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The Article: A / The

The definite article: The


Use the definite article THE to talk about the following: 1-Inventions: When was the telescope invented? 2-Species of animal in the singular: The domestic cat has lived alongside humans since the time of the pharaohs. 3-Oceans and seas: My sister says the Pacific is not blue as the Aegean The Atlantic (ocean) The Indian (ocean) The mediterranean (Sea) The red sea 4-Mountain ranges: Are the Andes as high as the Dolomites? 5-Island groups: The Galapagos islands are off the coast of Ecuador 6-Areas: There is flooding in the northwest and a terrible drought in the south. 7-Rivers/Canals: You can take a cruise along the rhine. The (river) Amazon The (river)Thames The Nile The Suez Canal 8-Deserts: The sand on this beach was imported from the Sahara. 9-Hotels: They spent the first night of their honey moon at the Ritz. 10-Cinemas: That film Robert Redford directed is on at the Odeon. 11-Theatres: They are putting on a production of miss saigon at the Palais. 12-Newspapers: You can get the times, the guardian, the Independent and several other british newspapers here. 13-National groups: The welsh are famous for their singing. Note that the welsh is plural in meaning. You cannot say a welsh. You have to say a welshman. You can also use the + nationality words ending in ese (the chinese/the sudanese): The chinese invented printing These words can also be singular (a japanese, a sudanese) Also: the Swiss / a Swiss (plural or singular) With other nationalities, the plural nouns ends in s, for example: An italian- (the) italians / a mexican - (the) mexicans / a Scot (the) Scots / a Turk (the) Turks 14-With superlatives: He is the tallest, the most handsome and the nicest boy in our class. 15-When there is only one thing: The sun was shining brightly, but it was still very cold. The New York Times, The French Revolution, The army 16-To talk about particulars nouns when it is clear what we are referring to: Close the window, will you? It is freezing in here. 17-To talk about previously mentioned things: Take one egg, a small onion and a bunch of parsley. Break the egg into a bowl. 18-Before singular and plural nouns when talking about things that both speaker know about: Come and sit by the fire (It is clear which fire-there is only one) These are the books I bought yesterday. (You have just told me which books you are talking about) 19-When referring to some public places (especially when talking about them in general, or as buildings rather than institutions): I am meeting him at the hospital/the cinema/the bank. 20-Certain Collections of countries or group of countries/: The united States, the uk, the european union We use THE in names with Republic, Kingdom, States: The United states of America, The United Kingdom, The Dominican Republic 21-Musical Instruments: I play the piano and my sister plays the violin 22-When we mention specific thing: The travel story I like the best is... (the specific story) 23-Dont forget the: Paris is the capital of France. 24-We say: the sky, the sea, the ground, the country, the environment 25-We use the before same (the same): Your pullover is the same colour as mine. 26-We say (go to) the cinema, the theatre, the bank, the station: I often go to the cinema but I have not been to the theatre for ages. When we say the cinema/the theatre, we do not necessarily mean one particular cinema or theatre. 27-We usually say the radio, but television (without the) I often listen to the radio

I often watch television But can you turn off the television, please? (television set) 28-With the means of transport: I think we should take the bus to Athens, rather than the train. 29-When we use an adjective (as a noun) to classify or to describe a group of people: Winter is partucularly difficult for the old and the sick. The young (young people) The rich (rich people)- The sick- The old The poor- The disabled-The elderly-The unemployed-The injured-The homeless-The dead These expressions are always plural in meaning. You cannot say a young or a an unemployed. You must say a young man, an unemployed woman. 30-Currencies: The dollar is the currency of the states 31-With the names of certain state organizations of a country: The army, The navy, The police 32-We use the when we mean particular things or people: We took the children to the zoo. (a particular group, perhaps the speaker s own children) The film was not very good but i liked the music (the music in the film) 33-We use THE with the plural names of people and places: The Taylors (The Taylors family) Countries: The netherlands, The philippines, The United States 34-Most other names (of places, buildings etc) have names with THE: The+adjective or name etc+noun The Hilton Hotel The National Theatre The sahara desert The Atlantic Ocean Sometimes we leave out the noun: The Hilton (Hotel), The Sahara (desert) Sometimes the name is only THE+NAME: The Vatican (in Rome), The Sun (British Newspaper) These places usually have names with THE: Hotels/restaurant/pubs: The station Hotel/The Bombay restaurant, The Red lyon (pub) Theatres/cinemas: The palace Theatre/The Odeon Cinema Museums/galleries: The British Museum/ The Tate Gallery Other Buildings: The Empire state Building/ The Festival Hall, The white House 35-Organizations: The European Community, The BBC 36-Names with....of... usually have THE: The Bank of England / The Tower of London / The museum of Modern Art

The Indefinite article: A /An


If a noun begins with a vowel sound we use the indefinite article AN. If it begins with a consonant sound we use A. It is the sound which is important, not the spelling. An apple, an elephant, an honest man, a hobby, an uncle, a university. Use the indefinite article A/AN with singular countable nouns. 1-With (singular) jobs, etc.: She is an engineer. 2-With singular countable nouns (mentioned for the first time or when it does not matter which one): I would like a small salad and a glass of mineral water. 3-With these numbers: a hundred, a thousand, a million, a few, a great many, a half: There were over a hundred people at the party. 4-In exclamations about singular countable nouns: What a fantastic view! 5-To contrast with more than one: two biscuits and an ice cream 6-We can also use a(n) to talk about all examples of a kind instead of the plural noun: An old house is (or Old houses are) more expensive than a new house (or new houses) 7-With the names of meals when preceded by an adjective (breakfast/lunch/dinner): Breakfast was at eight. They gave us a very good breakfast at that hotel. 8-When we want to classify things/people or say what they are like: He is a very talented actor Platinum is a valuable metal.

9-With ertain number expressions: an hour / a week/once aweek/three times a day/$ 1.50 a kilo He was driving at sixty miles an hour I work forty hours a week. How often do you go to the cinema? About once a month. How much are those potatoes? $ 1.50 a kilo Helen works eight hours a day, six days a week.

The Zero article


Use no article (the zero article) to talk about: 1-Continents: They are travelling through Asia 2-Countries: Have you been to Peru? States, regions: Texas/Cornwall/Tuscany/Central Europe Islands: Corsica, Sicily/Bermuda 3-Mountains: They have reached the summit of Mount Everest 4-Lakes: Are lake Constance and lake Como both in Switzerland? -They live near the lake BUT They live near Lake Constance 5-Villages: San Andres is a village just along the coast from herre 6-Towns: Horsham is a pleasant town near the Sussex Coast 7-Cities: And now it is over to Jack Russell for the latest news from Washington 8-Streets, roads, etc: Oxford street and Tottenham Cout Road are very busy shopping streets in London Squares/Parks: Time Square Hyde Park Waterloo Bridge 9-Magazines: Do you read Time magazine? 10-Illnesses: The twins have got measles and I ve got flu. (But I ve got a headache) 11-Uncountable, plural and abstract nouns used in their general sense: We buy vegetables at the market. We get bread from a bakery. Love makes the world go round. Abstract: Unless they are used in a specific sense: Some people have a fear of flying Also use no article in the following expressions: -My favourite sport is football/skiing/athletics (not the football/the skiing) -My favourite subject at school was history/english When we are talking about things or people in general, we do not use the: Doctors are paid more than teachers Do you collect stamps? For prepositional phrases of place-usually when we are talking about public places as institutions rather than buildings: 12-to/at/from school/university/college Is julia still at school? 13-in/to class 14-to/int/into/from church 15-to/in/into/out of prison/hospital/bed My husband is in hospital We say: go to bed/be in bed (not the bed) It is time to go tobed now This morning i had breakfast in bed But I sat down on the bed. (a particular piece of furniture) 16-to/at/from work go to work/be at work/satr work/finish work (not the work) Ann did not go to work yesterday What time do you usually finish work? 17-for/at/to breakfast/lunch/dinner 18-Transport:by car/bus/bicycle/plane/train/tube/boat 19-on foot 20-When referring to parts of the body: Mandy s got big ears 21-Meals (breakfast/lunch/dinner): Have you had breakfast? We had lunch in a very nice restaurant. What time is dinner? 22-Games

23-Some expressions of time: The Park closes at night 24-Seasons 25-Months 26-We say space (without the) when we mean soace in the universe: There are millions of stars in space. But-I tried to park my car but the space was too small. 27-We do not use the before noun+number: Our train leaves from platform 5(not the platform 5) Have you got these shoes in size 43? In the same way, we say Room 126 (in a hotel) page 29 (of a book) 28-go home/come home/arrive home/be at home: It is late. Let s go home. Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon? 29-We say go to sea/be at sea (without the) when the meaning is go/be on a voyage: Keith is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea. But I would like to live near the sea. It can be dangerous to swim in the sea. 30-in a large number of common expresions: to go home/to bed/to school/university/hospital/prison to be at home/in bed/at school/at university/in hospital/in prison 30-We say most people/most books/most cars (not the most...) Most people like george (not the most people) 31-We use man (human being in general/the human race) without the: What do you know about the origins of man? 32-We do not use the with the names of people: Ann 33-When we use Mr/Mrs/Captain/doctor etc. + a name, we do not use THE: so we say Mr. Johnson/Doctor Jonhson/Captain Jonhson/president Jonhson Uncle Robert/Aunt Jane/Saint Catherine/Princess Anne We called the doctor BUT we called Doctor Jonhson 34-North/northern etc We say: The North (of France) BUT northern France (without the) The south-east (of spain) BUT south-eastern Spain Compare: Sweden is in northern Europe, Spain is in the south Also The Middle East The Far East You can also use north/south etc + a place name (without THE): North America West Africa South-East Spain 35-Many names (especially names of importants buildings and institutions( are two words: Kennedy Airport / Cambridge University The first word is usually the name of a person (Kennedy) or a place (Cambrigde) We do not usually use THE with names Like These. But we say The White House, The Royal Palace, because white and royal are not bames like Kennedy and cambrigde. This is only a general rule and there are exceptions. 36-Many shops, restaurants, hotels, banks etc. Are named after the people who started them. These names end in s or s. We do not use THE with these names: Lloyds Bank / Macdonalds Churches are often named after saints: St. John sChurch 37-Names of companies, airlines, etc are usually without THE: Fiat / Sony / Kodak

Comparative and Superlative Types of comparison: There is 3 types of comparison: 1-to a higher degree (comparative form + than) People are more concerned about environmental issues than they used to be. This dessert is sweeter than the one you made last night. 2-to the same degree (as....as) as+adjective/adverb+as. Words and phrases such as not, almost, nearly, three times, when put in front, change the meaning accordingly. Those trainers cost just as much as mine. Nicholes is not as/so friendly to me as he used to be. The exercise is almost as difficult as the last one. Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago. Their house is about three times as big as ours This coat is five times as expensive as the other one. Tom isnt as old as he looks (=he looks older than he is) The city centre wasnt as crowded this morning as it usually is.(=it is usually more crowded) Jenny didnt do as well in the exam as she had hoped. (=she had hoped to do better) I dont know as many people as you do (=you know more people) Less...(than) is similar to not as.....(as): I spent less money than you.(=I didnt spend as much money .....) The city centre was less crowded than usual. (=it wasnt as crowded.....) You can use as.....as (but not so........as) in positive sentences and in questions: Im sorry Im late. I got here as fast as I could. There s plenty of food. You can have as much as you like. Lets walk. Its just as quick as taking the bus. Can you send me the money as soon as possible, please? You can also say not so... (as): It is not warm but it isnt so cold as yesterday. (=it isnt as cold as....) We say the same as (not the same like) Anns salary is the same as mine. Or Ann gets the same salary as me. Tom is the same age as George. What would you like to drink? Ill have the same as you. 3-to a lower degree (with less + than and the least) less+adjective/adverb+than (or the least+adjective/adverb when we are referring to several things) My younger sister is less self-confident than I am. That was the least difficult question in the exam. Than me / than I am etc. We usually say: You are taller than me. (not than I) He is not as clever as her. (not as she) After than/as it is more usual to say me/him/her/them/us when there is no verb. Compare: You are taller than I am. But You are taller than me. They have more money than we have. But They have more money than us.

I cant run as fast as he can.

But

I cant run as fast as him.

Comparative and superlative form of adjective -One-syllable adjectives add er and est to form the comparative and superlative of one-syllable adjective. Unemployment is at the lowest level for five years. Young younger the youngest -Two-syllable adjectives ending in y, -ow and le 1-for two-syllable adjectives ending in y, drop the y and add ier and iest That was the easiest test I ve ever done. 2-for two-sillable adjectives ending in ow, add er and est. As they crawled through the cave it became narrower and narrower. 3-for two-syllable adjectives ending in le, add r and st. Use Marvel washing up liquid. It is gentler on your hands. Spelling 1-With one-syllable adjective: -that end in a vowel+a consonant, double the consonant e.g. fat fatter, big bigger biggest -that end in e, add r and st e.g. fine finer finest 2-With two-syllable adjectives that end in y after a consonat, replace y with i e.g. tidy tidier tidiest More/less and most/least + adjective Use more and most with: 1-two-syllables adjectives Riding a mountain bike is more tiring than jogging. It was the most boring film I had ever seen. 2-adjectives with three or more syllables I think this exercise is more difficult than the last one. Bungee jumping is the most exciting sport I ve done. MOST FAMOUS-MOST EXPENSIVE You can use er or more... with some two-syllable adjetives, especially: Quiet clever narrow shallow simple It is too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter / more quiet? We normally use THE before a superlative (the longest/the most famous etc) Yesterday was the hottest say of the year. That film was really boring. It was the most boring film Ive ever seen. She is a really nice person- one of the nicest people I know. Why does he always come to see me at the worst possible moment? Compare: This hotel is the cheapest in town. (superlative) This hotel is cheaper than all the others in town. (comparative) After superlatives we use IN with places (towns, buildings etc.): What is the longest river in the world? (not of the world) We had a lovely room. It was one of the nicest in the hotel. (not of the hotel) We also use IN for organizations and groups of people (a class/team/company etc): Who is the best student in the class? (not of the class) We normally use OF for a period of time: What was the happiest day of your life? Yesterday was the hottest day of the year? We oftem use the Present Perfect (I have done) after a superlative:

What s the best film you ve ever seen? That was the most delicious meal I ve had for a lon time. Sometimes we use MOST + adjective to mean very: The book you lent me was most interesting. (= very interesting) Thank you for the money. It was most generous of you. (=very generous) Irregular comparative and superlative adjectives: These are the most common irregular forms: Good better the best The garden looks better since you tidied it up. Bad worse the worst Is your headache better? No, It is worse Little less least Much more most Far further/farther furthest/farthest Old elder eldest (people only, the regular forms, old older oldest are used for buildings, towns, animals, trees, etc) Older and elder The comparative of old is older: Tom looks older than he really is. You can use elder (or older) when you talk about people in a family. You can say (my) elder brother/sister/son/daughter: My elder brother is a pilot (My older brother....) We say -My elder brother-but we do not say that somebody is elder...: My brother is older than me. (not elder than me) Oldest and eldest The superlative of old is oldest: That church is the oldest building in the town. (not the eldest) We use eldest (or oldest) when we are talking about people in a family: My eldest son is 13 years old. ( or my oldest son...) Are you the eldest in your family? (or....the oldest.....) Jim is a better player than I am, but John is the best. That must have been the worst movie I ve ever seen. It was even worse than the one we saw last week and that was really bad. You live even further/farther from the centre than I do, but Pedro lives the furthest/farthest away. Further (but not farther) can also mean more or addtional: Let me know if you hear any further news. (any more news) Adverbs 1-Most adverbs of manner have two or more syllables.Therefore they form their comparatives and superlatives with more and most. -If you correct your mistakes more clearly, you won t have to write your composition out again. -She works the most carefully in the class. More often: I dont play tennis much these days. I used to play more often. 2-Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form their comparative with er and est. -I know you like driving fast, but if you drive any faster, I will get out at the next set of traffic lights. -The people who arrived the earliest got the best seats. -You will just have to try a bit harder. -Suzanne took longer to finish than Michelle. -My sister eats the quickest in our family. Irregular comparative adverbs 1-badly and well use the same comparative and superlative forms as bad and good. -She did worse in the tests than she expected, but better in the final examination. Well better (the) best I know him well probably better than anybody else. Badly worse (the) worse He did very badly in the exam worse than expected.

2-Other irregular forms include: late later last, much/many more the most, little- less -the least. -Michael arrived later than Paul, but Tim arrived last. -I still don t see my familiar much, but I see them more than I used to. -I like justin less than Mike, But I like Terry least of all. Modifying comparison You cannot use very with comparatives, but you can use the following: Much bigger-It is much cheaper-It is much more expensive- Her illness was much more serious than we thought at first a lot cheaper-My father is a lot older than my mother-It is a lot more expensive- Her illness was a lot more serious than we thought at first Far (A LOT) less expensive - Her illness was far more serious than we thought at first. a bit faster-Could you speak a bit more slowly? Very much better I don t think it will be any quicker to go by car A little happier-Could you speak a little more slowly? This recording is slightly (A LITTLE) better than the one you already have. This bag is slightly heavier than the other one. Rather You are even more intelligent than I Thought you were. You can use any and no + comparatives (any longer / no bigger etc.): 1-I ve waited long enough. I am not waiting any longer. (the same as: not even a little longer) 2-We expected their house to be very big but It is no bigger than ours. (or...it is not any bigger than ours) 3-Yesterday you said you felt ill. D you feel any better today? 4-This hotel is better than the other one and it is no more expensive. Harder and harder / more and more / more and more difficult etc. We repeat comparatives like this (...and ...) to say that something is changing continuously: 1-It is becoming harder and harder to find a job. 2-It is becoming more and more difficult to find a job. 3-Your english is improving. It is getting better and better. 4-These days more and more people are learning English. The .. the better 1-What time shall we leave? The sooner the better. (= as soon as possible? 2-What sort of box do you want? A big one? Yes, the bigger the better (=as big as possible) 3-When you are travelling, the less luggage you have to carry the better. (=it is best to have as little luggage as possible) We also use the.. the.... (with two comparatives) to say that one thing depends on another thing: 1-The warmer the weather, the better I feel. (=if the weather is warmer, I feel better) 2-The sooner we leave, the sooner we will arrive. 3-The younger you are, the easier it is to learn. 4-The more expensive the hotel, the better the service. 5- The more electricity you use, the higher your bill will be. 5-The more I thought about the plan, the less I Liked it. COMPARING NUMBERS AND STATISTICS: When we talk about and compare numbers and statistics we use these forms: More........than (with uncountable and countable nouns): Cambridge has more visitors than Sheffield. She earns more money than her brother. Fewer...........than (with countable nouns):

Sheffield has fewer visitors than Cambridge. There are fewer accidents on the road these days. He eats fewer vegetables than he should. THE OPPOSITE OF LESS OR FEWER IS MORE Less...........than (with uncountable nouns) You must drink less beer. It is bad for you. She has less time than before. More than (+ number) There are more than 200 hotels in the city. Fewer than (+ number) The town has fewer than 10 hotels. As much.........as ( + uncountable nouns) Tourism earns as much money as the fishing industry. She earns twice as much money as her brother. As many...........as ( + countable nouns) London has as many tourists as Paris. Oxford has three times as many restaurants as Dublin. Talking about statistics: Over 7 millon Europeans visit Britain. More than 1,5 millon visitors came from france. Nearly 1,5 millon jobs depend on tourist. Visitors spent approximately 1200 millon pounds in Britain. Americans spent about 600 millon pounds. Miscelaneo: at least, nearly all, hardly any, almost everyone, practically no one, up to, over, under, on the whole, around RELATIVES CLAUSES: A relative clause gives more information about something or someone in the main clause. It comes just after the person or the thing you are referring to, and often (but not always), begins with a relative pronoun such as who, that or whose. Relative Pronouns: WHO, WHOM: to refer to people WHICH: to refer to things THAT: to refer to either people or things WHOSE: the possessive of who and which WHEN: used after nouns referring to time. WHERE: used after nouns referring to place. WHY: used to refer to reasons. 1-Defining relative clauses a- A defining relative clause makes it clear who or what you are talking about. Without this information the sentence is not clear or makes no sense. -Do you want to speak to the man that telephoned earlier? -Here is the book that tells you everything you need to know about tennis. b- Commas are never used to mark off a defining relative clause. c- The relative pronoun THAT can refer both to people and to things. We could use the relative pronouns who and which instead. WHO gives more information about a person or people. Do you want to talk to the man who telephoned earlier? WHICH gives more information about a thing or things. Here is the book which tells you everything you need to know about tennis.

d- In each of the examples in a and c, the relative pronoun- that, who and which- is the subject of the relative clause. It is also possible, however, for that, who or which to be the object of the relarive clause, (It is very common in spoken english to leave out the pronoun when it is the object of the relative clause.) Whats the name of the old woman (that/who) I saw selling flowers outside the church? Have you got the books (that/which) I ordered last week? e-The relative pronoun THAT (not who or which) is usually used after superlatives and after the following words: all, every(thing), some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), none, little, few, much, only. (If the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause it may be left out.) Have you done anything that has upset her? Help.....it was the only thing (that) I could say at that moment. Titanic is the best film (that) I ve ever seen. f-The relative possesive pronoun WHOSE can also be used to introduce a defining relative clause. Like THAT, it gives more information about both people and things, and is used in the place of the words his, her, its or their. Whats the address of the young man whose name is not on our list? (=Whats the address of the young man? His name is not on our list.) he was wearing a suit whose jacket matched the trousers. (=He is wearing a suit. Its jacket matched the trousers.) 2-Non-defining relative clauses a- A non-defining relative clause adds extra information. This information is not essential to identify who or what we are talking about. If we left out the relative clause the sentence would still be clear and make sense. John Jackson, who comes from America, is the winner of this years competition. Paros, which is an island in the cyclades, is one of Greeces top tourist destinations. Mrs Hendry, whose daughter you ve already met, is going to be at the party. b- A non-defining relative clause must always be introduced by a relative pronoun- It can never be left out. The pronouns used are: who (referring to a person or people), which (referring to a thing or things), and whose. Whose can refer to both people and things and is used in the place of his, her, its or their. c- THAT is never used to introduce a non-defining relative clause. d- The relative pronouns WHO and WHICH in each of the examples in a are the subject of the relative clause. WHO or WHICH may also be the object of the relative clause. Mr. Conners, who nobody likes, is going to be the next headmaster. My computer, which I bought last month, has started having problems. e- A non-defining relative clause must be marked off from the rest of the sentence by commas. f- WHOSE is used (as in defining clauses) to describe possession: Jill, whose car had broken down, arrived at the dinner party very late. g- WHICH can also be used to refer to a whole sentence rather than just the subject or the object. He was very quiet, which was unusual form him. h- Prepositions + whom/which In extra information clauses you can use a preposition before whom (for people) and which (for things). So you can say: To whom / with whom / about which / for which etc.: Mr. Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan. Fortunately we had a map, wthiot which we would have got lost. In spoken English we often keep the preposition after the verb in the relative clause. When we do this, we normally use WHO (not whom) for people: This is Mr. Carter , who I was telling you about. Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which I d never been to before. All of / most of etc + whom/which Mary has three brothers. All of them are married (2 setences) Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married. (1 sentence) They asked me a lot of questions. I could not answer most of them. (2 sentences)

They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I could not answer. (1 sentence) In same way you can say: None of/neither of/an of/either of + whom (people) / which (things) Some of / many of/ much of/ (a) few of + whom (people) / which (things) Both of / half of / each of / one of / two of (etc) + whom (people) / which (things) Tom tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him. Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office. They have got three cars, two of which they never use. Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with. 3- The relative pronouns WHY; WHERE (or which + preposition) and WHEN WHY, WHERE and WHEN are often used to introduce relative clauses (both non-defining and defining) in order to give more information about a reason, place or time. They can be left out in defining clauses: She doesnt want to go to a school where there are lots of rules. It is the place where we used to eat / which we used to eat in. Spring is the time when most people visit Paris. First I went to Oxford University, where I met my wife, and then I joined the army. The reason (why) Im writing to you is to give you some good news. I got there too late, when Joan was already asleep. It was the time (when) I was working up north. That is the restaurant where we ate. (If where is left out the sentence needs a preposition: That is the restaurant we ate at.) WHY is only used in defining clauses and can be left out: That is the reason (why) I left him. 4- Relative clauses and prepositions Prepositions usually come at the end of relative clauses (both non-defining and defining). In more formal English, howerver, they are sometimes put before the relative pronoun. The man (that/who) I gave the package to is sitting in the corner. (=The man to whom I gave the package is sitting in the corner. Formal) Java is a place (that/which) Ive not heard very much about. (=Java is a place about which Ive not heard very much. Formal) John Kell, who we all want to speak to, is coming to the meeting tonight. (=John Kell, to whom we all want to speak, is coming to the meeting tonight. Formal) Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking to? The bed (that / which) I slept in last night was not very comfortable. Are these the books you were looking for?.... or..... the books that/which you were..... The woman he fell in love with left him after a month. Or The woman who / that he. The man I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time. Or The man who/that I was sitting next to.............. 5- The relative pronoun WHOM WHOM is sometimes used instead of who or that when it is the object of the relative clause (either defining or non-defining). It is not very common in conversation- it is used much more in formal written English. It must be used when the relative pronoun comes after a preposition. We do not often use WHOM in defining clauses but in defining clauses.You can also use whom with a preposition (to whom / from whom / with whom etc): To whom it may concern. Sir Richard, whom I have never met, has invited us to dinner. The woman for whom he is working comes from India. The woman whom I wanted to see was away. (I wanted to see her) The people with whom I work are very nice. (I work with them) This morning I met Chris, whom I had not seen for ages. 6-WHAT: the thing(s) that. Compare what and that:

What happened was my fault. (= the thing that happened) Everything that happened was my fault. (not Everything what happened) The machine that broke down is now working again. (not The machine what broke down) You can not use WHAT in sentences like these Everything (That) they said was true. (not Everything what they said) I gave her all the money (that) I had. (not all the money what I had) WHAT: the thing(s) that: Did you hear what they said? (=the things that they said)

SO AND SUCH So.......that


1-SO is an adverb and is used before adverbs, and before adjectives which are not followed by a noun. She played her radio so loudly that we could hear it from the street. She was so beautiful that people turned to look at her as they passed her in the street. 2-In short sentences, that can usually be omitted without any change in meaning, especially in speech. It was so hot (that) she could not bear to touch it. But in longer sentences it usually needs to be retained. I find Chinese so impossible to understand that I am sure I will never be able to speak it. 3-We can sometimes put SO at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis. In this case, order of the verb and its subject is inverted. So strong was the wind that it uprooted trees in the area 4- We use SO before much/many/few/little even when they are followed by a noun. Have some of my sandwiches. I have got so many I can not possibly eat them all. I have got so many sandwiches that I can not possibly eat them all. We have so much work to do. What are you going to do with these books? There are so many. There so few people here that we will have to cancel the meeting. There is so little time left. 5-SO+ADJECTIVE/ADVERB/DETERMINER/VERB(+ THAT CLAUSE) I was so embarrased (that) I wanted to die. She was behaving so strangely (that) we phoned a doctor. They earned so little money (that) they could never save.

Such
Such is an adjective and is used before (an adjective) noun. Such is often just followed by a noun / noun group. The indefinite article a / an must be used with singular countable noun. Mr. Smith is such a genius. Lets go for a picnic Its such a lovely day today. We had such bad weather on holiday. These are such wonderful paintings where shall I put them? The noun / noun group after such is sometimes followed by a that clause. It was such a rainy day that we had to stay at home. It was such delicious food that we could not stop eating. We use such+noun Such a story Such people We use such+adjective+noun Such a stupid story Such nice people

SUCH+(ADJECTIVE)+NOUN(+THAT CLAUSE) She is such a terrible liar (that) no one ever believes her. We had such fun at the picnic. We also use SO and SUCH with the meaning LIKE THIS I was surprised to find out that the house was built 100 years ago. I did not realise it was so old.(as old as it is) The house was so untidy. I have never seen such a mess.(= a mess like this) We say: SO LONG but SUCH A LONG TIME I have not seen her for so long. I have forgotten what she looks like. I have not seen her for such a long time (not a so long time) SO FAR but SUCH A LONG WAY I did not know it was so far. I did not know it was such a long way. SO MUCH, SO MANY but SUCH A LOT (OF) Why did you buy so much food? Why did you buy such a lot of food? ENOUGH AND TOO The position of enough Enough goes after adjectives and adverbs: You wont pass the examination if you dont work hard enough. She shouldnt get married yet. Shes not old enough. The opposite is too.. (too hard/too old etc) You never stop working. You work too hard. Enough normally goes before nouns: I would like to go away on holiday but have not enough money. You can also use enough alone (without a noun) I will lend you some money if you have not got enough. The opposite is too much.../ too many...: We cant go away on holiday. It costs too much (money) There are too many people and not enough chairs. We say enough/too...for (somebody/something) I have not enough money for a holiday. He was not experienced enough for the job. This shirt is too big for me. I need a smaller size. But we usually say enough/too...to do something (not for doing) so we say: Enough money to buy something too young to do something I havent got enough money to go on holiday. He wasnt experienced enough to do the job. She s not old enough to get married or She is too young to get married. Lets get a taxi. It s too far to walk home from here. There werent enough chairs for everyone to sit down. They spoke too quicky for us to understand. We say: The food was very hot. We couldnt eat it. And The food was so hot that we couldnt eat it. But The food was too hot to eat (without it)

TOO+ADJECTIVE/ADVERB+INFINITIVE 1-The construction too+adjective/adverb+infinitive has two distinct uses. It denotes either: a) That the subject of the sentence cannot do something (here, the infinitive behaves like an active verb) They are too frightened to say anything (They are so frightened that they wont say anything) or b) That the subject of the sentence cannot have something done to it. (here, the infinitive behaves like a passive verb) The coffee was too hot to drink (It was so hot that you could not drink it) 2- For + noum/pronoun can also be used either with or without the infinitive construction The jacket was too big for me It was too expensive for me to buy Too is followed by an adjective or adverb or by much/many+noun (there was too much noise / there were too many people) -He was too ill. He couldnt go to work. He was too ill to go to work. -The table was too heavy. I couldnt lift it. The table was too heavy (for me) to lift. CONDITIONALS Conditional Sentence 1 Conditional sentences always conatin a conditional clause, which is often (but not always) introduced by the word IF. This conditonal clause my be put before them main clause / at the beginning of the sentence, or it may be put after the main clause. The If cluase can come before or after the main clause. If it comes before we often put a comma. When the main cluase begins the sentence, there is no comma. Other words and expressions may be used in place of IF. The most common are unless(except if-for warnings), as/so long as, provided/providing( that)convey a strong idea of permission or restriction, on condition that, when (we use when when we are sure that sth will happen) , until,no matter how/who/what/where/when/why( it means that sth is always true or always happens whatever the circumstances are), but for, otherwise Unless you improve, you will probably fail the exam. (If you dont improve, you will probably fail the exam) As long as you are careful what you eat in India, you will have no problems Eating out in New York will not be so expensive, providing you dont go to top restaurants. I will lend you the money , on condition that you give it back to me at the weekend. Can we go out and play basketball when we finish out homework? You cannot go out and play basketball until you finish your homework No matter how much you help me with my homework, I wont lend you my basketball. WHEN NO MATTER REFERS TO THE FUTURE IT IS FOLLOWED BY THE PRESENT SIMPLE No matter what happens, I will always love you. The expression even if can be used for emphasis, or to suggest a contradiction Even if you offer her the money, she will not accept it. Even if they win this match, they will not be champions If can be replaced by BUT FOR. BUT FOR takes a noun or a pronoun where IF would take a verb. -But for the traffic we d have got there on time. (I there hadnt been a lot of traffic wed....)

IF can be replaced by OTHERWISE. As with unless, the verb is in the affirmative, whereas in the IF clause it would be in the negative to convey the same meaning. -She has to promise to be home by ten, otherwise her parents wont let her go out. (if she doesnt promise to be home by ten her parents wont...) -If you happen to find my wallet, could you let me know? If can be replaced by inverting the clause. Had I known you were coming I d have gone to meet you. (if I had known you were coming I d....) Colloquial omission of IF: -An imperative can be used instead of an IF clause in everyday speech Sit down, and I will make us a cup of tea. (if you sit down...) -If and adjectives In expresions such as if it is necessary/possible it is possible to omit the verb BE If interested, apply within. If necessary, take a taxi. -Formally IF can mean ALTHOUGH, usually as if+adjective The room was well-furnished, if a little badly decorated. 0-Zero conditionals A) When we want to refer to something which always happens or is always true, or to a scientific law, we can use IF+present simple+present simple Maria is very sensitive-If you get angry with her she starts to cry. Water freezes if the temperature drops below zero. B) If + present simple+imperative is also possible If you want to start this machine, press this button C) Other kinds of conditionals The following conditionals are all possible: 1- If + present continuos+model verb+bare infinitve Who are you talking to on the phone? If you are talking to Anne, could I talk to her afterwards? 2- If + present continuos + will future If you are doing something illegal, you will get into trouble with the police 3- If + present continuos + imperative Leave the room if you are not paying attention 4- If + present perfect + model verb + bare infinitive If you have finished your work, you can go home. 5- If + present perfect + will future If you have read the book, you will love the flm 6- If + present perfect + imperative Put up your hand if you have ben to America 1-First conditionals When we want to refer to something in the future which is likely or probable, we can use: A) if+present simple/present continuos/present perfect/present perfect continuos........will future/imperative If you dont do your home work tonight, dad will be angry If you ask her to marry you, se will probably think it is a joke We will go out and celebrate this evening if you pass your driving test B) if+present simple.....modal verb (e.g. must, could, might)+infinitive If you go to the party, you may see Anna There You must stay with us if you come to Athens

2) Second conditionals When we want to refer to something in the future (or the present) which is either possible but not probable or unreal or imaginary, we can use: A) If + past simple/past continuos......would/ d + infinitive If you went to the Golden lamb to eat, you d spend all the money you earn in a week.( but you probably will not go) If I was/were rich, I d buy a huge house by the sea. (But I am not rich) (after if you can use was or were) Where would you choose to live if you could live anywhere in the world? ( but you cannot live anywhere you want) No matter how safe it was, I wouldnt try bungee jumping. B) If + past simple....modal verb (e.g. could, might) + infinitive If you spoke to the maneger personally, he might give you a job. I could buy a new car if I got this job. Instead of the word if we can also use: Supposing Supposing we left for New York now, what time would we arrive? It is possible to say IF.......would when you ask sb to do sth: From formal letter-I would be grateful if you would send me your brochure asap. Note that could sometimes means would be able to and sometimes was/were able to You could get a job more easily (you could get = you would be able to get) If you could speak a foreign language (you could speak=you were able to speak)

3-Third conditionals We use third conditionals when we refer to things which happened (or perhaps did not happen) in the past. We often use them, for example, when we want to express regret about something. Obvioisly, we cannot change the past, so all third conditionals describe things which are impossible. A) If something happened in the past, and this resulted in something else happening in the past, we use -If + past perfect/past perfect continuos..... would/d + have/ve + past participle / would+have been+ing If he had spoken to her she would have given him some advice If I had told her I loved her, she would have stayed with me. If I hadnt eaten that fish, I wouldnt have been sick. We wouldnt not have gone to that club if we had known I wouldnt have been driving if the train had been on time -If + past perfect.......modal verb(may/might/could) + have/ve + past participle (if the result is not so sure) If she had seen him at the party, she might have spoken to him I could have phoned her if it had not been so late. If you d touched the bomb, you could have been killed. Mix Conditionals If something happened in the past, but has a result in the present, we use: -If + past perfect.....would/d + bare infintive If wed left an hour earlier, we d be there by now. If I hadnt stolen that money, I wouldnt be in so much trouble now.

-If + past perfect......modal verb+bare infinitive (is used if the situation is still possible now) If you had listened to his advice, you might be happier now. -An If cluase referring to the present or future with a main clause referring to the past She would have ordered something else if she didnt like spaghetti

Polite expressions
1-would can be used afetr if in polite expressions: If you wouldnt mind waiting for a moment, the porter will take your cases up to your room. 2-Should is used in the if cluase to make it even less likely. This is common in formal letters. If you should require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact us. 3-Should can replace IF in formal letters. Should you wish to contact me, I can be reached at the above address.

Suppose
Suppose means What if...? It is used with: 1-The present simple to describe something that may possibly happen or may have happened: Suppose someone knows she was with us. Suppose someone sees you going into the building tomorrow morning 2-The past Simple to talk about something that is just imagination or which is unlikely to happen in the future: Suppose she knew you loved her. What would you do? Suppose you won the lottery. How would you spend the money? 3-The Past perfect to talk about something that could have happened but didnt in the past. Suppose we hadnt studied so hard. Do you still think we would have passed? Suppose you have married Ted. Would you have been happy together?

IN CASE
-I dont want to go out in case she phones (= because it is possible she will phone) We use just in case for a smaller possibility: -I dont think it will rain but i will take an umbrella just in case (= just in case it rains) Do not use WILL after in case. Use a present tense for the future. -I dont want to go out tonight in case Ann phone (not in case Ann will phone) In case is not the same as IF. We use IN CASE to say why somebody does (or doesnt do) something. You do something now in case something happens later. In case: We will buy some more food in case Tom comes. (=perhaps Tom will come, we will buy some more food now, whether he comes or not, then we will already have the food if he comes) IF: We will buy some more food if Tom comes (= perhaps Tom eill come, if he comes, we will buy some more food, if he doesnt come, we wont buy any more food) You can use IN CASE (+past) to say why somebody did something: We bought some more food in case Tom came. (= because it was possible that Tom would come) IN CASE OF...is not the same as IN CASE. IN CASE OF = If there is... (especially in notices etc) -In case of fire, please leave the building as quicky as possible.