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RF Energy Harvesting and Wireless Power for Low Power Applications Low-Power

EDN 2010 Hot 100

Emerging Technology

P2100 Powerharvester

TX91501 Powercaster www.powercastco.com


2011PowercastCorporation

P2110 Powerharvester

P2110 Powerharvester

Powercast Technology Overview


Micro-power over distance using common radio waves
Microwatts (W) to low milliwatts (mW) ( ) ( )

Micro-power is useful for:


T ickle cha ging batte ies ( A to lo mA c ent) Trickle-charging batteries (A low current) Powering battery-free devices

Received power is determined by multiple factors:


Power of RF source Distance from RF source Di t f Size / performance of receiving antenna Transmission frequency (e.g. 915MHz)
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Why RF-based Wireless Power?


Light / solar energy not always sufficient Temperature diff. not always available Vibration not always available RF-based wireless power
Send power over distance - W, low mW Overcomes lack of light, temp diff., or vibration Controllable: continuous, scheduled, on-demand continuous scheduled on demand
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Why Energy Harvesting?


Wiring installation est. at $250 / node (commercial buildings) ( i l b ildi ) Wired devices need expensive p termination equipment Wiring changes are disruptive Batteries represent liability
R Repeated maintenance cost t d i t t Impact of early failure
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Powercast Technology Advantages


Efficient design and easy implementation
Drop-in component design g p y p Plug-and-play set-up for RF transmitter Designed for use with standard 50 antennas No calibration and minimal setup

Green alternative to disposable batteries


Battery replacement unpredictable failures increases maintenance costs Toxic chemicals environmental and health hazards High cost due to risk, expensive transportation, storage, disposal

Capable of harvesting ambient RF energy


Ambient RF widely available for use as a power source Further promotes green alternative solution by using existing energy currently going to waste
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Market Segment Value Propositions


Industrial Minimizes Operating Costs Eliminates cost to hard wire or replace batteries e.g. wireless sensors p g Eliminates service downtime caused by depleted batteries Reduces battery handling and disposal OEMs Improved Product Design Sealed devices less expensive enclosures and manufacturing Embedded power eliminate wires, cables, connectors Reliability improved durability, reduced product failures, eliminate ESD End Users End-Users Convenience and Usability Placement flexibility no charging mats or charging stations Transparent charging no user action required Embedded power eliminate wires, cables, connectors
6 2011PowercastCorporation
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RF Power Sources

?
Intentional Anticipated Unknown

Ambient
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Full Suite of Wireless RF Solutions


Powerharvester Receivers Recei ers RF Transmitter

Evaluation Boards

Custom Engineering

Development Kits
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2011PowercastCorporation

Powerharvester Receivers
Convert RF input to DC current Provide power management Frequency range: 850-950MHz RSSI and Data output Designed for standard 50 antennas
P1110 P2110 P2110 P1110

Continuous Power Output RF range: -5.0dBm to 20dBm a ge 5 0d 0d Output voltage: 1.8V to 4.2V (configurable) Range of at least 3 meters

Pulsed Power Output


RF range: -11.5dBm to 15dBm 11.5dBm Output voltage: 1.8V to 5.25V (configurable and regulated) Range of at least 10 meters
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2011PowercastCorporation

Powercast Differentiators
High efficiency over a broad range
RF to DC Conversion Efficie ency (%)
80 70 60 50 40 30 20

Load resistance Input power Recharging current

No Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) required Over 850 MHz operating bandwidth
Essential for ambient energy harvesting Easy scalability for geographic regions using different frequencies

Exampleofothersolutions
10 0 5 0 5 10 15 20

Input Power (dBm)


P2110 Harvester Efficiency -3dBm (500uW) Input, 1V Load

1.2 1.2

Normalized Efficie ency

Result
Better performance More power design in Simplified design-in

0.8 0 8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0


0

Normalized Efficiency

1.0

500

500

700

700

900

900

1100 Frequency (MHz)

1100

1300

1300

1500

1500

1700

1700

Frequency (MHz)

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Powerharvester Efficiency Maintained Over Wide Range of Input Power


RF F-to-DC Conversio Efficien (%) C on ncy 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Input Power (dBm)
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P1110 - 915MHz, 3V P2110 - 915MHz, 1.05V


Power

Distance

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TX91501 Powercaster Transmitter


6.25 width

915 MHz center frequency FCC and IC certified RoHS compliant DSSS modulation (power) ASK modulation (data) S odu at o 1W or 3W EIRP
TX91501-1W-ID TX91501-3W-ID TX91501 3W ID

6.75 6 75 height


1.63 depth
Power Jacks (2) 5V
Back for tabletop placement Bottom for wall mounting

~60 beam pattern Data broadcast (factory-set) Plug-and-play installation Powers virtually unlimited number of Powerharvesters
12


Status Indicator LED
Green Transmitting Red Fault Condition

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Lifetime

Power

Development Kits
P2110-EVAL-02 Complete system for wireless battery charging h i
Developed in conjunction with Infinite Power Solutions Features IPS THINERGY Energy Cell

P2110-EVAL-01 Complete system for battery-free wireless applications i l li ti


Jointly developed with Microchip Designed for wireless sensing applications using MiWi protocol
RF Transmitter (TX91501) (2) P2110 Evaluation Boards (P2110-EVB) (2) 6dBi Directional Antennas (2) 1dBi Omni-directional Antennas (2) Wireless Sensor Boards (WSN EVAL 01) (WSN-EVAL-01) Microchip 16-bit XLP Development Board Microchip MRF24J40 PICtail/PICtail Plus daughter card Microchip PIC-kit 3 programmer/debugger

RF T Transmitter (TX91501) itt P2110 Evaluation Boards (P2110-EVB) 6dBi Directional Antenna 1dBi Omni-directional Antenna Battery Charging Board (BAT-EVAL-01) THINERGY Micro-Energy C ll Evaluation Card Mi E Cell E l ti C d Cable for connecting to THINERGY ADP TI eZ430-RF2500 Wireless Development Tool

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Device Power Profiles


Ave eragePo owerConsumpti ion

TargetProfilesfor RFbasedWirelessPower

Low-power Wireless Sensors

Hours

Days

Weeks

Months

Years

BatteryRunTime
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Sensor Networks Wont Scale Using Batteries


The Internet of Things

Cost/ /Manag gementEffort

BatteryPowered

Battery Replacement BatteryFree

April 26 2007 26,

Nodes 10s

100s

1000s

Industrywillneedtomanagewirelesssensornetworksinvolvingtensofthousandsof nodeswiththeirownpower. Thesecannotbevisitedwithoutgreatexpenseandlaborand somecannotbevisitedatall. Dr.PeterHarrop,Chairman,IDTechEx (UK)


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Initial Target Applications

Building Automation

Structural Monitoring

Defense

Data Centers

Security y

Industrial Monitoring g

Energy Management gy g

Smart Grid

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Lifetime Power Sensor System


Powercaster Transmitter
P Power: One-to-many wireless power source O t i l Data: Transmits unique ID code

Lifetime Power Wireless Sensors


Measure environmental data temperature, humidity, light, etc. Transmit data to BAS Gateway Battery-free or battery-operated charged by RF transmitter

Building Automation System Gateway


Receives wireless sensor data Range of standard BAS protocols and interfaces Supports up to 100 sensors and 800 sensor points

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2011PowercastCorporation

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Lifetime
One-to-Many Power Source

Power

Sensor System
RF-Powered Wireless Sensors
Temperature Humidity (WSN-1001)

Powercaster Transmitter
915 MHz

TX91501 2.4 GHz

Building A B ildi Automation System i S Gateway


BAS Ethernet or Serial WSG-101

Light Li ht

Diff. Pressure

Wireless Access Point (for up to 100 devices) Battery-less Sensors


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Intentional Transmitter Power


uW 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 Distance (meters)
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Available Power Before Conversion (Estimated

3W EIRP Transmitter 915MHz

6 dBi Receiver Antenna

20

25

30

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System Deployment Example


Above ceiling s S

BAS Network
AP

Inside rooms AP

2.4 GHz

Data

Data range ~120ft indoors

BAS Gateway (WSG-101) (WSG 101) Power transmitter (TX91501) Powercast Wireless Sensor
Temperature / Humidity / Light / Pressure / etc.

Behind walls

915 MHz

Power

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2011PowercastCorporation

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Intentional Transmitter Coverage


Coverage Area 3W transmitter (TX91501) @ 60 feet 1900 ft2 @ 80 f t 3300 ft2 feet Average 2500 ft2

60 ft

80 ft Effective Eff i range increases with improved RF sensitivity of the receiver

Cost per ft2 $0 10 to $0 15 $0.10 $0.15


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Time Between Packets (Actual)


240

Average Time < 3 minutes at 80 feet g


180

S Seconds s

120

Node1 Node2 Node3

60

Actual measurements from outdoor tests


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Distance (feet)
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Wireless Sensor Deployment


Sensor locations RF transmitter (ceiling mount) Room

Offices, Hospitals, Hotels, Apartments


Room Room

Room

Doors

Hallway

Doors

Room

Room

Room

Room

Using multiple transmitters creates a wireless, micro-power grid. U li it d receivers can b used within range of a power t Unlimited i be d ithi f transmit it
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Hotel Room Sensors

Water Sensors
T

Smoke Detector

Temp. Sensor Motion Sensor Position Sensor

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Data Center Monitoring


RF Power Source

Wirelessly-powered receiver and sensors

To BAS

Access Point / BAS Gateway y


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2011PowercastCorporation

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10

12

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0 0

Receivers located at 20-25 feet from a 3W transmitter

PacketsperMinute P k Mi ReceivedPower(mW)

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Node7 Node6 Node5 Node 5 Node4

Deployment: Data Center Trial

2011PowercastCorporation

15 240 465 690 915 1,140 1,365 1,590 1,815 2,040 2,265 2,490 2,715 2,940 3,165 3,390 3,615 3,840 4,065 4,290 4,515 4,740 4,965 5,190 5,415 5,640 5,865 6,090 6,315 6,540 6,765 6,990 7,215 7,440 7,665 7,890 8,115 8,340 8,565 8,790 9,015 9,240 9,465 9,690 9,915 10,140 10,365 10,590 10,815 11,040 11,265 11,490 11,715 11,940 12,165 12,390 12,615 12,840 13,065 13,290 13,515 13,740 13,965 14,190 14,415 14,640 14,865 15,090 15,315 15,540 15,765 15,990 16,215 16,440 16,665 16,890 17,115 17,340 17,565 17,790 18,015 18,240 15 240 465 690 915 1,140 1,365 1,590 1,815 2,040 2,265 2,490 2,715 2,940 3,165 3,390 3,615 3,840 4,065 4,290 4,515 4,740 4,965 5,190 5,415 5,640 5,865 6,090 6,315 6,540 6,765 6,990 7,215 7,440 7,665 7,890 8,115 8,340 8,565 8,790 9,015 9,240 9,465 9,690 9,915 10,140 10,365 10,590 10,815 11,040 11,265 11,490 11,715 11,940 12,165 12,390 12,615 12,840 13,065 13,290 13,515 13,740 13,965 14,190 14,415 14,640 14,865 15,090 15,315 15,540 15,765 15,990 16,215 16,440 16,665 16,890 17,115 17,340 17,565 17,790 18,015 18,240

Data samples: 15 minute intervals over 13 days

Node7

Node6

Node5

Node4 Node 4

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Wireless Charging for Tracking Devices


Freedom of placement in charging area Eli i t wires and connectors Eliminate i d t Automatic/transparent charging

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Wireless Charging for Consumer Electronics


Mice / Keyboards Game Controllers Media Remotes

Audio / Headsets

Health / Fitness

Low-power Displays

mWs t 3ft / >100 W t 10ft W to >100uW to


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2011PowercastCorporation

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