 15L via Loop RWY 15L

F. Localizer/Glide slope critical and sensitive areas

The Localizer Sensitive areas length (highlighted in yellow) starts from the localizer antenna until 1 220 m

G. RVR Reporting Procedures


RVR reporting is initiated when:A. The regular meteorological report shows visibility to be 1500metres or less. B. The RVR value is observed to be 1500 meters or less. C. Whenever shallow fog is reported, and during periods for which it is forecast. The RVR system consists of three transmissometers indicating Touch-down, Mid-point and Stop-end values for the Runway in use. W hen all three readings are reported to the pilot, they are passed as three sets of figures representing Touch-down, Mid-point and Stop-end respectively, e.g.:RVR 650 - 500 550 If only two values are passed they will be identified, for example, as follows:RVR Touch-down 650 - Stop-end - 550 If only one unit is serviceable it will be identified, for example, as follows:RVR Mid-point 650 Except that if the only serviceable unit is the Stop-end, the value will not be reported and the whole system will be placed unserviceable for that Runway The RVR in landing direction beginning with the value for the touch-down zone, followed by the values along the runway. The pilot shall be informed if an RVR value is not available. In case of strong variations of the RVR values (changes of 100 m) the pilot may be informed accordingly. All numbers used in the transmission of RVR which contain whole hundreds and whole thousands, shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit in the number of hundreds or thousands followed by the word HUNDRED or THOUSAND as appropriate. Combinations of thousands and whole hundreds shall be transmitted by pronouncing each digit in the number of thousands followed by the word THOUSAND followed by the number of hundreds followed by the word HUNDRED. Example:600 - RVR six hundred 1700 - RVR one thousand seven hundred

Where multiple RVR observations are available, they are always transmitted commencing with the reading for the touchdown zone followed by the mid-point zone and ending with the roll-out/stop end zone report. Where reports for three locations are given, these locations may be omitted provided that the reports are passed in that order. Phraseology:1- RVR RUNW AY 33L TOUCHDOW N 650 METERS, MIDPOINT 700 METERS, STOP END 600 METERS. 2- RVR RUNW AY 33L 650 METERS 700 METERS AND 600 METERS.

3-

REFRENCES
Kuwait M.A.T.S Manual of air traffic services Kuwait A.I.P Aeronautical information publication ICAO Annex 14 Aerodromes Fifth Edition 2009 ICAO Annex 02 Rules of the air Tenth Edition 2005 ICAO Annex 10 Aeronautical Telecommunications Sixth Edition 2006 ICAO DOC 4444 Air traffic management - Fifteenth Edition 2007 ICAO DOC 9870 Prevention of Runway incursion - First Edition 2007 ICAO DOC 9432 Manual of radio telephony Fourth Edition 2007 JAA Operational procedures First Edition

- END-