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Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds of work by human b eings and nature.

Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. The energy sources available can be classified into three types: 1. Primary energy sources: primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide net supply of energy. The primary fuels can only accelerate growt h but their supply is limited. Examples for this type are conventional energy so urces such as coal, oil, nuclear energy. 2. Secondary fuels: they produce no net energy. Examples for this type are non-conventional energy sources such as solar energy. 3. Supplementary fuels: their net energy is zero and requires highest inves tment to generate energy. Example insulation. 1.1 COMMERCIAL OR CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES Commercial energy sources supply is limited. The types of commercial ene rgy sources are as follows; 1. Fossil fuels i.e. coal, petroleum, and natural gas. 2. Water power 3. Energy from nuclear fission. Percentage of total energy source consumption in the world using commercial ener gy sources is as follows S.NO Fuel name % 1 Coal 32.5 2 Oil 38.3 3 Gas 19.0 4 Uranium 0.13 5 Hydro 2.0 6 Wood 6.6 7 Dung 1.2 8 Waste 0.3 Disadvantages of conventional energy sources: 1. The quantity of fossil fuels available is about to exhaust for 200 years. It may lead to energy crisis. 2. Low calorific value of coal and expensive in transportation. 3. Burning of fossil fuels will release CO2, which will cause green house effect 4. Due to limited supply, existing prices of oil will increase. It will increas e economical strain on the nation. 5. Lack of effective, trained person to operate nuclear plants and limited avail ability of raw material. 1.2 NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY OR GREEN ENERGY SOURCES: The energy sources that are everlasting and can use for continuously. They can a lso be called as renewable or natural sources. They are gaining the importance d ue to nature and abundant availability. Their types are 1. Direct solar energy 2. Indirect solar energy i) Wind energy ii) Tidal energy iii) Ocean thermal energy iv) Biomass and bio gas energy Advantages of non-conventional energy Non conventional energy supply the abundant quantity of energy and more attracti ve than the conventional energy in the following ways 1. Eco friendly nature: they do not disturb atmosphere any way through pollutio n. 2. Everlasting sources of energy 3. They create rural employment 4. They can be implemented in the site where it is required which will reduce the cost of transportation.

2. SOLAR ENERGY SOLAR ENERGY HAS THE GREATEST POTENTIAL of the all the sources of renewable ener gy and if only a small amount of this form of energy could be used, it will be o ne of the most important supplies of energy specially when other sources in the country have depleted. Energy comes to earth from the sun. This energy keeps the temperature of the ear th above that in colder space, causes current in the atmosphere and in oceans, c auses water cycle and generates photosynthesis in the plants. The solar power where sun hits atmosphere is 178billion MW, which is about 20000 times the world s demand. But so far it could not be developed on large scale. Sun ergy can be utilized as thermal and photovoltaic cells. The former is currently being used for steam and hot water production. The energy radiated by the sun on a bright sunny day is approximately (1kW/ m2), attempts have been made to make use of this energy in raising steam, which may be used in driving the prime movers for the purpose of generation of electricity . However on account of large space required uncertainty of availability of ener gy at constant rate, due electric power. Now a days the drawbacks as pointed out that energy cannot be stored it producing is dilute form of energy or out dated arguments since the energy can be stored hydrogen or by storing in other mechan ical or electrical devices or it can be stored in container of chemicals called eutectric or phase changing salts. This salts which store large quantities of he at in a relatively small volume melt when they are heated and release heat later as they cool and crystallize. The energy can be converted in solar furnaces, fo r example, which can achieve temperatures in the region of 50000c. The facts spe ak in favors of solar energy, as we have seen in analysis of commercial energy s ources, that world s reserves of coal, oil and gases will be exhausted within a few decades. Nuclear energy involve considerable hazards and nuclear fusion has not yet overcome all the problems of even fundamental research, compared with these technologies, the feasibility of which is still uncertain and contested, the tec hnical utilization of solar energy can prove very useful. Utilization of solar e nergy is of great importance to INDIA since it lies in a temperature climate of the region of the world where sunlight is abundandant for a major part of the ye ar. ELECTRICITY FROM SOLAR ENERGY:

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