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SOLAS CHAPTER II-1: Regulation 29 Construction structure, stability, installations INTRODUCTION The Steering System consists of the Universal Gyro pilot Control Panel and the Steering Hydraulic System. The hydraulic portion of the system consists of two independent systems that are connected to the common steering ram piping. These two systems work in conjunction to allow the ship to be maneuvered. The steering gear or hydraulic system may be operated in various locations of the ship, from the Pilot House, from the Winch Control House and the Steering Gear Room. System Components Wheel House main control panel is located which feature the start/stop and alarms/signal and acknowledgement of alarms In the wheel house ceiling there is a panorama 3-way rudder angle indicator. There are always two rudder angle indicators, one of each bridge wing. Engine Control Room There is Alarm/Signal Panel. According to normal standards, and to avoid possible misunderstandings it should not be possible to operate the steering gear from this control stand. Steering Gear Compartment 1

On the top of the actuator there is a scale with degrees, showing the angle of the rudder to port/starboard, and also signal transmitters and feed backs for remote rudder indication and steering controls system

An auxiliary steering gear is not required according to rules, because the power units are regarded as back-up for each other FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Universal Gyro pilot Control Panel The Universal Gyro pilot Control Panel consists of the electro-mechanical heading selector components, non-follow-up controller module, a dimmer control circuit and a gyro pilot computer control panel. HEADING SELECTOR COMPONENTS The heading selector components visible from the outside of the panel include a fixed index (lubber line) that represents a fore-aft axis of the vessel, a repeater dial that displays the gyrocompass heading under the lubber line and heading pointer that points to the selected heading. (When the vessel is on the selected heading, the heading pointer and lubber line are lined up). A HEADING ORDER control knob is used to position the heading pointer when a change in heading is desired. A HEADING SYNC control is used to synchronize the repeater dial with the ship's gyrocompass on initial start-up. Within the panel is a step motor which is controlled by the gyrocompass. 2

Synchro(s) supply heading error data to the gyro pilot computer. An integrator reset switch resets the integral function in the rudder order computer when the change in selected heading is greater than (10) degrees.

NON-FOLLOW-UP CONTROLLER MODULE The Non-Follow-Up Controller Module consists of a three-position (Left-Off-Right) self centering rotary switch and two (2) lamps which furnish illumination. The switch overrides all other modes of operation. When the switch is in the center position, the steering mode is determined by the Mode Selector Switch. For continuous NFU operation, NFU position must be selected on the Mode Switch.

GYROPILOT COMPUTER CONTROL PANEL The Gyro pilot Computer Control Panel, which is located behind a hinged cover, contains the following controls for the Gyro pilot Computer and is operational only in Gyro mode. Integrator Switch Switch resets the integral function in the OFF position. In ON position, the integrator in the Rudder Order Computer starts computing a new, continuous average heading error signal after large heading changes are made. This function is also performed automatically by a reset switch that is cam actuated by the Heading Order control for heading changes larger than (10) degrees. Weather ADJ Potentiometer Calibrated in increments between (0) degrees and (5) degrees to control the sensitivity (amount of heading error permitted before rudder ratio is increased). A setting of (0) degree provides maximum sensitivity and a setting of (5) degrees provides minimum sensitivity. In calm seas the potentiometer should be set to (0)

degrees for best steering performance. In rough seas, where there is considerable yaw, the potentiometer should be set to correspond to the number of degrees of natural yaw motion from the base heading. Rudder Multiplier Potentiometer This potentiometer has settings between (1) (minimum gain) and (3) (maximum gain) that vary the gain of the summing amplifier in the Rudder Order Computer. This potentiometer controls the amplitude of the heading error plus rate signal to provide operator control of the rudder ratio for optimum performance. The higher settings cause the ship to respond more quickly to heading error by ordering larger rudder angles. Use an initial setting of 2. This potentiometer should be set to the minimum setting that will prevent the ship from wandering from its ordered heading in calm water. Operation at reduced ship's speed usually requires a higher setting. Rate Multiplier Potentiometer This potentiometer controls sensitivity of the Rudder Order Computer to changes in the rate circuits. The clockwise position provides maximum sensitivity and the counterclockwise position provides minimum sensitivity which is (50) percent of the maximum. Normally a setting of 1.0 should be used for light draft and 2.0 for full draft. Rudder Limits Potentiometer This potentiometer is used to set the limit of rudder movement, right or left, between (5) and (45) degrees in gyro mode only. Position, as desired, to set the limit of rudder movement in GYRO operation. Fifteen (15) degrees is sufficient for heading keeping and normal heading changes. UNIVERSAL GYROPILOT HELM UNIT The Universal Gyro pilot Helm Unit consists of the helm order unit, rudder order indicator, system selector switch module and mode switch module. 4

Helm Unit and Rudder Order Indicator The Helm Unit consists of two (2) synchro transmitters mechanically geared to the steering wheel. A panel-mounted rudder order indicator is geared to the steering wheel through a toothed belt drive. When the mode selector switch is in HAND position, the vessel's rudder comes to the position ordered on the rudder order indicator. The wheel drives a gear train that positions the rotors of the synchro transmitters. A break on the wheel shaft provides the necessary restraint to enable the helmsman to and to hold it steady. A slip clutch stop in the gear train order from the position the steering wheel accurately

couples the wheel to the gear train and a mechanical

prevents the synchro rotors from driving more than 45 of rudder

zero position. If the steering wheel is turned past this rudder order position, as indicated on the rudder order indicator, the clutch will allow the steering wheel to continue to rotate, but the synchro rotor movement will cease. As soon as the wheel is moved in the opposite direction, the mechanical stop disengages and the rudder responds immediately to the new rudder order. The helmsman may steer by the magnetic compass. System Selector Switch Module The System Selector Switch Module is provided for duplex steering systems to select the desired system or power unit (port and stbd.) or turn the system OFF. The module consists of the rotary switch, a lighted panel, lamp circuit and lamps. The switch provides switching between the port and stbd power supplies, remote starting contacts and switching of synchro excitation from one set of synchros to the other. The lighted panel includes markings (SYSTEM, PORT PW AVAIL, and PORT PUMP ON, STBD PWR AVAIL, STBD PUMP ON, PORT, OFF, STBD) each illuminated by a separate miniature lamp mounted on the circuit card. The brightness of these status lamps is controlled by a dimmer potentiometer on the gyro pilot helm unit mode switch module. The mode switch module permits selection of the four (4) types of steering control 5 gyro repeater in the Gyro pilot, or from the

(gyro, hand, NFU and remote lever). The switch provides switching between the heading set and rudder order synchros connects the rudder order computer to the system in GYRO and disconnects the rudder servo amplifier in NFU. GYROPILOT COMPUTER The gyro pilot computer converts heading error or rudder order data into control signals for the rudder-positioning equipment. The computer consists of a group of modules, a power supply, dual-channel demodulator, rudder order computer, rudder servo amplifier and solid-state relay, which are mounted in a rack in the Pilot House console.

RUDDER REPEATBACK RUDDER ANGLE TRANSMITTER The Rudder Repeat back/Rudder Angle Transmitter contains a torque synchro which generates a rudder position signal for driving rudder angle indicators and a repeat back potentiometer which is used with other steering equipment to position the rudders to a predetermined angle. The rudder repeat back signal is connected to an amplifier in the steering control equipment where it is compared to a rudder order signal; when the rudder order and repeat back signals are equal, rudder movement stops. The rudder angle indicator synchro transmitter is in a separate box, and separate power from EMG SWBD via Circuit "N". Also contains the electrical stops which should be approximately 2 from the positive mechanical stops. STEERING SELECTOR SWITCHBOX The Steering Selector Switchbox, located on the forward bulkhead of the Steering Gear Room, determines whether control of the steering systems (port and stbd) is in the Steering Gear Room or the Pilot House. It has a three (3) position selector switch (PORT AFT, STBD AFT AND FWD); it also incorporates local NFU control for the port and stbd. steering gear systems. During normal operation, the selector switch will be in the FWD position, allowing port and stbd. steering gear start/stop control by the system selector switch module of the gyro pilot helm unit located in the Pilot House console; it also transfers operational control to the Pilot House. In local control (PORT AFT, STBD AFT) the steering gear is started at the local controller. Control of the steering gear is accomplished by the local NFU control for the selected system.

STEERING GEAR CYLINDERS The steering cylinders have chrome-plated cylinder bores and chrome-plated stainless steel piston rods. The piston is fitted with "U" cup type piston seals. Piston rods and cylinder anchors are fitted with spherical bearings. The steering gear is capable of moving, stopping and holding both rudders at any angle, while moving ahead or astern in free route at full propeller revolutions per minute and is capable of moving rudders from 45 degrees on either side to 40 degrees on the other side in 28 seconds. HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT The hydraulic power unit is based on a single tank with two (2) separate compartments. Each motor/pump draws oil from the compartment beneath it and discharges into a common return header that returns oil to both compartments through (25) micron filters. This provides maximum cooling by circulating oil through both compartments. The center bulkhead between compartments has overflow ports at top so oil entering compartment for which motor is not running overflows back into running motor compartment. The compartment for running motor will show an oil level several inches lower than the other. The return header has a ball valve in center that is normally open. By closing this valve, all oil returns to the same sump it was pumped from while the other is being serviced, including draining the compartment. The hydraulic oil reservoirs have a capacity of 110 percent of the hydraulic system. Each tank compartment is fitted with an oil level switch, which is set to operate about (5) inches below tank top or when oil reaches bottom of sight glass. DIRECTIONAL VALVE ASSEMBLY Oil from pump flows to the manifold directional valve assembly. Oil flows through an in-line (65) PSI check valve that provides the back pressure (pilot 8

pressure) required to operate the directional valve spool. Oil from pump flows to a port in manifold block then into relief valve contained in the module, sandwiched between manifold and directional valve. The system relief valve is set at 1,100 PSI. From relief valve oil flows into the directional valve and back through relief and manifold where it exits and on to the back pressure check valve. PILOT DIRECTIONAL VALVE The small electric solenoid pilot directional valve directs oil to shift the main directional spool just below it. The system may be operated during emergency or during testing by shifting the direction valve spool manually. To do this, use a tool such as a Phillips Screwdriver to push in on the small plunger located in the end of the small piloting electric solenoid valve. This causes the directional valve to respond exactly as though it has been energized by an electrical current. COUNTERBALANCE VALVES On the backside of each manifold are two (2) modified counterbalance valves. These valves act to hold the steering cylinders in position and prevent cylinders from moving ahead of oil flow from pump. CROSSPORT RELIEF VALVES The hydraulic system is equipped with two cross port relief valves, which have a set point of 1300 PSIG. The purpose of the valves is to prevent over pressurization of the system and cylinders in the event there is no demand for rudder movement {pump discharge ported directly to the sump via the 4-way valve) and an external force is applied to the, rudders causing system pressure to reach 1300 PSIG. The valves allow pressure to be relieved to the sump.









Introduction As the United Nations Secretary General has said, climate change is the major, overriding environmental issue of our time, and the single greatest challenge facing environmental regulators. It is a growing crisis with economic, health and safety, food production, security, and other dimensions. Many measures have been established to address this major concerns and one of these is the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI concerning the amount of emissions from ships that are polluting our atmosphere. To comply with the amendments, engine manufacturers are now in the process of developing environment friendly engines which will help to reduce the amount of emissions from our engines. Following are some Main Propulsion Arrangements that are being used in different types of vessels 1. Main Propulsion Steam Turbines (MR-II & MS-2) The MR-II & MS-2 series marine steam turbines are designed specifically for various kinds of application required, and both series have covered comprehensive range to 45 MW output power.


Five basic elements 1. The high & intermediate-pressure or high pressure turbine, 2. low-pressure turbine, 3. reduction gear, 4. main thrust block 5. main condenser Each standardized in design as according to standard unit output capacities, so that the series can comply with any specific vessel propulsion power requirements by selecting proper combinations. All the series will surely gratify you with an environment-friendly, higher reliability and safety, the best performance. CST Series (Conventional Steam Turbine) All the MS-2 series marine steam turbines are of non-reheat, two-cylinder cross-compound impulse reaction type, and countless delivery records are eloquent testimony to a firm reliability and safety of the CST series. All the MS-2 series marine steam turbines invariably proved a wise investment for end-users have thus earned very high reputation among them. UST Series (Ultra Steam Turbine) All the MR-II series marine steam turbines are of reheat, two- Cylinder cross compound impulse reaction type, and are in the forefront of Steam turbine technology. The latest technologies and well-proven designs supported and developed by our experienced land & marine use turbines have been unstintingly introduced into the series. The best performance of all the MR-II series marine steam turbines brings about the best propulsion for end-users and the environment-friendly UST series contributes to a saving energy as well. 18

2. Diesel and gas turbine electric propulsion System for cruise ship Combined Diesel and Gas Turbine Electric Drive System (CODEG) A CODEG propulsion system consists depending on the size of the ship of 1 or 2 gas turbines generator sets and 2 to 4 diesel engine generator sets. Every set is providing electric power for the electric propulsion motors and also for the on-board electric power demand. The steam needed for the hotel accommodation will be produced by exhaust gas heat boilers, located in the exhaust gas ducts of the gas turbines.

Why is CODEG the better solution for cruise ships? Compared to other propulsion systems for cruise ships, like conventional Diesel Mechanical propulsion systems, conventional Diesel Electric propulsion systems or even the advanced Combined Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine propulsion system, CODEG has the following advantages: a. Additional cabins Due to the location flexibility of the diesel and gas turbine generator sets, the machinery spaces can be placed anywhere in the ship. The gas turbine generator sets can be placed even on the upper deck, due to their relative low weight and this deletes also the air inlet and exhaust gas ducts. The MTU gas turbine and diesel engine generators sets are of a very compact design, which leads to less required machinery space. b. Low personnel costs The MTU gas turbine and diesel engine generator sets are designed for easy 19

operation and maintenance c. High efficiency In the power range of 90% to maximum rating the GE gas turbines, type LM2500 and LM2500+ show excellent efficiency. As the cruise ship has varying demands of electric power, a combination with the latest MTU diesel engine generator set cover lower load demands. The prime mover 20V 8000 M50 shows competitive fuel consumption, also in part load. The gas turbine exhaust gases could also be used for steam production for the hotel accommodation, using heat recovery boilers. d. Green ship, i.e. low exhaust emissions Several countries, e.g. Alaska, Scandinavia, California have released strong emission regulations for ships approaching their shore and harbors, mainly regarding NOx and Sox emissions. It is therefore important for modern cruise ships to fulfill these regulations. The MTU diesel engine 20V 8000 M50 has been the most stringent emission requirements. The gas turbines, LM2500 and LM2500+ also fulfill the stringent emission requirements. e. Low noise emissions For a cruise ship the noise emissions are of high importance. The 20V 8000 M50 is elastically mounted on the steel base frame, which is it elastically mounted to the ships foundation. This double elastic mounting arrangement reduces the structure borne noise effectively. For a reduction of exhaust gas noise MTU is able to provide a suitable silencer. The gas turbines are rotating machines and have therefore naturally low structure borne noise levels, but are also mounted elastically to the ships foundation, which reduces the noise emissions even more. The air borne noise levels are effectively reduced by silencers for the inlet air and exhaust gas. 20 most designed to fulfill

3. Diesel-Electric Propulsion The diesel electric propulsion system is a system in which the propeller is driven by electric power It is a system that reduces life cycle costs, is highly economical and safe, and also environmentally friendly. In diesel-electric systems, it has: Multiple diesel engines, each driving an electric generator, produce the electric power that energizes the electric motors connected to the propellers as well as other electrical loads on the ship. Depending on electrical demand, not all diesel generators have to be operating at all times. Sample of Diesel Electric Propulsion: The brand new AX104 from Ulstein

The vessel will be the first anchor handling tug supply vessels in the world designed for the North Sea environment equipped with diesel-electric propulsion. Advantages 21

Efficiency by being able to run appropriately sized diesel-engine generators based on demand versus a large diesel engine often idling along and that leads to better control of emissions. With combinations of small, medium and large diesel generators, you are able to bring on power in small increments to keep the engines at appropriate loadings and operating at their highest efficiencies. In ordinary vessels, it is common for the main propulsion diesel engine to drive the propeller while the power for lighting or motors is supplied by engine generators. The diesel electric propulsion system provides electricity both for propulsion and on-board power needs. Conventional vs. Diesel Electric

4. Two Stroke engine Propulsion By nature, low speed engines lend themselves to direct coupling of the propeller, i.e. without reduction gear. This contributes to the high efficiency, increased reliability and low maintenance cost of the propulsion plant. New developments in 2 stroke diesel engines 22

a. Helios, the development of a new ship engine generation The objective of HELIOS is to develop a marine low speed two-stroke gas Diesel engine research platform that is realistically sized for direct drive marine propulsion, and that has an emission footprint which compared to present Diesel engine technology is reduced as follows: A dramatic reduction in sulphur emissions can be achieved, however, by switching from heavy fuel oil to fuels with lower sulphur content such as marine diesel oil or natural gas. This solution could initially be used in coastal ECAs or in harbors, while ships on the high seas can continue to be powered by conventional fuel. The dual tank arrangement required for this, however, is costly and space-consuming. The fuels mentioned above are also significantly more expensive than conventional heavy fuel oil. It must be kept in mind that the operating costs of a ship or diesel power plant are largely made up of fuel costs. b. The exhaust gas scrubber, known as the open loop scrubber, reduces the sulphur oxide content of the exhaust gases by 90 to 95 per cent. Spray jets similar to the design of shower heads drench the exhaust gas with sea water just before the flue. Water and sulphur react to form sulphuric acid, which is neutralized with alkaline components in the sea water. Filters separate particles and oil from the mixture before the cleaned water is given back into the sea. The disadvantage of scrubber technology is its relatively large space requirements on board. Its operation requires a capacity of 40 to 50 cubic meters of sea water per Megawatt hour of engine power. MAN engineers are nevertheless already working on a version known as the closed loop scrubber that uses fresh water in combination with caustic soda as the neutralizing additive. The scrubber then requires less space and its water requirements drop to 0.1 cubic meter per Megawatt hour output, and virtually no wash-water is produced that would have to be lead into the sea. 23

Also in development is a dry scrubber, in which the exhaust gas flows through granulated limestone. This combines with the sulphur to form gypsum, which can then be disposed of on land. The advantage: the sulphur is locked in, meaning it cannot burden the biosphere any more. The disadvantage: a storage room has to be created on board for the granulate, which means sacrificing cargo capacity. The green ship of the future: Project of MAN Diesel Turbo

The challenge and objective of The Green Ship of the Future initiative is to reduce CO2 emissions by around 30 per cent and nitric and sulphuric oxides by 90 per cent. This initiative is using both familiar and new technologies. Green Ship of the Future is primarily focusing on the large, two-stroke engines of the type that are used in large ocean-going container ships and tankers. The project was launched in 2008 by MAN Diesel & Turbo in conjunction with the A.P. Mller-Mrsk Group Danish shipping firm, Odense Steel Shipyard and Aalborg Industries. The initiatives primary objective is to highlight and develop new technologies aimed at achieving a significant reduction in marine emissions. The project now has some 15 partners, including shipping companies, their suppliers and several Danish universities. Shipping is an extremely eco-friendly form of transport, but with the Green Ship of the Future initiative, MAN Diesel and Turbo are making even greater efforts to protect the climate and the environment. Together with their partners, they want to help contribute towards the development of products that are even more eco-friendly and will reduce emissions 24


5. "Siemens-Schottel Propulsor" (SSP)

The Siemens-Schottel-Propulsor (SSP): a diesel-electric, podded propulsion system enhances maneuverability and is easily integrated into a vessel The electric, azimuthing SSP solution is a joint development by SCHOTTEL GmbH and Siemens Marine Solutions. It combines SCHOTTEL's mechanical and hydrodynamic expertise and the drive technology of a permanently excited Siemens motor. This efficient and flexible propulsor can be optimally integrated and is ideal for vessels that have to be highly maneuverable and need an easy to use, space-saving solution such as ferries, landing boats, cruise liners and special vessels. The SSP is driven by a highly efficient, podded, permanently excited motor, which is cooled by the surrounding seawater and has a slender and hydrodynamic optimized design. These qualities are enhanced by the patented twin-propeller concept, in which the propellers are mounted on the motor shaft, and rotate in the same 25

direction, one at each end of the pod. This combines the advantages of a twinpropeller arrangement with a simple and rugged design. The SSP can be rotated through full 360 degrees, which significantly improves the vessels maneuverability, especially at low speeds. The SSP is a podded propulsion system in which an electric motor, mounted in a pod below the vessel, drives the propellers directly. As the podded propulsor is freely rotatable, it can also act as a rudder, so making a vessel extremely maneuverable, even at low speeds, such as in harbor. The heart of the podded propulsion system is a permanently excited motor, which runs without needing a complex external cooling system. The special magnets mounted in the rotor of this permanent magnet motor not only enable an extremely high torque keeping the diameter low but also avoid rotor losses. The compact, hydro-dynamically efficient design and the twin-propeller principle combined with an optimized vessel design constitute a highly efficient propulsion system. As the motor is mounted outside the vessel, considerably less space is required inside the vessel in comparison to conventional propulsion systems. Added to which, the generator sets can be freely positioned to make better use of the available space. These advantageous arrangements free up considerably more space for cargo or passengers. Conclusion: In the above development, and all the measures that are being taken by all the stakeholders, working on a ship will be more fruitful and enjoyable and will be able to protect our environment before its too late.