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POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL LIST OF EXPERIMENTS EXP#   TITLE PAGE# 01 Determination of the Form

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

EXP#

 

TITLE

PAGE#

01

Determination of the Form Factor of Diode

02

02

To demonstrate the use of a semi conductor diode as a half wave rectifier

05

03

To demonstrate the working of full‐wave bridge rectifier

07

 

To demonstrate the waveforms of a thyristor (DIAC) by

 

04

 

applying a pulse at its gate

09

05

 

To study the Triac

13

 

To Study the Pulse Bridge connections of thyristors on

 

06

 

resistive/inductive LOAD

16

07

To Study the Pulse Bridge connections of thyristors on motor load

19

08

To design a simple series VOLTAGE REGULATOR

22

 

Design of an improved variable output series VOLTAGE REGULATOR and plot the graphs between:

 

09

Load current and output voltage

26

Input voltage and output voltage

10

 

To study IC Regulator LM317

31

11

Power flow control using DIAC and TRIAC

34

12

Power flow control using SCR and DIAC

38

13

To design a variable VOLTAGE REGULATOR using Op‐Amp with over current protection

41

14

To design a variable VOLTAGE REGULATOR using Op‐Amp with fold back current limiter protection

45

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using Op‐Amp with fold back current limiter protection 45 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 1
using Op‐Amp with fold back current limiter protection 45 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 1

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Experiment #01 Determination of the Form Factor of Diode Apparatus: • Supply

Experiment #01

Determination of the Form Factor of Diode

Apparatus:

Supply

Diode

Resistive Load

Ammeter

Oscilloscope

Connecting Leads

Multimeter

Circuit Diagram:

• Connecting Leads • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: Theory: A diode is a specialized electronic component with

Theory:

A diode is a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode. Most diodes are made with semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, or selenium. Some diodes are comprised of metal electrodes in a chamber evacuated or filled with a pure elemental gas at low pressure. Diodes can be used as rectifiers, signal limiters, voltage regulators, switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators.

switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators. ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 2
switches, signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators. ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 2

ASAD NAEEM

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signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators. ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 2
signal modulators, signal mixers, signal demodulators, and oscillators. ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 2

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Form Factor: Form factor is defined as the ra tio of Rms

Form Factor:

Form factor is defined as the ratio of Rms value to the average

value and it represents the multiplying factor or scaling factor for

a device when its input need to changed from DC to AC.

V-I Characteristics:

A semiconductor diode’s current–voltage characteristic, or I–V

curve, is related to the transport of carriers through the so-called depletion layer or depletion region that exists at the p-n junction between differing semiconductors

Following Figure shows the characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale).

between differing semiconductors Following Figure shows the characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale).
Figure shows the characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale). ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
Figure shows the characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale). ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

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Figure shows the characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale). ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
Figure shows the characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale). ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Procedure: Connect the Circuit Diagram as shown in the figure. With regards

Procedure:

Connect the Circuit Diagram as shown in the figure. With regards to metrology, the arithmetic mean of the diode conducting state current must be distinguish form its root mean square value. Form Factor F Represents the ratio of root mean square value and arithmetic mean value of current.

F = Irms / Iavg

Where

Irms = Root mean square value of the conducting current.

Iavg = Average value of the conducting state current.

Observations and Calculations:

Irms =

0.12 A

Iavg =

0.09 A

Form Factor = 1.34

and Calculations: Irms = 0.12 A Iavg = 0.09 A Form Factor = 1.34 ASAD NAEEM
and Calculations: Irms = 0.12 A Iavg = 0.09 A Form Factor = 1.34 ASAD NAEEM

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Irms = 0.12 A Iavg = 0.09 A Form Factor = 1.34 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
Irms = 0.12 A Iavg = 0.09 A Form Factor = 1.34 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Experiment #02 To demonstrate the use of a semi conductor diode as

Experiment #02

To demonstrate the use of a semi conductor diode as a half wave rectifier

Apparatus:

Bread board

Oscilloscope

Voltage Supply

Resistance

Diode

Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

Resistance • Diode • Connecting wires Circuit Diagram: Theory: Rectifier: A rectifier is an electrical device

Theory:

Rectifier:

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC), a process known as rectification.

Half-wave rectification:

In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can

it is very inefficient if used for power tran sfer. Half-wave rectification can ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
it is very inefficient if used for power tran sfer. Half-wave rectification can ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

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very inefficient if used for power tran sfer. Half-wave rectification can ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 5
very inefficient if used for power tran sfer. Half-wave rectification can ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 5

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with

be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

Working principle of Half-wave rectifier:

When the sinusoidal wave is going positive the diode will conduct but in the negative half of the cycle it will block the current flow so the result wave form will be only the positive half that will be available for half the period of the cycle the other half will be 0 Volt.

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.

Calibrate the oscilloscope

Apply the input voltage

observe the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope

the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6

Observations:

the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6
the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6
the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6
the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6

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input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6
input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 6

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Experiment #03 To demonstrate the working of full-wave bridge rectifier Apparatus: •

Experiment #03

To demonstrate the working of full-wave bridge rectifier

Apparatus:

Experimental panel

Oscilloscope

Voltage Supply

Resistors

Diodes

Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

Resistors • Diodes • Connecting wires Circuit Diagram: Theory: Rectifier: A rectifier is an electrical device

Theory:

Rectifier:

A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current

(AC) to direct current (DC), a process known as rectification.

FULL-wave rectification:

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to

one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-

waveform to one of constant polarity (positiv e or negative) at its output. Full- ASAD NAEEM
waveform to one of constant polarity (positiv e or negative) at its output. Full- ASAD NAEEM

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to one of constant polarity (positiv e or negative) at its output. Full- ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
to one of constant polarity (positiv e or negative) at its output. Full- ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct

wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient.

Working principle of FULL-wave rectifier:

During the positive half cycle the diode D1 & D2 are in forward biased condition, they conduct the current. The other diodes are in the reverse biased condition that is why they will not conduct the current. During the negative half cycle the diode D3 & D4 are in forward biased condition, they conduct the current. The other diodes are in the reverse biased condition that is why they will not conduct the current.

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.

Calibrate the oscilloscope

Apply the input voltage

observe the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope

the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8

Observations:

the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8
the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8
the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8
the input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8

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input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8
input and output waveforms on the screen of oscilloscope Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 8

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Experiment #04 To demonstrate the waveforms of a thyristor (DIAC) by applying

Experiment #04

To demonstrate the waveforms of a thyristor (DIAC) by applying a pulse at its gate

Apparatus:

Experimental panel

Oscilloscope

Voltage Supply

Resistors

Thyristor

Connecting leads

Supply • Resistors • Thyristor • Connecting leads Circuit Diagram: Theory: THYRISTOR: The thyristor is a

Circuit Diagram:

Theory:

THYRISTOR:

The thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act as bi-stable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current pulse, and continue to conduct for as long as they are forward biased

a current pulse, and continue to conduct for as lo ng as they are forward biased
a current pulse, and continue to conduct for as lo ng as they are forward biased

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pulse, and continue to conduct for as lo ng as they are forward biased ASAD NAEEM
pulse, and continue to conduct for as lo ng as they are forward biased ASAD NAEEM

POWER ELECT RONICS L AB MAN UAL

POWER ELECT R ONICS L AB MAN UAL (that i s, as lon g as the
(that i s, as lon g as the voltage revers ed). across the devi ce
(that i s, as lon g as the voltage
revers ed).
across the devi
ce has n ot
FUN CTION:

The th yristor i s a four- layer se micondu cting de vice, wi th each

layer consistin g of alte rnately N-type o r P-type

exam ple P-N- P-N. The main te rminals, labeled anode a nd

catho de, are a cross th e full fo ur layers , and th e contro l termin al,

called the gat e, is atta ched to p-type

catho de. (A va riant ca lled an S CS—Sili con Con trolled S witch— brings all four layers o ut to ter minals.) The op eration o f a thyris tor can b e under stood in terms o f a pair of tightl y couple d

Bipola r Junctio n Trans istors, a rranged to cause action :

materi al, for

material near to the

the sel f-latchin g

a l, for material near to t he the sel f -latchin g Thyris tors hav

Thyris tors hav e three states:

1. R everse blocking mode —

Voltag e is appl ied in th e directi on

t hat wou ld be blo cked by a diode

2. F orward blocking mode —

Voltag e is appl ied in th e directi on

t hat wou ld cause a diode to cond uct, but the thyr istor has

n ot yet b een trig gered in to condu ction

3. F orward conducti ng mod e The thyristo r has be en t riggered into co nduction and will remain conduct ing until

e n t ri gg ered into co n duction and will remain conduct ing until
e n t ri gg ered into co n duction and will remain conduct ing until

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ri gg ered into co n duction and will remain conduct ing until ASAD N AEEM
ri gg ered into co n duction and will remain conduct ing until ASAD N AEEM

POWER ELECT RONICS L AB MAN UAL

POWER ELECT R ONICS L AB MAN UAL t he forw a rd curre nt drop

t he forwa rd curre nt drop s below t he "hold ing curr ent"

a thresh old valu e known as

Fun ction of th e ga te te rmina l:

When the ano de is at a positiv

e

potent ial V AK w ith resp ect to th e

catho de with

are fo rward bi ased, w hile junc

o voltag e applie

at the gate, ju nctions J 1 and J tion J 2 is reverse biased. As J 2 is takes pl ace (Off state). Now if V down vo ltage V B O of the thyristor ,

d

3

AK

avalan che bre akdown of J 2 tak es place and the thyrist or starts

revers e biased , no con duction is incr eased b eyond th e break

condu cting (O n state). If a po sitive p otential V G is ap at the gate te rminal w ith resp

plied

condu ctin g (O n state). If a p o sitive p o tential V G

ect to

the ca thode, t he brea kdown o juncti on J 2 occ urs at a lower v of V AK . By sel ecting a n appro priate va V G , th e thyrist or can b e switch into th e on sta te sudd enly. It sho uld be n oted tha t once a the th yristor c ontinues to cond voltag e, until both:

f the

alue

e nly. It sho u ld be n oted tha t once a the th yristor
e nly. It sho u ld be n oted tha t once a the th yristor

lue of

ed

 

valanch e breakd own has occurre d, uct, irre spective of the g ate

(a)

Th e poten ial V G is remove

d

and

(b)

Th e curren t throug h the de

vice (an odeca thode) i s less th an

the ho lding cu rrent sp ecified b

y

the m anufactu rer.

PRO CEDUR E:

 

C onnect the circu it as sh own in t he diagr am.

C alibrate the osci lloscope

A pply the

I ncrease the firin g angle of gate

o bserve t he outp ut wave forms on the scr een of o scillosco pe

I ncrease the firin g angle of gate

o bserve t he outp ut wave forms on the scr een of o scillosco pe

input v oltage

pulse to 90 degr ee

pulse to 180 deg ree

pe input v olta ge p ulse to 90 de gr ee p ulse to 180
pe input v olta ge p ulse to 90 de gr ee p ulse to 180
pe input v olta ge p ulse to 90 de gr ee p ulse to 180

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input v olta ge p ulse to 90 de gr ee p ulse to 180 de
input v olta ge p ulse to 90 de gr ee p ulse to 180 de

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 12

Observations:

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 12
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 12
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 12

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POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 12
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Observations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 12

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Experiment#05 To study the Triac Apparatus: • Trainer • Resistive Load •

Experiment#05

To study the Triac

Apparatus:

Trainer

Resistive Load

Triac

Connecting leads

Power Supply

Oscilloscope

Multimeter

Circuit Diagram:

Supply • Oscilloscope • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: Theory: SCRs are unidirectional (one-way) current devices,

Theory:

SCRs are unidirectional (one-way) current devices, making them useful for controlling DC only. If two SCRs are joined in back-to- back parallel fashion just like two Shockley diodes were joined together to form a DIAC, we have a new device known as the

TRIAC :
TRIAC
:
were joined together to form a DIAC, we have a new device known as the TRIAC
were joined together to form a DIAC, we have a new device known as the TRIAC

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together to form a DIAC, we have a new device known as the TRIAC : ASAD
together to form a DIAC, we have a new device known as the TRIAC : ASAD

POWER ELECT RONICS L AB MAN UAL

POWER ELECT R ONICS L AB MAN UAL As the term an ode and cathode have
POWER ELECT R ONICS L AB MAN UAL As the term an ode and cathode have

As the term an ode and cathode have n o real m eaning f or triac, the

term te rminal-1 (T1) an d termin al-2(T2 ) are us ed. The triac can

turned

, howev er mos t sensiti ve wh en a p ositive g ate

current is used with ter minal-2 at a pos itive pot ential o r a nega tive

gate c urrent w ith ter minal-1

sensitiv e condit ion is a at a po sitive po tential.

Feat ure o f the Tria c:

current . It is

or a ne gative g ate

be

on by t he injec tion of e ither a

positive

at a po sitive p otential . The le ast gate c urrent a pplied w ith term inal

positive

A

TRIAC
TRIAC

acts m uch like

two SC Rs conn ected b ack-to-b ack

f or bidire ctional ( AC) ope ration.

 

T RIAC
T RIAC

c ontrols a re mor e often

seen in

simple,

low-po

wer

c ircuits t han co mplex, h igh-pow er circu its. In l arge po wer

c ontrol ci rcuits, m ultiple When us ed to co ntrol AC

SCRs ten d to be favored. power to a loa d, TRIAC s are o ften

a ccompa nied by

DIACs

connecte d in se ries with

their g ate

t erminals . The

DIAC

helps

the

TRIAC
TRIAC

fire m ore

s ymmetr ically ( more c onsisten tly from a nother).

one

polarity

to

M ain ter minals 1 and 2 o n a

TRIA C
TRIA C

are no t interc hangeab le.

T o succe ssfully

trigger

a

TRIAC ,
TRIAC
,

gate

current

must co me

f rom the main te rminal 2 (MT 2 ) s ide of th e circuit !

c o me f r om the main te rminal 2 (MT 2 ) s i
c o me f r om the main te rminal 2 (MT 2 ) s i

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f r om the main te rminal 2 (MT 2 ) s i de of th
f r om the main te rminal 2 (MT 2 ) s i de of th

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Procedure: Connect the circuit as shown in th e figure on the

Procedure:

Connect the circuit as shown in the figure on the trainer. Pulse is provided to the gate of triac by the triggering circuit of trainer. Change the triggering angle ‘a’ with the help of knob and observe the waveform of output on the oscilloscope.

Observations & Calculations:

the waveform of output on the oscilloscope. Observations & Calculations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 15
the waveform of output on the oscilloscope. Observations & Calculations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 15
the waveform of output on the oscilloscope. Observations & Calculations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 15

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waveform of output on the oscilloscope. Observations & Calculations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 15
waveform of output on the oscilloscope. Observations & Calculations: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 15

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO: 06 To Study the Pulse Bridge connections of thyristors on

EXPERIMENT NO: 06

To Study the Pulse Bridge connections of thyristors on resistive/inductive LOAD

AppAratus:

Power Supply

Voltmeter

Resistive/Inductive Load

Oscilloscope

Thyristor

Connecting leads

Circuit Diagram:

• Thyristor • Connecting leads Circuit Diagram: Theory: Firing or triggering a thyristor means to apply

Theory:

Firing or triggering a thyristor means to apply a positive voltage at the gate (between its gate and cathode).

Firing Angle:

The angle at which the voltage across the gate is applied is called the firing angle.

at which th e voltage across the gate is applied is called the firing angle. ASAD
at which th e voltage across the gate is applied is called the firing angle. ASAD

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which th e voltage across the gate is applied is called the firing angle. ASAD NAEEM
which th e voltage across the gate is applied is called the firing angle. ASAD NAEEM

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL (a) Resistive Load: Figure shows a sing le ideal thyristor supplying a

(a) Resistive Load:

Figure shows a single ideal thyristor supplying a resistive load. The thyristor is being turned ON after a delay of quarter a cycle after the voltage zero. In the case of RESISTIVE load, the load current follows exactly the load voltage.

(b) Inductive Load:

Now the thyristor supplies an INDUCTIVE load and again thyristor is being turned ON after a delay of about a quarter of cycle after the voltage is zero. In this case the load voltage VL is made up of two components, the voltage across the inductor V i and V r and the current through the thyristor has an initial value of zero. The conduction period for the fully controlled bridge is π and that of a half controlled bridge is (π-α) as a result of the action of the commutating diode. The effect of commutating diode on the operation of the half controlled bridge is clearly seen from the output voltage and current waveforms. The respective load voltages ignoring diode and thyristor forward voltage drops are:

For Fully controlled bridge,

forward voltage drops are: For Fully controlled bridge, For half-controlled bridge, ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

For half-controlled bridge,

voltage drops are: For Fully controlled bridge, For half-controlled bridge, ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 17
voltage drops are: For Fully controlled bridge, For half-controlled bridge, ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 17
voltage drops are: For Fully controlled bridge, For half-controlled bridge, ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 17

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drops are: For Fully controlled bridge, For half-controlled bridge, ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 17
drops are: For Fully controlled bridge, For half-controlled bridge, ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 17

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL As the direction of the curren t through the thyristor doesn’t reverse,

As the direction of the current through the thyristor doesn’t reverse, the effect is to transfer power from DC-system to AC- system in which case the converter is operating in inverting mode.

Procedure:

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram

Connect the gate pulse generator and cathode to each thyristor separately

Vary the firing angle of thyristors from zero to 90 degrees and observe the variation in the output waveform for both resistive and inductive load individually

Now vary the firing angle of thyristors from zero to 180 degrees and observe the variation in the output waveform for both resistive and inductive load individually

Compare the waveforms for resistive and inductive load

WAVEFORMS:

• Compare the waveforms for re sistive and inductive load WAVEFORMS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 18
• Compare the waveforms for re sistive and inductive load WAVEFORMS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 18
• Compare the waveforms for re sistive and inductive load WAVEFORMS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 18
• Compare the waveforms for re sistive and inductive load WAVEFORMS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 18

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• Compare the waveforms for re sistive and inductive load WAVEFORMS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 18
• Compare the waveforms for re sistive and inductive load WAVEFORMS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 18

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPERIMENT NO: 07 To Study the Pulse Bridge connections of thyristors on

EXPERIMENT NO: 07

To Study the Pulse Bridge connections of thyristors on motor load

AppAratus:

Power Supply

Resistance

Motor Load

Oscilloscope

Thyristors

Commutating Diode

Connecting leads

Circuit Diagram:

Commutating Diode • Connecting leads Circuit Diagram: Theory: Firing or triggering a thyristor means to apply

Theory:

Firing or triggering a thyristor means to apply a positive voltage at the gate (between its gate and cathode).

means to apply a positive voltage at the gate (between its gate and cathode). ASAD NAEEM
means to apply a positive voltage at the gate (between its gate and cathode). ASAD NAEEM

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to apply a positive voltage at the gate (between its gate and cathode). ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
to apply a positive voltage at the gate (between its gate and cathode). ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Firing Angle: The angle at which th e voltage across the gate

Firing Angle:

The angle at which the voltage across the gate is applied is called the firing angle.

Motor Load:

We have two methods for controlling the speed of a DC motor namely current controlled and voltage controlled method. The speed of motor is inversely proportional to the field current. However speed of motor is directly proportional to the applied voltage. By varying the applied voltage the speed can be varied from a maximum value to rest. If the applied voltage is equal to zero, torque produced in the motor will be equal to zero, thus causing the motor to stop.

By a controlled rectifier, we can vary the voltage input to the motor. The applied voltage will be maximum when the thyristors are triggered at an angle equal to zero degree and it will be zero for a firing angle of 180 degrees. The area under the curve of the rectified voltage reduces with the increasing firing angle thus decreasing the average or DC output.

Procedure:

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram

Vary the firing angle of thyristors from zero to 90 degrees and observe the speed variation for the motor which will be decreasing with increasing firing angle

Now vary the firing angle of thyristors from zero to 180 degrees and observe the speed variation for the motor which will be decreasing with increasing firing angle

variation for the motor which will be decreasing with increasing firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
variation for the motor which will be decreasing with increasing firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

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for the motor which will be decreasing with increasing firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 20
for the motor which will be decreasing with increasing firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 20

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL • Observe that the motor will become at rest at a firing

Observe that the motor will become at rest at a firing angle of 180 degrees

This is because the average value of input becomes zero at the firing angle of 180 degrees

OBSERVATIONS:

FIRING

ANGLE

WAVEFORM

SPEED

0

of 180 degrees OBSERVATIONS: FIRING ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM

MAXIMUM

90

OBSERVATIONS: FIRING ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 21

DECREASING

180

OBSERVATIONS: FIRING ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 21

STOP

OBSERVATIONS: FIRING ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 21
OBSERVATIONS: FIRING ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 21

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ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 21
ANGLE WAVEFORM SPEED 0 MAXIMUM 90 DECREASING 180 STOP ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 21

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPRIMENT NO: 08 To design a simple series VOLTAGE REGULATOR AppAratus: •

EXPRIMENT NO: 08

To design a simple series VOLTAGE REGULATOR

AppAratus:

Transistor D313

Zener diode

Resistance of 120

Variable resistor

Power Supply

Circuit Diagram:

• Variable resistor • Power Supply Circuit Diagram: THEORY: Simple series voltage regulator: Adding an emitter

THEORY:

Simple series voltage regulator:

Adding an emitter follower stage to the simple zener regulator forms a simple series voltage regulator and substantially improves the regulation of the circuit. Here, the load current IR2 is supplied by the transistor whose base is now connected to the zener diode. Thus the transistor's base current (IB) forms the

to the zener diode. Thus the transistor's base current (IB) forms the ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
to the zener diode. Thus the transistor's base current (IB) forms the ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

ASAD NAEEM

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to the zener diode. Thus the transistor's base current (IB) forms the ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
to the zener diode. Thus the transistor's base current (IB) forms the ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL load current for the zener diode and is much smaller than the

load current for the zener diode and is much smaller than the current through R2. This regulator is classified as "series" because the regulating element, viz., the transistor, appears in series with the load. R1 sets the zener current (IZ).

Circuit Design:

Given a particular value of V IN , V out and I L select V Z using equations:

, V o u t and I L select V Z using equations: V out =V

V out

=V z -V BE

Where

V BE =0.7 V(Si) & 0.3 V(Ge)

Select Q 1 capable of sustaining a continuous load current of 1A or above.

From the datasheet of selected transistor, get the value of Beta that is h FE and calculate base current I B , using relation:

I B =I E /β=I L / β

Select a suitable power rating for Zener diode (typically commercially available values are 0.25W,0.5W,1W)

Calculate:

I z.max =P Z / V Z

Calculate value of R 1 using the relations:

I z.max =P Z / V Z Calculate value of R 1 using the relations: ASAD
I z.max =P Z / V Z Calculate value of R 1 using the relations: ASAD

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I z.max =P Z / V Z Calculate value of R 1 using the relations: ASAD
I z.max =P Z / V Z Calculate value of R 1 using the relations: ASAD

OUTPUT VOLTAGE

NO-LOAD

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

OUTPUT VOLTAGE NO-LOAD POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Where I Zt =I z.max /2 I R1 =I

Where

I Zt =I z.max /2

I R1 =I zt +I B

R 1 = (V in(min) -V t2 )/I R1

I R1 =current flowing through R 1 V in(min) =minimum value of applied input voltage

Calculations for No-Load:

INPUT VOLTAGE

NO LOAD OUTPUT VOLTAGE

0

0

5

5.2

12

11.9

12.5

12

13

12.08

14

12.15

15

12.2

17.6

12.7

NO LOAD INPUT OUTPUT RELATION:

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

12.7 NO LOAD INPUT OUTPUT RELATION: 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

INPUT VOLTAGE

14

16

18

INPUT OUTPUT RELATION: 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8
INPUT OUTPUT RELATION: 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8

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6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 INPUT VOLTAGE 14 16 18
6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 INPUT VOLTAGE 14 16 18

OUTPUT VOLTAGE

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

OUTPUT VOLTAGE POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Calculations with Load connected: OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) OUTPUT VOLTAGE

Calculations with Load connected:

OUTPUT CURRENT (mA)

OUTPUT VOLTAGE (Volts)

R

L

(K)

4.3

11.5

2.67

7.0

11.5

1.6

10.6

11.46

1.08

13

11.44

0.88

15.7

11.41

0.72

16.9

11.40

0.67

LOAD CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RELATION:

11.5

11.49

11.48

11.47

11.46

11.45

11.44

11.43

11.42

11.41

11.4

11.49 11.48 11.47 11.46 11.45 11.44 11.43 11.42 11.41 11.4 4 6 8 10 12 14

4

6

8

10

12

14

OUTPUT CURRENT

16

18

11.46 11.45 11.44 11.43 11.42 11.41 11.4 4 6 8 10 12 14 OUTPUT CURRENT 16
11.46 11.45 11.44 11.43 11.42 11.41 11.4 4 6 8 10 12 14 OUTPUT CURRENT 16

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11.42 11.41 11.4 4 6 8 10 12 14 OUTPUT CURRENT 16 18 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
11.42 11.41 11.4 4 6 8 10 12 14 OUTPUT CURRENT 16 18 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPRIMENT NO: 09 Design of an improved variable output series VOLTAGE REGULATOR

EXPRIMENT NO: 09

Design of an improved variable output series VOLTAGE REGULATOR and plot the graphs between:

Load current and output voltage

Input voltage and output voltage

AppAratus:

NPN Transistor D313

NPN Transistor 2N3904

Zener diode

Variable Resistance

Resistances

Power Supply

Multimeter

Circuit Diagram:

Resistance • Resistances • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 26
Resistance • Resistances • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 26
Resistance • Resistances • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 26

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• Resistances • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 26
• Resistances • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 26

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Circuit Design: Given a particular value of V I N , V

Circuit Design:

Given a particular value of V IN , V out and I L select Q 1 that is capable of sustaining a continuous load current of 1A or above.

Select Q2 NPN transistor having large value of β.

Select an appropriate Zener diode voltage V Z ranging from 5-

12Volts.

Find V 2 using the relation:

Where

V 2 =V z +V BE2

V BE =0.7V (Si) V BE =0.3V (Ge)

Select an appropriate value of R 1 such that I R1 acts as a negligible load to the control element Q 1 while I R1 should be such that I z can be biased easily without affecting the voltage divider network consisting of R 1 and R 2 .

Then calculate R2 by using the relation:

V 2 =R 2 *V 0 / (R 1 +R 2 )

Select I R1 >5mA and I z =1mA

Select V CE2 as 1/2 V IN for linear operation and choose a safe value for I C2 . For Q 2 mentioned in the suggested components, 5mA to 10mA is a safe value.

Calculate R4 using familiar relation:

V CE2 =V CC -I C R 4

a safe value. Calculate R4 using familiar relation: V CE2 =V CC -I C R 4
a safe value. Calculate R4 using familiar relation: V CE2 =V CC -I C R 4

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Calculate R4 using familiar relation: V CE2 =V CC -I C R 4 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
Calculate R4 using familiar relation: V CE2 =V CC -I C R 4 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL If designed value for R 4 is not standard then round the

If designed value for R 4 is not standard then round the value of R 4 to the next lower standard value and recalculate the collector current I C2 .

Using I C2 , calculate I B2

I B =I C /β

Calculate value of R 3 using the relation:

I R3 =I Z -I B2

R 3 =V BE2 /I R3

Decrease R 1 and R 2 by equal proportion and use a variable resistor of equal to the sum of decrease in R 1 and R 2 .

Calculations for No-Load:

V IN (VOLTS)

V OUT (VOLTS)

10

9.12

12

11.20

14

13.00

15

13.16

16

13.20

17

13.26

18

13.30

19

13.32

20

13.36

16 13.20 17 13.26 18 13.30 19 13.32 20 13.36 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 28
16 13.20 17 13.26 18 13.30 19 13.32 20 13.36 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 28

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13.20 17 13.26 18 13.30 19 13.32 20 13.36 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 28
13.20 17 13.26 18 13.30 19 13.32 20 13.36 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 28

OUTPUT VOLTAGE

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

OUTPUT VOLTAGE POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Calculations with Load connected: I L (mA) V O U

Calculations with Load connected:

I L (mA)

V OUT (VOLTS)

R

2 (Ohms)

7.5

15.14

2018

15

15.12

1008

30

15.09

503

45.45

15.09

331.5

75

15.01

200.13

125

14.91

191.28

250

14.93

59.78

LOAD CURRENT AND OUTPUT VOLTAGE RELATION:

15.15

15.1

15.05

15

14.95

14.9

AND OUTPUT VOLTAGE RELATION: 15.15 15.1 15.05 15 14.95 14.9 0 50 100 150 LOAD CURRENT

0

50

100

150

LOAD CURRENT

200

250

RELATION: 15.15 15.1 15.05 15 14.95 14.9 0 50 100 150 LOAD CURRENT 200 250 ASAD
RELATION: 15.15 15.1 15.05 15 14.95 14.9 0 50 100 150 LOAD CURRENT 200 250 ASAD

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15.05 15 14.95 14.9 0 50 100 150 LOAD CURRENT 200 250 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
15.05 15 14.95 14.9 0 50 100 150 LOAD CURRENT 200 250 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL INPUT OUTPUT VOLTAGE RELATION: 13.5 13 12.5 12 11.5 11 10.5
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL
INPUT OUTPUT VOLTAGE RELATION:
13.5
13
12.5
12
11.5
11
10.5
10
9.5
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
INPUT VOLTAGE
ASAD NAEEM
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OUTPUT VOLTAGE
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 INPUT VOLTAGE ASAD NAEEM
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 INPUT VOLTAGE ASAD NAEEM

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Experiment# 10 To study IC Regulator LM317 Apparatus: • LM 317 •

Experiment# 10

To study IC Regulator LM317

Apparatus:

LM 317

Resistances(R 1 =470,R 2 =5K(variable),R 3 =2.5K)

Diode

Capacitors(C 1 =0.12 µF,C 2 =10 µF,C 3 =1µF)

Power Supply

Multimeter

Bread board

Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

• Bread board • Connecting wires Circuit Diagram: Theory: LM317 REGULATOR: The LM317 series of ad

Theory:

LM317 REGULATOR:

The LM317 series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and

of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and
of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and
of 1.5A over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and

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over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and ASAD NAEEM
over a 1.2V to 37V output range. They are exceptionally easy to use and ASAD NAEEM

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL require only two external resistor s to set the output voltage. Further,

require only two external resistors to set the output voltage. Further, both line and load regulation is better than standard fixed regulators.

Procedure:

Connect the circuit as shown in the figure on the bread board

Apply the input voltage through power supply and connect the multimeter to take output voltage values

Vary the input voltage

Note the respective output voltage

Now, vary the adjustable resistor to get required output voltage for regulation

Take the output voltage readings by changing the input voltage keeping adjustable resistor fixed

Verify that the output is regulated at required output voltage

Observations & Calculations:

With R adj =0 (minimum value)

V

in

V

out

0

 

0.1

1

 

0.5

2

 

1.4

3

 

2.3

4

 

3.3

6

 

5.2

7

 

6.1

8

 

7.1

9

 

7.5

11

 

7.5

13

 

7.5

15

 

7.5

9   7.5 11   7.5 13   7.5 15   7.5 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
9   7.5 11   7.5 13   7.5 15   7.5 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

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7.5 11   7.5 13   7.5 15   7.5 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 32
7.5 11   7.5 13   7.5 15   7.5 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 32

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL With R a d j =2.84K Ω (required value taking V o

With R adj =2.84K(required value taking V out =15Volts)

V

in

V

out

12

11.03

13

11.94

14

12.95

15

13.90

16

14.87

17

14.96

19

14.96

21

14.96

25

14.96

COMMENTS:

LM317 is a variable output voltage regulator

We can regulate the output voltage at any required value by varying the adjustable resistor

Diode is attached to provide the discharging path for C 3

C 2 is connected to improve transient response

C 1 is also used to improve transient response

ove transient response • C 1 is also used to improve transient response ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
ove transient response • C 1 is also used to improve transient response ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

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response • C 1 is also used to improve transient response ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 33
response • C 1 is also used to improve transient response ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 33

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPRIMENT NO: 11 Power flow control using DIAC and TRIAC AppAratus: •

EXPRIMENT NO: 11

Power flow control using DIAC and TRIAC

AppAratus:

DIAC

TRIAC

Capacitor

Variable Resistance

Resistances

Power Supply

Oscilloscope

Circuit Diagram:

• Power Supply • Oscilloscope Circuit Diagram: THEORY: The TRIC is triggered by po sitive gate

THEORY:

The TRIC is triggered by positive gate current when A 1 is negative with respect to A 2 .

by po sitive gate current when A 1 is negative with respect to A 2 .
by po sitive gate current when A 1 is negative with respect to A 2 .

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po sitive gate current when A 1 is negative with respect to A 2 . ASAD
po sitive gate current when A 1 is negative with respect to A 2 . ASAD

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL A DIAC is connected between the gate and an RC circuit. When

A DIAC is connected between the gate and an RC circuit.

When the capacitor voltage rises far enough to overcome the sum of break power voltage of the DIAC and the forward drop of the gate, the DIAC fires, and the capacitor discharges rapidly into the gate, and the TRIAC is triggered into conduction.

Since R P controls the time constant at which the capacitor charges, it is used to control the firing angle θ F .

Large values of R P delay the charging and therefore increase the firing angle.

When A 1 is negative with respect to A 2 , the polarities of all voltages are reversed and TRIAC is triggered into conduction during a portion of VE ½ cycles.

The firing angle can be adjusted in practical circuits from 0 to

180.

So load current can be made to flow for nearly an entire cycle of input for a very small portion of input cycle.

The load resistance used must be a power resistor because due to excessive current low power rating resistor may be destroyed. This type of dimmer is best suited for resistive loads only.

There is a spike voltage associated with each TRIAC turn off.

With inductive load connected, the turn on time of the TRIAC increases.

With inductive load connected a full sine wave is achieved even before firing angle becomes zero.

This happens when the firing angle and turn off delay of the TRIAC coincide.

This happens when the firing angle and turn off delay of the TRIAC coincide. ASAD NAEEM
This happens when the firing angle and turn off delay of the TRIAC coincide. ASAD NAEEM

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happens when the firing angle and turn off delay of the TRIAC coincide. ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
happens when the firing angle and turn off delay of the TRIAC coincide. ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL PROCEDURE: The design procedure of this expe riment includes the values of

PROCEDURE:

The design procedure of this experiment includes the values of R 1 , R 2 and C 1 such that the capacitor voltage during each cycle reaches a point to trigger the DIAC which will then trigger the TRIAC. The commercially available DIAC has a typical break over voltage of 32V. Hence when the DIAC fires in each half cycle it will allow the capacitor to discharge up to 1/3 of the capacitor voltage in this case 32V the DIAC will trigger and then TRIAC will trigger. The same process will repeated in reverse direction.

The capacitor selected must not be of very small value so that the proper triggering may not be possible due to low energy storage and hence low power gate spike for the thyristor. The value of capacitor should be such that the maximum value of current through resistor connected in series with the capacitor is within the safe limits. The power must not exceed the rating of the variable resistor. Typically used values of capacitor are up to 1µF for supply voltages>40V. A lower value than this upper limit results in better design. R 2 is used to protect accidental application of full supply voltage across the capacitor which can be damaged due to excessive current.

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Then vary the value of R VAR to change the time constant of the capacitor which in turn will vary the firing angle of TRIAC. Then draw the waveforms.

which in turn will vary the firing an gle of TRIAC. Then draw the waveforms. ASAD
which in turn will vary the firing an gle of TRIAC. Then draw the waveforms. ASAD

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in turn will vary the firing an gle of TRIAC. Then draw the waveforms. ASAD NAEEM
in turn will vary the firing an gle of TRIAC. Then draw the waveforms. ASAD NAEEM

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 37

OBSERVATIONS:

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 37
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 37
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 37

ASAD NAEEM

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POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 37
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 37

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPRIMENT NO: 12 Power flow control using SCR and DIAC AppAratus: •

EXPRIMENT NO: 12

Power flow control using SCR and DIAC

AppAratus:

DIAC

Thyristor(BT-151)

Capacitor(0.1µF)

Diode

Variable Resistance (100K)

Resistance (330)

Power Supply

Oscilloscope

Circuit Diagram:

Ω ) • Power Supply • Oscilloscope Circuit Diagram: DESIGN PROCEDURE: The time constant is given

DESIGN PROCEDURE:

The time constant is given as:

Oscilloscope Circuit Diagram: DESIGN PROCEDURE: The time constant is given as: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 38
Oscilloscope Circuit Diagram: DESIGN PROCEDURE: The time constant is given as: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 38

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Circuit Diagram: DESIGN PROCEDURE: The time constant is given as: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 38
Circuit Diagram: DESIGN PROCEDURE: The time constant is given as: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 38

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Where And Therefore, T=RC T=1/f f=50Hz T=1/50=20msec Since only one half cycle

Where

And

Therefore,

T=RC

T=1/f

f=50Hz

T=1/50=20msec

Since only one half cycle is used, so

T=10msec

Taking some suitable value of ‘C’, the value of ‘R’ can be calculated using T=RC.

Assume some value of resistance RL must be used to avoid burning due to high value of current.

A 100 ohms resistance is connected in series with capacitor in its discharging path to limit the gate current.

The diode in series with the DIAC is used to limit the reverse bias voltage at the gate terminals during negative half cycles.

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram

Apply the input voltage source

Observe the output waveform

Vary the firing angle

Draw the output waveforms for different values of firing angle

angle • Draw the output waveforms for different values of firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page
angle • Draw the output waveforms for different values of firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page

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• Draw the output waveforms for different values of firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 39
• Draw the output waveforms for different values of firing angle ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 39

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40

OBSERVATIONS:

For resistive load:

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40

For inductive load:

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40

ASAD NAEEM

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LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40
LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS: For resistive load: For inductive load: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 40

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPRIMENT NO: 13 To design a variable VOLTAGE REGULATOR using Op-Amp with

EXPRIMENT NO: 13

To design a variable VOLTAGE REGULATOR using Op-Amp with over current protection

AppAratus:

NPN Transistor D313

NPN Transistor 3904

Zener diode

Op-Amp 741

Variable Resistance

Resistances

(R1=83K,R2=130K,R3=47K,R4=820,RL=24,

RSC=1.4)

Power Supply

Multimeter

Circuit Diagram:

Ω ,RL=24 Ω , RSC=1.4 Ω ) • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM
Ω ,RL=24 Ω , RSC=1.4 Ω ) • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM
Ω ,RL=24 Ω , RSC=1.4 Ω ) • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM

ASAD NAEEM

2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

Page 41

, RSC=1.4 Ω ) • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 41
, RSC=1.4 Ω ) • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 41

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Circuit Design: Given a particular value of V I N , V

Circuit Design:

Given a particular value of V IN , V out and I L , select Q 1 that is capable of sustaining a continuous load current of 1A or above.

Select Q2 NPN transistor having large value of β.

Select an appropriate Zener diode voltage V Z ranging from 5-

12Volts.

Calculate:

I z, max =P Z /V Z

Calculate value of R 4 using the relation:

Where:

I Zt =I Z, max /2

I R4 =I Zt +I B

R 4 = (V IN(min) -V Z )/I R4

V IN(min) =Minimum value of applied input voltage

I B =Bias current of Op-Amp (500nA for 741)

I R4 =Current flowing through resistor R 4

Select an appropriate value of R 1 such that I R1 acts as a negligible load to the control element Q 1 .

Then calculate R2 by using the relation:

V O = (1+R 1 /R 2 )/V Z

Decrease R 1 and R 2 by equal proportion and use a variable resistor of equal to the sum of decrease in R 1 and R 2 .

Given a maximum safe value of I L , calculate RSC using relation:

R 2 . Given a maximum safe value of I L , calculate RSC using relation:
R 2 . Given a maximum safe value of I L , calculate RSC using relation:

ASAD NAEEM

2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

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. Given a maximum safe value of I L , calculate RSC using relation: ASAD NAEEM
. Given a maximum safe value of I L , calculate RSC using relation: ASAD NAEEM

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL Design for R L : R SC =V BE2 /I L(max) R

Design for R L :

R SC =V BE2 /I L(max)

R L =V L /I L

Power rating for R L =V L *I L

Calculations for No-Load:

V IN (VOLTS)

V OUT (VOLTS)

15

11.5

16

11

17

11

18

11.3

19

11.3

20

11.1

Calculations with Load connected:

I L (mA)

V OUT (VOLTS)

R

2 (Ohms)

0.288

11.1

38.4

0.48

11.2

23.5

0.69

11.6

16.1

0.67

10.0

14.5

0.75

8.5

11.4

0.66

6.5

10.3

0.64

3.0

5.2

0.60

2.0

3.3

0.60

0.60

1.0

6.5 10.3 0.64 3.0 5.2 0.60 2.0 3.3 0.60 0.60 1.0 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 43
6.5 10.3 0.64 3.0 5.2 0.60 2.0 3.3 0.60 0.60 1.0 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 43

ASAD NAEEM

2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

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0.64 3.0 5.2 0.60 2.0 3.3 0.60 0.60 1.0 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 43
0.64 3.0 5.2 0.60 2.0 3.3 0.60 0.60 1.0 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 43
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL INPUT OUTPUT VOLTAGE RELATION: 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL
INPUT OUTPUT VOLTAGE RELATION:
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
INPUT VOLTAGE
ASAD NAEEM
2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
Page 44
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 INPUT VOLTAGE
4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 INPUT VOLTAGE

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL EXPRIMENT NO: 14 To design a variable VOLTAGE REGULATOR using Op-Amp with

EXPRIMENT NO: 14

To design a variable VOLTAGE REGULATOR using Op-Amp with fold back current limiter protection

AppAratus:

NPN Transistor D313

NPN Transistor 3904

Zener diode

Op-Amp 741

Resistances

(R1=100K,R2=130K,R3=470,R4=820,R5=1K,

RSC=38)

Power Supply

Multimeter

Circuit Diagram:

Ω ) • Power Supply • Multimeter Circuit Diagram: Circuit Design: Given a particular value of

Circuit Design:

Given a particular value of V IN , V out and I L , select an appropriate R SC using:

V I N , V o u t and I L , select an appropriate R
V I N , V o u t and I L , select an appropriate R

ASAD NAEEM

2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

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N , V o u t and I L , select an appropriate R S C
N , V o u t and I L , select an appropriate R S C

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL V BE =V RSC -V R5 Assume suitable values of R 5

V BE =V RSC -V R5

Assume suitable values of R 5 and R 6 , then

V R5 = (R 5 /(R 5 +R 6 ))*V OUT

Design for R 1 and R 2 :

V RSC =V BE +V R5

R SC =V RSC /I L(max)

Assume suitable value of R1 and then

V Z =V OUT (R 2 /(R 1 +R 2 )

R 2 = V Z (R 1 +R 2 )/ V OUT

Design for R4:

I R4

=I Z +I OP-AMP

But as I OP-AMP =500nA, so

I R4 =I

Z

R 4 = (V IN(min) -V Z )/I R4

Where:

Design for R L :

R L =V L /I L

Power rating for R L =V L *I L

Calculations for No-Load:

V IN (VOLTS)

V OUT (VOLTS)

15

11.03

16

11.05

V I N (VOLTS) V O U T (VOLTS) 15 11.03 16 11.05 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22
V I N (VOLTS) V O U T (VOLTS) 15 11.03 16 11.05 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

ASAD NAEEM

2006‐RCET‐EE‐22

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N (VOLTS) V O U T (VOLTS) 15 11.03 16 11.05 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 46
N (VOLTS) V O U T (VOLTS) 15 11.03 16 11.05 ASAD NAEEM 2006‐RCET‐EE‐22 Page 46

OUTPUT VOLATGE

POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL

OUTPUT VOLATGE POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL 17 11.06 18 11.08 19 11.10 20 11.10 Calculations with

17

11.06

18

11.08

19

11.10

20

11.10

Calculations with Load connected:

I L (mA)

V OUT (VOLTS)

R

L (Ohms)

0.254

11.85

47.0

0.465

11.03

24.0

0.480

10.96

23.0

0.498

10.90

22.0

0.586

10.50