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Experiment No.

03 Aim: To Determine the Heat Transfer Coefficient in Natural Convection

INTRODUCTION: In contrast to the forced convection, natural convection phenomenon is due to the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid and is not created by any external agency. Natural convection flow patterns for some commonly observed situations are shown in fig.(1). The present experimental set up is designed and fabricated to study the natural convection phenomenon from a vertical cylinder in terms of the variation of local heat transfer coefficient along the length and also the average heat transfer coefficient and its comparison with the value obtained by using an appropriate correlation. APPARATUS: The apparatus consist of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surrounding. One side of the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is measured by an ammeter and a voltmeter and is varied by a dimmerstat. The vertical cylinder with the thermocouple position are shown in fig.(2),while the possible flow pattern and also the expected variation of local heat transfer coefficient is shown in fig.(3). The tube surface is polished to minimize the radiation loss. SPECIFICATIONS: 1. Diameter of the tube (d) = 38 mm 2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm 3. Duct size = 200mm 200mm 750mm 4. No of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as (1) to (7) and as marked on Temperature Indicator switch. 5. Thermocouple no.8 reads the temperature of air in the duct. 6. Temperature indicator: 0-300c. multichannel type, calibrated for chromyl-alumel thermocouples. 7. Ammeter: 0-2 Amp 8. Dimmerstat: 2 Amps. / 230 Volts 9. Voltmater: 0-100 /200 volts

10. Heater - cartridge type (400 W)

EXPERIMENT: To determine the surface heat transfer coefficient for a vertical tube losing heat convection. THEORY: When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection. The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.

The heat transfer coefficient is given by:............(1) h = q / As (Ts Ta) Where; h Average surface heat transfer coefficient: Kcal/hr-m2-c.(In MKS units) W/m2 k (In SI units) q= heat transfer rate. Kcal/hr-m2.(In MKS units) Watts(In SI units) As Area of the heat transferring surface = dL m2 Ts Average surface temperature (C) = (T1+T2+T3+T4+T5+T6+T7) / 7 Ta=Ambient temperature in the duct (C) =T8 The surface heat transfer coefficient, of a system transferring heat by natural convection depends on the shape, dimensions and orientation of the fluid and the temperature difference between the transferring surface and the fluid. The dependence of h on all the above mentioned parameters is generally expressed in terms of nondimensional groups as follows: (hl)/ k= A{(gL3 T cp ) / 22 }.(2) Where; (hl)/k is called the Nusselt Number 3 2 (gL T cp ) / ) is called Grashoff Number (cp )/ k is called Prandtl Number A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.

Where, L= A characteristic dimension of the surface. K= Thermal conductivity of fluid. = kinematic viscosity of fluid. = Dynamic viscosity of fluid. Cp = specific heat of fluid. = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid. g= Acceleration due to gravity. T = Ts-Ta For gas, ={1/(Tf + 273)} K-1 Where Tf = {(Ts+Ta) / 2} For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constants A and n of equation (2) have been determined and the following empirical correlations obtained. (h. l) / K =0.56 (Gr.Pr)0.25 for 104< Gr.Pr < 108 .(3) (h . l) / K = 0.13(Gr.Pr)1/3 for 108< Gr.Pr < 1012 ..(4) Here, L = Length of the cylinder. All the properties of the fluid are determined at the mean film temperature (Tf). PROCEDURE: 1. Put on the supply and adjust the dimmerstat to obtain the required heat input. 2. Wait till the fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7). 3. Note down surface temperature at various points. Note the experiment at different heat inputs. OBSERVATIONS: 1. Cylinder O. D. = 38 mm 2. Length of cylinder = 500 mm 3. Input to heater = VI watts ..(SI units) = 0.86 VI Kcal/hr(MKS units)


1 2

Temperature ( C.)

T8 (T00)
6 7



CALCULATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS: 1. Calculate the value of average surface heat transfer coefficient, neglecting end losses using equation h=qa / As (Ts-Ta) 2. Calculate and plot the variation of local heat transfer coefficient along the length of tube. 3. Compare the experimentally obtained value with the predictions of the correlation equations (3) and (4). CALCULATION TABLE: Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sr No 1 2 havg PRECAUTION: 1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the experiment (if needed). 2. Keep dimmerstate to zero volt position and increase it slowly. 3. Use the proper range of ammeter and voltmeter. 4. Operate the changeover switch of temperature indicator gently from one position to other, i.e. from 1 to 8 positions. Never exceeds 80 watts. RESULTS: Some typical results are shown in fig. (4) for two different heater inputs. The heat transfer coefficients is having a maximum value at the beginning as expected because of the just starting of the building of the boundary layer and it decrease as expected in the upward direction due to thickening of layer which is Laminar one. This trend is maintained up to half of the lengths (approximately) and beyond that there is little variation in the value of local transfer coefficient because of the transition and turbulent boundary layers. The last point shows somewhat increase in the value









which is attributed to end loss causing a temperature drop. The comparison of average heat transfer coefficient is also made with predicted values and somewhat less than experimental values due to the heat loss by radiation.


1 duct 2 test pipe 3 connection strip 4 heaters 5 thermocouple socket 6 bases 7 Acrylic window