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International Project Management Association

DIN 3 PMK 2.4 / 4.1 ICB 22 / 5

influence on success of project work

Hard Facts; 44%

Soft Facts; 56%

ts rd Fac Ha

Project Roadmap


Overview of activities that a project team would have to implement in a way appropriate to each individual project in order to produce an excellent project.

Company- and Project organization


Project Marketing

DIN 69 901

Project : An endeavour in which human, material and financial resources are organised in a novel way to deliver a unique scope of work of given specification, often within constraints of cost and time, and to achieve beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives . customer threats with an order, have to be phased out project oriented

Business planning

Company organization structure :

- security known ways - standardisation - routine - exact system of rules routineknown o rg lin work an eobjectives i za t io n
company management

View to the for everybody unknown future. What kind of good an services our customers will by in . years ?



(matrix of responsibilities)

Mission Vision
New York


Frankfurt Tokio Hong Kong


consultative committee


process organization : business process

challenge established processes DIN PMK ICB 34

Strategy Objectives Activities

shareholder banks rating agencies

comm ittee

line management


what when

and develop them to Best Practice

who how

project leader

CD CD CD CD 1 2 3 4
Project n Project 3 Project 2 Project 1

(and staff) market- domains


NY-Time Londo n


MD 1 MD 2 MD 4 MD 5

00:00 05:00

03:00 08:00

06:00 11:00

09:00 14:00

12:00 17:00

15:00 20:00

18:00 23:00

21:00 02:00

23:59 04:59

management by projects

customer B


Start of some projects as an : project program / project portfolio to realize : strategy for the future business plan

project application

50 %

50 % 75 % 25 % 100 % 100 %



colleague from competence-domains

customer A

project leader
c.f.: Wohland 2003

hierarchy develops due to knowledge and und know how head start ? strength conform deployment within the project

Documentation Management
7 5 3
c on h wi t sCu r e tom ct t ra

types of projects : t administrative projects Star investment projects IT project event project product development project research project

nt eme nag a nt n ct M e te roje entatio re p P m y ssu lem co Imp rket pre mplexit o ct t ents g co ma e proje nt asin p ressur equirem me incre l ine imple ctl ity r proje ment eath ing qu a DIN d age as m an incre PMK 1.5 ICB 2 .
er cu stom
is the objective : S pecific M akeable/feasible A ttraktiv R ealistic T erminable objective hierarchy : 1) objective .... 2) objective ....
2.1) objective .... 2.2) objective....

Brainstorming Brain writing Meta plan technique Search area enlargement To reason by analogy Fuzziness .....

quality of ideas

o r p ro ga j e ni z ctat io changen tasks new ways -

new objectives innovation creativity risk conflicts conduct experiments

staff autonomous

structure tasks responsibility

Do good things an talk about them ! present high quality results

world marked

Methods of problem solving, Creativity Techniques

ProductDevelopmentprocess ( PDP ) PDP - Project

study on research and development

study on company structure

job clarification

Project Environment Stakeholder

DIN PMK 1.3 / 1.4 ICB 4 / 5 / 39

DIN 19 PMK 4.5 ICB 21


Game Player strength field analysis

stakeholder surrounding

Projectorder project start brief contract agreement ...


costs / effort


living system consisting of variables / intransparency momentum / incomplete information; assumptions about system characteristics

t t licik nf l nf Ko co


project process


demand to do projects
DIN PMK 4.6 ICB 10

Boot Legging



machine problem Problem

Project phases
go / no go

project start

measurement material Material Material




phase1 phase 2 phase 3 phase 4

point of no return
action models
milestone project phase


3) objective ....


The slowest person, who is keeping an eye on his/here objective, is still faster than the person, that is straying around without objective.
G. E. Lessing

phase 5

unknown future

? chunking

complex surprising complicated trivial

methods / rules sedulity / behavior

m ro n nvi e


ture, deposit stru c documents, on and in for mati

principle of one source

planning of objectives:
- content - proceeding - .....
proceeding objectives / result objectives
DIN PMK 4.9 ICB 29



theory / principles ideas / values / leading

System :
the observer agrees a differentiation of his environment. The frontier is that what the so defined system separates from his outside world. And first that frontier describe the system as somewhat different from the environment.

+ + +
c.f..: - Dietrich Drner - Frederic Vester - Peter Gomez und Gilbert Probst

database solution changes are visible in all concerned documents

technical solution social solution

DIN 1 PMK 1.6 ICB 8

process phases plan e.g. product development process

project phase


stage gate

connection hypothesis systemic environment analysis

EDP Support in Project

Complexity management
world 3
c.f.: Manfred Synisch SPM-Consult

Information- and Reporting System

DIN 15 PMK 4.8 ICB 21




Decisionmanagement :
decision matrix escalation scenario ....

completeness correctness actuality

DIN 2 PMK 3.1 ICB 12
1 customer

individual objectives of project members

object function

place, time, organization chart

Work Breakdown Structure

structured overview over all work packages that have to be finished to achieve the project objective

Economic Value Added (EVA)

1 x1 2 x2 3 x3 4 x4 5 x5 recommended pages

equipment for project work : - forms - check lists - ....
PM handboo k

Performance Measurement Board


2 projectmanagement
2.1 contractmanagement 2.2 claimmanagement 2.3. configurationsmanagement 2.4 modification management 2.5 2.7 riskmanagement 2.8 information- and reporting system 2.9 controlling 2.10 quality management 2.11 documentation 3.1

3 planning

4 realisation
4.1. underground work 4.2. carpenter 4.3. roofer 4.4. electrician

hardware software cross linking agreements rules ... Warning : EDP only have a impact of 5 % to project success.

people / employee

world 4
value Way of thinking set of beliefs

world 2
complexity management Cybernetic 2. order / dynamic / catalyst systemic evolution / self organization

Soft Factors describe world 2, 3 and 4 including: - intercultural diversity - spirituality


project- / product process

Configuration and realisation of project objectives / project object project realisation project dynamic

You cant make no decision. - on every decision you decide against a possible alternative. - for every decision you have to pay a price : the person who make a decision make themselves guilty.
Vgl.: Dr. Reinhard K. Sprenger The decision is yours

3.1.1 basicevaluation 3.1.2 prearrangement 3.1.3 blueprint planning 3.1.4 realisation planning 3.1.5 preparation placing 3.1.6 involvement in placing 3.1.7

stress analyst
3.2.1 static blueprint planning 3.2.2 realisation static 3.2.3 object controlling

1.1. create contract evaluation 1..2. financing 1.3. official authorization 1.4. construction company

calculation of production costs at project start
initial calculation

Projectstart systemic view networking revolving processes

Project results
Project closure

world 1
traditionally project management Cybernetic 1. Order / command control / hard reality / plan actual / hard operating

operating figures key data


method bag

Hard Factors describe world 1

Cost trend analysis

( -reports ) cost schedule start of project

What kind of resources we have to consider?

phase oriented object oriented mixed

cost planning

behaviour / project culture

building shell

floating floor


Resource Management
Roofer Electrician Crane

object controlling

t ile

to the best


work package description

actual forecast today project start

result conscience DIN 16 PMK 3.3 / 4.11 ICB 15

portable concrete mixer

duration relationship between WP activities

de s outsiit ie s dow facil win locksmith

Th ma / su b e t : e j c

concurrent calculation over project time

of ones knowledge

DIN 7 PMK 4.4 ICB 17 DIN 8 PMK 4.4 ICB 17

Configuration- and Modification Management

Configuration of the modified performance agreed by contract
modified surrounding modified performance additional performance

[ 1 ] - Te ilest eu erun g
U te a e : n rl g Pro e kt Ma n g e n j a me t Arb e tsp a e i k t/wo rk p a ka g : c e

Ar beitspak tbes e chre ibung / description of w or k p ac kage :


1. Besc eibung / description : hr

work package
- instructed by project leader - well-defined subtask - approvable result - responsibility and coordination by one person - defined interfaces towards other work packages
2 Arbeitspaketverantw or tliche / w ork package responsibility . 3 Weitere Beteiligte / f urther pe rs s involved . on
Akt. n fo I



resource calendar of ( e.g. electrician)

fri sat sun mon thu wed thu
illness 80%



Milestone Trend Analysis

t time schedule start of project

mon thu wed thu

100% 80%
90% von 80%


sat sun

4 Voraussetz ngen / requir ements . u

5 Ergebniss / results . e

6 Aktivitten / activities .

promoted pro

traiSchuning lunhg





90% von 100%


K s t n / co sts : o e

Da u r / d u ti n : e ra o

activity 1 activity 2 activity 3 ... activity n

Ver antw ortlich Ver antw ortlich Ver antw ortlich St art
Au fwa n / e xp e s e : d n s fre i g g b n / a p v e : e e e p ro d Da m / d te tu a : Si g u / si g a t re : n m n u

Ter min / time limit


St a keh old er sur rou ndi ng

previous requirements

Configuration of previous performance agreed by contract


Ter min / time limit


L e stu n / p e rma ce : i g rfo n

e rs t l t / c re te b y : e a d

g e r ft / ch e ke d : p c

Ansta / H b dt ner
Si g u / si g a t re : Da tu / d a t : n m n u m e Si g u / si g a t re : n m n u D tu / d te a m a :

( t-reports )

activity =

sum line of resources actual this project ( man power ) resources actual
2 60% effective work time 20 % administration 20 % trouble shooting DIN PMK 3.2 ICB 14

single activity to proceed the work package

Flowchart / Network Plan


previous contract

previous specification

modified contract modified performance agreed by contract

status meeting

here assumption : 90% efficiency

status meeting

actual forecast today


find several scenarios to proceed with an high expectation of success evaluation + decision

previous ? additional costs performance ? additional time agreed by ? additional resources contract ? quality / performance ? ....

modified specification changed requirements

logistic competence
option 2

Multi Task Project Management

project portfolio management
1st generati on 2nd generati on

demand of resources by planning this activities

A4 A3 A2 0,5 MD 1 MD 1,5 MD 2 MD

2 MD

0,5 MD

ct tea p ro je m

activity no.



project start

description :
earliest start buffer in total free buffer earliest finish latest finish

demand of resources

DIN 16 PMK 3.7 ICB 20

to control = adjust / navigate
Purchasing Beschaffung Logistic Logistik Production Produktion

Product portfolio of all product programs are developed project oriented by a product development process. These product programs compete in world market.

1 MD

MD = calculated demand of Resources Man Day per project


latest start



sum line demand of resources this project




project program

Project program of a product family here: refrigerators

2nd ge neratio n 1st generati on




Sales Verkauf Development Entwicklung Marketing Manpower Personal Finance Finanzen Industrialisation Industrialisierung

time bar DIN 12 PMK 3.2 ICB 14

output expectation projectmanagement functional management lines of business


Projects of a project program here: refrigerators

PDP PDP often c orporate wide agreed produc t devel opment process (PDP) (project phase plan)

objective oriented and navigation decisions will be made on the base of controlling

business analyzing pilot information provider for management target / actual comparison signal system of variations, should cause a correction by management (navigation) (correction ignition)


analyze the past

afterwards everything looks easy

we search for people beforehand

finance purchasi ng logistic assembli ng pla nnin g . project mana gement

PDP wor k breakdown str uctur e

resources-actual demand of resources this project



c.f.: H.-G. Gemnden / H. Dammer

wor k pac kages of wor k breakdown str uctur e


project- projectmachine personnel leader

resource calendar of project portfolio resource

mon thu wed thu

A2 ......



sun mon thu wed

90% von 100%




Meetings :


90% von 80%


priorisation between the projects temporary purchase of resources

agenda + objectives (who; duration; inf./disk./decis.) organization / invitation documentation (minutes) moderation meeting frequency optional dates

80% 100%

100% 50%

110% 50%

sun DIN 13 PMK 3.8 ICB


resources actual

Contract Management Claim Management

day maintenance

ts cos ie d o dif d ti me m ifie lity mo d e d q ua difi mo

DIN PMK 3.5 ICB 16 / 42


GANT today

demand project resources of resources

2. disagio


DIN 69905 / 3.44 call for bids

1. disagio

DIN 69 904 Projectmanagement Elements
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

depletive description of agreed specification by contract Project Management Canon of GPM

IPMA Competence Baseline

DIN 14 PMK 4.7 ICB 18

learning organization
DIN PMK 2.5 ICB 36

final invoice

contract specificontract cation target specification

DIN 69905 / 3.53 after contract has been signed

Project Evolution

end of project planned

end of project effective

sum line of resources actual project portfolio ( man power )

60% effective work time 20 % administration 20 % trouble shooting
here assumption : 90% efficiency

2 1

2.000 MD 500 MD

demand of resources by the projects

2.000 MD P1 P2 P3 500 MD 1.000 MD 1.500 MD 1.000 MD

bu dg et

Reaction on: - modifying environment - new state of knowledge wherefrom ? -

DIN 10 PMK 3.4 ICB 16

Cost Planning
today project budget

budget overrun

Communicationrequirement optimization
make decisions by yourself


MD = calculated demand of Resources time Man Day per project

sum line demand of resources all projects

2 1

secure handling of this topic

competence challenge
should be worked out
fear 80% - ready

resources-actual demand of resources projects

2 1


absence of liquidity
3. disagio

60% - ready

priorisation between the projects temporary purchase of resources

DIN PMK 3.6 ICB 19

DIN Definition of Objectives Structuring Organization Human Resource Management Contract Management Claim Management Configuration Management Modification Management Determination of Expenditure Cost Management Resource Management Process Management and Scheduling Multi Project Coordination Risk Management Information and Reporting System Controlling Logistics Quality Management Documentation

DIN PMK 1.9 ICB 30

19 18 17

2 3 4 5
% 25
% 50 % 75

16 15 14 13 12 radar diagram :
benchmark status of company / project
DIN = German Institute for Norms & Standards

6 7
0% 8 10



1. Basic Competences : 1. Projects and Project Management 1.1 Management PMK 2. Project Management Implement. ICB 1.2 Projects and Project Management 3. Management by Projects 1.3 Project Context und Stakeholder 4. System Approach and Integration 1.4 System Approach and Project Management 5. Project Context 1.5 Project Management Implementation 6. Project Phases and Life Cycle 1.6 Project Objectives 7. Project Development and Appraisal 1.7 Project Success and Failure Criteria 8. Project Objectives and Strategies 1.8 Project Phases and Project Life Cycle 9. Project Success and Failure Criteria 1.9 Norms and Guidelines 10. Project Start Up 2. Social Competence 11. Project Close Out 2.1 Social Perception 12. Project Structures 2.2 Communication 13. Content, Scope 2.3 Motivation 14. Time Schedules 2.4 Social Structures, Groups & Teams 15. Resources 2.5 Learning Organizations 16. Project Cost and Finance 2.6 Self-Management 17. Configurations and Changes 2.7 Leadership 18. Project Risks 2.8 Conflict Management 19. Performance Measurement 2.9 Specially Communication situations 20. Project Controlling 3. Methodical Competence 21. Information, Documentation, Reporting 3.1 Project Structuring 22. Project Organization 3.2 Process and Time Management 23. Teamwork 3.3 Resources Management 24. Leadership 3.4 Cost Management 25. Communication 3.5 Financial Resources Management 26. Conflicts and Crises 3.6 Performance Measurement and Proj. Progress 27. Procurement, Contracts 3.7 Integrated Project Controlling 28. Project Quality 3.8 Multi Task Project Management 14 additional elements 3.9 Creativity Techniques 29. Informatics in Projects 3.10 Problem Solving 30. Standards and Regulations 4. Organizational Competence 31. Problem Solving 4.1 Employers and Project Organization 32. Negotiations, Meetings 4.2 Quality Management 33. Permanent Organization 4.3 Contract Contents and Management 34. Business Processes 4.4 Configuration and Change Management 35. Personnel Development 4.5 Documentation Management 36. Organizational Learning 4.6 Project Start 37. Management of Change 4.7 Risk Management 38. Marketing, Product Management 4.8 Project Information System 39. System Management 4.9 EDP Support in Project 40. Safety, Health and Environment 4.10 Project Close Down and Evaluation 41. Legal Aspects 4.11 Personnel Management 42. Finance and Accounting
GPM = German Association of Project Management

Risk Management
e.g. delphi

outflow of funds


actual -actual

70% time

Performance Evaluation Progress Checkups

degree of achievement of objectives project objective performance

funds inflow (revenues)

quality / performance customersatisfaction


1 R isk 2 R isk k3 R is

Safety, Health

time of occurrence immediately 1 month ~3 month

and Environment
DIN PMK ICB 40 DIN 18 PMK 4.2 ICB 28

Quality Management

stakeholdersatisfaction peoplesatisfaction

ge st a

tu ma of

r it y

high occurrence probability

performance / quality
ess aren



today time

4 3


planned for today actual planned project results


consequences on ...............

Project Excellence Model

80 points

180 points

s ure eas m standardise




li qua

w ty a

Project objectives

people processes
70 points

80 points

DIN PMK 4.10 ICB 11


Project Close Out



IPMA = International Project Management Association

le s lea sons rne d

unloading of the project team


sly uo u nti n A P e co , at t h n. e rove o. learn im p rma nc s uch t h a n lear d C D t to e and perfo c s o. lt n d an r esu izatio at to revis o ur ou w , wh what y ro ve / heck y ent t he organ k t hin do im p ck = c do cum who le lan= Do = Act = P Che

140 points

70 points

Key performance and project results

180 points

140 points

results of other parties involved

60 points

project management
= 500 points

project results
= 500 points

Continuous Improvement Process (CIP) / Deming - Cycle


"A project is only successful when all participants have the feeling that it was successful."
free download: www.project-roadmap.com editor: Raimo Hbner contact: raimo.huebner@project-roadmap.com Powered by German Innovation.

stage : 02-09-2007 soft factors - version 06 hard factors - version 31

22th IPMA World Congress 09th - 11th November 2008 Rome, Italy

23th IPMA World Congress 15th - 17th June 2009 Helsinki, Finland

Thanks go to Mr. Pannenbcker and his colleague, whose idea for the project management topic overview I've had the opportunity to further develop here. Thanks also to the many colleagues who helped me to create this overview of hard and soft factors". And finally, I'd like to wish you, the reader/viewer, every success in your project work. Happy projects!


October 22 - 23 2008 Wiesbaden - Germany www.pmforum2008.de


IPMA Project Excellence Model: IPMA International Project Excellence Award


German Project Excellence Award


International Project Management Association


influence on success of project work

Hard Facts; 44%

Soft Facts; 56%

ts ft Fac So

Project Roadmap
t" fl o p er "Ex w


cf.: Gemnden 1992 und Selin/Selin 1994

Overview of activities that a project team would have to implement in a way appropriate to each individual project in order to produce an excellent project.
Desire for security: Humans engage in risk-taking in order to gain security. Things that are unknown become known; things that are new become familiar; feelings of insecurity are transformed into feelings of security. Curiosity a "craving" that is a sign of strong appetitive behavior "What's new?" The degree of security which is so longingly hoped for increases as the area examined by the individual grows; as more and more problems are solved; as the level of one's knowledge increases; and as more and more new things become familiar. Everyone has experienced at one time the pleasure of solving a problem or overcoming danger "flow" A feeling ranging from a simple "light bulb" moment to dancing with joy. Flow channel
The challenge Feeling of competence

Around 15 billion years have past since our universe was created

as an explanatory model:
Where do we come from? Where are we going?
Around 80 years

Findings in behavioral biology:

What are the biological drives that influence our actions?

The primal motives of humans and animals can be found in their biological drives.
The term flow refers to an intoxicating state or holistic feeling that one has when "completely involved in an activity for its own sake", especially a strenuous activity. Linked with this state is a surge of motivation or pleasure that one feels after solving a problem or overcoming danger - feelings that are not driven by a craving for money, power or respect. cf.: Csikszentmihalyi 2004 g er H un f-p rese rl r se our ce s e fo Driv n a nd re o v at i p le as u f o

The vital reduction of information in the brain

Objective reality?

3 2
Sociocultural filter: Muslim Christian European Asian Bavarian East Frisian ....

Individual filter:
Deletion Distortion Generalisation
warning : map is not the same thing as the area it describes!

Language forms

communication & language

blah blah

Visual communication:
Use of signals to communicate Sign language

Around 4.3 million years

Vocal communication:
Speech Speech Speech Speech speed melody rhythm pauses ...

We're not done evolving yet the process continues!

Autopoiesies :
from Greece autos for self and poiein for create. The self creating and self renewing system. So a differentiation of living (autopoietic) and non living systems is possible. cf.: Maturana/Varela

Values Norms Morals

Set of beliefs


Set of Beliefs : a person's subjective sense of the truth

xu al Driv e fo driv e a nd r se s our lf -p re se ce o f p le rv a t io n a su re

ity ur g ec in r s be fo of " w" ire re flo es asu the e


What is a drive?
1. 2. 3. 4.

Humans in their current form as the result of evolution: By surviving, humans are able to pass on things that were successful. Members of the species who are the quickest to react to changes survive, not the strongest or the most intelligent. Social systems exist only
cf.: Darwin / Lesch 2002 / Statistisches Bundesamt der BRD [Federal Statistical Office, Germany] by communication (interactive connections between delusion-worlds) not by subjects, individuals or other active parties. cf.: Luhmann/Simon Consciousness snowball on the iceberg


Ple Agg re a an su re ssi o dr o ec f vi n o g cto ni tio ry n

Impulse to act tha t arises spontaneously (hunger, sexual a rousal, aggression) Stimulus that trigg ers the drive (food stimuli, sexual stimuli) Search for stimuli if they are not present (appetitive behaviour) Compulsive act that becomes more intense as the level of stimulus or the intensity of the drive increases (devouring one's food, sexual acts, aggressiveness) Final act that is experienced with pleasure (enjoying ones food, orgasm, victory)



tion ma for In

- Explanatory model of the world - Blueprint of an inner image of the person's environment created by the person for social orientation
lte rs




voice content

Body language:
Gestures Facial expressions Disposition

Written language for communication

4 Significance
Experience Map
The limitations of the human auditory system: Can trees scream? Scientists in the U.S.A. have discovered that trees actually "scream for water" when they dry up. Humans, however, are unable to hear them, since the sounds that are emitted have a frequency of between 50 and 500 kilohertz.

Consciousness and subconsciousness

cf.: GEO 12 / 2004 - www.geo.de
information attentiveness memory
volun t ary
Co n tr ol

Iceberg model of consciousness

logic think ing problem so lving plann ing perceptio n langu age

content of believ e Idea central realize executive

cf.: von Cube 2002

structure modulati on selection supervisi on

set of believes langu age memories feelings

w no

cing p ith o ther s En h an ng it w rie nci e xpe

for D esire ship panion sure b y com lea

Aggression Triumphing over one's rivals / attaining rank in a group (social group) / achieving respect. "Defending" or "conquering" a specific domain or high-ranking position (high level on the ladder of success) Rivals and the privileges and benefits associated with a specific rank are the stimuli that trigger the drive. The compulsive act is defined by the struggle and the final act of triumph that is experienced with pleasure. (left-hand lane on the highway) Increasing the frequency of experiences of triumph is easiest to achieve when victory can be had with little effort.

There's no such thing as "non-communication"

cf.: Schulz von Thun 2003

Individual perception / interpretation of language


e s ir e de in de sir ing le ulg tiab Ind e insa


1 Physiological filters:

A person who attains a higher rank than others is able to experience a lasting, "easy victory" and can savour this victory at any time. This person savours his or her victory by maintaining a large "territory", commanding a large number of subordinates and treating them in a condescending and degrading manner.

perception of our environment

Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Olfactory Gustatory

sight hearing touch smell taste

level 1 (conscious)


s them lv e es

e her at


How am I perceived ?

level 2 (unconsci ous) action

ball model: of consciousness

management and leadership

Management: Influencing people consciously and directly by way of communication in order to reach specific goals or targets.
Types of communication within an autopoietic system What's in it for me? My goal is . I've really got to get going so that I can move up the ladder. Do what I want! You may be trying to work your way to the top, but you won't be doing it at my expense! Types of communication within an autopoietic system Do it yourself! But you can't even do it!

Five aspects of management behavior:

1. Strategy / purpose of the activity What is the intention of the leader? What is the goal that the leader wants to reach? What is the purpose of reaching the goal for the leader? 2. Content What is the leader trying to communicate? What are people under the supervision of the leader supposed to assimilate? 3. Process Where do I start? How can the starting point be characterized? 4. Approach How does the leader communicate his or her message? 5. Person The leader is always involved as an individual. He or she is a part of the intervention. The leader is always in the spotlight and observed by the people under his or her supervision.
cf.: Langmaack and Braune-Krickau

How do I believe OTHERS see / experience me? (something that I know in part from presumably honest feedback that I have received)

Ideal image
Dimensions of your self-image Identity Body and appearance Background, family and socialization Aptitudes and talents Abilities and skills Education, training, work experience and career Vitality and vital needs Desires, interests, goals, dreams Character and values Lifestyle Experiences Possessions, money and property Social relationships Relaxation, recreation, free time, fun, sport, inspiration, leisure, pleasure Meta-dimensions


The art of giving feedback

Objective of feedback: Provides information about observed behaviour (sense-specific perception of the observer) Enables adjustment of my self-image, external image and meta-image Provides motivation / support Enables learning and change Giving feedback: The "sandwich" method: a) What was good b) What there could have been more of willingness to give feedback / attentiveness Feedback should be given as soon as possible and linked to the event / act of communication Feedback should be considerate and respectful towards the recipient Feedback should be subjective (pay attention to the language used: "others" "me) and free of interpretation concerning the person you are communicating with. Feedback should provide useful information such as concrete recommendations or examples that can be applied in future situations. Feedback should be authentic and honest (have the courage to give feedback) Feedback should be sense specific (what I saw, heard etc.; how it made me feel; what sensations were aroused) Receiving feedback: Listen attentively Accept what is helpful with thanks and consideration Ask questions if there is something you don't understand, and "return" the rest Do not try to provide justifications ( Remember, it's all in the past now. This is the way the person you are communicating with experienced you. )

Feed - back

External image 1
How does MY Communication partner see / experience me? (information based on presumably honest feedback) How do I see / experience MYSELF?

Words do not constitute the objective reality that they attempt to describe. They are purely subjective symbols based on conventions. They obtain meaning and change meaning through use.

Model of interpersonal communication

External image n External image 2
cf.: Schulz von Thun 2003 Feedback
What am I informing you about?


Management behavior Situation

Management success
"You can't not manage."

elegance know how / excellence unknown competence known competence known incompetence unknown incompetence Known to others Not known to others

Managers do things right !

Leaders do the right things.

Factual Factual content content Fact

Fact ) (It is (It is )

Request Request
Control Control (You should ) (You should )

What do I want to get you to do?

Management strategies "management by" approaches:

1. Management by the group itself (self-organization of the group according to different strengths / the group manages itself in different situations by relying on individuals in the group who have specific knowledge or expertise / the team leader coordinates, and the group makes decisions) Management by cooperation Cooperative (cooperative management style) Authoritarian management style management Management by participation style (participative management style) Options available to the leader Management by objectives Options available (management by setting targets) to the group Management by . Authoritarian Advisory Delegative
Patriarchal Participative Performance- increases

What do I reveal about myself?

How do we interact with one another, and what do I think of you?

Dimensions of management interventions:

Participation Involvement Delegation
Qualification - increases Commitment - increases Identification - increases

Known to self Area of free activity (public)

Area of evasion and concealment (private)

SelfSelfrevelation revelation

Relationship Relationship
Contact Contact ) (We are (We are )

"The Johari Window"

cf.: Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham 1955

Expression Expression (I am ) (I am )

2. 3. 4. 5.

Task orientation


Employee orientation
Degree of satisfaction - increases Lost working time - decreases Employee turnover - decreases cf.: v. Rosenstiel

Not known to self

Blind spot

Area of unknown activity

Memory models:
cf.: Frederic Vester 2002

Social Perception
The humanist approach: a) A person is individual in his or her entirety. b) Each person already possesses an inherent capability for growth and self-discovery. c) The challenge is to discover and bring out the potential in the person. Basic assumptions: 1. A person's behavior is shaped by his or her model of the world, and not by the way the world really is. 2. A map is not the same thing as the area it describes. 3. Body and spirit influence each other reciprocally. 4. The variety of possible types of behavior is important freedom of choice. 5. People have every resource at their disposal to achieve a desired change. 6. People can't not communicate. 7. If something isn't working, then try something else. 8. There are two levels of communication: conscious unconscious 9. There's no such thing as failure! There's only feedback. 10. The importance of communication is in the reaction that you receive. 11. All behavior has a positive intention. This doesn't mean, however, that the behaviour is good. 12. The current behavior of a person is the best option available to this person just now.
cf.: Grundannahmen in der Neurolinguistischen Prozessarbeit (NLP) [Basic Assumptions in Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP]

Ultra short-term memory Short-term memory

Developing trust
A way of reducing complexity in interpersonal interaction
Formal affiliation with a group ( B is a member of GPM) Category-based trust Behaviour expectations are inferred from the person's role ( B is a project manager) Role-based trust Focus on information provided by others about person B who accepts the trust Opinion-based trust Impersonal trust

The process of developing trust: Interpersonal trust (trust between people) Person giving trust Personality - Capacity for trust: should I trust this person now or wait till I know more about him/her? Inclination towards A risk taking - willing to take risks - avoids taking risks Situation of trust Person accepting trust Personality - Integrity - Consistency - Loyalty - Goodwill - Openness B Competence depends on the situation

The "bottleneck" model of human perception

Only one part in ten million is actually processed
individual objective individual objective

Long-term memory

Assembled information Inferred trustworthiness

Visual sight approx. 80 % Auditory hearing approx. 13 % Kinaesthetic touch (skin etc.) Olfactory smell (nose) Gustatory taste
management of own multiple Intelligences 1 mathematical 2 space 3 linguistic 4 naturalistic 5 musical 6 kinsthetic 7 existential 8 interpersonel 9 intrapersonel 10 emotionale

Input: 109 bits/sec

an output of 107 bits/sec

1 2 3
Information reduction to approx. 102 bits/sec Auditory language Facial expressions and gestures Physiology General motor functions


Experienced trustworthiness Interpersonal trust Personal experience
The decision-making process involved in an act of trust

Situational relationship of trust social, procedural, behaviour-oriented norms Situational relationship of opportunities/risks individual objective individual objective


1 As interaction with the person increases, the pieces of

assembled information are gradually (time) replaced by one's own experiences. This is determined by the intensity of social contact with the person.
B checks the trustworthiness of A and decides to perform an act of trust (reaction) with respect to A .

Person giving trust (me) Dispositive capacity for trust Principle capacity of the person giving trust to trust another person from the very onset.

Situation of trust (environment) Norm-based trust Social control (my values Decision to are probably the same as the maintain other person's) attitude of trust Processual control (mutual approach) Behaviour control independent of the situation (communication Attitude of trust channels)
n io is ec D

4 5

individual objectives resulting from whole live planning of my communication partners

s es in rt h o


c.f.: Frederic Vester 2002

ac t i on

tru s

dependent on the situation

Act of trust
Decision to perform an act of trust

(total project success) Importance

Mate r


cf.: doctorate M. Mthel 2005 / Miriam.Muethel@whu.edu

A team is a small group of people who are engaged in direct social interaction for a specific period and who pursue a common goal that is specified from outside in the form of a "job". The members of the team are committed to reaching the specified targets and are responsible as a group for achieving this goal. They agree to a specific approach to be applied in accomplishing their tasks, and they are committed to following specific social rules and norms.

1. Forming

2. Storming

3. Norming

4. Performing

Feeling of well-being Fulfillment Feeling of discontent Disappointment

Test phase
Formation of the group Polite Impersonal Tense Cautious Formation of the group consciousness

ate Imm
Purpose and goals in life: Meaning of life (evolution?) Goals in life - Short-term (1 year) - Medium-term (2 .. 5 years) - Long-term (over 5 years) Whole life planning

Spirituality: Explanatory model of the world Chance explanation Freedom or determination Religiousness .


Interaction Fusion phase Organization phase

Agreement on common goals Performance Full of ideas Flexible Open Efficient United, cooperative Maturity, mutual acceptance

Body: Health Physical fitness Biological performance capacity of the body: - Daily performance - Lifetime performance

ur ce s

Phases of team development:

Material resource management - Financial resource management - Facility management - .

Time: Time experienced in terms of quantity Time experienced in terms of quality (experienced/perceived time time = can be consciously recalled) Time management - Activity and time analysis - Disruptions and interruptions - Analysis of own work behavior


ia l

B a la n c e


Close combat phase

Conflict Underlying conflicts Confrontation between different individuals Formation of cliques Difficult progress Lines are drawn, power struggles

Development of new ways of interacting with others in the group Feedback Confrontation between different points of view Self-organisation


Development of trust through time cf.: Promotion M. Mthel 2005

Development of trust within the team

What is a conflict?

Vgl.: doctorate M. Mthel 2005 / Miriam.Muethel@whu.edu

2 1

Okay, now what's 1.17 supposed to be?


+ do it right

educa te

Economically oriented development of trust

Knowledge-based development of trust

Identification-based development of trust


2 1

e mgt. Knowledg p develo

What are the different conflict levels?

4 Within a person (struggle with contradictions) 4 Between two individuals 4 Between a person (for example, a moderator) and a group 4 Within a group 4 Between groups

Problem resolution Problem resolution talks group Coaching, mediation


+ meaning

Common understanding Adjustment of "maps" Interpersonal development of trust Team formation F ront loading

Harvard concept

Perceptive positions everybody on the earth is connected with each other within 6 contact persones.


+ networking (context, experiences, expectations)

cf.: K. North

A conflict is a process that begins the moment when one party perceives that the other party is impeding or starting to impede the pursuit of its interests (individual goals).

What options do I have to resolve conflict?

Conflict management styles

cf.: Blake, Mouton, Thomas

Stages of conflict escalation

cf.: Glasl 2004

Orientation towards the interests of the OTHER PARTY


0 100%

100% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 = Hardening of 7 positions; tension 8 2 = Debate and 4 = Image and dispute 9 coalition 3 = Actions instead 5 = Loss of face of words 6 = Threat strategy 7 = Targeted blows 8 = Splintering 9 = Mutual annihilation

Give in; abandon own targets

win- win Consensus

Joint problem resolution Optimum solution 50% 50%

lose-lose Compromise (each party

agrees to move away from its maximum demands) Goal is only to find a workable solution

0 100%

Avoidance; sweeping the problem under the rug Get your way by force Power

Orientation towards OWN interests

Acceptance and motivation factors within project teams

cf.: Kleindienst 2005 Project conception Sense of project Project objective Quantity of human resource deployment Quality of human resource allocation Project budget

Assignment go-ahead


Project culture

All six factors have to be taken into consideration to ensure sustained acceptance and motivation within the project team.

Responsibilities, decisions

Project manager Atmosphere Participation and involvement Constructive competition Way of dealing with conflicts Communication and information

Personal gain


Individual responsibility Decision regarding error tolerance Requesting decisions

Success (feeling of success) Remuneration Career opportunities Security Self-actualization Recognition and status

Contacts for project management Work preparations

stage : 02-09-2007 soft factors - version 06 hard factors - version 31

22th IPMA World Congress 09th - 11th November 2008 Rome, Italy

Adjust m en

of trust

t to

Dispositive inclination towards risk taking How willing I am to take risks based on my previous life experience .

Decision to perform


Economically based trust Trust aimed at maximising individual gain (recognition, reward, status, rank ... )

ive d r ce

Self-management of my resources

The way others see me Personality Disposition (body language) Charisma Self-confidence Image management

Feedback Reduction to 1:107 as a result of selection and pre-processing outside of the processes relating to consciousness

Information received via sense organs


Information contained in motor output


c De n io is

ti Ac


Process of developing trust on both sides

Workplace furnishings and equipment

r ou es

s ce

c.f.: www.Spiegel.de edition 52/2006

cf.: Eisenhower desk principle

"The message takes shape once it reaches the recipient."

- Modal operators of possibility: (can't / mustn't) - Modal operators of necessity: (should / must) - Universal quantification: (inferring something about a great number of things from a single or small number of examples)

Fix a date for the task and delegate if necessary Check and Delegate if necessary

Complete task immediately Surface structure What I am conveying with language. Generalization

Delegate task Distortion



Trash Low Social networks: Informal networks (who can I ask when I need information?) relationships of trust Knowledge management in social network Social dependency relationships (who can help me if I need a specific service?) Relationship management in social network Emotional empathetic dependency relationships (sympathy / antipathy / affection / love / .. ) Emotional management in social network

Urgency (time-related)


Meta-model of language

cf.: Pareto principle, 80-20 rule

Deep structure - What I am processing and thinking inside my head.

Language can never do justice to the speed, diversity and sensitivity of our thought. It can only be an approximation. OConnor

- Unspecifiednouns and subjects:

- Presuppositions: (assumptions) - Complex equivalence: (attempting to equate different facts) - Cause and effect: (asserting that there is a connection between an event and an emotional reaction) - Mind reading: (speculating / seeming to know without any direct indication)


comprises techniques that can be used by an individual for time and goal planning for management of all individual circumstances of one's life such as: - Family/contacts - Mind/culture - Body/health - Work life -

Spirit: Perception via five sense organs Cognitive performance Intelligence Experience Sense of humour

20% 80%


Careful! 20%
Check whether the Pareto principle is really applicable to your case!

(noun / subject is ambiguous) - Unspecified verbs: (verb is ambiguous) - Nominalization: (abstract nouns) - Comparison / scale: (comparison or scale is missing) - Assessments: (What was the basis upon which the assessment was made? / Who is making the assessment? obviously / presumably / evidently / seemingly / apparently )

Work/life balance between mind and body



Special communication situations

Knowledge/know how is necessary to realise the own part of whole project

cf.: Stanley Milgram 1967 Interpersonal trust Impersonal trust

Knowledge management
Hey, I get it it's a car door that's 1.17 m wide.

On our new car, the door has to be 1.17 m wide so t hat people can get into the vehicle easily.

We did it! Getting in is now a total breeze.

After moth of puzzling with Computer the scientists Duncan Watts and Steve Strogatz 1998 really got the result and connected, six billion points, should symbolize the world population, so that every point with an max of six steps could reached from each other point.

A car door that's 1.17 m wide makes it easer to get into the vehicle.

Presentations within the project Organization and moderation of: -Negotiations 5+2 = optimum group size
4.4. Electrician Shell work Til er Plumber


Aha! 1.17 is a length specification in meters.

Desig n PE P


max. 21 communication options

s d ow


Project manager

Action Know-how + want it

6 4 5

Cave drawings? 6


+ relation to application

Knowledge, team member do not have to realise his part on the project to project success.

F loo ring

rnal Ext eems syst


W in

1 7 2

Agenda + goals of TOPs (who; how long; information/ discussion/decision) Organization / invitation Documentation (minutes) Moderation Frequency of meetings Optional dates

Kick off

3 6 5 4

Kick off:



+ syntax






Knowledge/know how to entry in project team

Maslow's Pyramid of Needs

cf.: Maslow 1934

Coral - Integral - Holistic Renewalist is slowly coming up

Proposed definition of self-actualisation: Carefully considered (perceiving one's feelings, motivations and behaviour and controlling them to a certain extent / freedom in choosing how drives should be satisfied) and autonomous management of one's own drives.
cf.: Felix von Cube 2000

Meeting 2 Meeting 1

Spiral Dynamics
Values & Levels of consciousness
way of thinking, Management of own explanatory model of the world. Meme : the heart of values, take effect as a organizing force and will be visible as (self spreading ideas, tradition or cultural practice)

"Chinese whispers" method


Self-actualisation Esteem and recognition

Turquoise - Whole View synergize & macro manage Yellow - Flex Flow integrate an align systems Green - Human Bond explore inner self, equalize others Orange - Strive Drive analyze and strategize to prosper Blue - Truth Force find purpose, bring order, insure future Red - Power Gods express impulsively, break free, be strong Purple - Kin Spirits seek harmony & safety in a mysterious world Beige - Survival Sense sharpen instincts & innate senses

Head start Higher quality of project work

Spanien Dnemar k Deutschland Polen Frankreich

IndonesienJapan Korea China

Asserting one's outlook on life; creativity Success, status, power

Intercultural Competence
see separate Intercultural Project Roadmap
Media array
Face-to-face meeting (2 people) Face-to-face meeting (group) Video conference Telephone Telephone conference

sterreich Italien Schweden Niederlande Grobritannien


Sdafrika Pakistan Indien Thailand

Social needs
Affection, belonging

Security needs Basic physical needs

Over compilation:
Ambiguity Too much secondary information

Protection, order, continuity Air, food, sleep


Pursuit of relaxation and emotional security; fear of problems Pursuit of competition, conflict, aggressiveness and retaliation

Pursuit of success, achievement, leadership and influence (pleasure of victory)


Voice mail Computer conference (chat, discussion forums)

ea Ar

t ca ni u m n o m atio c r e iv p e c t oo fe c ef d o f an

n io


Pursuit of stability, Transparency and good organization


Survey: What influences people's attitude towards work?

Results are closely linked to Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction
40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50

Fax E-mail

(extreme simplification) Impersonal No feedback

Pursuit of social justice and fairness Pursuit of social acceptance and belonging; fear of rejection



6 Peace Order Pursuit of friendship, 5 Revenge Relationships joy and fun The 16 basic motives 4 Steven Reiss are described by Pursuit of sexuality and desires and, thus, motives that shape Romance 3 an erotic life our behaviour and personality. While 2 these motives can be found in all Pursuit of freedom, people, they vary from person to contentedness and 1 necessarily have to Independence person and do not
self-sufficiency Pursuit of an accumulation of material goods and property

Motivation factors: intrinsic (meaning directly connected to the work) trigger satisfaction when fulfilled

Success Recognition Content Responsibility Progress Development Company policies / internal organisation Supervision Relationship to manager Work conditions Salary Relationship to co-workers Relationship to subordinates Private sphere Status Security

Post Documentation

Ambiguity of parts cooperation task

The degree of media variety can be measured by the ability of the media array to give direct feedback, by the number of channels and amount of information used, by the level of personalization, and by the amount of diversity within the sector. In comparison, there are communication media such as e-mail that exhibit a low degree of variety, but which have a high degree of economic efficiency, making them suitable for routine communication.

conform to any particular hierarchical order. Most of these motives though Pursuit of physical fitPhysical activity Saving ness and exercise certainly not always all of them are motivation factors that acquire their significance in the context of Family Pursuit of wealth, titles Status and public attention the work world.
Honour Nutrition Curiosity Pursuit of loyalty and moral integrity Pursuit of knowledge, skills and truth

Hygiene factors: extrinsic (meaning connected to the work only indirectly) trigger dissatisfaction if not fulfilled

"Soft factors" the true hard factors in project work!

While "soft factors", as they are known, are oftentimes difficult to define, this is the very reason why working with them can have such a large effect on the success of a project. Remember, it's the people with all their strengths, weaknesses and natural limitations of evolutionary development that make the projects. This overview is by no way complete and is sure to cause friction with many readers/ viewers. The models presented here to explain our complex environment are intended to help project teams to improve their communication and their understanding for the actions of their colleagues. If we succeed in using a common understanding of "soft factors" to increase the plannability and controllability of many situations that we often experience as coincidental due to our lack of knowledge, then we have taken a great step forward in project work. Project Roadmap is a registered trade mark. see http://dpinfo.dpma.de Pat.Nr.: 30660534.1

Degree of dissatisfaction

Degree of satisfaction

Pursuit of a family life and the aspiration to raise one's own children

The 16 basic motives

cf.: Reiss 2000

"If you want to build a ship, don't drum up the men to gather wood, divide the work, and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea." Antoine de Saint-Exupery We cant motivate people! We only can stop to demotivate people. ( modification of the surrounding conditions for self motivation ) Reinhard K. Sprenger

Pursuit of food and drink

23th IPMA World Congress 15th - 17th June 2009 Helsinki, Finland

Thanks go to Mr. Pannenbcker and his colleague, whose idea for the project management topic overview I've had the opportunity to further develop here. Thanks also to the many colleagues who helped me to create this overview of hard and soft factors". And finally, I'd like to wish you, the reader/viewer, every success in your project work. Happy projects!


October 22 - 23 2008 Wiesbaden - Germany www.pmforum2008.de


IPMA Project Excellence Model: IPMA International Project Excellence Award


German Project Excellence Award


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